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This article is about the country in South America. Peru_sentence_0

For other uses, see Peru (disambiguation). Peru_sentence_1

Peru (/pəˈruː/ (listen); Spanish: Perú [peˈɾu; Quechua: Piruw [pɪɾʊw; Aymara: Piruw [pɪɾʊw), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú (help·)), is a country in western South America. Peru_sentence_2

It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru_sentence_3

Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peru_sentence_4

At 1.28 million km (0.5 million mi), Peru is the 19th largest country in the world, and the third largest in South America. Peru_sentence_5

Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Peru_sentence_6

Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization starting in 3500 BCE, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in the pre-Columbian Americas, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE. Peru_sentence_7

The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American territories, with its capital in Lima. Peru_sentence_8

Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the foreign military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru completed its independence in 1824. Peru_sentence_9

In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) with Chile. Peru_sentence_10

Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Peru_sentence_11

Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990; his government was credited with economically stabilizing Peru and successfully ending the Shining Path insurgency, though he was widely accused of human rights violations and suppression of political dissent. Peru_sentence_12

Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. Peru_sentence_13

Even after the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power, even causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018. Peru_sentence_14

The sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Peru_sentence_15

Peru is a developing country, ranking 82nd on the Human Development Index, with a high level of human development with an upper middle income level and a poverty rate around 19 percent. Peru_sentence_16

It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Peru_sentence_17

Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing; along with other growing sectors such as telecommunications and biotechnology. Peru_sentence_18

The country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru_sentence_19

Peru ranks high in social freedom; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization; and is considered as a middle power. Peru_sentence_20

Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. Peru_sentence_21

The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other indigenous languages. Peru_sentence_22

This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music. Peru_sentence_23

Etymology Peru_section_0

The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century. Peru_sentence_24

Spanish conquistadors, who arrived in 1522, believed this was the southernmost part of the New World. Peru_sentence_25

When Francisco Pizarro invaded the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. Peru_sentence_26

An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador. Peru_sentence_27

He said the name Birú was that of a common Amerindian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, and went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. Peru_sentence_28

The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Peru_sentence_29

Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence. Peru_sentence_30

History Peru_section_1

Main article: History of Peru Peru_sentence_31

See also: Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru, Agricultural history of Peru, and Economic history of Peru Peru_sentence_32

Prehistory and Pre-Columbian Peru Peru_section_2

Main articles: Pre-Columbian Peru and Andean civilizations Peru_sentence_33

The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 12,500 BCE in the Huaca Prieta settlement. Peru_sentence_34

Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Peru_sentence_35

Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. Peru_sentence_36

The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BCE. Peru_sentence_37

These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. Peru_sentence_38

The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BCE along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. Peru_sentence_39

The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BCE was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. Peru_sentence_40

After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century CE, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell, both on the coast and in the highlands, during the next thousand years. Peru_sentence_41

On the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Moche. Peru_sentence_42

The Moche, who reached their apogee in the first millennium CE, were renowned for their irrigation system which fertilized their arid terrain, their sophisticated ceramic pottery, their lofty buildings, and clever metalwork. Peru_sentence_43

The Chimu were the great city builders of pre-Inca civilization; as loose confederation of walled cities scattered along the coast of northern Peru, the Chimu flourished from about 1140 to 1450. Peru_sentence_44

Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo. Peru_sentence_45

In the highlands, both the Tiahuanaco culture, near Lake Titicaca in both Peru and Bolivia, and the Wari culture, near the present-day city of Ayacucho, developed large urban settlements and wide-ranging state systems between 500 and 1000 CE. Peru_sentence_46

In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in the pre-Columbian Americas with their capital in Cusco. Peru_sentence_47

The Incas of Cusco originally represented one of the small and relatively minor ethnic groups, the Quechuas. Peru_sentence_48

Gradually, as early as the thirteenth century, they began to expand and incorporate their neighbors. Peru_sentence_49

Inca expansion was slow until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when the pace of conquest began to accelerate, particularly under the rule of the emperor Pachacuti. Peru_sentence_50

Under his rule and that of his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui, the Incas came to control most of the Andean region, with a population of 9 to 16 million inhabitants under their rule. Peru_sentence_51

Pachacuti also promulgated a comprehensive code of laws to govern his far-flung empire, while consolidating his absolute temporal and spiritual authority as the God of the Sun who ruled from a magnificently rebuilt Cusco. Peru_sentence_52

From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, from southern Colombia to northern Chile, between the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Amazon rainforest in the east. Peru_sentence_53

The official language of the empire was Quechua, although hundreds of local languages and dialects were spoken. Peru_sentence_54

The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu which can be translated as "The Four Regions" or "The Four United Provinces." Peru_sentence_55

Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti, the sun god and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama. Peru_sentence_56

The Incas considered their King, the Sapa Inca, to be the "child of the sun." Peru_sentence_57

Conquest and colonial period Peru_section_3

Main articles: Spanish conquest of Peru and Viceroyalty of Peru Peru_sentence_58

Atahualpa (also Atahuallpa), the last Sapa Inca, became emperor when he defeated and executed his older half-brother Huáscar in a civil war sparked by the death of their father, Inca Huayna Capac. Peru_sentence_59

In December 1532, a party of conquistadors (supported by the Chankas, Huancas, Cañaris and Chachapoyas as Indian auxiliaries) led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured the Inca Emperor Atahualpa in the Battle of Cajamarca. Peru_sentence_60

The Spanish conquest of Peru was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Peru_sentence_61

After years of preliminary exploration and military conflicts, it was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory and colonization of the region known as the Viceroyalty of Peru with its capital at Lima, which was then known as "La Ciudad de los Reyes" (The City of Kings). Peru_sentence_62

The conquest of Peru led to spin-off campaigns throughout the viceroyalty as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin as in the case of Spanish efforts to quell Amerindian resistance. Peru_sentence_63

The last Inca resistance was suppressed when the Spaniards annihilated the Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba in 1572. Peru_sentence_64

The indigenous population dramatically collapsed overwhelmingly due to epidemic diseases introduced by the Spanish as well as exploitation and socioeconomic change. Peru_sentence_65

Viceroy Francisco de Toledo reorganized the country in the 1570s with gold and silver mining as its main economic activity and Amerindian forced labor as its primary workforce. Peru_sentence_66

With the discovery of the great silver and gold lodes at Potosí (present-day Bolivia) and Huancavelica, the viceroyalty flourished as an important provider of mineral resources. Peru_sentence_67

Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines. Peru_sentence_68

Because of lack of available work force, African slaves were added to the labor population. Peru_sentence_69

