Peyote

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"Mescalito" redirects here. Peyote_sentence_0

For the Ryan Bingham album, see Mescalito (album). Peyote_sentence_1

Peyote_table_infobox_0

PeyotePeyote_header_cell_0_0_0
Conservation statusPeyote_header_cell_0_1_0
Scientific classification LophophoraPeyote_header_cell_0_2_0
Kingdom:Peyote_cell_0_3_0 PlantaePeyote_cell_0_3_1
Clade:Peyote_cell_0_4_0 TracheophytesPeyote_cell_0_4_1
Clade:Peyote_cell_0_5_0 AngiospermsPeyote_cell_0_5_1
Clade:Peyote_cell_0_6_0 EudicotsPeyote_cell_0_6_1
Order:Peyote_cell_0_7_0 CaryophyllalesPeyote_cell_0_7_1
Family:Peyote_cell_0_8_0 CactaceaePeyote_cell_0_8_1
Subfamily:Peyote_cell_0_9_0 CactoideaePeyote_cell_0_9_1
Genus:Peyote_cell_0_10_0 LophophoraPeyote_cell_0_10_1
Species:Peyote_cell_0_11_0 L. williamsiiPeyote_cell_0_11_1
Binomial namePeyote_header_cell_0_12_0
SynonymsPeyote_header_cell_0_13_0

The peyote /peɪˈoʊti/, scientific name Lophophora williamsii /ləˈfɒfərə wɪliˈæmziaɪ/, is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline. Peyote_sentence_2

Peyote is a Spanish word derived from the Nahuatl peyōtl [ˈpejoːt͡ɬ, meaning "caterpillar cocoon", from a root peyōni, "to glisten". Peyote_sentence_3

Peyote is native to Mexico and southwestern Texas. Peyote_sentence_4

It is found primarily in the Sierra Madre Occidental, the Chihuahuan Desert and in the states of Nayarit, Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosí among scrub. Peyote_sentence_5

It flowers from March to May, and sometimes as late as September. Peyote_sentence_6

The flowers are pink, with thigmotactic anthers (like Opuntia). Peyote_sentence_7

Known for its psychoactive properties when ingested, peyote is used worldwide, having a long history of ritualistic and medicinal use by indigenous North Americans. Peyote_sentence_8

Peyote contains the hallucinogen mescaline. Peyote_sentence_9

Description Peyote_section_0

Distribution and habitat Peyote_section_1

L. williamsii is native to southern North America, mainly distributed in Mexico. Peyote_sentence_10

In the United States it grows in Southern Texas. Peyote_sentence_11

In Mexico it grows in the states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas in the north to San Luis Potosi and Zacatecas. Peyote_sentence_12

It is primarily found at elevations of 100–1,500 m (330–4,920 ft) and exceptionally up to 1,900 m (6,200 ft) in the Chihuahuan desert, but is also present in the more mild climate of Tamaulipas. Peyote_sentence_13

Its habitat is primarily in desert scrub, particularly thorn scrub in Tamaulipas. Peyote_sentence_14

It is common on or near limestone hills. Peyote_sentence_15

Uses Peyote_section_2

Psychoactive and medicinal Peyote_section_3

When used for its psychoactive properties, common doses for pure mescaline range from roughly 200 to 400 mg. Peyote_sentence_16

This translates to a dose of roughly 10 to 20 g of dried peyote buttons of average potency; however, potency varies considerably between samples, making it difficult to measure doses accurately without first extracting the mescaline. Peyote_sentence_17

The effects last about 10 to 12 hours. Peyote_sentence_18

Peyote is reported to trigger rich visual or auditory effects (see synesthesia). Peyote_sentence_19

In addition to psychoactive use, some Native American tribes use the plant in the belief it may have curative properties. Peyote_sentence_20

They employ peyote to treat such varied ailments as toothache, pain in childbirth, fever, breast pain, skin diseases, rheumatism, diabetes, colds, and blindness. Peyote_sentence_21

