Performance art

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Not to be confused with Performing arts. Performance art_sentence_0

Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed by the artist or other participants. Performance art_sentence_1

It may be live, through documentation, spontaneously or written, presented to a public in a Fine Arts context, traditionally interdisciplinary. Performance art_sentence_2

Also known as artistic action, it has been developed through the years as a genre of its own in which art is presented live. Performance art_sentence_3

It had an important and fundamental role in 20th century avant garde art. Performance art_sentence_4

It involves four basic elements: time, space, body, and presence of the artist, and the relation between the creator and the public. Performance art_sentence_5

The actions, generally developed in art galleries and museums, can take place in the street, any kind of setting or space and during any time period. Performance art_sentence_6

Its goal is to generate a reaction, sometimes with the support of improvisation and a sense of aesthetics. Performance art_sentence_7

The themes are commonly linked to life experiences of the artist themselves, or the need of denunciation or social criticism and with a spirit of transformation. Performance art_sentence_8

The term "performance art" and "performance" became widely used in the 1970s, even though the history of performance in visual arts dates back to futurist productions and cabarets from the 1910s. Performance art_sentence_9

The main pioneers of performance art include Carolee Schneemann, Marina Abramovic, Ana Mendieta, Chris Burden, Hermann Nitsch, Joseph Beuys, Nam June Paik, Yves Klein and Vito Acconci. Performance art_sentence_10

Some of the main exponents more recently are Tania Bruguera, Abel Azcona, Regina José Galindo, Tehching Hsieh, Marta Minujín and Petr Pavlensky. Performance art_sentence_11

The discipline is linked to happening, the Fluxus movement, body art and conceptual art. Performance art_sentence_12

Definition Performance art_section_0

The definition and historical and pedagogical contextualization of performance art is controversial. Performance art_sentence_13

One of the handicaps comes from the term itself, which is polysemic, and one of its meanings relates to the scenic arts. Performance art_sentence_14

This meaning of performance in the scenic arts context is opposite to the meaning of performance art, since performance art emerged with a critical and antagonistic position towards scenic arts. Performance art_sentence_15

Performance art only adjoins the scenic arts in certain aspects such as the audience and the present body, and still not every performance art piece contains these elements. Performance art_sentence_16

The meaning of the term in the narrower sense is related to postmodernist traditions in Western culture. Performance art_sentence_17

From about the mid-1960s into the 1970s, often derived from concepts of visual art, with respect to Antonin Artaud, Dada, the Situationists, Fluxus, installation art, and conceptual art, performance art tended to be defined as an antithesis to theatre, challenging orthodox art forms and cultural norms. Performance art_sentence_18

The ideal had been an ephemeral and authentic experience for performer and audience in an event that could not be repeated, captured or purchased. Performance art_sentence_19

The widely discussed difference, how concepts of visual arts and concepts of performing arts are used, can determine the meanings of a performance art presentation. Performance art_sentence_20

Performance art is a term usually reserved to refer to a conceptual art which conveys a content-based meaning in a more drama-related sense, rather than being simple performance for its own sake for entertainment purposes. Performance art_sentence_21

It largely refers to a performance presented to an audience, but which does not seek to present a conventional theatrical play or a formal linear narrative, or which alternately does not seek to depict a set of fictitious characters in formal scripted interactions. Performance art_sentence_22

It therefore can include action or spoken word as a communication between the artist and audience, or even ignore expectations of an audience, rather than following a script written beforehand. Performance art_sentence_23

Some types of performance art nevertheless can be close to performing arts. Performance art_sentence_24

Such performance may use a script or create a fictitious dramatic setting, but still constitute performance art in that it does not seek to follow the usual dramatic norm of creating a fictitious setting with a linear script which follows conventional real-world dynamics; rather, it would intentionally seek to satirize or to transcend the usual real-world dynamics which are used in conventional theatrical plays. Performance art_sentence_25

Performance artists often challenge the audience to think in new and unconventional ways, break conventions of traditional arts, and break down conventional ideas about "what art is". Performance art_sentence_26

As long as the performer does not become a player who repeats a role, performance art can include satirical elements; use robots and machines as performers, as in pieces of the Survival Research Laboratories; involve ritualised elements (e.g. Shaun Caton); or borrow elements of any performing arts such as dance, music, and circus. Performance art_sentence_27

Some artists, e.g. the Viennese Actionists and neo-Dadaists, prefer to use the terms "live art", "action art", "actions", "intervention" (see art intervention) or "manoeuvre" to describe their performing activities. Performance art_sentence_28

As genres of performance art appear body art, fluxus-performance, happening, action poetry, and intermedia. Performance art_sentence_29

Origins Performance art_section_1

Performance art is a form of expression that was born as an alternative artistic manifestation. Performance art_sentence_30

The discipline emerged in 1916 parallel to dadaism, under the umbrella of conceptual art. Performance art_sentence_31

The movement was led by Tristan Tzara, one of the pioneers of Dada. Performance art_sentence_32

Western culture theorists have set the origins of performance art in the beginnings of the 20th century, along with constructivism, Futurism and Dadaism. Performance art_sentence_33

Dada was an important inspiration because of their poetry actions, which drifted apart from conventionalisms, and futurist artists, specially some members of Russian futurism, could also be identified as part of the starting process of performance art. Performance art_sentence_34

Cabaret Voltaire Performance art_section_2

Main article: Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich) Performance art_sentence_35

The Cabaret Voltaire was founded in Zurich (Switzerland) by the couple Hugo Ball and Emmy Hennings for artistic and political purposes and was a place where new tendencies were explored. Performance art_sentence_36

Located on the upper floor of a theater, whose exhibitions they mocked in their shows, the works interpreted in the cabaret were avant garde and experimental. Performance art_sentence_37

It is thought that the Dada movement was founded in the ten square meter locale. Performance art_sentence_38

Moreover, Surrealists, whose movement descended directly from Dadaism, used to meet in the Cabaret. Performance art_sentence_39

On its brief existence—barely six months, closing the summer of 1916—the Dadaist Manifesto was read and it held the first Dada actions, performances, and hybrid poetry, plastic art, music and repetitive action presentations. Performance art_sentence_40

Founders such as Richard Huelsenbeck, Marcel Janco, Tristan Tzara, Sophie Taeuber-Arp and Jean Arp participated in provocative and scandalous events that were fundamental and the basis of the foundation for the anarchist movement called Dada. Performance art_sentence_41

Dadaism was born with the intention of destroying any system or established norm in the art world. Performance art_sentence_42

It is an anti-art movement, anti-literary and anti-poetry, that questioned the existence of art, literature and poetry itself. Performance art_sentence_43

Not only was it a way of creating, but of living; it created a whole new ideology. Performance art_sentence_44

It was against eternal beauty, the eternity of principles, the laws of logic, the immobility of thought and clearly against anything universal. Performance art_sentence_45

It promoted change, spontaneity, immediacy, contradiction, randomness and the defense of chaos against the order and imperfection against perfection, ideas similar to those of performance art. Performance art_sentence_46

They stood for provocation, anti-art protest and scandal, through ways of expression many times satirical and ironic. Performance art_sentence_47

The absurd or lack of value and the chaos protagonized their breaking actions with traditional artistic form. Performance art_sentence_48

Futurism Performance art_section_3

Main article: Futurism Performance art_sentence_49

Futurism was an artistic avant garde movement that appeared in 1909. Performance art_sentence_50

