Philadelphia

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"Philly" redirects here. Philadelphia_sentence_0

For other uses, see Philly (disambiguation) and Philadelphia (disambiguation). Philadelphia_sentence_1

Philadelphia_table_infobox_0

Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesPhiladelphia_cell_0_1_1
StatePhiladelphia_header_cell_0_2_0 PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia_cell_0_2_1
CountyPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_3_0 PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia_cell_0_3_1
Historic countriesPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_4_0 Kingdom of England

Kingdom of Great BritainPhiladelphia_cell_0_4_1

Historic colonyPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_5_0 Kingdom of Great Britain Province of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia_cell_0_5_1
FoundedPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_6_0 1682Philadelphia_cell_0_6_1
IncorporatedPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_7_0 October 25, 1701Philadelphia_cell_0_7_1
Founded byPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_8_0 William PennPhiladelphia_cell_0_8_1
GovernmentPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_9_0
TypePhiladelphia_header_cell_0_10_0 Mayor–council, consolidated city-countyPhiladelphia_cell_0_10_1
BodyPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_11_0 Philadelphia City CouncilPhiladelphia_cell_0_11_1
MayorPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_12_0 Jim Kenney (D)Philadelphia_cell_0_12_1
AreaPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_13_0
Consolidated city-countyPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_14_0 142.70 sq mi (369.59 km)Philadelphia_cell_0_14_1
LandPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_15_0 134.28 sq mi (347.78 km)Philadelphia_cell_0_15_1
WaterPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_16_0 8.42 sq mi (21.81 km)Philadelphia_cell_0_16_1
ElevationPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_17_0 39 ft (12 m)Philadelphia_cell_0_17_1
Population (2010)Philadelphia_header_cell_0_18_0
Consolidated city-countyPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_19_0 1,526,006Philadelphia_cell_0_19_1
Estimate (2019)Philadelphia_header_cell_0_20_0 1,584,064Philadelphia_cell_0_20_1
RankPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_21_0 US city: 6thPhiladelphia_cell_0_21_1
DensityPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_22_0 11,796.81/sq mi (4,554.76/km)Philadelphia_cell_0_22_1
MetroPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_23_0 6,096,120 (US: 8th)Philadelphia_cell_0_23_1
CSAPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_24_0 7,206,807 (US: 8th)Philadelphia_cell_0_24_1
DemonymPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_25_0 PhiladelphianPhiladelphia_cell_0_25_1
Time zonePhiladelphia_header_cell_0_26_0 UTC−5 (EST)Philadelphia_cell_0_26_1
Summer (DST)Philadelphia_header_cell_0_27_0 UTC−4 (EDT)Philadelphia_cell_0_27_1
ZIP CodesPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_28_0 19092–19093, 19099, 191xxPhiladelphia_cell_0_28_1
Area codesPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_29_0 215, 267, 445Philadelphia_cell_0_29_1
FIPS codePhiladelphia_header_cell_0_30_0 42-60000Philadelphia_cell_0_30_1
GNIS feature IDPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_31_0 1215531Philadelphia_cell_0_31_1
Major airportPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_32_0 Philadelphia International AirportPhiladelphia_cell_0_32_1
InterstatesPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_33_0 Schuylkill_Expressway Interstate_95_in_Pennsylvania Interstate_676Philadelphia_cell_0_33_1
U.S. RoutesPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_34_0 U.S._Route_1_in_Pennsylvania U.S._Route_13_in_Pennsylvania U.S._Route_30_in_PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia_cell_0_34_1
Commuter railPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_35_0 SEPTA Regional Rail, NJ TransitPhiladelphia_cell_0_35_1
Rapid transitPhiladelphia_header_cell_0_36_0 Broad Street Line, Market–Frankford Line, PATCO SpeedlinePhiladelphia_cell_0_36_1
WebsitePhiladelphia_header_cell_0_37_0 Philadelphia_cell_0_37_1

Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_2

state of Pennsylvania and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2019 estimated population of 1,584,064. Philadelphia_sentence_3

Since 1854, the city has had the same geographic boundaries as Philadelphia County, the most-populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_4

metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia_sentence_5

Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural center of the greater Delaware Valley along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill rivers within the Northeast megalopolis. Philadelphia_sentence_6

The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million makes it the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. Philadelphia_sentence_7

Philadelphia is one of the oldest municipalities in the United States. Philadelphia_sentence_8

William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia_sentence_9

Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, and the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. Philadelphia_sentence_10

Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, and the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia_sentence_11

Philadelphia remained the nation's largest city until being overtaken by New York City in 1790; the city was also one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, serving as temporary U.S. capital while Washington, D.C. was under construction. Philadelphia_sentence_12

In the 19th and 20th centuries, Philadelphia became a major industrial center and a railroad hub. Philadelphia_sentence_13

The city grew due to an influx of European immigrants, most of whom initially came from Ireland and Germany—the two largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. Philadelphia_sentence_14

Later immigrant groups in the 20th century came from Italy (Italian being the third largest European ethnic ancestry currently reported in Philadelphia) and other Southern European and Eastern European countries. Philadelphia_sentence_15

In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War. Philadelphia_sentence_16

Puerto Ricans began moving to the city in large numbers in the period between World War I and II, and in even greater numbers in the post-war period. Philadelphia_sentence_17

The city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. Philadelphia_sentence_18

The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. Philadelphia_sentence_19

As of 2019, the Philadelphia metropolitan area is estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $490 billion. Philadelphia_sentence_20

Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. Philadelphia_sentence_21

The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia_sentence_22

Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Philadelphia_sentence_23

Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States. Philadelphia_sentence_24

The city is known for its arts, culture, cuisine, and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent $6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia_sentence_25

Philadelphia has also emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia_sentence_26

Philadelphia is the home of many U.S. firsts, including the first library (1731), hospital (1751), medical school (1765), national capital (1774), stock exchange (1790), zoo (1874), and business school (1881). Philadelphia_sentence_27

Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall. Philadelphia_sentence_28

The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Philadelphia_sentence_29

History Philadelphia_section_0

Main articles: History of Philadelphia and Timeline of Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_30

Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape (Delaware) Indians in the village of Shackamaxon. Philadelphia_sentence_31

The Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. Philadelphia_sentence_32

They are also called Delaware Indians, and their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, and the Lower Hudson Valley. Philadelphia_sentence_33

Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Philadelphia_sentence_34

Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Philadelphia_sentence_35

Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape. Philadelphia_sentence_36

Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. Philadelphia_sentence_37

The American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west. Philadelphia_sentence_38

In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma and surrounding territory) under the Indian removal policy. Philadelphia_sentence_39

In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living also in Wisconsin, Ontario (Canada), and in their traditional homelands. Philadelphia_sentence_40

Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey. Philadelphia_sentence_41

The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. Philadelphia_sentence_42

In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina (present-day Wilmington, Delaware) and quickly spread out in the valley. Philadelphia_sentence_43

In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. Philadelphia_sentence_44

In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area. Philadelphia_sentence_45

The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. Philadelphia_sentence_46

In 1655, a Dutch military campaign led by New Netherland Director-General Peter Stuyvesant took control of the Swedish colony, ending its claim to independence. Philadelphia_sentence_47

The Swedish and Finnish settlers continued to have their own militia, religion, and court, and to enjoy substantial autonomy under the Dutch. Philadelphia_sentence_48

The English conquered the New Netherland colony in 1664, though the situation did not change substantially until 1682 when the area was included in William Penn's charter for Pennsylvania. Philadelphia_sentence_49

In 1681, in partial repayment of a debt, Charles II of England granted Penn a charter for what would become the Pennsylvania colony. Philadelphia_sentence_50

Despite the royal charter, Penn bought the land from the local Lenape to be on good terms with the Native Americans and ensure peace for his colony. Philadelphia_sentence_51

Penn made a treaty of friendship with Lenape chief Tammany under an elm tree at Shackamaxon, in what is now the city's Fishtown neighborhood. Philadelphia_sentence_52

Penn named the city Philadelphia, which is Greek for "brotherly love," derived from the Ancient Greek terms phílos (beloved, dear) and adelphós (brother, brotherly). Philadelphia_sentence_53

The city of Amman was also named Philadelphia during its Greek and Roman periods, and was mentioned as the site of an early Christian congregation in the Book of Revelation. Philadelphia_sentence_54

As a Quaker, Penn had experienced religious persecution and wanted his colony to be a place where anyone could worship freely. Philadelphia_sentence_55

This tolerance, far more than afforded by most other colonies, led to better relations with the local native tribes and fostered Philadelphia's rapid growth into America's most important city. Philadelphia_sentence_56

Penn planned a city on the Delaware River to serve as a port and place for government. Philadelphia_sentence_57

Hoping that Philadelphia would become more like an English rural town instead of a city, Penn laid out roads on a grid plan to keep houses and businesses spread far apart, with areas for gardens and orchards. Philadelphia_sentence_58

The city's inhabitants did not follow Penn's plans, however, as they crowded by the Delaware River port, and subdivided and resold their lots. Philadelphia_sentence_59

Before Penn left Philadelphia for the last time, he issued the Charter of 1701 establishing it as a city. Philadelphia_sentence_60

Though poor at first, the city became an important trading center with tolerable living conditions by the 1750s. Philadelphia_sentence_61

Benjamin Franklin, a leading citizen, helped improve city services and founded new ones, such as fire protection, a library, and one of the American colonies' first hospitals. Philadelphia_sentence_62

A number of philosophical societies were formed, which were centers of the city's intellectual life: the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture (1785), the Pennsylvania Society for the Encouragement of Manufactures and the Useful Arts (1787), the Academy of Natural Sciences (1812), and the Franklin Institute (1824). Philadelphia_sentence_63

These societies developed and financed new industries, attracting skilled and knowledgeable immigrants from Europe. Philadelphia_sentence_64

Philadelphia's importance and central location in the colonies made it a natural center for America's revolutionaries. Philadelphia_sentence_65

By the 1750s, Philadelphia had surpassed Boston to become the largest city and busiest port in British America, and second in the British Empire after London. Philadelphia_sentence_66

The city hosted the First Continental Congress (1774) before the Revolutionary War; the Second Continental Congress (1775–76), which signed the United States Declaration of Independence, during the war; and the Constitutional Convention (1787) after the war. Philadelphia_sentence_67

Several battles were fought in and near Philadelphia as well. Philadelphia_sentence_68

Philadelphia served as the temporary capital of the United States while the new capital was under construction in the District of Columbia from 1790 to 1800. Philadelphia_sentence_69

In 1793, the largest yellow fever epidemic in U.S. history killed approximately 4,000 to 5,000 people in Philadelphia, or about 10% of the city's population. Philadelphia_sentence_70

The state capital was moved to Lancaster in 1799, then Harrisburg in 1812, while the federal government was moved to Washington, D.C. in 1800 upon completion of the White House and U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_71

Capitol building. Philadelphia_sentence_72

The city remained the young nation's largest until the late 18th century, being both a financial and a cultural center for America. Philadelphia_sentence_73

In 1816, the city's free black community founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), the first independent black denomination in the country, and the first black Episcopal Church. Philadelphia_sentence_74

The free black community also established many schools for its children, with the help of Quakers. Philadelphia_sentence_75

New York City surpassed Philadelphia in population by 1790. Philadelphia_sentence_76

