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For the precursor profession, see Apothecary. Pharmacist_sentence_0

For a scientist trained in the study of chemistry, see Chemist. Pharmacist_sentence_1


NamesPharmacist_header_cell_0_1_0 Pharmacist, Chemist, Druggist, Doctor of Pharmacy, Apothecary or simply DoctorPharmacist_cell_0_1_1
Occupation typePharmacist_header_cell_0_2_0 ProfessionalPharmacist_cell_0_2_1
Activity sectorsPharmacist_header_cell_0_3_0 Health care, health sciences, chemical sciencesPharmacist_cell_0_3_1
CompetenciesPharmacist_header_cell_0_5_0 The ethics, art and science of medicine, analytical skills, critical thinkingPharmacist_cell_0_5_1
Education requiredPharmacist_header_cell_0_6_0 Doctor of Pharmacy, Master of Pharmacy, Bachelor of PharmacyPharmacist_cell_0_6_1
Fields of


Related jobsPharmacist_header_cell_0_8_0 Physician, pharmacy technician, toxicologist, chemist, other medical specialistsPharmacist_cell_0_8_1

Pharmacists, also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are health professionals who specialize in the use of medicines, as they deal with the composition, effects, mechanism of action and proper and effective use of drugs. Pharmacist_sentence_2

Using knowledge of the mechanism of action of drugs, the pharmacist understands how they should be used to achieve maximum benefit, minimal side effects and to avoid drug interactions. Pharmacist_sentence_3

Pharmacists undergo university or graduate-level education to understand the biochemical mechanisms and actions of drugs, drug uses, therapeutic roles, side effects, potential drug interactions, and monitoring parameters. Pharmacist_sentence_4

This is mated to anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacist_sentence_5

Pharmacists interpret and communicate this specialized knowledge to patients, physicians, and other health care providers. Pharmacist_sentence_6

Among other licensing requirements, different countries require pharmacists to hold either a Bachelor of Pharmacy, Master of Pharmacy, or Doctor of Pharmacy degree. Pharmacist_sentence_7

The most common pharmacist positions are that of a community pharmacist (also referred to as a retail pharmacist, first-line pharmacist or dispensing chemist), or a hospital pharmacist, where they instruct and counsel on the proper use and adverse effects of medically prescribed drugs and medicines. Pharmacist_sentence_8

In most countries, the profession is subject to professional regulation. Pharmacist_sentence_9

Depending on the legal scope of practice, pharmacists may contribute to prescribing (also referred to as "pharmacist prescriber") and administering certain medications (e.g., immunizations) in some jurisdictions. Pharmacist_sentence_10

Pharmacists may also practice in a variety of other settings, including industry, wholesaling, research, academia, formulary management, military, and government. Pharmacist_sentence_11

Nature of work Pharmacist_section_0

See also: Pharmacy Pharmacist_sentence_12

Historically, the fundamental role of pharmacists as a healthcare practitioner was to check and distribute drugs to doctors for medication that had been prescribed to patients. Pharmacist_sentence_13

In more modern times, pharmacists advise patients and health care providers on the selection, dosages, interactions, and side effects of medications, and act as a learned intermediary between a prescriber and a patient. Pharmacist_sentence_14

Pharmacists monitor the health and progress of patients to ensure the safe and effective use of medication. Pharmacist_sentence_15

Pharmacists may practice compounding; however, many medicines are now produced by pharmaceutical companies in a standard dosage and drug delivery form. Pharmacist_sentence_16

In some jurisdictions, pharmacists have prescriptive authority to either independently prescribe under their own authority or in collaboration with a primary care physician through an agreed upon protocol called a collaborative practice agreement. Pharmacist_sentence_17

Increased numbers of drug therapies, aging but more knowledgeable and demanding populations, and deficiencies in other areas of the health care system seem to be driving increased demand for the clinical counseling skills of the pharmacist. Pharmacist_sentence_18

One of the most important roles that pharmacists are currently taking on is one of pharmaceutical care. Pharmacist_sentence_19

Pharmaceutical care involves taking direct responsibility for patients and their disease states, medications, and management of each to improve outcomes. Pharmacist_sentence_20

Pharmaceutical care has many benefits that may include but are not limited to: decreased medication errors; increased patient compliance in medication regimen; better chronic disease state management, including hypertension and other cardiovascular disease risk factors; strong pharmacist–patient relationship; and decreased long-term costs of medical care. Pharmacist_sentence_21