It first started as a literary movement, even though most of the participants were painters. Performance art_sentence_51

In the beginning it also included sculpture, photography, music and cinema. Performance art_sentence_52

The First World War put an end to the movement, even though in Italy it went on until the 1930s. Performance art_sentence_53

One of the countries where it had the most impact was Russia. Performance art_sentence_54

In 1912 manifestos such as the Futurist Sculpture Manifesto and the Futurist Architecture arose, and in 1913 the Manifesto of Futurist Lust by Valentine de Saint-Point, dancer, writer and French artist. Performance art_sentence_55

The futurists spread their theories through encounters, meetings and conferences in public spaces, that got close to the idea of a political concentration, with poetry and music-halls, which anticipated performance art. Performance art_sentence_56

Bauhaus Performance art_section_4

Main article: Bauhaus Performance art_sentence_57

The Bauhaus, founded in Weimar in 1919, included an experimental performing arts workshops with the goal of exploring the relationship between the body, space, sound and light. Performance art_sentence_58

The Black Mountain College, founded in the United States by instructors of the original Bauhaus who were exiled by the Nazi Party, continued incorporating experimental performing arts in the scenic arts training twenty years before the events related to the history of performance in the 1960s. Performance art_sentence_59

The name Bauhaus derives from the German words Bau, construction and Haus, house; ironically, despite its name and the fact that his founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department the first years of its existence. Performance art_sentence_60

Action painting Performance art_section_5

Main article: Action Painting Performance art_sentence_61

In the 1940s and 1950s, the action painting technique or movement gave artists the possibility of interpreting the canvass as an area to act in, rendering the paintings as traces of the artist's performance in the studio According to art critic Harold Rosenberg, it was one of the initiating processes of performance art, along with abstract expressionism. Performance art_sentence_62

Jackson Pollock is the action painter par excellence, who carried out many of his actions live. Performance art_sentence_63

Names to be highlighted are Willem de Kooning and Franz Kline, whose work include abstract and action painting. Performance art_sentence_64

Nouveau réalisme Performance art_section_6

Main article: Nouveau réalisme Performance art_sentence_65

Nouveau réalisme is another one of the artistic movements cited in the beginnings of performance art. Performance art_sentence_66

It was a painting movement founded in 1960 by art critic Pierre Restany and painter Yves Klein, during the first collective exhibition in the Apollinaire Gallery in Milan. Performance art_sentence_67

Nouveau réalisme was, along with Fluxus and other groups, one of the many avant garde tendencies of the 1960s. Performance art_sentence_68

Pierre Restany created various performance art assemblies in the Tate Modern, amongst other spaces. Performance art_sentence_69

Yves Klein is one of the main exponents of the movement. Performance art_sentence_70

He was a clear pioneer of performance art, with his conceptual pieces like Zone de Sensibilité Picturale Immatérielle (1959–62), Anthropométries (1960), and the photomontage Saut dans le vide. Performance art_sentence_71

All his works have a connection with performance art, as they are created as a live action, like his best-known artworks of paintings created with the bodies of women. Performance art_sentence_72

The members of the group saw the world as an image, from which they took parts and incorporated them into their work; they sought to bring life and art closer together. Performance art_sentence_73

Gutai Performance art_section_7

Main article: Gutai Performance art_sentence_74

One of the other movements that anticipated performance art was the Japanese movement Gutai, who made action art or happening. Performance art_sentence_75

It emerged in 1955 in the region of Kansai (Kyōto, Ōsaka, Kōbe). Performance art_sentence_76

The main participants were Jirō Yoshihara, Sadamasa Motonaga, Shozo Shimamoto, Saburō Murakami, Katsuō Shiraga, Seichi Sato, Akira Ganayama and Atsuko Tanaka. Performance art_sentence_77

The Gutai group arose after World War II. Performance art_sentence_78

They rejected capitalist consumerism, carrying out ironic actions with latent aggressiveness (object breaking, actions with smoke). Performance art_sentence_79

They influenced groups such as Fluxus and artists like Joseph Beuys and Wolf Vostell. Performance art_sentence_80

Land art and performance Performance art_section_8

Main article: Land art Performance art_sentence_81

In the late 1960s, diverse land art artists such as Robert Smithson or Dennis Oppenheim created environmental pieces that preceded performance art in the 1970s. Performance art_sentence_82

Works by conceptual artists from the early 1980s, such as Sol LeWitt, who made mural drawing into a performance act, were influenced by Yves Klein and other land art artists. Performance art_sentence_83

Land art is a contemporary art movement in which the landscape and the artwork are deeply bound. Performance art_sentence_84

It uses nature as a material (wood, soil, rocks, sand, wind, fire, water, etc.) to intervene on itself. Performance art_sentence_85

The artwork is generated with the place itself as a starting point. Performance art_sentence_86

The result is sometimes a junction between sculpture and architecture, and sometimes a junction between sculpture and landscaping that is increasingly taking a more determinant role in contemporary public spaces. Performance art_sentence_87

When incorporating the artist's body in the creative process, it acquires similarities with the beginnings of performance art. Performance art_sentence_88

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1960s Performance art_section_9

In the 1960s, with the purpose of evolving the generalized idea of art and with similar principles of those originary from Cabaret Voltaire or Futurism, a variety of new works, concepts and a growing number of artists led to new kinds of performance art. Performance art_sentence_89

Movements clearly differentiated from Viennese Actionism, avant garde performance art in New York City, process art, the evolution of The Living Theatre or happening, but most of all the consolidation of the pioneers of performance art. Performance art_sentence_90

Viennese actionism Performance art_section_10

Main article: Viennese Actionism Performance art_sentence_91

The term Viennese Actionism (Wiener Aktionismus) comprehends a brief and controversial art movement of the 20th century, which is remembered for the violence, grotesque and visual of their artworks. Performance art_sentence_92

It is located in the Austrian vangard of the 1960s, and it had the goal of bringing art to the ground of performance art, and is linked to Fluxus and Body Art. Performance art_sentence_93

Amongst their main exponents are Günter Brus, Otto Muehl and Hermann Nitsch, who developed most of their actionist activities between 1960 and 1971. Performance art_sentence_94

Hermann Nitsch presented in 1962 his Theatre of Orgies and Mysteries (Orgien und Mysterien Theater), pioneer of performance art, close to scenic arts. Performance art_sentence_95

New York and avant-garde performance Performance art_section_11

In the early 1960s, New York City harbored many movements, events end interests regarding performance art. Performance art_sentence_96

Amongst others, Andy Warhol began creating films and videos, and mid decade he sponsored The Velvet Underground and staged events and performative actions in New York, such as the Exploding Plastic Inevitable (1966), that included live rock music, explosive lights and films. Performance art_sentence_97

The Living Theatre Performance art_section_12

Main article: The Living Theatre Performance art_sentence_98

Indirectly influential for art-world performance, particularly in the United States, were new forms of theatre, embodied by the San Francisco Mime Troupe and the Living Theatre and showcased in Off-Off Broadway theaters in SoHO and at La MaMa in New York City. Performance art_sentence_99

The Living Theatre is a theater company created in 1947 in New York. Performance art_sentence_100

It is the oldest experimental theatre in the United States. Performance art_sentence_101

Throughout its history it has been led by its founders: actress Judith Malina, who had studies theatre with Erwin Piscator, with whom she studied Bertolt Brecht's and Meyerhold's theory; and painter and poet Julian Beck. Performance art_sentence_102