The expansion of a colonial administrative apparatus and bureaucracy paralleled the economic reorganization. Peru_sentence_70

With the conquest started the spread of Christianity in South America; most people were forcefully converted to Catholicism, taking only a generation to convert the population. Peru_sentence_71

They built churches in every city and replaced some of the Inca temples with churches, such as the Coricancha in the city of Cusco. Peru_sentence_72

The church employed the Inquisition, making use of torture to ensure that newly converted Catholics did not stray to other religions or beliefs. Peru_sentence_73

Peruvian Catholicism follows the syncretism found in many Latin American countries, in which religious native rituals have been integrated with Christian celebrations. Peru_sentence_74

In this endeavor, the church came to play an important role in the acculturation of the natives, drawing them into the cultural orbit of the Spanish settlers. Peru_sentence_75

By the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income. Peru_sentence_76

In response, the Crown enacted the Bourbon Reforms, a series of edicts that increased taxes and partitioned the Viceroyalty. Peru_sentence_77

The new laws provoked Túpac Amaru II's rebellion and other revolts, all of which were suppressed. Peru_sentence_78

As a result of these and other changes, the Spaniards and their creole successors came to monopolize control over the land, seizing many of the best lands abandoned by the massive native depopulation. Peru_sentence_79

However, the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. Peru_sentence_80

The Treaty of Tordesillas was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal. Peru_sentence_81

The need to ease communication and trade with Spain led to the split of the viceroyalty and the creation of new viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata at the expense of the territories that formed the Viceroyalty of Peru; this reduced the power, prominence and importance of Lima as the viceroyal capital and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires and Bogotá, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Peru_sentence_82

Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Peru_sentence_83

These movements led to the formation of the majority of modern-day countries of South America in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru. Peru_sentence_84

The conquest and colony brought a mix of cultures and ethnicities that did not exist before the Spanish conquered the Peruvian territory. Peru_sentence_85

Even though many of the Inca traditions were lost or diluted, new customs, traditions and knowledge were added, creating a rich mixed Peruvian culture. Peru_sentence_86

Two of the most important indigenous rebellions against the Spanish were that of Juan Santos Atahualpa in 1742, and Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II in 1780 around the highlands near Cuzco. Peru_sentence_87

Independence Peru_section_4

Main article: Peruvian War of Independence Peru_sentence_88

In the early 19th century, while most South American nations were swept by wars of independence, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. Peru_sentence_89

As the elite vacillated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy, independence was achieved only after the occupation by military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar. Peru_sentence_90

The economic crises, the loss of power of Spain in Europe, the war of independence in North America, and native uprisings all contributed to a favorable climate to the development of emancipation ideas among the Criollo population in South America. Peru_sentence_91

However, the Criollo oligarchy in Peru enjoyed privileges and remained loyal to the Spanish Crown. Peru_sentence_92

The liberation movement started in Argentina where autonomous juntas were created as a result of the loss of authority of the Spanish government over its colonies. Peru_sentence_93

After fighting for the independence of the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, José de San Martín created the Army of the Andes and crossed the Andes in 21 days. Peru_sentence_94

Once in Chile, he joined forces with Chilean army General Bernardo O'Higgins and liberated the country in the battles of Chacabuco and Maipú in 1818. Peru_sentence_95

On 7 September 1820, a fleet of eight warships arrived in the port of Paracas under the command of General José de San Martin and Thomas Cochrane, who was serving in the Chilean Navy. Peru_sentence_96

Immediately on 26 October, they took control of the town of Pisco. Peru_sentence_97

San Martin settled in Huacho on 12 November, where he established his headquarters while Cochrane sailed north and blockaded the port of Callao in Lima. Peru_sentence_98

At the same time in the north, Guayaquil was occupied by rebel forces under the command of Gregorio Escobedo. Peru_sentence_99

Because Peru was the stronghold of the Spanish government in South America, San Martin's strategy to liberate Peru was to use diplomacy. Peru_sentence_100

He sent representatives to Lima urging the Viceroy that Peru be granted independence, however all negotiations proved unsuccessful. Peru_sentence_101

The Viceroy of Peru, Joaquín de la Pazuela named José de la Serna commander-in-chief of the loyalist army to protect Lima from the threatened invasion by San Martin. Peru_sentence_102

On 29 January, de la Serna organized a coup against de la Pazuela, which was recognized by Spain and he was named Viceroy of Peru. Peru_sentence_103

This internal power struggle contributed to the success of the liberating army. Peru_sentence_104

In order to avoid a military confrontation, San Martin met the newly appointed viceroy, José de la Serna, and proposed to create a constitutional monarchy, a proposal that was turned down. Peru_sentence_105

De la Serna abandoned the city, and on 12 July 1821 San Martin occupied Lima and declared Peruvian independence on 28 July 1821. Peru_sentence_106

He created the first Peruvian flag. Peru_sentence_107

Upper Peru (Bolivia) remained as a Spanish stronghold until the army of Simón Bolívar liberated it three years later. Peru_sentence_108

José de San Martin was declared Protector of Peru. Peru_sentence_109

Peruvian national identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation floundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral. Peru_sentence_110

Simon Bolivar launched his campaign from the north, liberating the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the Battles of Carabobo in 1821 and Pichincha a year later. Peru_sentence_111

In July 1822, Bolivar and San Martin gathered in the Guayaquil Conference. Peru_sentence_112

Bolivar was left in charge of fully liberating Peru while San Martin retired from politics after the first parliament was assembled. Peru_sentence_113

The newly founded Peruvian Congress named Bolivar dictator of Peru, giving him the power to organize the military. Peru_sentence_114

With the help of Antonio José de Sucre, they defeated the larger Spanish army in the Battle of Junín on 6 August 1824 and the decisive Battle of Ayacucho on 9 December of the same year, consolidating the independence of Peru and Alto Peru. Peru_sentence_115

Alto Peru was later established as Bolivia. Peru_sentence_116

During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political instability. Peru_sentence_117

19th century Peru_section_5

From the 1840s to the 1860s, Peru enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of Ramón Castilla, through increased state revenues from guano exports. Peru_sentence_118

However, by the 1870s, these resources had been depleted, the country was heavily indebted, and political in-fighting was again on the rise. Peru_sentence_119

Peru embarked on a railroad-building program that helped but also bankrupted the country. Peru_sentence_120

In 1879, Peru entered the War of the Pacific which lasted until 1884. Peru_sentence_121