Pharmacists are often the first point-of-contact for patients with health inquiries. Pharmacist_sentence_22

Thus pharmacists have a significant role in assessing medication management in patients, and in referring patients to physicians. Pharmacist_sentence_23

These roles may include, but are not limited to: Pharmacist_sentence_24


  • clinical medication management, including reviewing and monitoring of medication regimensPharmacist_item_0_0
  • assessment of patients with undiagnosed or diagnosed conditions, and ascertaining clinical medication management needsPharmacist_item_0_1
  • specialized monitoring of disease states, such as dosing drugs in kidney and liver failurePharmacist_item_0_2
  • compounding medicinesPharmacist_item_0_3
  • providing pharmaceutical informationPharmacist_item_0_4
  • providing patients with health monitoring and advice, including advice and treatment of common ailments and disease statesPharmacist_item_0_5
  • supervising pharmacy technicians and other staffPharmacist_item_0_6
  • oversight of dispensing medicines on prescriptionPharmacist_item_0_7
  • provision of and counseling about non-prescription or over-the-counter drugsPharmacist_item_0_8
  • education and counseling for patients and other health care providers on optimal use of medicines (e.g., proper use, avoidance of overmedication)Pharmacist_item_0_9
  • referrals to other health professionals if necessaryPharmacist_item_0_10
  • pharmacokinetic evaluationPharmacist_item_0_11
  • promoting public health by administering immunizationsPharmacist_item_0_12
  • constructing drug formulariesPharmacist_item_0_13
  • designing clinical trials for drug developmentPharmacist_item_0_14
  • working with federal, state, or local regulatory agencies to develop safe drug policiesPharmacist_item_0_15
  • ensuring correctness of all medication labels including auxiliary labelsPharmacist_item_0_16
  • member of interprofessional care team for critical care patientsPharmacist_item_0_17
  • symptom assessment leading to medication provision and lifestyle advice for community-based health concerns (e.g. head colds, or smoking cessation)Pharmacist_item_0_18
  • staged dosing supply (e.g. opioid substitution therapy)Pharmacist_item_0_19

Education and credentialing Pharmacist_section_1

See also: Bachelor of Pharmacy, Master of Pharmacy, and Doctor of Pharmacy Pharmacist_sentence_25

The role of pharmacy education, pharmacist licensing, and continuing education vary from country to country and between regions/localities within countries. Pharmacist_sentence_26

In most countries, pharmacists must obtain a university degree at a pharmacy school or related institution, and/or satisfy other national/local credentialing requirements. Pharmacist_sentence_27

In many contexts, students must first complete pre-professional (undergraduate) coursework, followed by about four years of professional academic studies to obtain a degree in pharmacy (such as Doctorate of Pharmacy). Pharmacist_sentence_28

In the European Union, pharmacists are required to hold a Masters of Pharmacy, which allows them to practice in any other E.U. country, pending professional examinations and language tests in the country in which they want to practice. Pharmacist_sentence_29

Pharmacists are educated in pharmacology, pharmacognosy, chemistry, organic chemistry, biochemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, microbiology, pharmacy practice (including drug interactions, medicine monitoring, medication management), pharmaceutics, pharmacy law, pathophysiology, physiology, anatomy, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug delivery, pharmaceutical care, nephrology, hepatology, and compounding of medications. Pharmacist_sentence_30

Additional curriculum may cover diagnosis with emphasis on laboratory tests, disease state management, therapeutics and prescribing (selecting the most appropriate medication for a given patient). Pharmacist_sentence_31

Upon graduation, pharmacists are licensed, either nationally or regionally, to dispense medication of various types in the areas they have trained for. Pharmacist_sentence_32

Some may undergo further specialized training, such as in cardiology or oncology. Pharmacist_sentence_33

Specialties include: Pharmacist_sentence_34

Training and practice by country Pharmacist_section_2

See also: Doctor of Pharmacy Pharmacist_sentence_35

Armenia Pharmacist_section_3

The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health oversee pharmacy school accreditation in Armenia. Pharmacist_sentence_36

Pharmacists are expected to have competency in the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), the use of Standard Treatment Guidelines, drug information, clinical pharmacy, and medicine supply management. Pharmacist_sentence_37

There are currently no laws requiring pharmacists to be registered, but all pharmacies must have a license to conduct business. Pharmacist_sentence_38