After Beck's death in 1985, the company member Hanon Reznikov became co-director along with Malina. Performance art_sentence_103

Because it is one of the oldest random theatre or live theatre groups nowadays, it is looked upon by the rest. Performance art_sentence_104

They understood theatre as a way of life, and the actors lived in a community under libertary principles. Performance art_sentence_105

It was a theatre campaign dedicated to transformation of the power organization of an authoritarian society and hierarchical structure. Performance art_sentence_106

The Living Theatre chiefly toured in Europe between 1963 and 1968, and in the U.S. in 1968. Performance art_sentence_107

A work of this period, Paradise Now, was notorious for its audience participation and a scene in which actors recited a list of social taboos that included nudity, while disrobing. Performance art_sentence_108

Fluxus Performance art_section_13

Main article: Fluxus Performance art_sentence_109

Fluxus, a Latin word that means flow, is a visual arts movement related to music, literature, and dance. Performance art_sentence_110

Its most active moment was in the 1960s and 1970s. Performance art_sentence_111

They proclaimed themselves against the traditional artistic object as a commodity and declared themselves a sociological art movement. Performance art_sentence_112

Fluxus was informally organized in 1962 by George Maciunas (1931–1978). Performance art_sentence_113

This movement had representation in Europe, the United States and Japan. Performance art_sentence_114

The Fluxus movement, mostly developed in North America and Europe under the stimulus of John Cage, did not see the avant-garde as a linguistic renovation, but it sought to make a different use of the main art channels that separate themselves from specific language; it tries to be interdisciplinary and to adopt mediums and materials from different fields. Performance art_sentence_115

Language is not the goal, but the mean for a renovation of art, seen as a global art. Performance art_sentence_116

As well as Dada, Fluxus escaped any attempt for a definition or categorization. Performance art_sentence_117

As one of the movement's founders, Dick Higgins, stated: Performance art_sentence_118

Robert Filliou places Fluxus opposite to conceptual art for its direct, immediate and urgent reference to everyday life, and turns around Duchamp's proposal, who starting from Ready-made, introduced the daily into art, whereas Fluxus dissolved art into the daily, many times with small actions or performances. Performance art_sentence_119

John Cage was an American composer, music theorist, artist, and philosopher. Performance art_sentence_120

A pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, and non-standard use of musical instruments, Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde. Performance art_sentence_121

Critics have lauded him as one of the most influential composers of the 20th century. Performance art_sentence_122

He was also instrumental in the development of modern dance, mostly through his association with choreographer Merce Cunningham, who was also Cage's romantic partner for most of their lives. Performance art_sentence_123

Process art Performance art_section_14

Main article: Process Art Performance art_sentence_124

Process art is an artistic movement where the end product of art and craft, the (work of art/found object), is not the principal focus; the process of its making is one of the most relevant aspects if not the most important one: the gathering, sorting, collating, associating, patterning, and moreover the initiation of actions and proceedings. Performance art_sentence_125

Process artists saw art as pure human expression. Performance art_sentence_126

Process art defends the idea that the process of creating the work of art can be an art piece itself. Performance art_sentence_127

Artist Robert Morris predicated "anti-form", process and time over an objectual finished product. Performance art_sentence_128

Happening Performance art_section_15

Main article: Happening Performance art_sentence_129

Wardrip-Fruin and Montfort in The New Media Reader, "The term 'Happening' has been used to describe many performances and events, organized by Allan Kaprow and others during the 1950s and 1960s, including a number of theatrical productions that were traditionally scripted and invited only limited audience interaction." Performance art_sentence_130

A happening allows the artis to experiment with the movement of the body, recorded sounds, written and talked texts, and even smells. Performance art_sentence_131

One of Kaprow's first works was Happenings in the New York Scene, written in 1961. Performance art_sentence_132

Allan Kaprow's happenings turned the public into interpreters. Performance art_sentence_133

Often the spectators became an active part of the act without realizing it. Performance art_sentence_134

Other actors who created happenings were Jim Dine, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Whitman and Wolf Vostell: Theater is in the Street (Paris, 1958). Performance art_sentence_135

Main artists Performance art_section_16

The works by performance artists after 1968 showed many times influences from the political and cultural situation that year. Performance art_sentence_136

Barbara T. Smith with Ritual Meal (1969) was at the vanguard of body and scenic feminist art in the seventies, which included, amongst others, Carolee Schneemann and Joan Jonas. Performance art_sentence_137

These, along with Yoko Ono, Joseph Beuys, Nam June Paik, Wolf Vostell, Allan Kaprow, Vito Acconci, Chris Burden and Dennis Oppenheim were pioneers in the relationship between body art and performance art, as well as the Zaj collective in Spain with Esther Ferrer and Juan Hidalgo. Performance art_sentence_138

Barbara Smith is an artist and United States activist. Performance art_sentence_139

She is one of the main African-American exponents of feminism and LGBT activism in the United States. Performance art_sentence_140

In the beginning of the 1970s she worked as a teacher, writer and defender of the black feminism current. Performance art_sentence_141

She has taught at numerous colleges and universities in the last five years. Performance art_sentence_142

Smith's essays, reviews, articles, short stories and literary criticism have appeared in a range of publications, including The New York Times, The Guardian, The Village Voice and The Nation. Performance art_sentence_143

Carolee Schneemann was an American visual experimental artist, known for her multi-media works on the body, narrative, sexuality and gender. Performance art_sentence_144

She created pieces such as Meat Joy (1964) and Interior Scroll (1975). Performance art_sentence_145

Schneemann considered her body a surface for work. Performance art_sentence_146

She described herself as a '"painter ho has left the canvas to activate the real space and the lived time". Performance art_sentence_147

Joan Jonas (born July 13, 1936) is an American visual artist and a pioneer of video and performance art, who is one of the most important female artists to emerge in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Performance art_sentence_148

Jonas' projects and experiments provided the foundation on which much video performance art would be based. Performance art_sentence_149

Her influences also extended to conceptual art, theatre, performance art and other visual media. Performance art_sentence_150

She lives and works in New York and Nova Scotia, Canada. Performance art_sentence_151

Immersed in New York's downtown art scene of the 1960s, Jonas studied with the choreographer Trisha Brown for two years. Performance art_sentence_152

Jonas also worked with choreographers Yvonne Rainer and Steve Paxton. Performance art_sentence_153

Yoko Ono was part of the avant-garde movement of the 1960s. Performance art_sentence_154

She was part of the Fluxus movement. Performance art_sentence_155

She is known for her performance art pieces in the late 1906s, works such as Cut Piece, where visitors could intervene in her body until she was left naked. Performance art_sentence_156

One of her best known pieces is Wall piece for orchestra (1962). Performance art_sentence_157

Joseph Beuys was a German Fluxus, happening, performance artist, painter, sculptor, medallist and installation artist. Performance art_sentence_158

In 1962 his actions alongside the Fluxus neodadaist movement started, group in which he ended up becoming the most important member. Performance art_sentence_159

His most relevant achievement was his socialization of art, making it more accessible for every kind of public. Performance art_sentence_160

In How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare (1965) he covered his face with honey and gold leaf and explained his work to a dead hare that lay in his arms. Performance art_sentence_161

In this work he linked spacial and sculptural, linguistic and sonorous factors to the artist's figure, to his bodily gesture, to the conscience of a communicator whose receptor is an animal. Performance art_sentence_162

Beuys acted as a shaman with healing and saving powers toward the society that he considered dead. Performance art_sentence_163