Peyote also contains an alkaloid called peyocactin. Peyote_sentence_22

It is now called hordenine. Peyote_sentence_23

Peyote poisoning has been a concern in California. Peyote_sentence_24

History Peyote_section_4

In 2005 researchers used radiocarbon dating and alkaloid analysis to study two specimens of peyote buttons found in archaeological digs from a site called Shumla Cave No. Peyote_sentence_25

5 on the Rio Grande in Texas. Peyote_sentence_26

The results dated the specimens to between 3780 and 3660 BCE. Peyote_sentence_27

Alkaloid extraction yielded approximately 2% of the alkaloids including mescaline in both samples. Peyote_sentence_28

This indicates that native North Americans were likely to have used peyote since at least five-and-a-half thousand years ago. Peyote_sentence_29

Specimens from a burial cave in west central Coahuila, Mexico have been similarly analyzed and dated to 810 to 1070 CE. Peyote_sentence_30

From earliest recorded time, peyote has been used by indigenous peoples, such as the Huichol of northern Mexico and by various Native American tribes, native to or relocated to the Southern Plains states of present-day Oklahoma and Texas. Peyote_sentence_31

Its usage was also recorded among various Southwestern Athabaskan-language tribal groups. Peyote_sentence_32

The Tonkawa, the Mescalero, and Lipan Apache were the source or first practitioners of peyote religion in the regions north of present-day Mexico. Peyote_sentence_33

They were also the principal group to introduce peyote to newly arrived migrants, such as the Comanche and Kiowa from the Northern Plains. Peyote_sentence_34

The religious, ceremonial, and healing uses of peyote may date back over 2,000 years. Peyote_sentence_35

Under the auspices of what came to be known as the Native American Church, in the 19th century, American Indians in more widespread regions to the north began to use peyote in religious practices, as part of a revival of native spirituality. Peyote_sentence_36

Its members refer to peyote as "the sacred medicine", and use it to combat spiritual, physical, and other social ills. Peyote_sentence_37

Concerned about the drug's psychoactive effects, between the 1880s and 1930s, U.S. authorities attempted to ban Native American religious rituals involving peyote, including the Ghost Dance. Peyote_sentence_38

Today the Native American Church is one among several religious organizations to use peyote as part of its religious practice. Peyote_sentence_39

Some users claim the drug connects them to God. Peyote_sentence_40

Traditional Navajo belief or ceremonial practice did not mention the use of peyote before its introduction by the neighboring Utes. Peyote_sentence_41

The Navajo Nation now has the most members of the Native American Church. Peyote_sentence_42

Dr. John Raleigh Briggs (1851–1907) was the first to draw scientific attention of the Western scientific world to peyote. Peyote_sentence_43

Louis Lewin described Anhalonium lewinii in 1888. Peyote_sentence_44

Arthur Heffter conducted self experiments on its effects in 1897. Peyote_sentence_45

Similarly, Norwegian ethnographer Carl Sofus Lumholtz studied and wrote about the use of peyote among the Indians of Mexico. Peyote_sentence_46

Lumholtz also reported that, lacking other intoxicants, Texas Rangers captured by Union forces during the American Civil War soaked peyote buttons in water and became "intoxicated with the liquid". Peyote_sentence_47

The US Dispensatory lists peyote under the name Anhalonium, and states it can be used in various preparations for neurasthenia, hysteria and asthma. Peyote_sentence_48

Adverse reactions Peyote_section_5

A study published in 2007 found no evidence of long-term cognitive problems related to peyote use in Native American Church ceremonies, but researchers stressed their results may not apply to those who use peyote in other contexts. Peyote_sentence_49

A four-year large-scale study of Navajo who regularly ingested peyote found only one case where peyote was associated with a psychotic break in an otherwise healthy person; other psychotic episodes were attributed to peyote use in conjunction with pre-existing substance abuse or mental health problems. Peyote_sentence_50

Later research found that those with pre-existing mental health issues are more likely to have adverse reactions to peyote. Peyote_sentence_51

