"Mescalito" redirects here.
For the Ryan Bingham album, see Mescalito (album).
|Scientific classification Lophophora|
It flowers from March to May, and sometimes as late as September.
Distribution and habitat
In the United States it grows in Southern Texas.
It is primarily found at elevations of 100–1,500 m (330–4,920 ft) and exceptionally up to 1,900 m (6,200 ft) in the Chihuahuan desert, but is also present in the more mild climate of Tamaulipas.
Its habitat is primarily in desert scrub, particularly thorn scrub in Tamaulipas.
It is common on or near limestone hills.
Psychoactive and medicinal
When used for its psychoactive properties, common doses for pure mescaline range from roughly 200 to 400 mg.
This translates to a dose of roughly 10 to 20 g of dried peyote buttons of average potency; however, potency varies considerably between samples, making it difficult to measure doses accurately without first extracting the mescaline.
The effects last about 10 to 12 hours.
Peyote is reported to trigger rich visual or auditory effects (see synesthesia).
In addition to psychoactive use, some Native American tribes use the plant in the belief it may have curative properties.
Peyote also contains an alkaloid called peyocactin.
It is now called hordenine.
Peyote poisoning has been a concern in California.
5 on the Rio Grande in Texas.
The results dated the specimens to between 3780 and 3660 BCE.
Alkaloid extraction yielded approximately 2% of the alkaloids including mescaline in both samples.
This indicates that native North Americans were likely to have used peyote since at least five-and-a-half thousand years ago.
Specimens from a burial cave in west central Coahuila, Mexico have been similarly analyzed and dated to 810 to 1070 CE.
From earliest recorded time, peyote has been used by indigenous peoples, such as the Huichol of northern Mexico and by various Native American tribes, native to or relocated to the Southern Plains states of present-day Oklahoma and Texas.
Its usage was also recorded among various Southwestern Athabaskan-language tribal groups.
The religious, ceremonial, and healing uses of peyote may date back over 2,000 years.
Under the auspices of what came to be known as the Native American Church, in the 19th century, American Indians in more widespread regions to the north began to use peyote in religious practices, as part of a revival of native spirituality.
Its members refer to peyote as "the sacred medicine", and use it to combat spiritual, physical, and other social ills.
Concerned about the drug's psychoactive effects, between the 1880s and 1930s, U.S. authorities attempted to ban Native American religious rituals involving peyote, including the Ghost Dance.
Today the Native American Church is one among several religious organizations to use peyote as part of its religious practice.
Some users claim the drug connects them to God.
Traditional Navajo belief or ceremonial practice did not mention the use of peyote before its introduction by the neighboring Utes.
The Navajo Nation now has the most members of the Native American Church.
Dr. John Raleigh Briggs (1851–1907) was the first to draw scientific attention of the Western scientific world to peyote.
Louis Lewin described Anhalonium lewinii in 1888.
Arthur Heffter conducted self experiments on its effects in 1897.
A study published in 2007 found no evidence of long-term cognitive problems related to peyote use in Native American Church ceremonies, but researchers stressed their results may not apply to those who use peyote in other contexts.
A four-year large-scale study of Navajo who regularly ingested peyote found only one case where peyote was associated with a psychotic break in an otherwise healthy person; other psychotic episodes were attributed to peyote use in conjunction with pre-existing substance abuse or mental health problems.
Later research found that those with pre-existing mental health issues are more likely to have adverse reactions to peyote.
Peyote use does not appear to be associated with hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (a.k.a. "flashbacks") after religious use.
Peyote is also known to cause potentially serious variations in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and pupillary dilation.
Wixarika (Huichol) culture
- Huichol art
Main article: Legality of mescaline cactus by country
of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances allows nations to exempt certain traditional uses of substances from prohibition:
However, this exemption would apply only if the peyote cactus were ever explicitly added to the Schedules of the Psychotropic Convention.
Currently the Convention applies only to chemicals.
The Commentary on the Convention on Psychotropic Substances notes, however, that the plants containing it are not subject to international control:
Mescaline is listed as a Schedule III controlled substance under the Canadian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, but peyote is specifically exempt.
Possession and use of peyote plants is legal.
Non-drug uses of peyote in religious ceremonies by the Native American Church and its members are exempt from registration.
This law has been codified as a statute in the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978, and made part of the common law in Peyote Way Church of God, Inc. v. Thornburgh, (5th Cir. 1991); it is also in administrative law at the 21 CFR which states for "Special Exempt Persons":
U.S. v. Boyll, 774 F.Supp.
1991) addresses this racial issue specifically and concludes:
Following the passage of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act Amendments of 1994, United States federal law (and many state laws) protects the harvest, possession, consumption and cultivation of peyote as part of "bona fide religious ceremonies" (the federal statute is the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, codified at 42 U.S.C. , "Traditional Indian religious use of the peyote sacrament", exempting only use by Native American persons.
US v. Boyll expanded permitted use to all persons engaged in traditional Indian religious use, regardless of race.
All US states with the exception of Idaho, Utah, and Texas allow usage by non-native, non-enrolled persons in the context of ceremonies of the Native American Church.
Some states such as Arizona additionally exempt any general bona fide religious activity or spiritual intent.
Though use in Native American Church ceremonies or traditional Indian religious use, regardless of race, is legal under US federal law and additional uses are legal under some state laws, peyote is listed by the United States DEA as a Schedule I controlled substance .
- Carlos Castaneda - an author of books involving his experiences with peyote.
- Convention on Psychotropic Substances: Psychedelic plants and fungi
- Icaro (shamanic tool to prepare ayahuasca)
- Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
- Psychedelic experience
- Peyote song
- R. Gordon Wasson
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peyote.