In 1974 he carried out the performance I Like America and America Likes Me where Beuys, a coyote and materials such as paper, felt and thatch constituted the vehicle for its creation. Performance art_sentence_164

He lived with the coyote for three days. Performance art_sentence_165

He piled United States newspapers, a symbol of capitalism. Performance art_sentence_166

With time, the tolerance between Beuys and the coyote grew and he ended up hugging the animal. Performance art_sentence_167

Beuys repeats many elements used in other works. Performance art_sentence_168

Objects that differ form Duchamp's ready-mades, not for their poor and ephemerality, but because they are part of Beuys's own life, who placed them after living with them and leaving his mark on them. Performance art_sentence_169

Many have an autobiographical meaning, like the honey or the grease used by the tartars who saved in World War Two. Performance art_sentence_170

In 1970 he made his Felt Suit. Performance art_sentence_171

Also in 1970, Beuys taught sculpture in the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf. Performance art_sentence_172

In 1979, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum of New York City exhibited a retrospective of his work from the 1940s to 1970. Performance art_sentence_173

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Nam June Paik was a South Korean performance artist, composer and video artist from the second half of the 20th century. Performance art_sentence_174

He studied music and art history in the University of Tokyo. Performance art_sentence_175

Later, in 1956, he traveled to Germany, where he studied Music Theory in Munich, then continued in Cologne in the Freiburg conservatory. Performance art_sentence_176

While studying in Germany, Paik met the composers Karlheinz Stockhausen and John Cage and the conceptual artists Sharon Grace as well as George Maciunas, Joseph Beuys and Wolf Vostell and was from 1962 on, a member of the experimental art movement Fluxus. Performance art_sentence_177

Nam June Paik then began participating in the Neo-Dada art movement, known as Fluxus, which was inspired by the composer John Cage and his use of everyday sounds and noises in his music. Performance art_sentence_178

He was mates with Yoko Ono as a member of Fluxus. Performance art_sentence_179

Wolf Vostell was a German artist, one of the most representative of the second half of the 20th century, who worked with various mediums and techniques sucha as painting, sculpture, installation, decollage, videoart, happening and fluxus. Performance art_sentence_180

Vito Acconci was an influential American performance, video and installation artist, whose diverse practice eventually included sculpture, architectural design, and landscape design. Performance art_sentence_181

His foundational performance and video art was characterized by "existential unease," exhibitionism, discomfort, transgression and provocation, as well as wit and audacity, and often involved crossing boundaries such as public–private, consensual–nonconsensual, and real world–art world. Performance art_sentence_182

His work is considered to have influenced artists including Laurie Anderson, Karen Finley, Bruce Nauman, and Tracey Emin, among others. Performance art_sentence_183

Acconci was initially interested in radical poetry, but by the late 1960s, he began creating Situationist-influenced performances in the street or for small audiences that explored the body and public space. Performance art_sentence_184

Two of his most famous pieces were Following Piece (1969), in which he selected random passersby on New York City streets and followed them for as long as he was able, and Seedbed (1972), in which he claimed that he masturbated while under a temporary floor at the Sonnabend Gallery, as visitors walked above and heard him speaking. Performance art_sentence_185

Chris Burden was an American artist working in performance, sculpture and installation art. Performance art_sentence_186

Burden became known in the 1970s for his performance art works, including Shoot (1971), in which he arranged for a friend to shoot him in the arm with a small-caliber rifle. Performance art_sentence_187

A prolific artist, Burden created many well-known installations, public artworks and sculptures before his death in 2015. Performance art_sentence_188

Burden began to work in performance art in the early 1970s. Performance art_sentence_189

He made a series of controversial performances in which the idea of personal danger as artistic expression was central. Performance art_sentence_190

His first significant performance work, Five Day Locker Piece (1971), was created for his master's thesis at the University of California, Irvine, and involved his being locked in a locker for five days. Performance art_sentence_191

Dennis Oppenheim was an American conceptual artist, performance artist, earth artist, sculptor and photographer. Performance art_sentence_192

Dennis Oppenheim's early artistic practice is an epistemological questioning about the nature of art, the making of art and the definition of art: a meta-art which arose when strategies of the Minimalists were expanded to focus on site and context. Performance art_sentence_193

As well as an aesthetic agenda, the work progressed from perceptions of the physical properties of the gallery to the social and political context, largely taking the form of permanent public sculpture in the last two decades of a highly prolific career, whose diversity could exasperate his critics. Performance art_sentence_194

Yayoi Kusama is a Japanese artist who, throughout her career, has worked with a great variety of media including:sculpture, installation, painting, performance, film, fashion, poetry, fiction, and other arts; the majority of them exhibited her interest in psychedelia, repetition and patterns. Performance art_sentence_195

Kusama is a pioneer of the pop art, minimalism and feminist art movements and influenced her coetaneous, Andy Warhol and Claes Oldenburg. Performance art_sentence_196

She has been acknowledged as one of the most important living artists to come out of Japan and a very relevant voice in avant garde art. Performance art_sentence_197

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1970s Performance art_section_17

In the 1970s, artists that had derived to works related to performance art evolved and consolidated themselves as artists with performance art as their main discipline, deriving into installations created through performance, video performance, or collective actions, or in the context of a socio-historical and political context. Performance art_sentence_198

Video performance Performance art_section_18

In the early 1970s the use of video format by performance artists was consolidated. Performance art_sentence_199

Some exhibitions by Joan Jonas and Vito Acconci were made entirely of video, activated by previous performative processes. Performance art_sentence_200

In this decade, various books that talked about the use of the means of communication, video and cinema by performance artists, like Expanded Cinema, by Gene Youngblood, were published. Performance art_sentence_201

One of the main artists who used video and performance, with notorious audiovisual installations, is the South Korean artist Nam June Paik, who in the early 1960s had already been in the Fluxus movement until becoming a media artist and evolving into the audiovisual installations he is known for. Performance art_sentence_202

Carolee Schneemann's and Robert Whitman's 1960s work regarding their video-performances must be taken into consideration as well. Performance art_sentence_203

Both were pioneers of performance art, turning it into an independent art form in the early seventies. Performance art_sentence_204

Joan Jonas started to include video in her experimental performances in 1972, while Bruce Nauman scenified his acts to be directly recorded on video. Performance art_sentence_205

Nauman is an American multimedia artist, whose sculptures, videos, graphic work and performances have helped diversify and develop culture from the 1960s on. Performance art_sentence_206

His unsettling artworks emphasized the conceptual nature of art and the creation process. Performance art_sentence_207

His priority is the idea and the creative process over the end result. Performance art_sentence_208

His art uses an incredible array of materials and especially his own body. Performance art_sentence_209

Gilbert and George are Italian artist Gilbert Proesch and English artist George Passmore, who have developed their work inside conceptual art, performance and body art. Performance art_sentence_210

They were best known for their live-sculpture acts. Performance art_sentence_211

One of their first makings was The Singing Sculpture, where the artists sang and danced "Underneath the Arches", a song from the 1930s. Performance art_sentence_212

Since then they have forged a solid reputation as live-sculptures, making themselves works of art, exhibited in front of spectators through diverse time intervals. Performance art_sentence_213

They usually appear dressed in suits and ties, adopting diverse postures that they maintain without moving, though sometimes they also move and read a text, and occasionally they appear in assemblies or artistic installations. Performance art_sentence_214