Large-scale construction projects for new roads, canals, and railroads made Philadelphia the first major industrial city in the United States. Philadelphia_sentence_77

Throughout the 19th century, Philadelphia hosted a variety of industries and businesses, the largest being textiles. Philadelphia_sentence_78

Major corporations in the 19th and early 20th centuries included the Baldwin Locomotive Works, William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company, and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Philadelphia_sentence_79

Established in 1870, the Philadelphia Conveyancers' Association was chartered by the state in 1871. Philadelphia_sentence_80

Industry, along with the U.S. Centennial, was celebrated in 1876 with the Centennial Exposition, the first official World's Fair in the United States. Philadelphia_sentence_81

Immigrants, mostly from Ireland and Germany, settled in Philadelphia and the surrounding districts. Philadelphia_sentence_82

These immigrants were largely responsible for the first general strike in North America in 1835, in which workers in the city won the ten-hour workday. Philadelphia_sentence_83

The city was a destination for thousands of Irish immigrants fleeing the Great Famine in the 1840s; housing for them was developed south of South Street and later occupied by succeeding immigrants. Philadelphia_sentence_84

They established a network of Catholic churches and schools and dominated the Catholic clergy for decades. Philadelphia_sentence_85

Anti-Irish, anti-Catholic nativist riots erupted in Philadelphia in 1844. Philadelphia_sentence_86

The rise in population of the surrounding districts helped lead to the Act of Consolidation of 1854, which extended the city limits from the 2 square miles (5.2 km) of Center City to the roughly 134 square miles (350 km) of Philadelphia County. Philadelphia_sentence_87

In the latter half of the century, immigrants from Russia, Eastern Europe and Italy, and African Americans from the southern U.S. settled in the city. Philadelphia_sentence_88

Philadelphia was represented by the Washington Grays in the American Civil War. Philadelphia_sentence_89

The African-American population of Philadelphia increased from 31,699 to 219,559 between 1880 and 1930. Philadelphia_sentence_90

Twentieth-century black newcomers were part of the Great Migration out of the rural south to northern and midwestern industrial cities. Philadelphia_sentence_91

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By the 20th century, Philadelphia had an entrenched Republican political machine and a complacent population. Philadelphia_sentence_92

The first major reform came in 1917 when outrage over the election-year murder of a police officer led to the shrinking of the City Council from two houses to just one. Philadelphia_sentence_93

In July 1919, Philadelphia was one of more than 36 industrial cities nationally to suffer a race riot of ethnic whites against blacks during Red Summer, in post-World War I unrest, as recent immigrants competed with blacks for jobs. Philadelphia_sentence_94

In the 1920s, the public flouting of Prohibition laws, organized crime, mob violence, and police involvement in illegal activities led to the appointment of Brig. Philadelphia_sentence_95

Gen. Smedley Butler of the U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_96

Marine Corps as director of public safety, but political pressure prevented any long-term success in fighting crime and corruption. Philadelphia_sentence_97

In 1940, non-Hispanic whites constituted 86.8% of the city's population. Philadelphia_sentence_98

The population peaked at more than two million residents in 1950, then began to decline with the restructuring of industry, which led to the loss of many middle-class union jobs. Philadelphia_sentence_99

In addition, suburbanization had enticed many of the more affluent residents to outlying railroad commuting towns and newer housing. Philadelphia_sentence_100

The resulting reduction in Philadelphia's tax base and the resources of local government caused the city to struggle through a long period of adjustment, with it approaching bankruptcy by the late 1980s. Philadelphia_sentence_101

Revitalization and gentrification of neighborhoods began in the late 1970s and continues into the 21st century, with much of the development occurring in the Center City and University City neighborhoods. Philadelphia_sentence_102

After many of the old manufacturers and businesses left Philadelphia or shut down, the city started attracting service businesses and began to market itself more aggressively as a tourist destination. Philadelphia_sentence_103

Contemporary glass-and-granite skyscrapers were built in Center City beginning in the 1980s. Philadelphia_sentence_104

Historic areas such as Old City and Society Hill were renovated during the reformist mayoral era of the 1950s through the 1980s, making those areas among the most desirable neighborhoods in Center City. Philadelphia_sentence_105

These developments have begun a reversal of the city's population decline between 1950 and 2000 during which it lost about one-quarter of its residents. Philadelphia_sentence_106

The city eventually began experiencing a growth in its population in 2007, which has continued with gradual yearly increases to the present. Philadelphia_sentence_107

Although Philadelphia is rapidly undergoing gentrification, the city actively maintains strategies to minimize displacement of homeowmers in gentrifying neighborhoods. Philadelphia_sentence_108

Geography Philadelphia_section_1

Topography Philadelphia_section_2

The geographic center of Philadelphia is located approximately at 40° 0′ 34″ north latitude and 75° 8′ 0″ west longitude. Philadelphia_sentence_109

The 40th parallel north passes through neighborhoods in Northeast Philadelphia, North Philadelphia, and West Philadelphia including Fairmount Park. Philadelphia_sentence_110

The city encompasses 142.71 square miles (369.62 km), of which 134.18 square miles (347.52 km) is land and 8.53 square miles (22.09 km), or 6%, is water. Philadelphia_sentence_111

Natural bodies of water include the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, the lakes in Franklin Delano Roosevelt Park, and Cobbs, Wissahickon, and Pennypack creeks. Philadelphia_sentence_112

The largest artificial body of water is the East Park Reservoir in Fairmount Park. Philadelphia_sentence_113

The lowest point is sea level, while the highest point is in Chestnut Hill, about 446 feet (136 m) above sea level on Summit Street near the intersection of Germantown Avenue and Bethlehem Pike (example coordinates near high point: 40.07815 N, 75.20747 W). Philadelphia_sentence_114

Philadelphia is situated on the Fall Line that separates the Atlantic coastal plain from the Piedmont. Philadelphia_sentence_115

The rapids on the Schuylkill River at East Falls were inundated by the completion of the dam at the Fairmount Water Works. Philadelphia_sentence_116

The city is the seat of its own county. Philadelphia_sentence_117

The adjacent counties are Montgomery to the northwest; Bucks to the north and northeast; Burlington County, New Jersey, to the east; Camden County, New Jersey, to the southeast; Gloucester County, New Jersey, to the south; and Delaware County to the southwest. Philadelphia_sentence_118

Cityscape Philadelphia_section_3

City planning Philadelphia_section_4

See also: List of Philadelphia neighborhoods Philadelphia_sentence_119

Philadelphia's central city was created in the 17th century following the plan by William Penn's surveyor Thomas Holme. Philadelphia_sentence_120

Center City is structured with long, straight streets running nearly due east–west and north–south, forming a grid pattern between the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers that is aligned with their courses. Philadelphia_sentence_121

The original city plan was designed to allow for easy travel and to keep residences separated by open space that would help prevent the spread of fire. Philadelphia_sentence_122

Penn planned the creation of five public parks in the city which were renamed in 1824 (new names in parentheses): Centre Square (Penn Square), Northeast Square (Franklin Square), Southeast Square (Washington Square), Southwest Square (Rittenhouse Square), and Northwest Square (Logan Circle/Square). Philadelphia_sentence_123

Center City had an estimated 183,240 residents as of 2015, making it the second-most populated downtown area in the United States, after Midtown Manhattan in New York City. Philadelphia_sentence_124

Philadelphia's neighborhoods are divided into large sections—North, Northeast, South, Southwest, West, and Northwest—surrounding Center City, which correspond closely with the city's limits before consolidation in 1854. Philadelphia_sentence_125

Each of these large areas contains numerous neighborhoods, some of whose boundaries derive from the boroughs, townships, and other communities that constituted Philadelphia County before their inclusion within the city. Philadelphia_sentence_126

The City Planning Commission, tasked with guiding growth and development of the city, has divided the city into 18 planning districts as part of the Philadelphia2035 physical development plan. Philadelphia_sentence_127

Much of the city's 1980 zoning code was overhauled from 2007 to 2012 as part of a joint effort between former mayors John F. Street and Michael Nutter. Philadelphia_sentence_128

The zoning changes were intended to rectify incorrect zoning maps to facilitate future community development, as the city forecasts an additional 100,000 residents and 40,000 jobs will be added by 2035. Philadelphia_sentence_129

The Philadelphia Housing Authority (PHA) is the largest landlord in Pennsylvania. Philadelphia_sentence_130

Established in 1937, the PHA is the nation's fourth-largest housing authority, serving about 81,000 people with affordable housing, while employing 1,400 on a budget of $371 million. Philadelphia_sentence_131

The Philadelphia Parking Authority works to ensure adequate parking for city residents, businesses and visitors. Philadelphia_sentence_132

Architecture Philadelphia_section_5

Main articles: Architecture of Philadelphia and List of tallest buildings in Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_133

Philadelphia's architectural history dates back to colonial times and includes a wide range of styles. Philadelphia_sentence_134

The earliest structures were constructed with logs, but brick structures were common by 1700. Philadelphia_sentence_135

During the 18th century, the cityscape was dominated by Georgian architecture, including Independence Hall and Christ Church. Philadelphia_sentence_136

In the first decades of the 19th century, Federal and Greek Revival architecture were the dominant styles produced by Philadelphia architects such as Benjamin Latrobe, William Strickland, John Haviland, John Notman, Thomas Walter, and Samuel Sloan. Philadelphia_sentence_137

Frank Furness is considered Philadelphia's greatest architect of the second half of the 19th century. Philadelphia_sentence_138

His contemporaries included John McArthur Jr., Addison Hutton, Wilson Eyre, the Wilson Brothers, and Horace Trumbauer. Philadelphia_sentence_139

In 1871, construction began on the Second Empire-style Philadelphia City Hall. Philadelphia_sentence_140

The Philadelphia Historical Commission was created in 1955 to preserve the cultural and architectural history of the city. Philadelphia_sentence_141

The commission maintains the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, adding historic buildings, structures, sites, objects and districts as it sees fit. Philadelphia_sentence_142

In 1932, Philadelphia became home to the first modern International Style skyscraper in the United States, the PSFS Building, designed by George Howe and William Lescaze. Philadelphia_sentence_143

The 548 ft (167 m) City Hall remained the tallest building in the city until 1987 when One Liberty Place was completed. Philadelphia_sentence_144

Numerous glass and granite skyscrapers were built in Center City beginning in the late 1980s. Philadelphia_sentence_145

In 2007, the Comcast Center surpassed One Liberty Place to become the city's tallest building. Philadelphia_sentence_146

The Comcast Technology Center was completed in 2018, reaching a height of 1,121 ft (342 m), as the tallest building in the United States outside of Manhattan and Chicago. Philadelphia_sentence_147

For much of Philadelphia's history, the typical home has been the row house. Philadelphia_sentence_148

The row house was introduced to the United States via Philadelphia in the early 19th century and, for a time, row houses built elsewhere in the United States were known as "Philadelphia rows". Philadelphia_sentence_149

A variety of row houses are found throughout the city, from Federal-style continuous blocks in Old City and Society Hill to Victorian-style homes in North Philadelphia to twin row houses in West Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_150

While newer homes have been built recently, much of the housing dates to the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, which has created problems such as urban decay and vacant lots. Philadelphia_sentence_151

Some neighborhoods, including Northern Liberties and Society Hill, have been rehabilitated through gentrification. Philadelphia_sentence_152