According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report from 2010, there are 0.53 licensed pharmacists and 7.82 licensed pharmacies per 10,000 people in Armenia. Pharmacist_sentence_39

Pharmacists are able to substitute for generic equivalents at point of dispensing. Pharmacist_sentence_40

Australia Pharmacist_section_4

See also: Australian Pharmaceutical Advisory Council Pharmacist_sentence_41

The Australian Pharmacy Council is the independent accreditation agency for Australian pharmacists. Pharmacist_sentence_42

It conducts examinations on behalf of the Pharmacy Board of Australia towards eligibility for registration. Pharmacist_sentence_43

The Australian College of Pharmacy provides continuing education programs for pharmacists. Pharmacist_sentence_44

Wages for pharmacists in Australia appear to have stagnated, and even gone backwards. Pharmacist_sentence_45

As of 2007, the award wages for a pharmacist is $812 a week. Pharmacist_sentence_46

Pharmacist graduates are the lowest paid university graduates most years. Pharmacist_sentence_47

Most pharmacists do earn above the award wage; the average male pharmacist earns $65,000, a female pharmacist averages $56,500. Pharmacist_sentence_48

There are more graduates expected in the next few years making it even harder to get a job. Pharmacist_sentence_49

Job security and increase in wages with regards to CPI could be unlikely. Pharmacist_sentence_50

This is due to the large numbers of pharmacy graduates in recent years, and government desire to lower PBS costs. Pharmacist_sentence_51

Contract and casual work is becoming more common. Pharmacist_sentence_52

A contract pharmacist is self-employed and often called a locum; these pharmacists may be hired for one shift or for a longer period of time. Pharmacist_sentence_53

There are accounts of underemployment and unemployment emerging recently. Pharmacist_sentence_54

Canada Pharmacist_section_5

The Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) is the national professional organization for pharmacists in Canada. Pharmacist_sentence_55

Specific requirements for practice vary across provinces, but generally include a Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy from a recognized university, successful completion of a national board examination through the Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada, and practical experience through an apprenticeship/internship program. Pharmacist_sentence_56

The vast majority (80%) of Canada's licensed pharmacists work in community pharmacies, another 15% work in hospital or institutional pharmacies, and the remainder work in situations that may not legally require licensed pharmacists such as associations, pharmaceutical companies, and consulting firms. Pharmacist_sentence_57

This likely depends on what parts of Canada and the United States are compared. Pharmacist_sentence_58

Wages being significantly higher in Canada than most developing countries, recruitment of pharmacists from South Africa and other countries with acute health workforce shortages to work in private franchise chains is subject to controversy. Pharmacist_sentence_59

Pharmacists' scope of practice varies widely among the 13 provinces and territories. Pharmacist_sentence_60


  • British ColumbiaPharmacist_item_1_20

A pharmacist must be registered with the College of Pharmacists of British Columbia to practice in this province. Pharmacist_sentence_61

A Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences is the minimum requirement to practice as a pharmacist in BC. Pharmacist_sentence_62

The University of British Columbia is the only institution in the province that trains pharmacists. Pharmacist_sentence_63

Professional associations include the College of Pharmacists of British Columbia and the British Columbia Pharmacy Association. Pharmacist_sentence_64


  • AlbertaPharmacist_item_2_21

The University of Alberta is the only institution in the province awarding pharmacy degrees, offering both Bachelor of Pharmacy and Doctor of Pharmacy programs. Pharmacist_sentence_65

Pharmacists must be registered with the Alberta College of Pharmacists in order to practice in Alberta. Pharmacist_sentence_66


  • OntarioPharmacist_item_3_22

The Ontario College of Pharmacists grants licenses to practice as a Pharmacist in the province of Ontario. Pharmacist_sentence_67

International graduates of pharmacy must successfully complete the Pharmacist Evaluating Exam and Pharmacist Qualifying Exam along with a Studentship and Internship to be registered as a Pharmacist in Ontario. Pharmacist_sentence_68

Canadian graduates of the pharmacy programme can sit the qualifying exam directly without the evaluating exam. Pharmacist_sentence_69


  • QuebecPharmacist_item_4_23

Pharmacists are registered with the . Pharmacist_sentence_70

There are currently two universities in Quebec which provide professional pharmacy training: Université de Montréal and Université Laval. Pharmacist_sentence_71

Germany Pharmacist_section_6

In Germany, the education and training is divided into three sections, each ending with a state examination: Pharmacist_sentence_72