Apart from their sculptures, Gilbert and George have also made pictorial works, collages and photomontages, where they pictured themselves next to diverse objects from their immediate surroundings, with references to urban culture and a strong content; they addressed topics such as sex, race, death and HIV, religion or politics, critiquing many times the British government and the established power. Performance art_sentence_215

The group's most prolific and ambitious work was Jack Freak Pictures, where they had a constant presence of the colors red, white and blue in the Union Jack. Performance art_sentence_216

Gilbert and George have exhibited their work in museums and galleries around the world, like the Stedelijk van Abbemuseum of Eindhoven (1980), the Hayward Gallery in London (1987), and the Tate Modern (2007). Performance art_sentence_217

They have participated in the Venice Biennale. Performance art_sentence_218

In 1986 they won the Turner Prize. Performance art_sentence_219

Endurance art Performance art_section_19

Main article: Endurance art Performance art_sentence_220

Endurance performance art deepens the themes of trance, pain, solitude, deprivation of freedom, isolation or exhaustion. Performance art_sentence_221

Some of the works, based on the passing of long periods of time are also known as long-durational performances. Performance art_sentence_222

One of the pioneering artists was Chris Burden in California since the 1970s. Performance art_sentence_223

In one of his best known works, Five days in a locker (1971) he stayed for five days inside a school locker, in Shoot (1971) he was shot with a firearm, and inhabited for twenty two days a bed inside an art gallery in Bed Piece (1972). Performance art_sentence_224

Another example of endurance artist is Tehching Hsieh. Performance art_sentence_225

During a performance created in 1980–1981 (Time Clock Piece), where he stayed a whole year repeating the same action around a metaphorical clock. Performance art_sentence_226

Hsieh is also known for his performances about deprivation of freedom; he spent an entire year confined. Performance art_sentence_227

In The House With the Ocean View (2003), Marina Abramović lived silently for twelve days without food. Performance art_sentence_228

The Nine Confinements or The Deprivation of Liberty is a conceptual endurance artwork of critical content carried out in the years 2013 and 2016. Performance art_sentence_229

All of them have in common the illegitimate deprivation of freedom. Performance art_sentence_230

Performance in a political context Performance art_section_20

In the mid 1970s, behind the Iron Curtain, in major Eastern Europe cities such as Budapest, Kraków, Belgrade, Zagreb, Novi Sad and others, scenic arts of a more experimental content flourished. Performance art_sentence_231

Against political and social control, different artists who made performance of political content arose. Performance art_sentence_232

Orshi Drozdik's performance series, titled Individual Mythology 1975/77 and the NudeModel 1976/77. Performance art_sentence_233

All her actions were critical of the patriarchal discourse in art and the forced emancipation programme and constructed by the equally patriarchal state. Performance art_sentence_234

Drozdik showed a pioneer and feminist point of view on both, becoming one of the precursors of this type of critical art in Eastern Europe. Performance art_sentence_235

In the 1970s, performance art, due to its fugacity, had a solid presence in the Eastern European avant-garde, specially in Poland and Yugoslavia, where dozens of artists who explored the body conceptually and critically emerged. Performance art_sentence_236

The Other Performance art_section_21

In the mid-1976s, Ulay and Marina Abramović founded the collective The Other in the city of Amsterdam. Performance art_sentence_237

When Abramović and Ulay started their collaboration. Performance art_sentence_238

The main concepts they explored were the ego and artistic identity. Performance art_sentence_239

This was the start of a decade of collaborative work. Performance art_sentence_240

Both artists were interested in the tradition of their cultural heritage and the individual's desire for rituals. Performance art_sentence_241

In consecuense, they formed a collective named The Other. Performance art_sentence_242

They dressed and behaved as one, and created a relation of absolute confidence. Performance art_sentence_243

They created a series of works in which their bodies created additional spaces for the audience's interaction. Performance art_sentence_244

In Relation in Space they ran around the room, two bodies like two planets, meshing masculine and feminine energies into a third component they called "that self". Performance art_sentence_245

Relation in Movement (1976) had the couple driving their car inside the museum, doing 365 spins. Performance art_sentence_246

A black liquid dripped out of the car, forming a sculpture, and each round represented a year. Performance art_sentence_247

After this, they created Death Self, where both of them united their lips and inspired the air expired by the other one until they used up all oxygen. Performance art_sentence_248

Exactly 17 minutes after the start of the performance, both of them fell unconscious, due to their lungs filling with carbon dioxide. Performance art_sentence_249

This piece explored the idea of the ability of a person to absorb the life out of another one, changing them and destroying them. Performance art_sentence_250

In 1988, after some years of a tense relationship, Abramović and Ulay decided to make a spiritual travel that would put an end to the collective. Performance art_sentence_251

They walked along the Great Wall of China, starting on opposite ends and finding each other halfway. Performance art_sentence_252

Abramović conceived this walk on a dream, and it gave her what she saw as an appropriate and romantic ending to the relationship full of mysticism, energy and attraction. Performance art_sentence_253

Ulay started on the Gobi dessert and Abramovic in the Yellow sea. Performance art_sentence_254

Each one of them walked 2500 kilometres, found each other in the middle and said goodbye. Performance art_sentence_255

Main artists Performance art_section_22

In 1973, Laurie Anderson interpreted Duets on Ice in the streets of New York. Performance art_sentence_256

Marina Abramović, in the performance Rhythm 10, included conceptually the violation of a body. Performance art_sentence_257

Thirty years later, the topic of rape, chame and sex exploitation would be reimagined in the works of contemporary artists such as Clifford Owens, Gillian Walsh, Pat Oleszko and Rebecca Patek, amongst others. Performance art_sentence_258

New artists with radical acts consolidated themselves as the main precursors of performance, like Chris Burden, with the 1971 work Shoot, where an assistant shot him in the arm from a five-meter distance, and Vito Acconci the same year with Seedbed. Performance art_sentence_259

The work Eye Body (1963) by Carolee Schneemann en 1963, had already been considered a prototipe of performance art. Performance art_sentence_260

In 1975, Schneemann recurred to innovative solo acts such as Interior Scroll, that showed the feminine body as an artistic media. Performance art_sentence_261

One of the main artists was Gina Pane, French artist of Italian origins. Performance art_sentence_262

She studied at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in París from 1960 until 1965 and was a member of the performance art movement in the 1970 in France, called "Art Corporel". Performance art_sentence_263

Parallel to her art, Pane taught in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Mans from 1975 until 1990 and directed an atelier dedicated to performance art in the Pompidou Centre from 1978 to 1979. Performance art_sentence_264

One of her best known works is The Conditioning (1973), in which she was lied into a metal bed spring over an area of lit candles. Performance art_sentence_265

The Conditioning was created as an homage to Marina Abramović, part of her Seven Easy Pieces(2005) in the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City in 2005. Performance art_sentence_266

Great part of her works are protagonized by self-inflicted pain, separating her from most of other woman artists in the 1970s. Performance art_sentence_267

Through the violence of cutting her skin with razors or extinguishing fires with her bare hands and feet, Pane has the intention of inciting a real experience in the visitor, who would feel moved for its discomfort. Performance art_sentence_268

The impactful nature of these first performance art pieces or actions, as she preferred to call them, many times eclipsed her prolific photographic and sculptural work. Performance art_sentence_269

Nonetheless, the body was the main concern in Panes's work, either literally or conceptually. Performance art_sentence_270

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1980s Performance art_section_23