Philadelphia_unordered_list_1

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Climate Philadelphia_section_6

According to the Köppen climate classification, Philadelphia falls under the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen Cfa), whereas according to the Trewartha climate classification, the city has a temperate maritime climate (Do) limited to the north by the continental climate (Dc). Philadelphia_sentence_153

Summers are typically hot and muggy, fall and spring are generally mild, and winter is moderately cold. Philadelphia_sentence_154

The plant life hardiness zones are 7a and 7b, representing an average annual extreme minimum temperature between 0 and 10 °F (−18 and −12 °C). Philadelphia_sentence_155

Snowfall is highly variable with some winters having only light snow while others include major snowstorms. Philadelphia_sentence_156

The normal seasonal snowfall averages 22.4 in (57 cm), with rare snowfalls in November or April, and rarely any sustained snow cover. Philadelphia_sentence_157

Seasonal snowfall accumulation has ranged from trace amounts in 1972–73 to 78.7 inches (200 cm) in the winter of 2009–10. Philadelphia_sentence_158

The city's heaviest single-storm snowfall was 30.7 in (78 cm) which occurred in January 1996. Philadelphia_sentence_159

Precipitation is generally spread throughout the year, with eight to eleven wet days per month, at an average annual rate of 41.5 inches (1,050 mm), but historically ranging from 29.31 in (744 mm) in 1922 to 64.33 in (1,634 mm) in 2011. Philadelphia_sentence_160

The most rain recorded in one day occurred on July 28, 2013 when 8.02 in (204 mm) fell at Philadelphia International Airport. Philadelphia_sentence_161

Philadelphia has a moderately sunny climate with an average of 2,500 hours of sunshine annually, and a percentage of sunshine ranging from 47% in December to 61% in June, July, and August. Philadelphia_sentence_162

The January daily average temperature is 33.0 °F (0.6 °C), though the temperature frequently rises to 50 °F (10 °C) during thaws and dips to 10 °F (−12 °C) for 2 or 3 nights in a normal winter. Philadelphia_sentence_163

July averages 78.1 °F (25.6 °C), although heat waves accompanied by high humidity and heat indices are frequent, with highs reaching or exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) on 27 days of the year. Philadelphia_sentence_164

The average window for freezing temperatures is November 6 thru April 2, allowing a growing season of 217 days. Philadelphia_sentence_165

Early fall and late winter are generally dry with February having the lowest average precipitation at 2.64 inches (67 mm). Philadelphia_sentence_166

The dewpoint in the summer averages between 59.1 and 64.5 °F (15 and 18 °C). Philadelphia_sentence_167

The highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) on August 7, 1918, but temperatures at or above 100 °F (38 °C) are not common. Philadelphia_sentence_168

The lowest officially recorded temperature was −11 °F (−24 °C) on February 9, 1934. Philadelphia_sentence_169

Temperatures at or below 0 °F (−18 °C) are rare with the last such occurrence being January 19, 1994. Philadelphia_sentence_170

The record low maximum is 5 °F (−15 °C) on February 10, 1899, and December 30, 1880, while the record high minimum is 83 °F (28 °C) on July 23, 2011, and July 24, 2010. Philadelphia_sentence_171

Philadelphia_table_general_1

Climate data for PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_0_0
MonthPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_0 JanPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_1 FebPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_2 MarPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_3 AprPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_4 MayPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_5 JunPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_6 JulPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_7 AugPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_8 SepPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_9 OctPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_10 NovPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_11 DecPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_12 YearPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_1_13
Average sea temperature °F (°C)Philadelphia_header_cell_1_2_0 41.8

(5.5)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_1

39.9

(4.4)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_2

41.2

(5.1)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_3

46.7

(8.2)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_4

53.9

(12.2)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_5

66.3

(19.0)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_6

74.0

(23.3)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_7

75.9

(24.4)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_8

71.4

(21.9)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_9

64.2

(17.9)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_10

55.1

(12.8)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_11

47.7

(8.8)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_12

56.5

(13.6)Philadelphia_cell_1_2_13

Mean daily daylight hoursPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_3_0 10.0Philadelphia_cell_1_3_1 11.0Philadelphia_cell_1_3_2 12.0Philadelphia_cell_1_3_3 13.0Philadelphia_cell_1_3_4 14.0Philadelphia_cell_1_3_5 15.0Philadelphia_cell_1_3_6 15.0Philadelphia_cell_1_3_7 14.0Philadelphia_cell_1_3_8 12.0Philadelphia_cell_1_3_9 11.0Philadelphia_cell_1_3_10 10.0Philadelphia_cell_1_3_11 9.0Philadelphia_cell_1_3_12 12.2Philadelphia_cell_1_3_13
Source: Weather AtlasPhiladelphia_header_cell_1_4_0

Air quality Philadelphia_section_7

Philadelphia County received an ozone grade of F and a 24-hour particle pollution rating of D in the American Lung Association's 2017 State of the Air report, which analyzed data from 2013 to 2015. Philadelphia_sentence_172

The city was ranked 22nd for ozone, 20th for short-term particle pollution, and 11th for year-round particle pollution. Philadelphia_sentence_173

According to the same report, the city experienced a significant reduction in high ozone days since 2001—from nearly 50 days per year to fewer than 10—along with fewer days of high particle pollution since 2000—from about 19 days per year to about 3—and an approximate 30% reduction in annual levels of particle pollution since 2000. Philadelphia_sentence_174

Five of the ten largest combined statistical areas (CSAs) were ranked higher for ozone: Los Angeles (1st), New York City (9th), Houston (12th), Dallas (13th), and San Jose (18th). Philadelphia_sentence_175

Many smaller CSAs were also ranked higher for ozone including Sacramento (8th), Las Vegas (10th), Denver (11th), El Paso (16th), and Salt Lake City (20th); however, only two of those same ten CSAs—San Jose and Los Angeles—were ranked higher than Philadelphia for both year-round and short-term particle pollution. Philadelphia_sentence_176

Demographics Philadelphia_section_8

Main article: Demographics of Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_177

See also: History of the Irish Americans in Philadelphia, History of the Italian Americans in Philadelphia, Puerto Ricans in Philadelphia, Chinese in Philadelphia, Koreans in Philadelphia, Jews in Philadelphia, LGBT culture in Philadelphia, and Religion in Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_178

According to the 2019 United States Census Bureau estimate, there were 1,584,064 people residing in Philadelphia, representing a 3.8% increase from the 2010 census. Philadelphia_sentence_179

After the 1950 Census, when a record high of 2,071,605 was recorded, the city's population began a long decline. Philadelphia_sentence_180

The population dropped to a low of 1,488,710 residents in 2006 before beginning to rise again. Philadelphia_sentence_181

Between 2006 and 2017, Philadelphia added 92,153 residents. Philadelphia_sentence_182

In 2017, the Census Bureau estimated that the racial composition of the city was 41.3% Black (non-Hispanic), 34.9% White (non-Hispanic), 14.1% Hispanic or Latino, 7.1% Asian, 0.4% Native American, 0.05% Pacific Islander, and 2.8% multiracial. Philadelphia_sentence_183

Philadelphia_table_general_2

Census racial compositionPhiladelphia_header_cell_2_0_0 2017*Philadelphia_header_cell_2_0_1 2010Philadelphia_header_cell_2_0_2 2000Philadelphia_header_cell_2_0_3 1990Philadelphia_header_cell_2_0_4 1980Philadelphia_header_cell_2_0_5 1970Philadelphia_header_cell_2_0_6
Black (includes Black Hispanics)Philadelphia_cell_2_1_0 42.6%Philadelphia_cell_2_1_1 43.4%Philadelphia_cell_2_1_2 43.2%Philadelphia_cell_2_1_3 39.9%Philadelphia_cell_2_1_4 37.8%Philadelphia_cell_2_1_5 33.6%Philadelphia_cell_2_1_6
—non-Hispanic BlackPhiladelphia_cell_2_2_0 41.3%Philadelphia_cell_2_2_1 42.2%Philadelphia_cell_2_2_2 42.6%Philadelphia_cell_2_2_3 39.3%Philadelphia_cell_2_2_4 37.5%Philadelphia_cell_2_2_5 33.3%Philadelphia_cell_2_2_6
White (includes White Hispanics)Philadelphia_cell_2_3_0 41.6%Philadelphia_cell_2_3_1 41.0%Philadelphia_cell_2_3_2 45.0%Philadelphia_cell_2_3_3 53.5%Philadelphia_cell_2_3_4 58.2%Philadelphia_cell_2_3_5 65.6%Philadelphia_cell_2_3_6
—non-Hispanic WhitePhiladelphia_cell_2_4_0 34.9%Philadelphia_cell_2_4_1 36.9%Philadelphia_cell_2_4_2 42.5%Philadelphia_cell_2_4_3 52.1%Philadelphia_cell_2_4_4 57.1%Philadelphia_cell_2_4_5 63.8Philadelphia_cell_2_4_6
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Philadelphia_cell_2_5_0 14.1%Philadelphia_cell_2_5_1 12.3%Philadelphia_cell_2_5_2 8.5%Philadelphia_cell_2_5_3 5.6%Philadelphia_cell_2_5_4 3.8%Philadelphia_cell_2_5_5 2.4%Philadelphia_cell_2_5_6
AsianPhiladelphia_cell_2_6_0 7.1%Philadelphia_cell_2_6_1 6.3%Philadelphia_cell_2_6_2 4.5%Philadelphia_cell_2_6_3 2.7%Philadelphia_cell_2_6_4 1.1%Philadelphia_cell_2_6_5 0.3%Philadelphia_cell_2_6_6
Pacific IslandersPhiladelphia_cell_2_7_0 0.05%Philadelphia_cell_2_7_1 0.05%Philadelphia_cell_2_7_2 0.0%Philadelphia_cell_2_7_3 0.0%Philadelphia_cell_2_7_4
Native AmericansPhiladelphia_cell_2_8_0 0.4%Philadelphia_cell_2_8_1 0.5%Philadelphia_cell_2_8_2 0.3%Philadelphia_cell_2_8_3 0.2%Philadelphia_cell_2_8_4 0.1%Philadelphia_cell_2_8_5 0.1%Philadelphia_cell_2_8_6
Two or more racesPhiladelphia_cell_2_9_0 2.8%Philadelphia_cell_2_9_1 2.8%Philadelphia_cell_2_9_2 2.2%Philadelphia_cell_2_9_3 n/aPhiladelphia_cell_2_9_4 n/aPhiladelphia_cell_2_9_5 n/aPhiladelphia_cell_2_9_6
  • 2017 figures are estimates Philadelphia_sentence_184

The 2010 Census redistricting data indicated that the racial makeup of the city was 644,287 (42.2%) Black (non-Hispanic), 562,585 (36.9%) White (non-Hispanic), 96,405 (6.3%) Asian (2.0% Chinese, 1.2% Indian, 0.9% Vietnamese, 0.4% Korean, 0.3% Filipino, 0.1% Japanese, and 1.4% other), 6,996 (0.5%) Native Americans, 744 (0.05%) Pacific Islanders, and 43,070 (2.8%) from two or more races. Philadelphia_sentence_185

Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 187,611 persons (12.3%); 8.0% Puerto Rican, 1.0% Mexican, 0.3% Cuban, and 3.0% other. Philadelphia_sentence_186