  • University: Basic studies (at least four semesters)Pharmacist_item_5_24
  • University: Main studies (at least four semesters)Pharmacist_item_5_25
  • Community Pharmacy / Hospital Pharmacy / Industry: Practical training (12 months; 6 months in a Community Pharmacy).Pharmacist_item_5_26

After the third state examination a person must become licensed as an RPh ("registered pharmacist") for a licence to practice pharmacy. Pharmacist_sentence_73

Today, many pharmacists work as employees in public pharmacies. Pharmacist_sentence_74

They will be paid according to the labour agreement of Adexa and employer associations. Pharmacist_sentence_75

Japan Pharmacist_section_7

History Pharmacist_section_8

In ancient Japan, the men who fulfilled roles similar to pharmacists were respected. Pharmacist_sentence_76

The place of pharmacists in society was settled in the Taihō Code (701) and re-stated in the Yōrō Code (718). Pharmacist_sentence_77

Ranked positions in the pre-Heian Imperial court were established; and this organizational structure remained largely intact until the Meiji Restoration (1868). Pharmacist_sentence_78

In this highly stable hierarchy, the pharmacists — and even pharmacist assistants — were assigned status superior to all others in health-related fields such as physicians and acupuncturists. Pharmacist_sentence_79

In the Imperial household, the pharmacist was even ranked above the two personal physicians of the Emperor. Pharmacist_sentence_80

Contemporary Pharmacist_section_9

As of 1997, 46 universities of pharmacy in Japan graduated about 8000 students annually. Pharmacist_sentence_81

Contemporary practice of clinical pharmacists in Japan (as evaluated in September 2000) focuses on dispensing of drugs, consultation with patients, supplying drug information, advising on prescription changes and amending prescriptions. Pharmacist_sentence_82

These practices have been linked to decreases in the average number of drugs in prescriptions, drug costs and incidence of adverse drug events. Pharmacist_sentence_83

Nigeria Pharmacist_section_10

Training to become a registered pharmacist in Nigeria involves a five-year course after six years of secondary/high school or four years after eight years of secondary/high school (i.e. after 2 years of Advanced-level studies in accredited Universities). Pharmacist_sentence_84

The degree awarded by most pharmacy schools is a Bachelor of Pharmacy Degree (B.Pharm.) Pharmacist_sentence_85

However, in the near future, all schools will offer a 6-year first Degree course leading to the award of a Pharm.D (Doctor of Pharmacy Degree). Pharmacist_sentence_86

The University of Benin has started the Pharm.D programme with other pharmacy schools planning to start soon. Pharmacist_sentence_87

The Pharmacy Degree in Nigeria is unclassified i.e. awarded without first class, second class upper, etc., however graduates could be awarded Pass with Distinctions in specific fields such as Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, medicinal chemistry etc. Pharmacy Graduates are required to undergo 1 year of Tutelage under the supervision of an already Registered Pharmacist(a preceptor) in a recognized and designated Institution before they can become Registered Pharmacists. Pharmacist_sentence_88

The Profession is Regulated by a Government Statutory body called the Pharmacists Council of Nigeria. Pharmacist_sentence_89

The West African Post Graduate College of Pharmacy runs post-registration courses on advanced-level practice in various fields of pharmacy. Pharmacist_sentence_90

It is a college jointly funded by a number of Countries in the West Africa sub-region. Pharmacist_sentence_91

There are thousands of Nigerian-trained pharmacists registered and practicing in countries such as the US, the UK, Canada etc., due to the relatively poor public sector salaries in Nigeria. Pharmacist_sentence_92

Pakistan Pharmacist_section_11

In Pakistan, the Pharm.D. Pharmacist_sentence_93

(Doctor of Pharmacy) degree is a graduate-level professional doctorate degree. Pharmacist_sentence_94

Twenty-one universities are registered with the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan for imparting Pharmacy courses. Pharmacist_sentence_95

In 2004 the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan and the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan revised the syllabus and changed the 4-year B.Pharmacy (Bachelor of Pharmacy) Program to a 5-year Pharm.D. Pharmacist_sentence_96

(Doctor of Pharmacy) program. Pharmacist_sentence_97

All 21 universities have started the 5-year Pharm.D Program. Pharmacist_sentence_98

In 2011 the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan approved the awarding of a Doctor of Pharmacy degree, a five-year programme at the Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar. Pharmacist_sentence_99