Bolivia invoked its alliance with Peru against Chile. Peru_sentence_122

The Peruvian Government tried to mediate the dispute by sending a diplomatic team to negotiate with the Chilean government, but the committee concluded that war was inevitable. Peru_sentence_123

Chile declared war on 5 April 1879. Peru_sentence_124

Almost five years of war ended with the loss of the department of Tarapacá and the provinces of Tacna and Arica, in the Atacama region. Peru_sentence_125

Two outstanding military leaders throughout the war were Francisco Bolognesi and Miguel Grau. Peru_sentence_126

Originally Chile committed to a referendum for the cities of Arica and Tacna to be held years later, in order to self determine their national affiliation. Peru_sentence_127

However, Chile refused to apply the Treaty, and neither of the countries could determine the statutory framework. Peru_sentence_128

After the War of the Pacific, an extraordinary effort of rebuilding began. Peru_sentence_129

The government started to initiate a number of social and economic reforms in order to recover from the damage of the war. Peru_sentence_130

Political stability was achieved only in the early 1900s. Peru_sentence_131

20th century Peru_section_6

Internal struggles after the war were followed by a period of stability under the Civilista Party, which lasted until the onset of the authoritarian regime of Augusto B. Leguía. Peru_sentence_132

The Great Depression caused the downfall of Leguía, renewed political turmoil, and the emergence of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA). Peru_sentence_133

The rivalry between this organization and a coalition of the elite and the military defined Peruvian politics for the following three decades. Peru_sentence_134

A final peace treaty in 1929, signed between Peru and Chile called the Treaty of Lima, returned Tacna to Peru. Peru_sentence_135

Between 1932 and 1933, Peru was engulfed in a year-long war with Colombia over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas Department and its capital Leticia. Peru_sentence_136

Later, in 1941, Peru and Ecuador fought the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War, after which the Rio Protocol sought to formalize the boundary between those two countries. Peru_sentence_137

In a military coup on 29 October 1948, General Manuel A. Odría became president. Peru_sentence_138

Odría's presidency was known as the Ochenio. Peru_sentence_139

Momentarily pleasing the oligarchy and all others on the right, but followed a populist course that won him great favor with the poor and lower classes. Peru_sentence_140

A thriving economy allowed him to indulge in expensive but crowd-pleasing social policies. Peru_sentence_141

At the same time, however, civil rights were severely restricted and corruption was rampant throughout his regime. Peru_sentence_142

Odría was succeeded by Manuel Prado Ugarteche. Peru_sentence_143

However, widespread allegations of fraud prompted the Peruvian military to depose Prado and install a military junta, led by Ricardo Pérez Godoy. Peru_sentence_144

Godoy ran a short transitional government and held new elections in 1963, which were won by Fernando Belaúnde Terry who assumed presidency until 1968. Peru_sentence_145

Belaúnde was recognized for his commitment to the democratic process. Peru_sentence_146

In 1968, the Armed Forces, led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado, staged a coup against Belaúnde. Peru_sentence_147

Alvarado's regime undertook radical reforms aimed at fostering development, but failed to gain widespread support. Peru_sentence_148

In 1975, General Francisco Morales-Bermúdez forcefully replaced Velasco, paralyzed reforms, and oversaw the reestablishment of democracy. Peru_sentence_149

Peru engaged in a brief successful conflict with Ecuador in the Paquisha War as a result of territorial dispute between the two countries. Peru_sentence_150

After the country experienced chronic inflation, the Peruvian currency, the sol, was replaced by the Inti in mid-1985, which itself was replaced by the nuevo sol in July 1991, at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion old soles. Peru_sentence_151

The per capita annual income of Peruvians fell to $720 (below the level of 1960) and Peru's GDP dropped 20% at which national reserves were a negative $900 million. Peru_sentence_152

The economic turbulence of the time acerbated social tensions in Peru and partly contributed to the rise of violent rebel rural insurgent movements, like Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) and MRTA, which caused great havoc throughout the country. Peru_sentence_153

Concerned about the economy, the increasing terrorist threat from Sendero Luminoso and MRTA, and allegations of official corruption, Alberto Fujimori assumed presidency in 1990. Peru_sentence_154

Fujimori implemented drastic measures that caused inflation to drop from 7,650% in 1990 to 139% in 1991. Peru_sentence_155

Faced with opposition to his reform efforts, Fujimori dissolved Congress in the auto-golpe ("self-coup") of 5 April 1992. Peru_sentence_156

He then revised the constitution; called new congressional elections; and implemented substantial economic reform, including privatization of numerous state-owned companies, creation of an investment-friendly climate, and sound management of the economy. Peru_sentence_157

Fujimori's administration was dogged by insurgent groups, most notably the Sendero Luminoso, who carried out terrorist campaigns across the country throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Peru_sentence_158

Fujimori cracked down on the insurgents and was successful in largely quelling them by the late 1990s, but the fight was marred by atrocities committed by both the Peruvian security forces and the insurgents: the Barrios Altos massacre and La Cantuta massacre by Government paramilitary groups, and the bombings of Tarata and Frecuencia Latina by Sendero Luminoso. Peru_sentence_159

Those incidents subsequently came to symbolize the human rights violations committed in the last years of violence. Peru_sentence_160

During early 1995, once again Peru and Ecuador clashed in the Cenepa War, but in 1998 the governments of both nations signed a peace treaty that clearly demarcated the international boundary between them. Peru_sentence_161

In November 2000, Fujimori resigned from office and went into a self-imposed exile, avoiding prosecution for human rights violations and corruption charges by the new Peruvian authorities. Peru_sentence_162

21st century, Odebrecht Scandal, and political issues Peru_section_7

Main articles: Operation Car Wash, 2017–2020 Peruvian political crisis, and 2019–2020 Peruvian constitutional crisis Peru_sentence_163

Since the end of the Fujimori regime, Peru has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth. Peru_sentence_164

In spite of human rights progress since the time of insurgency, many problems are still visible and show the continued marginalization of those who suffered through the violence of the Peruvian conflict. Peru_sentence_165

A caretaker government presided over by Valentín Paniagua took on the responsibility of conducting new presidential and congressional elections. Peru_sentence_166

Afterwards Alejandro Toledo became president in 2001 to 2006. Peru_sentence_167

On 28 July 2006, former president Alan García became President of Peru after winning the 2006 elections. Peru_sentence_168

In May 2008, Peru became a member of the Union of South American Nations. Peru_sentence_169

In April 2009, former president Alberto Fujimori was convicted of human rights violations and sentenced to 25 years in prison for his role in killings and kidnappings by the Grupo Colina death squad during his government's battle against leftist guerrillas in the 1990s. Peru_sentence_170