The racial breakdown of Philadelphia's Hispanic/Latino population was 63,636 (33.9%) White, 17,552 (9.4%) Black, 3,498 (1.9%) Native American, 884 (0.47%) Asian, 287 (0.15%) Pacific Islander, 86,626 (46.2%) from other races, and 15,128 (8.1%) from two or more races. Philadelphia_sentence_187

The five largest European ancestries reported in the 2010 Census included Irish (13.0%), Italian (8.3%), German (8.2%), Polish (3.9%), and English (3.1%). Philadelphia_sentence_188

The estimated average population density was 11,782 people per square mile (4,549/km) in 2017. Philadelphia_sentence_189

In 2010, the Census Bureau reported that 1,468,623 people (96.2% of the population) lived in households, 38,007 (2.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 19,376 (1.3%) were institutionalized. Philadelphia_sentence_190

In 2013, the city reported having 668,247 total housing units, down slightly from 670,171 housing units in 2010. Philadelphia_sentence_191

As of 2013, 87 percent of housing units were occupied, while 13 percent were vacant, a slight change from 2010 where 89.5 percent of units were occupied, or 599,736 and 10.5 percent were vacant, or 70,435. Philadelphia_sentence_192

Of the city's residents, 32 percent reported having no vehicles available while 23 percent had two or more vehicles available, as of 2013. Philadelphia_sentence_193

In 2010, 24.9 percent of households reported having children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.3 percent were married couples living together and 22.5 percent had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0 percent had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.2 percent were non-families. Philadelphia_sentence_194

The city reported 34.1 percent of all households were individuals living alone, while 10.5 percent had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. Philadelphia_sentence_195

The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.20. Philadelphia_sentence_196

In 2013, the percentage of women who gave birth in the previous 12 months who were unmarried was 56 percent. Philadelphia_sentence_197

Of Philadelphia's adults, 31 percent were married or lived as a couple, 55 percent were not married, 11 percent were divorced or separated, and 3 percent were widowed. Philadelphia_sentence_198

According to the U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_199

Census Bureau, the median household income in 2013 was $36,836, down 7.9 percent from 2008 when the inflation-adjusted median household income was $40,008 (in 2013 dollars). Philadelphia_sentence_200

For comparison, on an inflation-adjusted basis, the median household income among metropolitan areas was $60,482, down 8.2 percent in the same period, and the national median household income was $55,250, down 7.0 percent from 2008. Philadelphia_sentence_201

The city's wealth disparity is evident when neighborhoods are compared. Philadelphia_sentence_202

Residents in Society Hill had a 2013 median household income of $93,720, while residents in one of North Philadelphia's districts reported the lowest median household income, $14,185. Philadelphia_sentence_203

More recently, Philadelphia has experienced a large shift toward a younger age profile. Philadelphia_sentence_204

In 2000, the city's population pyramid had a largely stationary shape. Philadelphia_sentence_205

In 2013, the city took on an expansive pyramid shape, with an increase in the three millennial age groups, 20 to 24, 25 to 29, and 30 to 34. Philadelphia_sentence_206

The city's 25- to 29-year-old age group was the city's largest age cohort. Philadelphia_sentence_207

According to the 2010 Census, 343,837 (22.5%) were under the age of 18; 203,697 (13.3%) from 18 to 24; 434,385 (28.5%) from 25 to 44; 358,778 (23.5%) from 45 to 64; and 185,309 (12.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. Philadelphia_sentence_208

The median age was 33.5 years. Philadelphia_sentence_209

For every 100 females, there were 89.4 males; while among individuals age 18 and over, for every 100 females, there were 85.7 males. Philadelphia_sentence_210

The city had 22,018 births in 2013, down from a peak 23,689 births in 2008. Philadelphia_sentence_211

Philadelphia's death rate was at its lowest in at least a half-century, 13,691 deaths in 2013. Philadelphia_sentence_212

Immigration and cultural diversity Philadelphia_section_9

Apart from economic growth, another factor contributing to the population increase is Philadelphia's rising immigration rate. Philadelphia_sentence_213

Like the millennial population, Philadelphia's immigrant population is also growing rapidly. Philadelphia_sentence_214

According to research by The Pew Charitable Trusts, the city's foreign-born population had increased by 69% between 2000 and 2016 to constitute nearly 20% of Philadelphia's work force, and had doubled between 1990 and 2017 to constitute 13.8% of the city's total population, with the top five countries of origin being China by a significant margin, followed by the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, India, and Vietnam. Philadelphia_sentence_215

Irish, Italian, German, Polish, English, Russian, Ukrainian, and French constitute the largest European ethnic groups in the city. Philadelphia_sentence_216

Philadelphia has the second-largest Irish and Italian populations in the United States, after New York City. Philadelphia_sentence_217

South Philadelphia remains one of the largest Italian neighborhoods in the country and is home to the Italian Market. Philadelphia_sentence_218

The Pennsport neighborhood and Gray's Ferry section of South Philadelphia, home to many Mummer clubs, are well known as Irish neighborhoods. Philadelphia_sentence_219

The Kensington, Port Richmond, and Fishtown neighborhoods have historically been heavily Irish and Polish. Philadelphia_sentence_220

Port Richmond is well known in particular as the center of the Polish immigrant and Polish-American community in Philadelphia, and it remains a common destination for Polish immigrants. Philadelphia_sentence_221

Northeast Philadelphia, although known for its Irish and Irish-American population, is also home to a large Jewish and Russian population. Philadelphia_sentence_222

Mount Airy in Northwest Philadelphia also contains a large Jewish community, while nearby Chestnut Hill is historically known as an Anglo-Saxon Protestant community. Philadelphia_sentence_223

Philadelphia has a significant gay and lesbian population. Philadelphia_sentence_224

Philadelphia's Gayborhood, which is located near Washington Square, is home to a large concentration of gay and lesbian friendly businesses, restaurants, and bars. Philadelphia_sentence_225

The Black American population in Philadelphia is the third-largest in the country, after New York City and Chicago. Philadelphia_sentence_226

West Philadelphia and North Philadelphia are largely African-American neighborhoods, but many are leaving those areas in favor of the Northeast and Southwest sections of Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_227

A higher proportion of African-American Muslims reside in Philadelphia than in most other cities in America. Philadelphia_sentence_228

West Philadelphia and Southwest Philadelphia are also home to various significant Afro-Caribbean and African immigrant communities. Philadelphia_sentence_229

The Puerto Rican population in Philadelphia is the second-largest after New York City, and the second-fastest growing after Orlando. Philadelphia_sentence_230

Eastern North Philadelphia, particularly Fairhill and surrounding areas to the north and east, has one of the highest concentrations of Puerto Ricans outside Puerto Rico, with many large swaths of blocks being close to 100% Puerto Rican. Philadelphia_sentence_231

Large Puerto Rican and Dominican populations reside in North Philadelphia and the Northeast. Philadelphia_sentence_232

In regard to other Latin American populations in Philadelphia, there are significant Mexican and Central American populations in South Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_233

Philadelphia's Asian American population originates mainly from China, India, Vietnam, South Korea, and the Philippines. Philadelphia_sentence_234

Over 35,000 Chinese Americans lived in the city in 2015, including a large Fuzhounese population. Philadelphia_sentence_235

Center City hosts a growing Chinatown accommodating heavily traveled Chinese-owned bus lines to and from Chinatown, Manhattan in New York City, 95 miles to the north, as Philadelphia is experiencing significant Chinese immigration from New York City. Philadelphia_sentence_236

A large Korean community initially settled in the North Philadelphia neighborhood of Olney; however, the primary Koreatown has subsequently shifted northward, straddling the border with the adjacent suburb of Cheltenham in Montgomery County, while also growing in nearby Cherry Hill, New Jersey. Philadelphia_sentence_237

South Philadelphia is also home to large Cambodian, Vietnamese, Thai, and Chinese communities. Philadelphia_sentence_238

Philadelphia has the fifth largest Muslim population among American cities. Philadelphia_sentence_239

Religion Philadelphia_section_10

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 68% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christian. Philadelphia_sentence_240

Approximately 41% of Christians in the city and area professed attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, while 26% professed Catholic beliefs. Philadelphia_sentence_241

Its majority Christian populace is attributed to European colonialism and missionary work. Philadelphia_sentence_242

The Protestant Christian community in Philadelphia is dominated by mainline Protestant denominations including the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, United Church of Christ, the Episcopal Church in the United States, Presbyterian Church (USA) and American Baptist Churches USA. Philadelphia_sentence_243

One of the most prominent mainline Protestant jurisdictions is the Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia_sentence_244

The African Methodist Episcopal Church was established in Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_245

Historically, the city has strong connections to the Quakers, Unitarian Universalism, and the Ethical Culture movement, all of which continue to be represented in the city. Philadelphia_sentence_246

The Quaker Friends General Conference is based in Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_247

Evangelical Protestants making up less than 15% of the population were also prevalent. Philadelphia_sentence_248

Evangelical Protestant bodies included the Anglican Church in North America, Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, Presbyterian Church in America, and National Baptist Convention of America. Philadelphia_sentence_249

The Catholic community is primarily served by the Latin Catholic Archdiocese of Philadelphia, the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Philadelphia, and the Syro-Malankara Catholic Eparchy of the United States of America and Canada, though some independent Catholic churches exist throughout Philadelphia and its suburbs. Philadelphia_sentence_250

The Latin Church-based jurisdiction is headquartered in the city, and its see is the Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul. Philadelphia_sentence_251

The Ukrainian Catholic jurisdiction is also headquartered in Philadelphia, and is seated at the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception. Philadelphia_sentence_252

Less than 1% of Philadelphia's Christians were Mormons. Philadelphia_sentence_253

The remainder of the Christian demographic is spread among smaller Protestant denominations and the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox among others. Philadelphia_sentence_254

The Diocese of Eastern Pennsylvania (Orthodox Church in America) and Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) divide the Eastern Orthodox in Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_255

The Russian Orthodox St. Philadelphia_sentence_256

Andrew's Cathedral is in the city. Philadelphia_sentence_257

The same study says that other religions collectively compose about 8% of the population, including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism, and Hinduism. Philadelphia_sentence_258

The remaining 24% claimed no religious affiliation. Philadelphia_sentence_259

The Philadelphia metropolitan area's Jewish population was estimated at 206,000 in 2001, which was the sixth largest in the United States at that time. Philadelphia_sentence_260

Jewish traders were operating in southeastern Pennsylvania long before William Penn. Philadelphia_sentence_261

Furthermore, Jews in Philadelphia took a prominent part in the War of Independence. Philadelphia_sentence_262

Although the majority of the early Jewish residents were of Portuguese or Spanish descent, some among them had emigrated from Germany and Poland. Philadelphia_sentence_263

About the beginning of the 19th century, a number of Jews from the latter countries, finding the services of the Congregation Mickvé Israel unfamiliar to them, resolved to form a new congregation which would use the ritual to which they had been accustomed. Philadelphia_sentence_264

African diasporic religions are practiced in some Latino and Hispanic and Caribbean communities in North and West Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_265