Poland Pharmacist_section_12

Polish pharmacists have to complete a ​5 ⁄2-year Master of Pharmacy Programme at medical university and obtain the right to practice as a pharmacist in Poland from District Pharmaceutical Council. Pharmacist_sentence_100

The Programme includes 6 months of pharmacy training. Pharmacist_sentence_101

The Polish name for the Master of Pharmacy Degree (M. Pharmacist_sentence_102

Pharm.) Pharmacist_sentence_103

is magister farmacji (mgr farm). Pharmacist_sentence_104

Not only pharmacists, but also pharmaceutical technicians are allowed to dispense prescription medicines, except for narcotics, psychotropics and very potent medicines. Pharmacist_sentence_105

Pharmacists approve prescriptions fulfilled by pharmaceutical technicians subsequently. Pharmacist_sentence_106

Pharmaceutical technicians have to complete 2 years of post-secondary occupational school and 2 years of pharmacy training afterwards. Pharmacist_sentence_107

Pharmacists are eligible to prescribe medicines in exceptional circumstances. Pharmacist_sentence_108

All Polish pharmacies are obliged to produce compound medicines. Pharmacist_sentence_109

Most pharmacists in Poland are pharmacy managers and are responsible for pharmacy marketing in addition to traditional activities. Pharmacist_sentence_110

To become a pharmacy manager in Poland, a pharmacist is expected to have at least 5 years of professional experience. Pharmacist_sentence_111

All pharmacists in Poland have to maintain an adequate knowledge level by participating in various university- and industry-based courses and arrangements or by undergoing postgraduate specialization. Pharmacist_sentence_112

Sweden Pharmacist_section_13

In Sweden, the national board of health and welfare regulates the practice of all legislated health care professionals, and is also responsible for registration of pharmacists in the country. Pharmacist_sentence_113

The education to become a licensed pharmacist is regulated by the European Union, and states that minimum educational requirements are five years of university studies in a pharmacy program, of which six months must be a pharmacy internship. Pharmacist_sentence_114

To be admitted to pharmacy studies, students must complete a minimum of three years of gymnasium, similar to high school (school for about 15–20-year-old students) program in natural science after elementary school (6–16-year-olds). Pharmacist_sentence_115

Only three universities in the whole of Sweden offer a pharmacy education, Uppsala University, where the Faculty of Pharmacy is located, the University of Gothenburg, and Umeå University. Pharmacist_sentence_116

In Sweden, pharmacists are called Apotekare. Pharmacist_sentence_117

At pharmacies in Sweden, pharmacists work together with another class of legislated health care professionals called Receptarier, in English so-called prescriptionists, who have completed studies equal to a bachelor of science in pharmacy, i.e., three years of university. Pharmacist_sentence_118

Prescriptionists also have dispensing rights in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland. Pharmacist_sentence_119

The majority of the staff in a pharmacy are Apotekstekniker or "pharmacy technicians" with a three -semester education at a vocational college. Pharmacist_sentence_120

Pharmacy technicians do not have dispensing rights in Sweden but are allowed to advise on and sell over-the-counter medicines. Pharmacist_sentence_121

Switzerland Pharmacist_section_14

In Switzerland, the federal office of public health regulates pharmacy practice. Pharmacist_sentence_122

Four Swiss universities offer a major in pharmaceutical studies, the University of Basel, the University of Geneva, the University of Lausanne and the ETH Zurich. Pharmacist_sentence_123

To major in pharmaceutical studies takes at least five years. Pharmacist_sentence_124

Students spend their last year as interns in a pharmacy combined with courses at the university, with focus on the validation of prescriptions and the manufacturing of pharmaceutical formulations. Pharmacist_sentence_125

Since all public health professions are regulated by the government it is also necessary to acquire a federal diploma in order to work in a pharmacy. Pharmacist_sentence_126

It is not unusual for pharmaceutical studies majors to work in other fields such as the pharmaceutical industry or in hospitals. Pharmacist_sentence_127

Pharmacists work alongside pharma assistants, an apprenticeship that takes three years to complete. Pharmacist_sentence_128

Pharmacists can further specialise in various fields; this is organized by PharmaSuisse, the pharmacists' association of Switzerland. Pharmacist_sentence_129

Tanzania Pharmacist_section_15

In Tanzania, pharmacy practice is regulated by the national Pharmacy Board, which is also responsible for registration of pharmacists in the country. Pharmacist_sentence_130