On 5 June 2011, Ollanta Humala was elected president. Peru_sentence_171

During his presidency, Prime Minister Ana Jara and her cabinet were successfully censured, which was the first time in 50 years that a cabinet had been forced to resign from the Peruvian legislature. Peru_sentence_172

In 2016, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski was elected, though his government was short lived as he resigned in 2018 amid various controversies surrounding his administration. Peru_sentence_173

Vice president Martín Vizcarra then assumed office in March 2018 with generally favorable approval ratings. Peru_sentence_174

Alan García was involved in the Operation Car Wash scandal and as police tried to arrest him, he committed suicide on 17 April 2019. Peru_sentence_175

Later that year, in July, police arrested Alejandro Toledo in California. Peru_sentence_176

Amid the crisis, on 30 September 2019, President Vizcarra dissolved the congress, and elections were held on 26 January 2020. Peru_sentence_177

During the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru, most Peruvians were under a stay-at-home order. Peru_sentence_178

Government and politics Peru_section_8

Main articles: Government of Peru and Politics of Peru Peru_sentence_179

Peru is a unitary presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. Peru_sentence_180

The country has maintained a liberal democratic system under its 1993 Constitution, which replaced a constitution that leaned the government to a federation to authorize more power to the President. Peru_sentence_181

It is also a unitary republic, in which the central government holds the most power and can create administrative divisions. Peru_sentence_182

The Peruvian system of government combines elements derived from the political systems of the United States (a written constitution, an autonomous Supreme Court, a presidential system) and the People's Republic of China (a unicameral congress, a premier and ministry system, and a strong executive). Peru_sentence_183

The Peruvian government is separated into three branches: Peru_sentence_184


Under its constitution, the President is both head of state and government and is elected to a five-year term without immediate reelection. Peru_sentence_185

The President appoints ministers who oversee the 18 ministries of the state, including the Prime Minister, into the Cabinet. Peru_sentence_186

The constitution designates minimal authority to the Prime Minister, who presides over cabinet meetings in which ministers advise the President and acts as a spokesperson on behalf of the executive branch. Peru_sentence_187

The President is also able to pose questions of confidence to the Congress of Peru, and consequently order the dissolution of congress, done in 1992 by Alberto Fujimori and in 2019 by Martín Vizcarra. Peru_sentence_188

In the Congress of Peru, there are 130 Members of Congress from 25 administrative divisions, determined by respective population, elected to five-year terms. Peru_sentence_189

Bills are proposed by the executive and legislative powers and become law by through a plurality vote in Congress. Peru_sentence_190

The judiciary is nominally independent, though political intervention into judicial matters has been common throughout history. Peru_sentence_191

The Congress of Peru can also pass a motion of no confidence, censure ministers, as well as initiate impeachments and convict executives, in an effort to balance power between the executive and legislative branches. Peru_sentence_192

The legislative body in recent times has passed semi-successful impeachments, including that of Alberto Fujimori in 2000 and Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2018, causing Kuczynski to resign. Peru_sentence_193

Peru's electoral system uses compulsory voting for citizens from the age of 18 to 70, including dual-citizens and Peruvians abroad. Peru_sentence_194

Members of Congress are directly elected by constituents in respective districts through proportional voting. Peru_sentence_195

The President is elected in a general election, along with the Vice President, through a majority in a two-round system. Peru_sentence_196

Elections are observed and organized by the National Jury of Elections, National Office of Electoral Processes, and the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status. Peru_sentence_197

Peru uses a multi-party system for congressional and general elections. Peru_sentence_198

Major groups that have formed governments, both on a federal and legislative level, are parties that have historically adopted economic liberalism, progressivism, right-wing populism (specifically Fujimorism), nationalism, and reformism. Peru_sentence_199

The most recent general election was held on 5 June 2016 and resulted in the election of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski as president and Martín Vizcarra as vice president. Peru_sentence_200

The most recent congressional election was a snap election held on 26 January 2020 in response to the dissolution of congress, in which Popular Action, Alliance for Progress, and FREPAP secured a majority in congress. Peru_sentence_201

Regions and territories Peru_section_9

Main article: Administrative divisions of Peru Peru_sentence_202

Peru is divided into 24 departments and one autonomous province— the Province of Lima (LIM) — which is independent of any region and serves as the country's capital. Peru_sentence_203

Under the constitution, departments have an elected "regional"^ government composed of two entities: the regional governor and the regional council. Peru_sentence_204

The Governor constitutes the executive body, proposes budgets, and creates decrees, resolutions, and regional programs. Peru_sentence_205

The Regional Council, the region's legislative body, debates and votes on budgets, supervises regional officials, and can vote to remove the governor, deputy governor, or any member of the council from office. Peru_sentence_206

The Regional Governor and the Regional Council serve a term of four years, without immediate reelection. Peru_sentence_207

These governments plan regional development, execute public investment projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property. Peru_sentence_208

Provinces, such as the province of Lima, are administered by a municipal council, headed by a mayor. Peru_sentence_209

The goal of devolving power to regional and municipal governments was among others to improve popular participation. Peru_sentence_210

NGOs played an important role in the decentralization process and still influence local politics. Peru_sentence_211

Some areas of Peru are defined as metropolitan areas which overlap district areas. Peru_sentence_212

The largest of them, the Lima metropolitan area, is the seventh-largest metropolis in the Americas. Peru_sentence_213

Foreign relations Peru_section_10

Main article: Foreign relations of Peru Peru_sentence_214

Over recent decades, Peru's foreign relations has historically been dominated by close ties with the United States and Asia, particularly through the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the World Trade Organization, the Pacific Alliance, Mercosur, and the Organization of American States (OAS). Peru_sentence_215

Peru is an active member of several regional trade blocs and is one of the founding members of the Andean Community of Nations. Peru_sentence_216

It is also a member of international organizations such as the OAS and the United Nations. Peru_sentence_217

Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, a celebrated Peruvian diplomat, served as United Nations Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Peru_sentence_218

Peru has planned to be fully integrated into the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by 2021, attributing its economic success and efforts to strengthen institutions as meeting factors to be a part of the OECD. Peru_sentence_219

Peru is a member of the World Trade Organization, and has pursued multiple major free trade agreements, most recently the Peru—United States Free Trade Agreement, the China—Peru Free Trade Agreement, the European Union Free Trade Agreement, free trade agreements with Japan, and many others. Peru_sentence_220

Peru maintains an integrated relationship with other South American nations, and is a member of various South American intergovernmental agreements, more recently the Organization of American States, Mercosur, the Andean Community of Nations, the Pacific Alliance, and the APEC. Peru_sentence_221