Languages Philadelphia_section_11

As of 2010, 79.12% (1,112,441) of Philadelphia residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 9.72% (136,688) spoke Spanish, 1.64% (23,075) Chinese, 0.89% (12,499) Vietnamese, 0.77% (10,885) Russian, 0.66% (9,240) French, 0.61% (8,639) other Asian languages, 0.58% (8,217) African languages, 0.56% (7,933) Cambodian (Mon-Khmer), and Italian was spoken as a main language by 0.55% (7,773) of the population over the age of five. Philadelphia_sentence_266

In total, 20.88% (293,544) of Philadelphia's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English. Philadelphia_sentence_267

Economy Philadelphia_section_12

Main articles: Economy of Philadelphia and List of companies based in the Philadelphia area Philadelphia_sentence_268

Philadelphia_table_general_3

Top publicly traded companies

headquartered in PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia_cell_3_0_0

CorporationPhiladelphia_cell_3_1_0 2019

RankPhiladelphia_cell_3_1_1

Revenue

(billions)Philadelphia_cell_3_1_2

ComcastPhiladelphia_cell_3_2_0 32Philadelphia_cell_3_2_1 94.5Philadelphia_cell_3_2_2
AramarkPhiladelphia_cell_3_3_0 198Philadelphia_cell_3_3_1 15.8Philadelphia_cell_3_3_2
FMCPhiladelphia_cell_3_4_0 556Philadelphia_cell_3_4_1 4.7Philadelphia_cell_3_4_2
Urban OutfittersPhiladelphia_cell_3_5_0 634Philadelphia_cell_3_5_1 4.0Philadelphia_cell_3_5_2
Carpenter TechnologyPhiladelphia_cell_3_6_0 940Philadelphia_cell_3_6_1 2.2Philadelphia_cell_3_6_2
Source: FortunePhiladelphia_cell_3_7_0

Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania with the headquarters of five Fortune 1000 companies located within city limits. Philadelphia_sentence_269

As of 2019, the Philadelphia metropolitan area is estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $490 billion, an increase from the $445 billion calculated by the Bureau of Economic Analysis for 2017, representing the eighth largest U.S. metropolitan economy. Philadelphia_sentence_270

Philadelphia's economic sectors include financial services, health care, biotechnology, information technology, trade and transportation, manufacturing, oil refining, food processing, and tourism. Philadelphia_sentence_271

Financial activities account for the largest economic sector of the metropolitan area, which is also one of the largest health education and research centers in the United States. Philadelphia_sentence_272

Philadelphia's annualized unemployment rate was 7.8% in 2014, down from 10% the previous year. Philadelphia_sentence_273

This is higher than the national average of 6.2%. Philadelphia_sentence_274

Similarly, the rate of new jobs added to the city's economy lagged behind the national job growth. Philadelphia_sentence_275

In 2014, about 8,800 jobs were added to the city's economy. Philadelphia_sentence_276

Sectors with the largest number of jobs added were in education and health care, leisure and hospitality, and professional and business services. Philadelphia_sentence_277

Declines were seen in the city's manufacturing and government sectors. Philadelphia_sentence_278

About 31.9% of the city's population was not in the labor force in 2015, the second highest percentage after Detroit. Philadelphia_sentence_279

The city's two largest employers are the federal and city governments. Philadelphia_sentence_280

Philadelphia's largest private employer is the University of Pennsylvania followed by the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_281

A study commissioned by the city's government in 2011 projected 40,000 jobs would be added to the city within 25 years, raising the number of jobs from 675,000 in 2010 to an estimated 715,000 by 2035. Philadelphia_sentence_282

Corporations Philadelphia_section_13

The city is home to the Philadelphia Stock Exchange and the headquarters of cable television and internet provider Comcast, insurance companies Cigna, Colonial Penn, and Independence Blue Cross, food services company Aramark, chemical makers FMC Corporation and Rohm and Haas, pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline, apparel retailer Urban Outfitters and its subsidiaries including Anthropologie, automotive parts retailer Pep Boys, and stainless steel producer Carpenter Technology Corporation. Philadelphia_sentence_283

The headquarters of Boeing Rotorcraft Systems, and its main rotorcraft factory, are in the Philadelphia suburb of Ridley Park, while The Vanguard Group is headquartered in Malvern. Philadelphia_sentence_284

Tech and biotech Philadelphia_section_14

Philadelphia has emerged as a hub for information technology and biotechnology. Philadelphia_sentence_285

Philadelphia and Pennsylvania are attracting new life sciences ventures. Philadelphia_sentence_286

The Philadelphia metropolitan area, comprising the Delaware Valley, has also become a growing hub for venture capital funding. Philadelphia_sentence_287

Tourism Philadelphia_section_15

Philadelphia's history attracts many tourists, with the Independence National Historical Park (which includes the Liberty Bell, Independence Hall, and other historic sites) receiving over 5 million visitors in 2016. Philadelphia_sentence_288

The city welcomed 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent $6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia_sentence_289

Trade and transportation Philadelphia_section_16

Philadelphia International Airport is undergoing a $900 million infrastructural expansion to increase passenger capacity and augment passenger experience; while the Port of Philadelphia, having experienced the highest percentage growth by tonnage loaded in 2017 among major U.S. seaports, was in the process of doubling its capacity in order to accommodate super-sized post-Panamax shipping vessels in 2018. Philadelphia_sentence_290

Philadelphia's 30th Street Station is the third-busiest Amtrak rail hub, following Penn Station in Manhattan and Union Station in Washington, D.C., carrying over 4 million inter-city rail passengers annually. Philadelphia_sentence_291

Education Philadelphia_section_17

Main article: Education in Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_292

Primary and secondary education Philadelphia_section_18

Education in Philadelphia is provided by many private and public institutions. Philadelphia_sentence_293

The School District of Philadelphia runs the city's public schools. Philadelphia_sentence_294

The Philadelphia School District is the eighth largest school district in the United States with 142,266 students in 218 traditional public schools and 86 charter schools as of 2014. Philadelphia_sentence_295

The city's K-12 enrollment in district–run schools dropped from 156,211 students in 2010 to 130,104 students in 2015. Philadelphia_sentence_296

During the same time period, the enrollment in charter schools increased from 33,995 students in 2010 to 62,358 students in 2015. Philadelphia_sentence_297

This consistent drop in enrollment led the city to close 24 of its public schools in 2013. Philadelphia_sentence_298

During the 2014 school year, the city spent an average of $12,570 per pupil, below the average among comparable urban school districts. Philadelphia_sentence_299

Graduation rates among district-run schools, meanwhile, steadily increased in the ten years from 2005. Philadelphia_sentence_300

In 2005, Philadelphia had a district graduation rate of 52%. Philadelphia_sentence_301

This number increased to 65% in 2014, still below the national and state averages. Philadelphia_sentence_302

Scores on the state's standardized test, the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) trended upward from 2005 to 2011 but subsequently decreased. Philadelphia_sentence_303

In 2005, the district-run schools scored an average of 37.4% on math and 35.5% on reading. Philadelphia_sentence_304

The city's schools reached their peak scores in 2011 with 59.0% on math and 52.3% on reading. Philadelphia_sentence_305

In 2014, the scores dropped significantly to 45.2% on math and 42.0% on reading. Philadelphia_sentence_306

Of the city's public high schools, including charter schools, only four performed above the national average on the SAT (1497 out of 2400) in 2014: Masterman, Central, Girard, and MaST Community Charter School. Philadelphia_sentence_307

All other district-run schools were below average. Philadelphia_sentence_308

Higher education Philadelphia_section_19

Philadelphia has the third-largest student concentration on the East Coast, with more than 120,000 college and university students enrolled within the city and nearly 300,000 in the metropolitan area. Philadelphia_sentence_309

More than 80 colleges, universities, trade, and specialty schools are located in the Philadelphia region. Philadelphia_sentence_310

One of the founding members of the Association of American Universities is in the city, the University of Pennsylvania, an Ivy League institution with claims to being the oldest university in the country. Philadelphia_sentence_311

The city's largest school by number of students is Temple University, followed by Drexel University. Philadelphia_sentence_312

The University of Pennsylvania, Temple University, Drexel University, and Thomas Jefferson University comprise the city's nationally ranked research universities. Philadelphia_sentence_313

Philadelphia is also home to five schools of medicine: Drexel University College of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, and Thomas Jefferson University's Sidney Kimmel Medical College. Philadelphia_sentence_314

Hospitals, universities, and higher education research institutions in Philadelphia's four congressional districts received more than $252 million in National Institutes of Health grants in 2015. Philadelphia_sentence_315

Other institutions of higher learning within the city's borders include: Philadelphia_sentence_316

Culture Philadelphia_section_20

Main article: Culture of Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_317

See also: Cultural depictions of Philadelphia, List of National Historic Landmarks in Philadelphia, and List of sites of interest in Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_318

Philadelphia is home to many national historical sites that relate to the founding of the United States. Philadelphia_sentence_319

Independence National Historical Park is the center of these historical landmarks being one of the country's 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Philadelphia_sentence_320

Independence Hall, where the Declaration of Independence was signed, and the Liberty Bell are the city's most famous attractions. Philadelphia_sentence_321

Other national historic sites include the homes of Edgar Allan Poe and Thaddeus Kosciuszko, early government buildings like the First and Second Banks of the United States, Fort Mifflin, and the Gloria Dei (Old Swedes') Church. Philadelphia_sentence_322

Philadelphia alone has 67 National Historic Landmarks, the third most of any city in the country. Philadelphia_sentence_323

Philadelphia's major science museums include the Franklin Institute, which contains the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial; the Academy of Natural Sciences; the Mütter Museum; and the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Philadelphia_sentence_324

History museums include the National Constitution Center, the Museum of the American Revolution, the Philadelphia History Museum, the National Museum of American Jewish History, the African American Museum in Philadelphia, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the Masonic Library and Museum of Pennsylvania in the Masonic Temple, and the Eastern State Penitentiary. Philadelphia_sentence_325

Philadelphia is home to the United States' first zoo and hospital, as well as Fairmount Park, one of America's oldest and largest urban parks, founded in 1855. Philadelphia_sentence_326

The city is home to important archival repositories, including the Library Company of Philadelphia, established in 1731 by Benjamin Franklin, and the Athenaeum of Philadelphia, founded in 1814. Philadelphia_sentence_327

The Presbyterian Historical Society is the country's oldest denominational historical society, organized in 1852. Philadelphia_sentence_328

Arts Philadelphia_section_21

See also: List of public art in Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_329

The city contains many art museums, such as the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the Rodin Museum, which holds the largest collection of work by Auguste Rodin outside France. Philadelphia_sentence_330

The city's major art museum, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, is one of the largest art museums in the world. Philadelphia_sentence_331

The long flight of steps to the Art Museum's main entrance became famous after the film Rocky (1976). Philadelphia_sentence_332

Areas such as South Street and Old City have a vibrant night life. Philadelphia_sentence_333

The Avenue of the Arts in Center City contains many restaurants and theaters, such as the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, home of the Philadelphia Orchestra, and the Academy of Music, home of Opera Philadelphia and the Pennsylvania Ballet. Philadelphia_sentence_334

The Wilma Theatre and the Philadelphia Theatre Company at the Suzanne Roberts Theatre produce a variety of new plays. Philadelphia_sentence_335

Several blocks to the east are the Lantern Theater Company at St. Stephens Episcopal Church; and the Walnut Street Theatre, a National Historic Landmark stated to be the oldest and most subscribed-to theatre in the English-speaking world, founded in 1809. Philadelphia_sentence_336