The technique of performance art Performance art_section_24

Until the 1980s, performance art has demystified virtuosism, this being one of its key characteristics. Performance art_sentence_271

Nonetheless, from the 1980s on it started to adopt some technical brilliancy. Performance art_sentence_272

In reference to the work Presence and Resistance by Philip Auslander, the dance critic Sally Banes writes, "... by the end of the 1980s, performance art had become so widely known that it no longer needed to be defined; mass culture, especially television, had come to supply both structure and subject matter for much performance art; and several performance artists, including Laurie Anderson, Spalding Gray, Eric Bogosian, Willem Dafoe, and Ann Magnuson, had indeed become crossover artists in mainstream entertainment." Performance art_sentence_273

In this decade the parameters and technicalities built to purify and perfect performance art were defined. Performance art_sentence_274

Critique and investigation of performance art Performance art_section_25

Despite the fact that many performances are held within the circle of a small art-world group, Roselee Goldberg notes in Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present that "performance has been a way of appealing directly to a large public, as well as shocking audiences into reassessing their own notions of art and its relation to culture. Performance art_sentence_275

Conversely, public interest in the medium, especially in the 1980s, stems from an apparent desire of that public to gain access to the art world, to be a spectator of its ritual and its distinct community, and to be surprised by the unexpected, always unorthodox presentations that the artists devise." Performance art_sentence_276

In this decade, publications and compilations about performance art and its best known artists emerged. Performance art_sentence_277

Performance art from a political context Performance art_section_26

In the 1980s, the political context played an important role in the artistic development and especially in performance, as almost every one of the works created with a critical and political discourse were in this discipline. Performance art_sentence_278

Until the decline of the European Eastern bloc during the late 1980s, performance art had actively been rejected by most communist governments. Performance art_sentence_279

With the exception of Poland and Yugoslavia, performance art was more or less banned in countries where any independent public event was feared. Performance art_sentence_280

In the GDR, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Latvia it happened in apartments, at seemingly spontaneous gatherings in artist studios, in church-controlled settings, or was covered as another activity, like a photo-shoot. Performance art_sentence_281

Isolated from the western conceptual context, in different settings it could be like a playful protest or a bitter comment, using subversive metaphors to express dissent with the political situation. Performance art_sentence_282

Amongst the most remarkable performance art works of political content in this time were those of Tehching Hsieh between July 1983 and July 1984, Art/Life: One Year Performance (Rope Piece). Performance art_sentence_283

Performance poetry Performance art_section_27

In 1982 the terms "poetry" and "performance" were first used together. Performance art_sentence_284

Performance poetry appeared to distinguish text-based vocal performances from performance art, especially the work of escenic and musical performance artists, such as Laurie Anderson, who worked with music at that time. Performance art_sentence_285

Performance poets relied more on the rhetorical and philosophical expression in their poetics than performance artists, who arose from the visual art genres of painting and sculpture. Performance art_sentence_286

Many artists since John Cage fuse performance with a poetical base. Performance art_sentence_287

Feminist performance art Performance art_section_28

Main article: Feminist Performance Art Performance art_sentence_288

Since 1973 the Feminist Studio Workshop in the Woman's Building of Los Ángeles had an impact in the wave of feminist acts, but until 1980 they did not completely fuse. Performance art_sentence_289

The conjunction between feminism and performance art progressed through the last decade. Performance art_sentence_290

In the first two decades of performance art development, works that had not been conceived as feminist are seen as such now. Performance art_sentence_291

Still, not until 1980 did artists self-define themselves as feminists. Performance art_sentence_292

Artist groups in which women influenced by the 1968 student movement as well as the feminist movement stood out. Performance art_sentence_293

This connection has been treated in contemporary art history research. Performance art_sentence_294

Some of the women whose innovative input in representations and shows was the most relevant were Pina Bausch and the Guerrilla Girls who emerged in 1985 in New York City, anonymous feminist and anti-racist art collective. Performance art_sentence_295

They chose that name because they used guerrilla tactics in their activism to denounce discrimination against women in art through political and performance art. Performance art_sentence_296

Their first performance was placing posters and making public appearances in museums and galleries in New York, to critique the fact that some groups of people were discriminated against for their gender or race. Performance art_sentence_297

All of this was done anonymously; in all of these appearances they covered their faces with gorilla masks (this was due to the similar pronunciation of the words "gorilla" and "guerrilla"). Performance art_sentence_298

They used as nicknames the names of female artists who had died. Performance art_sentence_299

From the 1970s until the 1980s, amongst the works that challenged the system and their usual strategies of representation, the main ones feature women's bodies, such as Ana Mendieta's works in New York City where her body is outraged and abused, or the artistic representations by Louise Bourgeois with a rather minimalist discourse that emerge in the late seventies and eighties. Performance art_sentence_300

Special mention to the works created with feminine and feminist corporeity such as Lynda Benglis and her phallic performative actions, who reconstructed the feminine image to turn it into more than a fetish. Performance art_sentence_301

Through feminist performance art the body becomes a space for developing these new discourses and meanings. Performance art_sentence_302

Artist Eleanor Antin, creator in the 1970s and 1980s, worked on the topics of gender, race and class. Performance art_sentence_303

Cindy Sherman, in her first works in the seventies and already in her artistic maturity in the eighties, continues her critical line of overturning the imposed self, through her use of the body as an object of privilege. Performance art_sentence_304

Cindy Sherman is an American photographer and artist. Performance art_sentence_305

She is one of the most representative post-war artists and exhibited more than the work of three decades of her work in the MoMA. Performance art_sentence_306

Even though she appears in most of her performative photographies, she doesn't consider them slef-portraits. Performance art_sentence_307

Sherman uses herself as a vehicle to represent a great array of topics of the contemporary world, such as the part women play in our society and the way they are represented in the media as well as the nature of art creation. Performance art_sentence_308

In 2020 she was awarded with the Wolf prize in arts. Performance art_sentence_309

Judy Chicago is an artist and pioneer of feminist art and performance art in the United States. Performance art_sentence_310

Chicago is known for her big collaborative art installation pieces on images of birth and creation, that examin women's part in history and culture. Performance art_sentence_311

In the 1970s, Chicago has founded the first feminist art programme in the United States. Performance art_sentence_312

Chicago's work incorporates a variety of artistic skills such as sewing, in contrast with skills that required a lot of workforce, like welding and pyrotechnics. Performance art_sentence_313

Chicago's best known work is The Dinner Party, that was permanently installed in the Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art in the Brooklyn Museum. Performance art_sentence_314

The Dinner Party celebrated the achievements of women throughout history and is widely considered as the first epic feminist artwork. Performance art_sentence_315

Other remarkable projects include International Honor Quilt, The Birth Project, Powerplay, and The Holocaust Project. Performance art_sentence_316

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Expansion to Latin America Performance art_section_29

In this decade performance art spread until reaching Latin America through the workshops and programmes that universities and academic institutions offered. Performance art_sentence_317

It mainly developed in Mexico, Colombia -with artists such as Maria Teresa Hincapié—, in Brasil and in Argentina. Performance art_sentence_318

Ana Mendieta was a conceptual and performance artist born in Cuba and raised in the United States. Performance art_sentence_319

She's mostly known for her artworks and performance art pieces in land art. Performance art_sentence_320

Mendieta's work was known mostly in the feminist art critic environment. Performance art_sentence_321