Peru has historically experienced stressed relations with Chile, including the Peru v Chile international court resolution and the Chilean-Peruvian maritime dispute, but the two countries have agreed to work in improving relations. Peru_sentence_222

Additionally, Peru has participated in taking a leading role in addressing the crisis in Venezuela through the establishment of the Lima Group. Peru_sentence_223

Military and law enforcement Peru_section_11

Main article: Peruvian Armed Forces Peru_sentence_224

Peru has the fourth largest military in Latin America. Peru_sentence_225

Peru's armed forces—the Armed Forces of Peru—comprise the Peruvian Navy (MGP), the Peruvian Army (EP), and the Peruvian Air Force (FAP), in total numbering 392,660 personnel (including 120,660 regulars and 272,000 reservists) as of 2020. Peru_sentence_226

Their primary mission is to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country. Peru_sentence_227

Their functions are separated by branch: Peru_sentence_228


  • The Peruvian Army is made up of the Chief of Staff, two Control Bodies, two Support Bodies, five Military Regions and six Command Rooms.Peru_item_1_3
  • The Peruvian Air Force was officially created on May 20, 1929 with the name of Peruvian Aviation Corps. Its main function is to serve as the country's air defense. It also participates in social support campaigns for hard-to-reach populations, organizes air bridges during disasters, and participates in international peace missions. Its four major air bases are located in the cities of Piura, Callao, Arequipa and Iquitos.Peru_item_1_4
  • The Peruvian Navy is in charge of the country's maritime, river, and lake defense. It is made up of 26,000 sailors. Personnel are divided into three levels: superior personnel, junior personnel and seafarers.Peru_item_1_5

The military is governed by both the Commander in Chief, Ministry of Defense, and Joint Command of the Armed Forces (CCFFAA). Peru_sentence_229

The CCFFAA has subordinates to the Operational Commands and Special Commands, with which it carries out the military operations that are required for the defense and the fulfillment of the tasks that the executive power provides. Peru_sentence_230

Conscription was abolished in 1999 and replaced by voluntary military service. Peru_sentence_231

The National Police of Peru is often classified as a part of the armed forces. Peru_sentence_232

Although in fact it has a different organization and a wholly civil mission, its training and activities over more than two decades as an anti-terrorist force have produced markedly military characteristics, giving it the appearance of a virtual fourth military service with significant land, sea and air capabilities and approximately 140,000 personnel. Peru_sentence_233

The Peruvian armed forces report through the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police of Peru reports through the Ministry of Interior. Peru_sentence_234

Since the end of the crisis in Peru in 2000, the federal government has significantly reduced annual spending in defense. Peru_sentence_235

In the 2016—2017 budget, defense spending has constituted 1.1% of GDP ($2.3 billion), the second lowest spending relative to GDP in South America following Argentina. Peru_sentence_236

More recently, the Armed Forces of Peru have been used in civil defense. Peru_sentence_237

In 2020, Peru used its military personnel and even reservists to enforce the strict quarantine measures placed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Peru_sentence_238

Geography Peru_section_12

Main article: Geography of Peru Peru_sentence_239

Peru is located on the central western coast of South America facing the Pacific Ocean. Peru_sentence_240

It lies wholly in the Southern Hemisphere, its northernmost extreme reaching to 1.8 minutes of latitude or about 3.3 kilometres (2.1 mi) south of the equator, covers 1,285,216 km (496,225 sq mi) of western South America. Peru_sentence_241

It borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Peru_sentence_242

The Andes mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean; they define the three regions traditionally used to describe the country geographically. Peru_sentence_243

The costa (coast), to the west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. Peru_sentence_244

The sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes; it includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the 6,768 m (22,205 ft) Huascarán. Peru_sentence_245

The third region is the selva (jungle), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. Peru_sentence_246

Almost 60 percent of the country's area is located within this region. Peru_sentence_247

The country has fifty-four hydrographic basins, fifty-two of which are small coastal basins that discharge their waters into the Pacific Ocean. Peru_sentence_248

The other two are the Amazon basin, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean, and the endorheic basin of Lake Titicaca, both delimited by the Andes mountain range. Peru_sentence_249

In the second of these basins, the giant Amazon River begins, which, with its 6872 km, is the longest river in the world, with 75% of the Peruvian territory. Peru_sentence_250

Peru contains 4% of the planet's fresh water. Peru_sentence_251

Most Peruvian rivers originate in the peaks of the Andes and drain into one of three basins. Peru_sentence_252

Those that drain toward the Pacific Ocean are steep and short, flowing only intermittently. Peru_sentence_253

Tributaries of the Amazon River have a much larger flow, and are longer and less steep once they exit the sierra. Peru_sentence_254

Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca are generally short and have a large flow. Peru_sentence_255

Peru's longest rivers are the Ucayali, the Marañón, the Putumayo, the Yavarí, the Huallaga, the Urubamba, the Mantaro, and the Amazon. Peru_sentence_256

The largest lake in Peru, Lake Titicaca between Peru and Bolivia high in the Andes, is also the largest of South America. Peru_sentence_257

The largest reservoirs, all in the coastal region of Peru, are the Poechos, Tinajones, San Lorenzo, and El Fraile reservoirs. Peru_sentence_258

Climate Peru_section_13

Main article: Climate of Peru Peru_sentence_259

The combination of tropical latitude, mountain ranges, topography variations, and two ocean currents (Humboldt and El Niño) gives Peru a large diversity of climates. Peru_sentence_260

The coastal region has moderate temperatures, low precipitation, and high humidity, except for its warmer, wetter northern reaches. Peru_sentence_261

In the mountain region, rain is frequent in summer, and temperature and humidity diminish with altitude up to the frozen peaks of the Andes. Peru_sentence_262

The Peruvian Amazon is characterized by heavy rainfall and high temperatures, except for its southernmost part, which has cold winters and seasonal rainfall. Peru_sentence_263

Wildlife Peru_section_14

Main article: Wildlife of Peru Peru_sentence_264

Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru has a high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals reported as of 2003, 5,855 of them endemic, and is one of the megadiverse countries. Peru_sentence_265

Peru has over 1,800 species of birds (120 endemic), and 500 species of mammals and over 300 species of reptiles. Peru_sentence_266

The hundreds of mammals include rare species like the puma, jaguar and spectacled bear. Peru_sentence_267

The Birds of Peru produce large amounts of guano, an economically important export. Peru_sentence_268