In May 2019, the Walnut Street Theatre announced a major expansion to begin in 2020. Philadelphia_sentence_337

Philadelphia has more public art than any other American city. Philadelphia_sentence_338

In 1872, the Association for Public Art (formerly the Fairmount Park Art Association) was created as the first private association in the United States dedicated to integrating public art and urban planning. Philadelphia_sentence_339

In 1959, lobbying by the Artists Equity Association helped create the Percent for Art ordinance, the first for a U.S. city. Philadelphia_sentence_340

The program, which has funded more than 200 pieces of public art, is administered by the Philadelphia Office of Arts and Culture, the city's art agency. Philadelphia_sentence_341

The city also has more murals than any other American city, due to the 1984 creation of the Department of Recreation's Mural Arts Program, which seeks to beautify neighborhoods and provide an outlet for graffiti artists. Philadelphia_sentence_342

The program has funded more than 2,800 murals by professional, staff and volunteer artists and educated more than 20,000 youth in underserved neighborhoods throughout Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_343

The city is home to a number of art organizations including the regional art advocacy nonprofit Philadelphia Tri-State Artists Equity, the Philadelphia Sketch Club, one of the country's oldest artists' clubs, and The Plastic Club, started by women excluded from the Sketch Club. Philadelphia_sentence_344

Many Old City art galleries stay open late on the First Friday event of each month. Philadelphia_sentence_345

Annual events include film festivals and parades, the most famous being the Thanksgiving Day Parade and the Mummers Parade on New Year's Day. Philadelphia_sentence_346

Music Philadelphia_section_22

See also: Music of Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_347

The Philadelphia Orchestra is generally considered one of the top five orchestras in the United States. Philadelphia_sentence_348

The orchestra performs at the Kimmel Center and has a summer concert series at the Mann Center for the Performing Arts. Philadelphia_sentence_349

Opera Philadelphia performs at the nation's oldest continually operating opera house—the Academy of Music. Philadelphia_sentence_350

The Philadelphia Boys Choir & Chorale has performed its music all over the world. Philadelphia_sentence_351

The Philly Pops plays orchestral versions of popular jazz, swing, Broadway, and blues songs at the Kimmel Center and other venues within the mid-Atlantic region. Philadelphia_sentence_352

The Curtis Institute of Music is one of the world's premier conservatories and among the most selective institutes of higher education in the United States. Philadelphia_sentence_353

Philadelphia has played a prominent role in the music of the United States. Philadelphia_sentence_354

The culture of American popular music has been influenced by significant contributions of Philadelphia area musicians and producers, in both the recording and broadcasting industries. Philadelphia_sentence_355

In 1952, the teen dance party program called Bandstand premiered on local television, hosted by Bob Horn. Philadelphia_sentence_356

The show was renamed American Bandstand in 1957 when it began national syndication on ABC, hosted by Dick Clark and produced in Philadelphia until 1964 when it moved to Los Angeles. Philadelphia_sentence_357

Promoters marketed youthful musical artists known as teen idols to appeal to the young audience. Philadelphia_sentence_358

Philadelphia-born singers such as Frankie Avalon, James Darren, Eddie Fisher, Fabian Forte, and Bobby Rydell, along with South Philly-raised Chubby Checker, topped the music charts, establishing a clean-cut rock and roll image. Philadelphia_sentence_359

Philly soul music of the late 1960s–1970s is a highly produced version of soul music which led to later forms of popular music such as disco and urban contemporary rhythm and blues. Philadelphia_sentence_360

On July 13, 1985, John F. Kennedy Stadium was the American venue for the Live Aid concert. Philadelphia_sentence_361

The city also hosted the Live 8 concert, which attracted about 700,000 people to the Benjamin Franklin Parkway on July 2, 2005. Philadelphia_sentence_362

Famous rock and pop musicians from Philadelphia or its suburbs include Bill Haley & His Comets, Todd Rundgren and Nazz, Hall & Oates, The Hooters, Ween, Cinderella, and Pink. Philadelphia_sentence_363

Local hip-hop artists include The Roots, DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince, Lil Uzi Vert, Beanie Sigel and his rap collective State Property, Schoolly D, Lisa "Left Eye" Lopes, and Meek Mill. Philadelphia_sentence_364

Cuisine Philadelphia_section_23

Main article: Cuisine of Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_365

The city is known for its hoagies, stromboli, roast pork sandwich, scrapple, soft pretzels, water ice, Irish potato candy, tastykakes, and the cheesesteak sandwich which was developed by Italian immigrants. Philadelphia_sentence_366

The Philadelphia area has many establishments that serve cheesesteaks, including restaurants, taverns, delicatessens and pizza parlors. Philadelphia_sentence_367

The originator of the thinly-sliced steak sandwich in the 1930s, initially without cheese, is Pat's King of Steaks, which faces its rival Geno's Steaks, founded in 1966, across the intersection of 9th Street and Passyunk Avenue in the Italian Market of South Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_368

McGillin's Olde Ale House, opened in 1860 on Drury Street in Center City, is the oldest continuously operated tavern in the city. Philadelphia_sentence_369

The City Tavern is a replica of a historic 18th-century building first opened in 1773, demolished in 1854 after a fire, and rebuilt in 1975 on the same site as part of Independence National Historical Park. Philadelphia_sentence_370

The tavern offers authentic 18th-century recipes, served in seven period dining rooms, three wine cellar rooms and an outdoor garden. Philadelphia_sentence_371

The Reading Terminal Market is a historic food market founded in 1893 in the Reading Terminal building, a designated National Historic Landmark. Philadelphia_sentence_372

The enclosed market is one of the oldest and largest markets in the country, hosting over a hundred merchants offering Pennsylvania Dutch specialties, artisan cheese and meat, locally grown groceries, and specialty and ethnic foods. Philadelphia_sentence_373

Dialect Philadelphia_section_24

Main article: Philadelphia English Philadelphia_sentence_374

The traditional Philadelphia accent is considered by some linguists to be the most distinctive accent in North America. Philadelphia_sentence_375

The Philadelphia dialect, which is spread throughout the Delaware Valley and South Jersey, is part of a larger Mid-Atlantic American English family, a designation that also includes the Baltimore dialect. Philadelphia_sentence_376

Additionally, it shares many similarities with the New York accent. Philadelphia_sentence_377

Owing to over a century of linguistic data collected by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania under sociolinguist William Labov, the Philadelphia dialect has been one of the best-studied forms of American English. Philadelphia_sentence_378

The accent is especially found within the Irish American and Italian American working-class neighborhoods. Philadelphia_sentence_379

Philadelphia also has its own unique collection of neologisms and slang terms. Philadelphia_sentence_380

Sports Philadelphia_section_25

See also: U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_381

cities with teams from four major league sports Philadelphia_sentence_382

Main article: Sports in Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_383

Philadelphia's first professional sports team was baseball's Athletics, organized in 1860. Philadelphia_sentence_384

The Athletics were initially an amateur league team that turned professional in 1871, and then became a founding team of the current National League in 1876. Philadelphia_sentence_385

The city is one of 13 U.S. cities to have teams in all four major league sports: the Philadelphia Phillies in the National League of Major League Baseball, the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League, the Philadelphia Flyers of the National Hockey League, and the Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association. Philadelphia_sentence_386

The Phillies, formed in 1883 as the Quakers and renamed in 1884, are the oldest team continuously playing under the same name in the same city in the history of American professional sports. Philadelphia_sentence_387

The Philadelphia metro area is also home to the Philadelphia Union of Major League Soccer. Philadelphia_sentence_388

The Union began playing their home games in 2010 at PPL Park, a soccer-specific stadium in Chester, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia_sentence_389

The stadium's name was changed to Talen Energy Stadium in 2016, and to Subaru Park in 2020. Philadelphia_sentence_390

Philadelphia was the second of eight American cities to have won titles in all four major leagues (MLB, NFL, NHL and NBA), and also has a title in soccer (from the now-defunct North American Soccer League in the 1970s). Philadelphia_sentence_391

The city's professional teams and their fans endured 25 years without a championship, from the 76ers 1983 NBA Finals win until the Phillies 2008 World Series win. Philadelphia_sentence_392

The lack of championships was sometimes attributed in jest to the Curse of Billy Penn after One Liberty Place became the first building to surpass the height of the William Penn statue on top of City Hall's tower in 1987. Philadelphia_sentence_393

After nine years passed without another championship, the Eagles won their first Super Bowl following the 2017 season. Philadelphia_sentence_394

In 2004, ESPN placed Philadelphia second on its list of The Fifteen Most Tortured Sports Cities. Philadelphia_sentence_395

Fans of the Eagles and Phillies were singled out as the worst fans in the country by GQ magazine in 2011, which used the subtitle of "Meanest Fans in America" to summarize incidents of drunken behavior and a history of booing. Philadelphia_sentence_396

Major professional sports teams that originated in Philadelphia but which later moved to other cities include the Golden State Warriors basketball team—in Philadelphia from 1946 to 1962—and the Oakland Athletics baseball team—originally the Philadelphia Athletics from 1901 to 1954 (a different Athletics team than the one mentioned above). Philadelphia_sentence_397

Philadelphia is home to professional, semi-professional, and elite amateur teams in cricket, rugby league (Philadelphia Fight), and rugby union. Philadelphia_sentence_398

Major running events in the city include the Penn Relays (track and field), the Philadelphia Marathon, and the Broad Street Run. Philadelphia_sentence_399

The Philadelphia International Cycling Classic was held annually from 1985 to 2016, but not in 2017 due to insufficient sponsorship. Philadelphia_sentence_400

The Collegiate Rugby Championship is played every June at Talen Energy Stadium in Chester, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia_sentence_401

Rowing has been popular in Philadelphia since the 18th century. Philadelphia_sentence_402

Boathouse Row is a symbol of Philadelphia's rich rowing history, and each Big Five member has its own boathouse. Philadelphia_sentence_403

Philadelphia hosts numerous local and collegiate rowing clubs and competitions, including the annual Dad Vail Regatta, which is the largest intercollegiate rowing event in North America with more than 100 U.S and Canadian colleges and universities participating; the annual Stotesbury Cup Regatta, which is billed as the world's oldest and largest rowing event for high school students; and the Head of the Schuylkill Regatta. Philadelphia_sentence_404

The regattas are held on the Schuylkill River and organized by the Schuylkill Navy, an association of area rowing clubs that has produced numerous Olympic rowers. Philadelphia_sentence_405

The Philadelphia Spinners were a professional ultimate team in Major League Ultimate (MLU) until 2016. Philadelphia_sentence_406

The Spinners were one of the original eight teams of the American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL) that began in 2012. Philadelphia_sentence_407

They played at Franklin Field and won the inaugural AUDL championship and the final MLU championship in 2016. Philadelphia_sentence_408

The MLU was suspended indefinitely by its investors in December 2016. Philadelphia_sentence_409

As of 2018, the Philadelphia Phoenix continue to play in the AUDL. Philadelphia_sentence_410

Philadelphia is home to the Philadelphia Big 5, a group of five NCAA Division I college basketball programs. Philadelphia_sentence_411

The Big 5 are La Salle, Penn, Saint Joseph's, Temple, and Villanova universities. Philadelphia_sentence_412

The sixth NCAA Division I school in Philadelphia is Drexel University. Philadelphia_sentence_413