Peyote use does not appear to be associated with hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (a.k.a. "flashbacks") after religious use. Peyote_sentence_52

Peyote also does not seem to be associated with physical dependence, but some users may experience psychological dependence. Peyote_sentence_53

Peyote can have strong emetic effects, and one death has been attributed to esophageal bleeding caused by vomiting after peyote ingestion in a Native American patient with a history of alcohol abuse. Peyote_sentence_54

Peyote is also known to cause potentially serious variations in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and pupillary dilation. Peyote_sentence_55

Research into the huichol natives of central-western Mexico, who have taken peyote regularly for an estimated 1,500 years or more, found no evidence of chromosome damage in either men or women. Peyote_sentence_56

Cultural significance Peyote_section_6

Wixarika (Huichol) culture Peyote_section_7

The Wixarika religion consists of four principal deities: Corn, Kayumarie (Blue Deer), Hikuri (Peyote), and the Eagle, all descended from their Sun God. Peyote_sentence_57

Schaefer has interpreted this to mean that peyote is the soul of their religious culture and a visionary sacrament that opens a pathway to the other deities. Peyote_sentence_58

Peyote_unordered_list_0

  • Huichol artPeyote_item_0_0

Legality Peyote_section_8

Main article: Legality of mescaline cactus by country Peyote_sentence_59

United Nations Peyote_section_9

of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances allows nations to exempt certain traditional uses of substances from prohibition: Peyote_sentence_60

However, this exemption would apply only if the peyote cactus were ever explicitly added to the Schedules of the Psychotropic Convention. Peyote_sentence_61

Currently the Convention applies only to chemicals. Peyote_sentence_62

The Commentary on the Convention on Psychotropic Substances notes, however, that the plants containing it are not subject to international control: Peyote_sentence_63

Canada Peyote_section_10

Mescaline is listed as a Schedule III controlled substance under the Canadian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, but peyote is specifically exempt. Peyote_sentence_64

Possession and use of peyote plants is legal. Peyote_sentence_65

United States Peyote_section_11

Non-drug uses of peyote in religious ceremonies by the Native American Church and its members are exempt from registration. Peyote_sentence_66

This law has been codified as a statute in the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978, and made part of the common law in Peyote Way Church of God, Inc. v. Thornburgh, (5th Cir. 1991); it is also in administrative law at the 21 CFR which states for "Special Exempt Persons": Peyote_sentence_67

U.S. v. Boyll, 774 F.Supp. Peyote_sentence_68

1333 (D.N.M. Peyote_sentence_69

1991) addresses this racial issue specifically and concludes: Peyote_sentence_70

Following the passage of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act Amendments of 1994, United States federal law (and many state laws) protects the harvest, possession, consumption and cultivation of peyote as part of "bona fide religious ceremonies" (the federal statute is the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, codified at 42 U.S.C. , "Traditional Indian religious use of the peyote sacrament", exempting only use by Native American persons. Peyote_sentence_71

US v. Boyll expanded permitted use to all persons engaged in traditional Indian religious use, regardless of race. Peyote_sentence_72

All US states with the exception of Idaho, Utah, and Texas allow usage by non-native, non-enrolled persons in the context of ceremonies of the Native American Church. Peyote_sentence_73

Some states such as Arizona additionally exempt any general bona fide religious activity or spiritual intent. Peyote_sentence_74

US jurisdictions enacted these specific statutory exemptions in reaction to the US Supreme Court's decision in Employment Division v. Smith, 494 U.S. Peyote_sentence_75

(1990), which held that laws prohibiting the use of peyote that do not specifically exempt religious use nevertheless do not violate the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. Peyote_sentence_76

Though use in Native American Church ceremonies or traditional Indian religious use, regardless of race, is legal under US federal law and additional uses are legal under some state laws, peyote is listed by the United States DEA as a Schedule I controlled substance . Peyote_sentence_77

See also Peyote_section_12

Peyote_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peyote.