By international standards, the density of pharmacists is very low, with a mean of 0.18 per 10,000 population. Pharmacist_sentence_131

The majority of pharmacists are found in urban areas, with some underserved regions having only 2 pharmacists per region. Pharmacist_sentence_132

According to 2007–2009 data, the largest group of pharmacists was employed in the public sector (44%). Pharmacist_sentence_133

Those working in private retail pharmacies were 23%, and the rest were mostly working for private wholesalers, pharmaceutical manufacturers, in academia/teaching, or with faith-based or non-governmental facilities. Pharmacist_sentence_134

The salaries of pharmacists varied significantly depending on the place of work. Pharmacist_sentence_135

Those who worked in the academia were the highest paid followed by those who worked in the multilateral non-governmental organizations. Pharmacist_sentence_136

The public sector including public retail pharmacies and faith based organizations paid much less. Pharmacist_sentence_137

The Ministry of Health salary scale for medical doctors was considerably higher than that of pharmacists despite having a difference of only one year of training. Pharmacist_sentence_138

Trinidad and Tobago Pharmacist_section_16

In Trinidad and Tobago, pharmacy practice is regulated by the Pharmacy Board of Trinidad and Tobago, which is responsible for the registration of pharmacists in the twin islands. Pharmacist_sentence_139

The University of the West Indies in St. Augustine offers a 4-year Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy as the sole practicing degree of pharmacy. Pharmacist_sentence_140

Graduates undertake a 6-month internship, known as pre-registration, under the supervision of a registered pharmacist, at a pharmacy of their choosing, whether community or institutional. Pharmacist_sentence_141

After completion of the required pre-registration period, the graduate can then apply to the Pharmacy Board to become a registered pharmacist. Pharmacist_sentence_142

After working 1 calendar year as a registered pharmacist, the individual can become a registered, responsible pharmacist. Pharmacist_sentence_143

Being a registered, responsible pharmacist allows the individual to license a pharmacy and be a pharmacist-in-charge. Pharmacist_sentence_144

United Kingdom Pharmacist_section_17

See also: Consultant pharmacist Pharmacist_sentence_145

In British English (and to some extent Australian English), the professional title known as "pharmacist" is also known as "dispensing chemist" or, more commonly, "chemist". Pharmacist_sentence_146

A dispensing chemist usually operates from a pharmacy or chemist's shop, and is allowed to fulfil medical prescriptions and sell over-the-counter drugs and other health-related goods. Pharmacist_sentence_147

Pharmacists can undertake additional training to allow them to prescribe medicines for specific conditions. Pharmacist_sentence_148

Practices Pharmacist_section_18

In the United Kingdom, most pharmacists working in the National Health Service practice in hospital pharmacy or community pharmacy. Pharmacist_sentence_149

The Royal Commission on the National Health Service in 1979 reported that there were nearly 3,000 pharmacists employed in the hospital and community health service in the UK at that time. Pharmacist_sentence_150

They were enthusiastic about the idea that pharmacists might develop their role of giving advice to the public. Pharmacist_sentence_151

The new professional role for pharmacist as prescriber has been recognized in the UK since May 2006, called the "Pharmacist Independent Prescriber". Pharmacist_sentence_152

Once qualified, a pharmacist independent prescriber can prescribe any licensed medicine for any medical condition within their competence. Pharmacist_sentence_153

This includes controlled drugs except schedule 1 and prescribing certain drugs for the treatment of addiction (cocaine, diamorphine and dipipanone). Pharmacist_sentence_154

Education and registration Pharmacist_section_19

Pharmacists, pharmacy technicians and pharmacy premises in the United Kingdom are regulated by the General Pharmaceutical Council (GPhC) for England, Scotland and Wales and by the Pharmaceutical Society of Northern Ireland for Northern Ireland. Pharmacist_sentence_155

The role of regulatory and professional body on the mainland was previously carried out by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, which remained as a professional body after handing over the regulatory role to the GPhC in 2010. Pharmacist_sentence_156

The following criteria must be met for qualification as a pharmacist in the United Kingdom (the Northern Irish body and the GPhC operate separately but have broadly similar registration requirements): Pharmacist_sentence_157