Years after her death, specially since the Whitney Museum of American Art retrospective in 2004 and the retrospective in the Haywart Gallery in London in 2013 she is considered a pioneer of performance art and other practices related to body art and land art, sculpture and photography. Performance art_sentence_322

She described her own work as earth-body art. Performance art_sentence_323

Tania Bruguera is a Cuban artist specialized in performance art and political art. Performance art_sentence_324

Her work mainly consists of her interpretation of political and social topics. Performance art_sentence_325

She has developed concepts such as "conduct art" to define her artistic practices with a focus on the limits of language and the body confronted to the reaction and behavior of the spectators. Performance art_sentence_326

She also came up with "useful art", that is ought to transform certain political and legal aspects of society. Performance art_sentence_327

Brugera's work revolves around power and control topics, and a great portion of her work questions the current state of her home country, Cuba. Performance art_sentence_328

In 2002 she created the Cátedra Arte de Conducta in La Habana. Performance art_sentence_329

Regina José Galindo is a Guatemalan artist specialized in performance art. Performance art_sentence_330

Her work is characterized by its explicit political and critical content, using her own body as a tool of confrontation and social transformation. Performance art_sentence_331

Her artistic career has been marked by the Guatemalan Civil War that took place from 1960 to 1996, which triggered a genocide of more than 200 thousand people, many of them indigenous, farmers, women and children. Performance art_sentence_332

With her work, Galindo denounces violence, sexism (one of her the main topics is femicide), the western beauty standards, the repression of the estates and the abuse of power, especially in the context of her country, even though her language transgresses borders. Performance art_sentence_333

Since her beginnings she only used her body as media, which she occasionally takes to extreme situations (like in Himenoplasty (2004) where she goes through a hymen reconstruction, a work that won the Golden Lyon in the Venice Biennale), to later have volunteers or hired people to interact with her, so that she loses control over the action. Performance art_sentence_334

1990s Performance art_section_30

The 1990s was a period of absence for classic European performance, so performance artists kept a low profile. Performance art_sentence_335

Nevertheless, Eastern Europe experienced a peak. Performance art_sentence_336

On the other hand, Latin American performance continued to boom, as well as feminist performance art. Performance art_sentence_337

There also was a peak of this discipline in Asian countries, whose motivation emerged from the Butō dance in the 1950s, but in this period they professionalized and new Chinese artists arose, earning great recognition. Performance art_sentence_338

There was also a general professionalization in the increase of exhibitions dedicated to performance art, at the opening of the Venice Art Biennial to performance art, where various artists of this discipline have won the Leone d'Oro, including Anne Imhof, Regina José Galindo or Santiago Sierra. Performance art_sentence_339

Performance with political context Performance art_section_31

While the Soviet Bloc dissolved, some forbidden performance art pieces began to spread. Performance art_sentence_340

Young artists from the former Eastern Bloc, including Russia, devoted themselves to performance art. Performance art_sentence_341

Scenic arts emerged around the same time in Cuba, the Caribbean and China. Performance art_sentence_342

"In these contexts, performance art became a new critical voice with a social strength similar to that of Western Europe, the United States and South America in the sixties and early seventies. Performance art_sentence_343

It must be emphasized that the rise of performance art in the 1990s in Eastern Europe, China, South Africa, Cuba and other places must not be considered secondary or an imitation of the West". Performance art_sentence_344

Professionalization of performance art Performance art_section_32

In the Western World, in the 1990s, performance art joined the mainstream culture. Performance art_sentence_345

Diverse performance artworks, live, photographed or through documentation started to become part of galleries and museums that began to understand performance art as an art discipline. Performance art_sentence_346

Nevertheless, it was not until the next decade that a major institutionalization happened, when every museum started to incorporate performance art pieces into their collections and dedicating great exhibitions and retrospectives, museums such as the la Tate Modern in London, the MoMA in New York City or the Pompidou Centre in Paris. Performance art_sentence_347

From the 1990s on, many more performance artists were invited to important biennials like the Venice Biennale, the Sao Paulo Biennial and the Lyon Biennial. Performance art_sentence_348

Performance in China Performance art_section_33

Main article: Performance art in China Performance art_sentence_349

In the late 1990s, Chinese contemporary art and performance art received great recognition internationally, as 19 Chinese artists were invited to the Venice Biennial. Performance art_sentence_350

Performance art in China and its history had been growing since the 1970s due to the interest between art, process and tradition in Chinese culture, but it gained recognition from the 1990s on. Performance art_sentence_351

In China, performance art is part of the fine arts education programme, and is becoming more and more popular. Performance art_sentence_352

In the early 1990s, Chinese performance art was already acclaimed in the international art scene. Performance art_sentence_353

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Since the 2000s Performance art_section_34

New-media performance Performance art_section_35

In the late 1990s and into the 2000s, a number of artists incorporated technologies such as the World Wide Web, digital video, webcams, and streaming media, into performance artworks. Performance art_sentence_354

Artists such as Coco Fusco, Shu Lea Cheang, and Prema Murthy produced performance art that drew attention to the role of gender, race, colonialism, and the body in relation to the Internet. Performance art_sentence_355

Other artists, such as Critical Art Ensemble, Electronic Disturbance Theater, and Yes Men, used digital technologies associated with hacktivism and interventionism to raise political issues concerning new forms of capitalism and consumerism. Performance art_sentence_356

In the second half of the decade, computer-aided forms of performance art began to take place. Performance art_sentence_357

Many of these works led to the development of algorithmic art, generative art, and robotic art, in which the computer itself, or a computer-controlled robot, becomes the performer. Performance art_sentence_358

Coco Fusco is an interdisciplinary Cuban-American artist, writer and curator who lives and works in the United States. Performance art_sentence_359

Her artistic career began in 1988. Performance art_sentence_360

In her work, she explores topics such as identity, race, power and gender through performance. Performance art_sentence_361

She also makes videos, interactive installations and critical writing. Performance art_sentence_362

Radical performance Performance art_section_36

During the first and second decade of the 2000s, various artists were prosecuted, judicialized, detained or imprisoned for their works of political content. Performance art_sentence_363

Artists such as Pussy Riot, Tania Bruguera, and Petr Pavlensky have been judged for diverse artistic actions created with the intention of denouncing and visibilizing. Performance art_sentence_364

On February 21, 2012, as a part of their protest against the re-election of Vladímir Putin, various women of the artistic collective Pussy Riot entered the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour of Moscow of the Russian Orthodox Church. Performance art_sentence_365

They made the sign of the cross, bowed before the shrine, and started to interpret a performance compound by a song and a dance under the motto "Virgin Mary, put Putin Away". Performance art_sentence_366

On March 3, they were detained. Performance art_sentence_367

On March 3, 2012, Maria Alyokhina and Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, Pussy Riot members, were arrested by the Russian authorities and accused of vandalism. Performance art_sentence_368

At first, they both denied being members of the group and started a hunger strike for being incarcerated and taken apart from their children until the trials began in April. Performance art_sentence_369

On March 16 another woman, Yekaterina Samutsévitch, who had been previously interrogated as a witness, was arrested and accused as well. Performance art_sentence_370

On July 5, formal charges against the group and a 2800-page accusation were filed. Performance art_sentence_371

That same day they were notified that they had until July 9 to prepare their defense. Performance art_sentence_372

In reply, they announced a hunger strike, pleading that two days was an inappropriate time frame to prepare their defense. Performance art_sentence_373

On July 21, the court extended their preventive prison to last six more months. Performance art_sentence_374