Villanova won the 2016 and the 2018 championship of the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. Philadelphia_sentence_414

Philadelphia_table_general_4

TeamPhiladelphia_header_cell_4_0_0 LeaguePhiladelphia_header_cell_4_0_1 SportPhiladelphia_header_cell_4_0_2 VenuePhiladelphia_header_cell_4_0_3 CapacityPhiladelphia_header_cell_4_0_4 FoundedPhiladelphia_header_cell_4_0_5 ChampionshipsPhiladelphia_header_cell_4_0_6
Philadelphia PhilliesPhiladelphia_header_cell_4_1_0 MLBPhiladelphia_cell_4_1_1 BaseballPhiladelphia_cell_4_1_2 Citizens Bank ParkPhiladelphia_cell_4_1_3 46,528Philadelphia_cell_4_1_4 1883Philadelphia_cell_4_1_5 1980, 2008Philadelphia_cell_4_1_6
Philadelphia EaglesPhiladelphia_header_cell_4_2_0 NFLPhiladelphia_cell_4_2_1 American footballPhiladelphia_cell_4_2_2 Lincoln Financial FieldPhiladelphia_cell_4_2_3 69,176Philadelphia_cell_4_2_4 1933Philadelphia_cell_4_2_5 1948, 1949, 1960, 2017Philadelphia_cell_4_2_6
Philadelphia 76ersPhiladelphia_header_cell_4_3_0 NBAPhiladelphia_cell_4_3_1 BasketballPhiladelphia_cell_4_3_2 Wells Fargo CenterPhiladelphia_cell_4_3_3 21,600Philadelphia_cell_4_3_4 1963Philadelphia_cell_4_3_5 1966–67, 1982–83Philadelphia_cell_4_3_6
Philadelphia FlyersPhiladelphia_header_cell_4_4_0 NHLPhiladelphia_cell_4_4_1 Ice hockeyPhiladelphia_cell_4_4_2 Wells Fargo CenterPhiladelphia_cell_4_4_3 19,786Philadelphia_cell_4_4_4 1967Philadelphia_cell_4_4_5 1973–74, 1974–75Philadelphia_cell_4_4_6
Philadelphia UnionPhiladelphia_header_cell_4_5_0 MLSPhiladelphia_cell_4_5_1 SoccerPhiladelphia_cell_4_5_2 Subaru ParkPhiladelphia_cell_4_5_3 18,500Philadelphia_cell_4_5_4 2010Philadelphia_cell_4_5_5 nonePhiladelphia_cell_4_5_6
Philadelphia WingsPhiladelphia_header_cell_4_6_0 NLLPhiladelphia_cell_4_6_1 LacrossePhiladelphia_cell_4_6_2 Wells Fargo CenterPhiladelphia_cell_4_6_3 19,786Philadelphia_cell_4_6_4 2018Philadelphia_cell_4_6_5 nonePhiladelphia_cell_4_6_6
Philadelphia FusionPhiladelphia_header_cell_4_7_0 OWLPhiladelphia_cell_4_7_1 OverwatchPhiladelphia_cell_4_7_2 Fusion ArenaPhiladelphia_cell_4_7_3 3,500Philadelphia_cell_4_7_4 2017Philadelphia_cell_4_7_5 N/APhiladelphia_cell_4_7_6

Parks Philadelphia_section_26

Main article: Fairmount Park Philadelphia_sentence_415

See also: List of parks in Philadelphia and Drinking fountains in Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_416

As of 2014, the total city parkland, including municipal, state and federal parks within the city limits, amounts to 11,211 acres (17.5 sq mi). Philadelphia_sentence_417

Philadelphia's largest park is Fairmount Park which includes the Philadelphia Zoo and encompasses 2,052 acres (3.2 sq mi) of the total parkland, while the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park contains 2,042 acres (3.2 sq mi). Philadelphia_sentence_418

Fairmount Park, when combined with Wissahickon Valley Park, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States. Philadelphia_sentence_419

The two parks, along with the Colonial Revival, Georgian and Federal-style mansions contained in them, have been listed as one entity on the National Register of Historic Places since 1972. Philadelphia_sentence_420

Law and government Philadelphia_section_27

From a governmental perspective, Philadelphia County is a legal nullity, as all county functions were assumed by the city in 1952. Philadelphia_sentence_421

The city has been coterminous with the county since 1854. Philadelphia_sentence_422

Philadelphia's 1952 Home Rule Charter was written by the City Charter Commission, which was created by the Pennsylvania General Assembly in an act of April 21, 1949, and a city ordinance of June 15, 1949. Philadelphia_sentence_423

The existing city council received a proposed draft on February 14, 1951, and the electors approved it in an election held April 17, 1951. Philadelphia_sentence_424

The first elections under the new Home Rule Charter were held in November 1951, and the newly elected officials took office in January 1952. Philadelphia_sentence_425

The city uses the strong-mayor version of the mayor–council form of government, which is led by one mayor in whom executive authority is vested. Philadelphia_sentence_426

The mayor has the authority to appoint and dismiss members of all boards and commissions without the approval of the city council. Philadelphia_sentence_427

Elected at-large, the mayor is limited to two consecutive four-year terms, but can run for the position again after an intervening term. Philadelphia_sentence_428

Courts Philadelphia_section_28

Philadelphia County is coterminous with the First Judicial District of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia_sentence_429

The Philadelphia County Court of Common Pleas is the trial court of general jurisdiction for the city, hearing felony-level criminal cases and civil suits above the minimum jurisdictional limit of $10,000. Philadelphia_sentence_430

The court also has appellate jurisdiction over rulings from the Municipal and Traffic Courts, and some administrative agencies and boards. Philadelphia_sentence_431

The trial division has 70 commissioned judges elected by the voters, along with about one thousand other employees. Philadelphia_sentence_432

The court also has a family division with 25 judges and an orphans' court with three judges. Philadelphia_sentence_433

As of 2018, the city's District Attorney is Larry Krasner, a Democrat. Philadelphia_sentence_434

The last Republican to hold the office is Ronald D. Castille, who left in 1991 and later served as the Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court from 2008 to 2014. Philadelphia_sentence_435

The Philadelphia Municipal Court handles traffic cases, misdemeanor and felony criminal cases with maximum incarceration of five years, and civil cases involving $12,000 or less ($15,000 in real estate and school tax cases), and all landlord-tenant disputes. Philadelphia_sentence_436

The municipal court has 27 judges elected by the voters. Philadelphia_sentence_437

Pennsylvania's three appellate courts also have sittings in Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_438

The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, the court of last resort in the state, regularly hears arguments in Philadelphia City Hall. Philadelphia_sentence_439

The Superior Court of Pennsylvania and the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania also sit in Philadelphia several times a year. Philadelphia_sentence_440

Judges for these courts are elected at large. Philadelphia_sentence_441

The state Supreme Court and Superior Court have deputy prothonotary offices in Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_442

Additionally, Philadelphia is home to the federal United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania and the Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, both of which are housed in the James A. Byrne United States Courthouse. Philadelphia_sentence_443

Politics Philadelphia_section_29

See also: List of mayors of Philadelphia and Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania § Politics Philadelphia_sentence_444

The current mayor is Jim Kenney who won the election in November, 2015. Philadelphia_sentence_445

Kenney's predecessor was Michael Nutter who had served two terms from 2009 to January 2016. Philadelphia_sentence_446

Kenney is a member of the Democratic Party as all Philadelphia mayors have been since 1952. Philadelphia_sentence_447

Philadelphia City Council is the legislative branch which consists of ten council members representing individual districts and seven members elected at-large, all of whom are elected to four-year terms. Philadelphia_sentence_448

Democrats currently hold 14 seats including nine of the ten districts and five at-large seats, while Republicans hold two at-large seats and the Northeast-based Tenth District. Philadelphia_sentence_449

The current council president is Darrell L. Clarke. Philadelphia_sentence_450

As of December 31, 2016, there were 1,102,620 registered voters in Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_451

Registered voters constitute 70.3% of the total population. Philadelphia_sentence_452

Philadelphia_unordered_list_2

  • Democratic: 853,140 (77.4%)Philadelphia_item_2_10
  • Republican: 125,530 (11.4%)Philadelphia_item_2_11
  • Other parties and unaffiliated: 123,950 (11.2%)Philadelphia_item_2_12

Philadelphia was a bastion of the Republican Party from the American Civil War until the mid-1930s. Philadelphia_sentence_453

The city hosted the first Republican National Convention in 1856. Philadelphia_sentence_454

Democratic registrations increased after the Great Depression; however, the city was not carried by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt in his landslide victory of 1932 as Pennsylvania was one of only six states won by Republican Herbert Hoover. Philadelphia_sentence_455

Voter turnout surged from 600,000 in 1932 to nearly 900,000 in 1936 and Roosevelt carried Philadelphia with over 60% of the vote. Philadelphia_sentence_456

The city has voted Democratic in every presidential election since 1936. Philadelphia_sentence_457

In 2008, Democrat Barack Obama drew 83% of the city's vote. Philadelphia_sentence_458

Obama's win was even greater in 2012, capturing 85% of the vote. Philadelphia_sentence_459

In 2016, Democrat Hillary Clinton won 82% of the vote. Philadelphia_sentence_460

As a result of the declining population in the city and state, Philadelphia has only three congressional districts of the 18 districts in Pennsylvania, based on the 2010 Census apportionment: the 2nd district, represented by Brendan Boyle; the 3rd, represented by Dwight Evans; and the 5th, represented by Mary Gay Scanlon. Philadelphia_sentence_461

All three representatives are Democrats though Republicans still have some support in the city, primarily in the Northeast. Philadelphia_sentence_462

Sam Katz ran competitive mayoral races as the Republican nominee in 1999 and 2003, losing to Democrat John Street both times. Philadelphia_sentence_463

Pennsylvania's longest-serving Senator, Arlen Specter, was an alumnus of the University of Pennsylvania who opened his first law practice in Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_464

Specter served as a Republican from 1981 and as a Democrat from 2009, losing that party's primary in 2010 and leaving office in January 2011. Philadelphia_sentence_465

He had also been assistant counsel on the Warren Commission in 1964 and the city's district attorney from 1966 to 1974. Philadelphia_sentence_466

Philadelphia has hosted various national conventions, including in 1848 (Whig), 1856 (Republican), 1872 (Republican), 1900 (Republican), 1936 (Democratic), 1940 (Republican), 1948 (Republican), 1948 (Progressive), 2000 (Republican), and 2016 (Democratic). Philadelphia_sentence_467

Philadelphia has been home to one vice president, George M. Dallas, and one Civil War general, George B. McClellan, who won his party's nomination for president but lost in the general election to Abraham Lincoln in 1864. Philadelphia_sentence_468

In May 2019, former U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_469 Vice President Joe Biden chose Philadelphia to be his 2020 U.S. presidential campaign headquarters. Philadelphia_sentence_470

Public safety Philadelphia_section_30

Police and law enforcement Philadelphia_section_31

Main article: Philadelphia Police Department Philadelphia_sentence_471

According to a 2015 report by the Pew Charitable Trusts, the police districts with the highest rates of violent crime were Frankford (15th district) and Kensington (24th district) in the Near Northeast, and districts to the North (22nd, 25th, and 35th districts), West (19th district) and Southwest (12th district) of Center City. Philadelphia_sentence_472