  • Successful completion of a 4-year Master of Pharmacy degree at a GPhC accredited university. Pharmacists holding degrees in Pharmacy from overseas institutions are able to fulfill this stage by undertaking the Overseas Pharmacist Assessment Programme (OSPAP), which is a one-year postgraduate diploma. On completion of the OSPAP, the candidate would proceed with the other stages of the registration process in the same manner as a UK student.Pharmacist_item_6_27
  • Completion of a 52-week preregistration training period. This is a period of paid or unpaid employment, in an approved hospital or community pharmacy under the supervision of a pharmacist tutor. During this time the student must collect evidence of having met certain competency standards set by the GPhC.Pharmacist_item_6_28
  • A pass mark in the GPhC registration assessment (formally an exam). This includes a closed-book paper and an open-book/mental calculations paper (using the British National Formulary and the GPhC's "Standards of Conduct, Ethics and Performance" document as reference sources). The student must achieve an overall mark of 70%, which must include at least 70% in the calculations section of the open-book paper. From June 2016, the assessment will involve two papers, as before but the use of a calculator will now be allowed. However, reference sources will no longer be allowed in the assessment. Instead, relevant extracts of the British National Formulary will be provided within the assessment paper.Pharmacist_item_6_29
  • Satisfactorily meeting the GPhC's Fitness to Practice Standards.Pharmacist_item_6_30

United States Pharmacist_section_20

In 2014 the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics revealed that there were 297,100 American pharmacist jobs. Pharmacist_sentence_158

By 2024 that number is projected to grow by 3%. Pharmacist_sentence_159

The majority (65%) of those pharmacists work in retail settings, mostly as salaried employees but some as self-employed owners. Pharmacist_sentence_160

About 22% work in hospitals, and the rest mainly in mail-order or Internet pharmacies, pharmaceutical wholesalers, practices of physicians, and the Federal Government. Pharmacist_sentence_161

All graduating pharmacists must now obtain the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) Pharmacist_sentence_162

degree before they are eligible to sit for the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) to enter into pharmacy practice. Pharmacist_sentence_163

In addition, pharmacists are subject to state-level jurisprudence exams in order to practice from state to state. Pharmacist_sentence_164

Pharmacy School Accreditation Pharmacist_section_21

The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) has operated since 1932 as the accrediting body for schools of pharmacy in the United States. Pharmacist_sentence_165

The mission of ACPE is “To assure and advance excellence in education for the profession of pharmacy”. Pharmacist_sentence_166

ACPE is recognized for the accreditation of professional degree programs by the United States Department of Education (USDE) and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). Pharmacist_sentence_167

Since 1975, ACPE has also been the accrediting body for continuing pharmacy education. Pharmacist_sentence_168

The ACPE board of directors are appointed by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) (three appointments each), and the American Council on Education (one appointment). Pharmacist_sentence_169

To obtain licensure in the United States, applicants for the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) must graduate from an ACPE accredited school of pharmacy. Pharmacist_sentence_170

ACPE publishes standards that schools of pharmacy must comply with to gain accreditation. Pharmacist_sentence_171

A Pharmacy school pursuing accreditation must first apply and be granted Pre-candidate status. Pharmacist_sentence_172

These schools have met all the requirements for accreditation, but have not yet enrolled any students. Pharmacist_sentence_173

This status indicates that the school of pharmacy has developed its program in accordance with the ACPE standards and guidelines. Pharmacist_sentence_174

Once a school has enrolled students, but has not yet had a graduating class, they may be granted Candidate status. Pharmacist_sentence_175

The expectations of a Candidate program are that they continue to mature in accordance with stated plans. Pharmacist_sentence_176

The graduates of a Candidate program are the same as those of fully accredited programs. Pharmacist_sentence_177

Full accreditation is granted to a program once they have demonstrated they comply with the standards set forth by ACPE. Pharmacist_sentence_178

The customary review cycle for established accredited programs is six years, whereas for programs achieving their initial accreditation this cycle is two years. Pharmacist_sentence_179

These are comprehensive on-site evaluations of the programs. Pharmacist_sentence_180

Additional evaluations may be conducted at the discretion of ACPE in the interim between comprehensive evaluations. Pharmacist_sentence_181

Education Pharmacist_section_22

Specialization and credentialing Pharmacist_section_23

American pharmacists can become certified in recognized specialty practice areas by passing an examination administered by one of several credentialing boards. Pharmacist_sentence_182


Expanding Scope of Practice Pharmacist_section_24

Vaccinations Pharmacist_section_25

As of 2016, all 50 states and the District of Columbia permit pharmacists to provide vaccination services, but specific protocols vary between states. Pharmacist_sentence_183

California Pharmacist_section_26

All licensed California pharmacists can perform the following: Pharmacist_sentence_184