The Pacific holds large quantities of sea bass, flounder, anchovies, tuna, crustaceans, and shellfish, and is home to many sharks, sperm whales, and whales. Peru_sentence_269

Peru also has an equally diverse flora. Peru_sentence_270

The coastal deserts produce little more than cacti, apart from hilly fog oases and river valleys that contain unique plant life. Peru_sentence_271

The Highlands above the tree-line known as puna is home to bushes, cactus, drought-resistant plants such as ichu, and the largest species of bromeliad – the spectacular Puya raimondii. Peru_sentence_272

The cloud-forest slopes of the Andes sustain moss, orchids, and bromeliads, and the Amazon rainforest is known for its variety of trees and canopy plants. Peru_sentence_273

Economy Peru_section_15

Main article: Economy of Peru Peru_sentence_274

The economy of Peru is the 48th largest in the world (ranked by Purchasing Power Parity), and the income level is classified as upper middle by the World Bank. Peru_sentence_275

Peru is, as of 2011, one of the world's fastest-growing economies owing to an economic boom experienced during the 2000s. Peru_sentence_276

It has an above-average Human Development Index of 0.74 which has seen steady improvement over the last 25 years. Peru_sentence_277

Historically, the country's economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments. Peru_sentence_278

Although they have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitarian distribution of income have proven elusive. Peru_sentence_279

According to 2015 data, 19.3% of its total population is poor, including 9% that lives in extreme poverty. Peru_sentence_280

Inflation in 2012 was the lowest in Latin America at only 1.8%, but increased in 2013 as oil and commodity prices rose; as of 2014 it stands at 2.5%. Peru_sentence_281

The unemployment rate has fallen steadily in recent years, and as of 2012 stands at 3.6%. Peru_sentence_282

Peruvian economic policy has varied widely over the past decades. Peru_sentence_283

The 1968–1975 government of Juan Velasco Alvarado introduced radical reforms, which included agrarian reform, the expropriation of foreign companies, the introduction of an economic planning system, and the creation of a large state-owned sector. Peru_sentence_284

These measures failed to achieve their objectives of income redistribution and the end of economic dependence on developed nations. Peru_sentence_285

Despite these results, most reforms were not reversed until the 1990s, when the liberalizing government of Alberto Fujimori ended price controls, protectionism, restrictions on foreign direct investment, and most state ownership of companies. Peru_sentence_286

Reforms have permitted sustained economic growth since 1993, except for a slump after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Peru_sentence_287

Services account for 53% of Peruvian gross domestic product, followed by manufacturing (22.3%), extractive industries (15%), and taxes (9.7%). Peru_sentence_288

Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, and rising investment and consumption. Peru_sentence_289

Trade is expected to increase further after the implementation of a free trade agreement with the United States signed on 12 April 2006. Peru_sentence_290

Peru's main exports are copper, gold, zinc, textiles, and fish meal; its major trade partners are the United States, China, Brazil, and Chile. Peru_sentence_291

Demographics Peru_section_16

Main articles: Demographics of Peru and Peruvian people Peru_sentence_292

Urbanization Peru_section_17

Ethnic groups Peru_section_18

Peru is a multiethnic nation formed by successive waves of different peoples over five centuries. Peru_sentence_293

Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before the Spanish Conquest in the 16th century; according to historian Noble David Cook, their population decreased from nearly 5–9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases. Peru_sentence_294

The 2017 census for the first time included a question on ethnic self-identification. Peru_sentence_295

According to the results, 60.2% of the people identified themselves as Mestizo, 22.3% identified themselves as Quechua, 5.9% identified themselves as White, 3.6% identified themselves as Black, 2.4% identified themselves as Aymara, 2.3% identified themselves as other ethnic groups, and 3.3% didn't declare their ethnicity. Peru_sentence_296

Spaniards and Africans arrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and with indigenous peoples. Peru_sentence_297

After independence, there was gradual immigration from England, France, Germany, and Italy. Peru_sentence_298

Peru freed its black slaves in 1854. Peru_sentence_299

Chinese and Japanese arrived in the 1850s as laborers following the end of slavery, and have since become a major influence in Peruvian society, forming one of the largest populations of Asians in Latin America. Peru_sentence_300

Population Peru_section_19

With about 31.2 million inhabitants in 2017, Peru is the fourth most populous country in South America. Peru_sentence_301

The demographic growth rate of Peru declined from 2.6% to 1.6% between 1950 and 2000; with the population being expected to reach approximately 42 million in 2050. Peru_sentence_302

According to the 1940 Peruvian census, Peru had a population at the time of seven million residents. Peru_sentence_303

As of 2017, 79.3% lived in urban areas and 20.7% in rural areas. Peru_sentence_304

Major cities include the Lima metropolitan area (home to over 9.8 million people), Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, Iquitos, Cusco, Chimbote, and Huancayo; all reported more than 250,000 inhabitants in the 2007 census. Peru_sentence_305

There are 15 uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru. Peru_sentence_306

Language Peru_section_20

Main article: Languages of Peru Peru_sentence_307

According to the Peruvian Constitution of 1993, Peru's official languages are Spanish and, in areas where they predominate, Quechua and other indigenous languages. Peru_sentence_308

Spanish is spoken natively by 82.6% of the population, Quechua by 13.9%, and Aymara by 1.7%, while other languages are spoken by the remaining 1.8%. Peru_sentence_309

Spanish language is used by the government and is the mainstream language of the country, which is used by the media and in educational systems and commerce. Peru_sentence_310

Amerindians who live in the Andean highlands speak Quechua and Aymara and are ethnically distinct from the diverse indigenous groups who live on the eastern side of the Andes and in the tropical lowlands adjacent to the Amazon basin. Peru_sentence_311

Peru's distinct geographical regions are mirrored in a language divide between the coast where Spanish is more predominant over the Amerindian languages, and the more diverse traditional Andean cultures of the mountains and highlands. Peru_sentence_312

The indigenous populations east of the Andes speak various languages and dialects. Peru_sentence_313

Some of these groups still adhere to traditional indigenous languages, while others have been almost completely assimilated into the Spanish language. Peru_sentence_314

There has been an increasing and organized effort to teach Quechua in public schools in the areas where Quechua is spoken. Peru_sentence_315

In the Peruvian Amazon, numerous indigenous languages are spoken, including Asháninka, Bora, and Aguaruna. Peru_sentence_316

Religion Peru_section_21

Main article: Religion in Peru Peru_sentence_317

Roman Catholicism has been the predominant faith in Peru for centuries, albeit religious practices have a high degree of syncretism with indigenous traditions. Peru_sentence_318