The three detained members were recognized as political prisoners by the Union of Solidarity with Political Prisoners. Performance art_sentence_375

Amnesty International considers them to be prisoners of conscience for "the severity of the response of the Russian authorities". Performance art_sentence_376

Since 2012, artist Abel Azcona has been prosecuted for some of his works. Performance art_sentence_377

The demand that gained the most repercussion was the one carried out by the Archbishopric of Pamplona and Tudela, in representation of the Catholic Church. Performance art_sentence_378

The Church demanded Azcona for desecration and blasphemy crimes, hate crime and attack against the religious freedom and feelings for his work Amen or The Pederasty. Performance art_sentence_379

In the last lawsuits, the petitioners included the crime of obstruction of justice. Performance art_sentence_380

In 2016, Azcona was denounced for extolling terrorism for his exhibition Natura Morta, in which the artist recreated situations of violence, historical memory, terrorism or war conflicts through performance and hyperrealistic sculptures and installations. Performance art_sentence_381

In 2018, he was denounced by the Francisco Franco Foundation for exposing an installation consisting of twelve documents that formed a technical examination for the detonation of the Monument of the Valle de los Caídos signed by an architect. Performance art_sentence_382

He has also been criticized by the State of Israel for his work The Shame, in which he installed fragments of the Berlin Wall along the West Bank Wall as a critical performative installation. Performance art_sentence_383

That same year he represented Spain in the Asian Art Biennial in Daca, Bangladesh. Performance art_sentence_384

Azcona installed chairs in the pavilion with children from the streets of Daca in a situation of despair sitting on them. Performance art_sentence_385

His performance was cancelled because of the protests, who were against the picture that the pavilion portrayed fn the Biennial and the country. Performance art_sentence_386

In December 2014 Tania Bruguera was detained in La Habana to prevent her from carrying out new reivindicative works. Performance art_sentence_387

Her performance art pieces have earned her harsh critiques, and she has been accused of promoting resistance and public disturbances. Performance art_sentence_388

In December 2015 and January 2016, Bruguera was detained for organizing a public performance in the plaza de la Revolución of La Habana. Performance art_sentence_389

She was detained along with other Cuban artists, activists and reporters who took part in the campaign Yo También Exijo, which was created after the declarations of Raúl Castro and Barack Obama in favor of restoring their diplomatic relationship. Performance art_sentence_390

During the performance El Susurro de Tatlin #6 she set microphones and talkers in the Plaza de la Revolución so the Cubans could express their feelings regarding the new political climate. Performance art_sentence_391

The event had great repercussion in international media, including a presentation of El Susurro de Tatlin #6 in Times Square, and an action in which various artists and intellectuals expressed themselves in favour of the liberation of Bruguera by sending an open letter to Raúl Castro signed by thousands of people around the world asking for the return of her passport and claiming criminal injustice, as she only gave a microphone to the people so they could give their opinion. Performance art_sentence_392

In November 2015 and October 2017 Petr Pavlensky was arrested for carrying out a radical performance art piece in which he set on fire the entry of the Lubyanka Building, headquarters of the Federal Security Service of Russia, and a branch office of the Bank of France. Performance art_sentence_393

On both occasions he sprayed the main entrance with gasoline; in the second performance he sprayed the inside as well, and ignited it with a lighter. Performance art_sentence_394

The doors of the building were partially burnt. Performance art_sentence_395

Both times Pavlenski was arrested without resistance and accused of debauchery. Performance art_sentence_396

A few hours after the actions, several political and artistic reivindicative videos appeared on the internet. Performance art_sentence_397

Institutionalization of performance art Performance art_section_37

Since the 2000s, big museums, institutions and collections have supported performance art. Performance art_sentence_398

Since January 2003, Tate Modern in London has had a curated programme of live art and performance. Performance art_sentence_399

With exhibitions by artists such as Tania Bruguera or Anne Imhof. Performance art_sentence_400

In 2012 The Tanks at Tate Modern were opened: the first dedicated spaces for performance, film and installation in a major modern and contemporary art museum. Performance art_sentence_401

The Museum of Modern Art held a major retrospective and performance recretation of Marina Abramovic's work, the biggest exhibition of performance art in MoMA's history, from March 14 to 31, 2010. Performance art_sentence_402

The exhibition consisted of more than twenty pieces by the artist, most of them from the years 1960–1980. Performance art_sentence_403

Many of them were re-activated by other young artists of multiple nationalities selected for the show. Performance art_sentence_404

In parallel to the exhibition, Abramovic performed The Artist is Present, a 726-hour and 30-minute static, silent piece, in which she sat immobile in the museum's atrium, while spectators were invited to take turns sitting opposite her. Performance art_sentence_405

The work is an updated reproduction of one of the pieces from 1970, shown in the exhibition, where Abramovic stayed for full days next to Ulay, who was his sentimental companion. Performance art_sentence_406

The performance attracted celebrities such as Björk, Orlando Bloom and James Franco who participated and received media coverage. Performance art_sentence_407

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Collective reivindication performance art Performance art_section_38

In 2014 the performance art piece Carry That Weight is created, also known as "the mattress performance". Performance art_sentence_408

The artist behind this piece is Emma Sulkowicz who, during her end of degree thesis in visual arts in the Columbia University in the city of New York City. Performance art_sentence_409

In September 2014, Sulkowicz's piece began, as she started carrying her own mattress around the Columbia University campus. Performance art_sentence_410

This work was created by the artist with the goal of denouncing her rape in that same mattress years before, in her own dormitory, which she reported and was not heard by the university or the justice, so she decided to carry the mattress with her for the entire semester, without leaving it at any moment, until her graduation ceremony in May 2015. Performance art_sentence_411

The piece generated great controversy, but was supported by a bunch of her companions and activists who joined Sulkowicz multiple times when carrying the mattress, making the work an international reivindication. Performance art_sentence_412

Art critic Jerry Saltz considered the artwork to be one of the most important of the year 2014. Performance art_sentence_413

In November 2018 through a conference and live performance by artist Abel Azcona in the Bogotá Contemporary Art Museum the work Spain Asks for Forgiveness (España os Pide Perdón) began, a piece of critical and anticolonialist content. Performance art_sentence_414

In the first action, Azcona read a text where "Spain asks for forgiveness" was repeated continuously. Performance art_sentence_415

Two months later, in the Mexico City Museum, he installed a sailcloth with the same sentence on it. Performance art_sentence_416

Just a few days later, the president of Mexico Andrés Manuel López Obrador during a press conference demanded publicly an apology from Spain. Performance art_sentence_417

From then until mid-2020, the work has achieved to become a collective movement in cities such as La Habana, Lima, Caracas, Ciudad de Panamá, Tegucigalpa, or Quito, through diverse media. Performance art_sentence_418

In 2019 the collective performance art piece A Rapist in Your Path was created by a feminist group from Valparaíso, Chile named Lastesis, which consisted of a demonstration against the women's rights violations in the context of the 2019-2020 Chilean protests. Performance art_sentence_419

It was first performed in front of the Second Police Station of the Carabineros de Chile in Valparaíso on November 18, 2019. Performance art_sentence_420

A second performance done by 2000 Chilean women on November 25, 2019, as a part of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, was filmed and became viral on social media. Performance art_sentence_421

Its reach became global after feminist movements in dozens of countries adopted and translated the performance for their own protests and demands for the cessation and punishment of femicide and sexual violence, amongst others. Performance art_sentence_422

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See also Performance art_section_39

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Performance art.