  • Order and interpret drug therapy related testsPharmacist_item_8_47
  • Furnish smoking cessation aids (such as nicotine replacement therapy)Pharmacist_item_8_48
  • Furnish oral self-administered contraception (birth control pills)Pharmacist_item_8_49
  • Furnish travel medications recommended by the CDCPharmacist_item_8_50
  • Administer vaccinations pursuant to the latest CDC standards for anyone ages 3+Pharmacist_item_8_51

The passage of Assembly Bill 1535 (2014) authorizes pharmacists in California to furnish naloxone without a physician's prescription. Pharmacist_sentence_185

With the passage of Senate Bill 159 in 2019, pharmacists in California are authorized to furnish pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to patients without a physician's prescription. Pharmacist_sentence_186

In order to be eligible to dispense, a pharmacists must first "complete a training program approved by the" California State Board of Pharmacy. Pharmacist_sentence_187

California pharmacists can apply for Advanced Practice Pharmacist (APh) licenses from the California State Board of Pharmacy. Pharmacist_sentence_188

Senate Bill 493, written by Senator Ed Hernandez, established a section on the Advanced Practice Pharmacist and outlines the definition, scope of practice, qualifications, and regulations of those holding this license. Pharmacist_sentence_189

An APh can: Pharmacist_sentence_190


  • Perform patient assessmentsPharmacist_item_9_52
  • Refer patients to other healthcare providersPharmacist_item_9_53
  • Participate in the evaluation and management of diseases and health conditions in collaboration with other health care providersPharmacist_item_9_54
  • Initiate, adjust, or discontinue therapy pursuant to the regulations outlined in the billPharmacist_item_9_55

To qualify for an advanced practice pharmacist license in California, the applicant must be in good standing with the State Board of pharmacy, have an active pharmacist license, and fulfill two of three requirements, including certification in their area clinical practice. Pharmacist_sentence_191

The license must be renewed every 2 years, and the APh applying for renewal must complete 10 hours of continuing education in at least one area relevant to their clinical practice. Pharmacist_sentence_192

Earnings and wages Pharmacist_section_27

According to a 2010 PharmacyWeek survey, pharmacists were paid the following average annual salaries, depending on their positions: Pharmacist_sentence_193


  • Directors of Pharmacy $125,200Pharmacist_item_10_56
  • Retail Staff Pharmacists $113,600Pharmacist_item_10_57
  • Hospital Staff Pharmacists $111,700Pharmacist_item_10_58
  • Mail Order Staff Pharmacists $109,300Pharmacist_item_10_59
  • Clinical Pharmacists $113,400Pharmacist_item_10_60

The American Pharmacy Journal of Education in 2014 reported the average salary around $112,160. Pharmacist_sentence_194

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016–17 Edition, Median annual wages of wage and salary pharmacists in May 2015 were $121,500. Pharmacist_sentence_195

Vietnam Pharmacist_section_28

School students must take a national exam to enter a university of pharmacy or the pharmacy department of a university of medicine and pharmacy. Pharmacist_sentence_196

About 5–7% of students can pass the exam. Pharmacist_sentence_197

There are 3 aspects to the exam. Pharmacist_sentence_198

These are on math, chemistry, and physics or biology. Pharmacist_sentence_199

After being trained at the university for 5 years, successful students receive a bachelor's degree in pharmacy. Pharmacist_sentence_200

Or they are university pharmacists (university pharmacist to discriminate between college pharmacist or vocational pharmacist in some countries of the world these trainee pharmacists are called pharmacist assistants). Pharmacist_sentence_201

An alternative method of obtaining a bachelor's degree is as follows. Pharmacist_sentence_202

School pupils study at a college of pharmacy or a vocational school of pharmacy. Pharmacist_sentence_203

After attending the school or college they go to work in a pharmacy, and with two years of practice they could take an exam to enter university of pharmacy or the pharmacy department of a university of medicine and pharmacy. Pharmacist_sentence_204

This exam is easier than the national one. Pharmacist_sentence_205

Passing the exam they continue studying to gain 3-year bachelor's degrees or 4-year bachelor's degrees. Pharmacist_sentence_206

This degree is considered equivalent to a 5-year bachelor's degree. Pharmacist_sentence_207

Notable pharmacists Pharmacist_section_29

Main article: List of pharmacists Pharmacist_sentence_208


See also Pharmacist_section_30

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