As of the 2017 census, 76% of the population over 12 years old described themselves as Catholic, 14.1% as Evangelical, 4.8% as Protestant, Jewish, Latter-day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses, and 5.1% as nonreligious. Peru_sentence_319

Amerindian religious traditions continue to play a major role in the beliefs of Peruvians. Peru_sentence_320

Catholic festivities like Corpus Christi, Holy Week and Christmas sometimes blend with Amerindian traditions. Peru_sentence_321

Amerindian festivities from pre-Columbian remain widespread; Inti Raymi, an ancient Inca festival, is still celebrated, especially in rural communities. Peru_sentence_322

The majority of towns, cities, and villages have their own official church or cathedral and patron saint. Peru_sentence_323

Education Peru_section_22

Peru's literacy rate is estimated at 92.9% as of 2007; this rate is lower in rural areas (80.3%) than in urban areas (96.3%). Peru_sentence_324

Primary and secondary education are compulsory and free in public schools. Peru_sentence_325

Peru is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World. Peru_sentence_326

The National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Viceroyalty of Peru, is the first officially established and the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas. Peru_sentence_327

Health Peru_section_23

Peru has a life expectancy of 75.0 years (72.4 for males and 77.7 for females) according to the latest data for the year 2016 from the World Bank. Peru_sentence_328

Toponyms Peru_section_24

Many of the Peruvian toponyms have indigenous sources. Peru_sentence_329

In the Andes communities of Ancash, Cusco and Puno, Quechua or Aymara names are overwhelmingly predominant. Peru_sentence_330

Their Spanish-based orthography, however, is in conflict with the normalized alphabets of these languages. Peru_sentence_331

According to Article 20 of Decreto Supremo No 004-2016-MC (Supreme Decree) which approves the Regulations to Law 29735, published in the official newspaper El Peruano on 22 July 2016, adequate spellings of the toponyms in the normalized alphabets of the indigenous languages must progressively be proposed with the aim of standardizing the naming used by the National Geographic Institute (Instituto Geográfico Nacional, IGN). Peru_sentence_332

The National Geographic Institute realizes the necessary changes in the official maps of Peru. Peru_sentence_333

Culture Peru_section_25

Main article: Culture of Peru Peru_sentence_334

Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian traditions, though it has also been influenced by various Asian, African, and European ethnic groups. Peru_sentence_335

Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. Peru_sentence_336

The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu. Peru_sentence_337

Baroque dominated colonial art, though modified by native traditions. Peru_sentence_338

During this period, most art focused on religious subjects; the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cusco School are representative. Peru_sentence_339

Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of Indigenismo in the early 20th century. Peru_sentence_340

Since the 1950s, Peruvian art has been eclectic and shaped by both foreign and local art currents. Peru_sentence_341

Visual Arts Peru_section_26

Main article: Peruvian art Peru_sentence_342

Peruvian art has its origin in the Andean civilizations. Peru_sentence_343

These civilizations rose in the territory of modern Peru before the arrival of the Spanish. Peru_sentence_344

Peruvian art incorporated European elements after the Spanish conquest and continued to evolve throughout the centuries up on to the modern day. Peru_sentence_345

Pre-Columbian art Peru_section_27

Peru's earliest artwork came from the Cupisnique culture, which was concentrated on the Pacific coast, and the Chavín culture, which was largely north of Lima between the Andean mountain ranges of the Cordillera Negra and the Cordillera Blanca. Peru_sentence_346

Decorative work from this era, approximately the 9th century BCE, was symbolic and religious in nature. Peru_sentence_347

The artists worked with gold, silver and ceramics to create a variety of sculpture and relief carvings. Peru_sentence_348

These civilizations were also known for their architecture and wood sculpture. Peru_sentence_349

Between the 9th century BCE and the 2nd century CE, the Paracas Cavernas and Paracas Necropolis cultures developed on the south coast of Peru. Peru_sentence_350

Paracas Cavernas produced complex polychrome and monochrome ceramics with religious representations. Peru_sentence_351

Burials from the Paracas Necropolis also yielded , many produced with sophisticated geometric patterns. Peru_sentence_352

The 3rd century BCE saw the flowering of the urban culture, Moche, in the Lambayeque region. Peru_sentence_353

The Moche culture produced impressive architectural works, such as the Huacas del Sol y de la Luna and the Huaca Rajada of Sipán. Peru_sentence_354

They were experts at cultivation in terraces and hydraulic engineering and produced original ceramics, textiles, pictorial and sculptural works. Peru_sentence_355

Another urban culture, the Wari civilization, flourished between the 8th and 12th centuries in Ayacucho. Peru_sentence_356

Their centralized town planning was extended to other areas, such as Pachacamac, Cajamarquilla and Wari Willka. Peru_sentence_357

Between the 9th and 13th centuries CE, the military urban Tiwanaku empire rose by the borders of Lake Titicaca. Peru_sentence_358

Centered around a city of the same name in modern-day Bolivia, the Tiwanaku introduced stone architecture and sculpture of a monumental type. Peru_sentence_359

These works of architecture and art were made possible by the Tiwanaku's developing bronze, which enabled them to make the necessary tools. Peru_sentence_360

Urban architecture reached a new height between the 14th and 15th centuries in the Chimú Culture. Peru_sentence_361

The Chimú built the city of Chan Chan in the valley of the Moche River, in La Libertad. Peru_sentence_362

The Chimú were skilled goldsmiths and created remarkable works of hydraulic engineering. Peru_sentence_363

The Inca Civilization, which united Peru under its hegemony in the centuries immediately preceding the Spanish conquest, incorporated into their own works a great part of the cultural legacy of the civilizations which preceded it. Peru_sentence_364

Important relics of their artwork and architecture can be seen in cities like Cusco, architectural remains like Sacsahuamán and Machu Picchu and stone pavements that united Cusco with the rest of the Inca Empire. Peru_sentence_365

Colonial art Peru_section_28

Main articles: Peruvian colonial architecture and Cusco School Peru_sentence_366

Peruvian sculpture and painting began to define themselves from the ateliers founded by monks, who were strongly influenced by the Sevillian Baroque School. Peru_sentence_367

In this context, the stalls of the Cathedral choir, the fountain of the Main Square of Lima both by Pedro de Noguera, and a great part of the colonial production were registered. Peru_sentence_368

The first center of art established by the Spanish was the Cuzco School that taught Quechua artists European painting styles. Peru_sentence_369

Diego Quispe Tito (1611–1681) was one of the first members of the Cuzco school and Marcos Zapata (1710–1773) was one of the last. Peru_sentence_370

Painting of this time reflected a synthesis of European and indigenous influences, as is evident in the portrait of prisoner Atahualpa, by D. de Mora or in the canvases of the Italians Mateo Pérez de Alesio and Angelino Medoro, the Spaniards Francisco Bejarano and J. de Illescas and the Creole J. Rodriguez. Peru_sentence_371

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Baroque Style also dominated the field of plastic arts. Peru_sentence_372

Literature Peru_section_29

Main article: Peruvian literature Peru_sentence_373

The term Peruvian literature not only refers to literature produced in the independent Republic of Peru, but also to literature produced in the Viceroyalty of Peru during the country's colonial period, and to oral artistic forms created by diverse ethnic groups that existed in the area during the prehispanic period, such as the Quechua, the Aymara and the Chanka people. Peru_sentence_374

Peruvian literature is rooted in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Peru_sentence_375

Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century; colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature. Peru_sentence_376

After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma. Peru_sentence_377

The early 20th century's Indigenismo movement was led by such writers as Ciro Alegría and José María Arguedas. Peru_sentence_378

César Vallejo wrote modernist and often politically engaged verse. Peru_sentence_379

Modern Peruvian literature is recognized thanks to authors such as Nobel laureate Mario Vargas Llosa, a leading member of the Latin American Boom. Peru_sentence_380

Cuisine Peru_section_30

Main article: Peruvian cuisine Peru_sentence_381

Due to the Spanish expedition and discovery of the Americas, the explorers started the Columbian Exchange which included food unheard of in the Old World, such as potato, tomato, and maize. Peru_sentence_382

Modern indigenous Peruvian food mainly consists of corn, potatoes, and chilies. Peru_sentence_383

There are now more than 3,000 kinds of potatoes grown on Peruvian terrain, according to Peru's Instituto Peruano de la Papa. Peru_sentence_384

Modern Peruvian cuisine blends Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from Chinese, African, Arab, Italian, and Japanese cooking. Peru_sentence_385

Common dishes include anticuchos, ceviche, and pachamanca. Peru_sentence_386

Peru's varied climate allows the growth of diverse plants and animals good for cooking. Peru_sentence_387

Peru's diversity of ingredients and cooking techniques is receiving worldwide acclaim. Peru_sentence_388

Peruvian cuisine reflects local practices and ingredients—including influences from the indigenous population including the Inca and cuisines brought in with colonizers and immigrants. Peru_sentence_389

Without the familiar ingredients from their home countries, immigrants modified their traditional cuisines by using ingredients available in Peru. Peru_sentence_390

The four traditional staples of Peruvian cuisine are corn, potatoes and other tubers, Amaranthaceaes (quinoa, kañiwa and kiwicha) and legumes (beans and lupins). Peru_sentence_391

Staples brought by the Spanish include rice, wheat and meats (beef, pork and chicken). Peru_sentence_392

Many traditional foods—such as quinoa, kiwicha, chili peppers, and several roots and tubers have increased in popularity in recent decades, reflecting a revival of interest in native Peruvian foods and culinary techniques. Peru_sentence_393

It is also common to see traditional cuisines being served with a modern flair in towns like Cusco, where tourists come to visit. Peru_sentence_394

Chef Gaston Acurio has become well known for raising awareness of local ingredients. Peru_sentence_395

Music Peru_section_31

Main article: Peruvian music Peru_sentence_396

Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish, and African roots. Peru_sentence_397

In pre-Hispanic times, musical expressions varied widely in each region; the quena and the tinya were two common instruments. Peru_sentence_398

Spaniards introduced new instruments, such as the guitar and the harp, which led to the development of crossbred instruments like the charango. Peru_sentence_399

African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the cajón, a percussion instrument. Peru_sentence_400

Peruvian folk dances include marinera, tondero, zamacueca, diablada and huayno. Peru_sentence_401

Peruvian music is dominated by the national instrument, the charango. Peru_sentence_402

The charango is member of the lute family of instruments and was invented during colonial times by musicians imitating the Spanish vihuela. Peru_sentence_403

In the Canas and Titicaca regions, the charango is used in courtship rituals, symbolically invoking mermaids with the instrument to lure the woman to the male performers. Peru_sentence_404

Until the 1960s, the charango was denigrated as an instrument of the rural poor. Peru_sentence_405

After the revolution in 1959, which built upon the Indigenismo movement (1910–1940), the charango was popularized among other performers. Peru_sentence_406

Variants include the walaycho, chillador, chinlili, and the larger and lower-tuned charangon. Peru_sentence_407

While the Spanish guitar is widely played, so too is the Spanish-in-origin bandurria. Peru_sentence_408

Unlike the guitar, it has been transformed by Peruvian players over the years, changing from a 12-string, 6-course instrument to one having 12 to 16 strings in a mere four courses. Peru_sentence_409

Violins and harps, also of European origin, are also played. Peru_sentence_410

Cinema Peru_section_32

While the Peruvian film industry has not been nearly as prolific as that of some other Latin American countries, some Peruvian movies produced enjoyed regional success. Peru_sentence_411

Historically, the cinema of Peru began in Iquitos in 1932 by Antonio Wong Rengifo (with a momentous, initial film billboard from 1900) because the rubber boom and the intense arrival of foreigners with technology to the city, and thus continued an extensive, unique filmography, with a different style than the films made in the capital, Lima. Peru_sentence_412

Peru also produced the first animated 3-D film in Latin America, Piratas en el Callao. Peru_sentence_413

This film is set in the historical port city of Callao, which during colonial times had to defend itself against attacks by Dutch and British privateers seeking to undercut Spain's trade with its colonies. Peru_sentence_414

The film was produced by the Peruvian company Alpamayo Entertainment, which made a second 3-D film one year later: Dragones: Destino de Fuego. Peru_sentence_415

In February 2006, the film Madeinusa, produced as a joint venture between Peru and Spain and directed by Claudia Llosa, was set in an imaginary Andean village and describes the stagnating life of Madeinusa performed by Magaly Solier and the traumas of post-civil war Peru. Peru_sentence_416

Llosa, who shared elements of Gabriel García Márquez's magic realism, won an award at the Rotterdam Film Festival. Peru_sentence_417

Llosa's second feature, The Milk of Sorrow ("La Teta Asustada"), was nominated for the 82nd Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Picture, the first Peruvian film in the Academy's history to be nominated. Peru_sentence_418

The Milk of Sorrow ("La Teta Asustada"), won the Golden Bear award at the 2009 Berlinale. Peru_sentence_419

See also Peru_section_33


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