Each of those seven districts recorded more than a thousand violent crimes in 2014. Philadelphia_sentence_473

The lowest rates of violent crime occurred in Center City, South Philadelphia, the Far Northeast, and Roxborough districts, the latter of which includes Manayunk. Philadelphia_sentence_474

Philadelphia had 525 murders in 1990, a rate of 31.5 per 100,000. Philadelphia_sentence_475

An average of about 600 murders occurred each year for most of the 1990s. Philadelphia_sentence_476

The murder count dropped in 2002 to 288, then rose to 406 by 2006, before dropping slightly to 392 in 2007. Philadelphia_sentence_477

A few years later, Philadelphia began to see a rapid decline in homicides and violent crime. Philadelphia_sentence_478

In 2013, the city had 246 murders, which is a decrease of nearly 40% since 2006. Philadelphia_sentence_479

In 2014, 248 homicides were committed. Philadelphia_sentence_480

The homicide rate rose to 280 in 2015, then fell slightly to 277 in 2016, before rising again to 317 in 2017. Philadelphia_sentence_481

In 2006, Philadelphia's homicide rate of 27.7 per 100,000 people was the highest of the country's 10 most populous cities. Philadelphia_sentence_482

In 2012, Philadelphia had the fourth-highest homicide rate among the country's most populous cities. Philadelphia_sentence_483

The rate dropped to 16 homicides per 100,000 residents by 2014 placing Philadelphia as the sixth-highest city in the country. Philadelphia_sentence_484

The number of shootings in the city has declined significantly since the early years of the 21st century. Philadelphia_sentence_485

Shooting incidents peaked at 1,857 in 2006 before declining nearly 44 percent to 1,047 shootings in 2014. Philadelphia_sentence_486

Major crimes have decreased gradually since a peak in 2006 when 85,498 major crimes were reported. Philadelphia_sentence_487

The number of reported major crimes fell 11 percent in three years to 68,815 occurrences in 2014. Philadelphia_sentence_488

Violent crimes, which include homicide, rape, aggravated assault, and robbery, decreased 14 percent in three years to 15,771 occurrences in 2014. Philadelphia_sentence_489

Philadelphia was ranked as the 76th most dangerous city in a 2018 report based on FBI data from 2016 for the rate of violent crimes per 1,000 residents in American cities with 25,000 or more people. Philadelphia_sentence_490

The latest four years of reports indicate a steady reduction in violent crime as the city placed 67th in the 2017 report, 65th in 2016, and 54th in 2015. Philadelphia_sentence_491

In 2014, Philadelphia enacted an ordinance decriminalizing the possession of less than 30 grams of marijuana or 8 grams of hashish; the ordinance gave police officers the discretion to treat possession of these amounts as a civil infraction punishable by a $25 ticket, rather than a crime. Philadelphia_sentence_492

Philadelphia was at the time the largest city to decriminalize the possession of marijuana. Philadelphia_sentence_493

From 2013 to 2018, marijuana arrests in the city dropped by more than 85%. Philadelphia_sentence_494

The purchase or sale of marijuana remains a criminal offense in Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_495

Firefighting Philadelphia_section_32

Main article: Philadelphia Fire Department Philadelphia_sentence_496

The Philadelphia Fire Department provides fire protection and emergency medical services (EMS). Philadelphia_sentence_497

The department's official mission is to protect public safety by quick and professional response to emergencies and the promotion of sound emergency prevention measures. Philadelphia_sentence_498

This mandate encompasses all traditional firefighting functions, including fire suppression, with 60 engine companies and 30 ladder companies as well as specialty and support units deployed throughout the city; specialized firefighting units for Philadelphia International Airport and the Port of Philadelphia; investigations conducted by the fire marshal's office to determine the origins of fires and develop preventive strategies; prevention programs to educate the public; and support services including research and planning, management of the fire communications center within the city's 911 system, and operation of the Philadelphia Fire Academy. Philadelphia_sentence_499

Media Philadelphia_section_33

See also: Media in Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_500

Newspapers Philadelphia_section_34

Philadelphia's two major daily newspapers are The Philadelphia Inquirer, first published in 1829—the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the country—and the Philadelphia Daily News, first published in 1925. Philadelphia_sentence_501

The Daily News has been published as an edition of the Inquirer since 2009. Philadelphia_sentence_502

Recent owners of the Inquirer and Daily News have included Knight Ridder, The McClatchy Company, and Philadelphia Media Holdings, with the latter organization declaring bankruptcy in 2010. Philadelphia_sentence_503

After two years of financial struggle, the newspapers were sold to Interstate General Media in 2012. Philadelphia_sentence_504

The two newspapers had a combined daily circulation of 306,831 and a Sunday circulation of 477,313 in 2013—the eighteenth largest circulation in the country—while the website of the newspapers, Philly.com, was ranked thirteenth in popularity among online U.S. newspapers by Alexa Internet for the same year. Philadelphia_sentence_505

Smaller publications include the Philadelphia Tribune published five days each week for the African-American community; Philadelphia magazine, a monthly regional magazine; Philadelphia Weekly, a weekly alternative newspaper; Philadelphia Gay News, a weekly newspaper for the LGBT community; The Jewish Exponent, a weekly newspaper for the Jewish community; Al Día, a weekly newspaper for the Latino community; and Philadelphia Metro, a free daily newspaper. Philadelphia_sentence_506

Student-run newspapers include the University of Pennsylvania's The Daily Pennsylvanian, Temple University's The Temple News, and Drexel University's The Triangle. Philadelphia_sentence_507

Radio Philadelphia_section_35

The first experimental radio license was issued in Philadelphia in August 1912 to St. Philadelphia_sentence_508 Joseph's College. Philadelphia_sentence_509

The first commercial AM radio stations began broadcasting in 1922: first WIP, then owned by Gimbels department store, followed by WFIL, then owned by Strawbridge & Clothier department store, and WOO, a defunct station owned by Wanamaker's department store, as well as WCAU and WDAS. Philadelphia_sentence_510

As of 2018, the FCC lists 28 FM and 11 AM stations for Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_511

As of December 2017, the ten highest-rated stations in Philadelphia were adult contemporary WBEB-FM (101.1), sports talk WIP-FM (94.1), classic rock WMGK-FM (102.9), urban adult contemporary WDAS-FM (105.3), classic hits WOGL-FM (98.1), album-oriented rock WMMR-FM (93.3), country music WXTU-FM (92.5), all-news KYW-AM (1060), talk radio WHYY-FM (90.9), and urban adult contemporary WRNB-FM (100.3). Philadelphia_sentence_512

Philadelphia is served by three non-commercial public radio stations: WHYY-FM (NPR), WRTI-FM (classical and jazz), and WXPN-FM (adult alternative music). Philadelphia_sentence_513

Television Philadelphia_section_36

In the 1930s, the experimental station W3XE, owned by Philco, became the first television station in Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_514

The station became NBC's first affiliate in 1939, and later became KYW-TV (currently a CBS affiliate). Philadelphia_sentence_515

WCAU-TV, WFIL-TV, and WHYY-TV were all founded by the 1960s. Philadelphia_sentence_516

In 1952, WFIL (renamed WPVI) premiered the television show Bandstand, which later became the nationally broadcast American Bandstand hosted by Dick Clark. Philadelphia_sentence_517

Each commercial network has an affiliate, and call letters have been replaced by corporate branding for promotional purposes: CBS3, 6ABC, NBC10, PHL17, Fox29, The CW Philly 57, UniMás Philadelphia, Telemundo62, and Univision65. Philadelphia_sentence_518

The region is served also by public broadcasting stations WPPT-TV (Philadelphia), WHYY-TV (Wilmington, Delaware and Philadelphia), WLVT-TV (Lehigh Valley), and NJTV (New Jersey). Philadelphia_sentence_519

Philadelphia has owned-and-operated stations for all five major English-language broadcast networks: NBCWCAU-TV, CBSKYW-TV, ABCWPVI-TV, FoxWTXF-TV, and The CWWPSG-TV. Philadelphia_sentence_520

The major Spanish-language networks are UnivisionWUVP-DT, UniMásWFPA-CD, and TelemundoWWSI-TV. Philadelphia_sentence_521

As of 2018, the city is the nation's fourth-largest consumer in media market, as ranked by the Nielsen Media Research firm, with nearly 2.9 million TV households. Philadelphia_sentence_522

Infrastructure Philadelphia_section_37

Transportation Philadelphia_section_38

Main article: Transportation in Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_523

Philadelphia is served by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) which operates buses, trains, rapid transit (subway and elevated trains), trolleys, and trackless trolleys (electric buses) throughout Philadelphia, the four Pennsylvania suburban counties of Bucks, Chester, Delaware, and Montgomery, in addition to service to Mercer County, New Jersey (Trenton) and New Castle County, Delaware (Wilmington and Newark, Delaware). Philadelphia_sentence_524

The city's subway system consists of two routes: the subway section of the Market–Frankford Line running east–west under Market Street which opened in 1905 to the west and 1908 to the east of City Hall, and the Broad Street Line running north–south beneath Broad Street which opened in stages from 1928 to 1938. Philadelphia_sentence_525

Beginning in the 1980s, large sections of the SEPTA Regional Rail service to the far suburbs of Philadelphia were discontinued due to a lack of funding for equipment and infrastructure maintenance. Philadelphia_sentence_526

Philadelphia's 30th Street Station is a major railroad station on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor with 4.4 million passengers in 2017 making it the third-busiest station in the country after New York City's Pennsylvania Station and Washington's Union Station. Philadelphia_sentence_527

30th Street Station offers access to Amtrak, SEPTA, and NJ Transit lines. Philadelphia_sentence_528

Over 12 million SEPTA and NJ Transit rail commuters use the station each year, and more than 100,000 people on an average weekday. Philadelphia_sentence_529

The PATCO Speedline provides rapid transit service to Camden, Collingswood, Westmont, Haddonfield, Woodcrest (Cherry Hill), Ashland (Voorhees), and Lindenwold, New Jersey, from stations on Locust Street between 16th and 15th, 13th and 12th, and 10th and 9th Streets, and on Market Street at 8th Street. Philadelphia_sentence_530

Airports Philadelphia_section_39

Two airports serve Philadelphia: the Philadelphia International Airport (PHL) is located 7 mi (11 km) south-southwest of Center City on the boundary with Delaware County, providing scheduled domestic and international air service, while Northeast Philadelphia Airport (PNE) is a general aviation relief airport in Northeast Philadelphia serving general and corporate aviation. Philadelphia_sentence_531

Philadelphia International Airport is among the busiest airports in the world measured by traffic movements (i.e., takeoffs and landings). Philadelphia_sentence_532

More than 30 million passengers pass through the airport annually on 25 airlines, including all major domestic carriers. Philadelphia_sentence_533

The airport has nearly 500 daily departures to more than 120 destinations worldwide. Philadelphia_sentence_534

SEPTA's Airport Regional Rail Line provides direct service between Center City railroad stations and Philadelphia International Airport. Philadelphia_sentence_535

Roads Philadelphia_section_40

William Penn planned Philadelphia with numbered streets traversing north and south, and streets named for trees, such as Chestnut, Walnut, and Mulberry, traversing east and west. Philadelphia_sentence_536

The two main streets were named Broad Street (the north–south artery, since designated Pennsylvania Route 611) and High Street (the east–west artery, since renamed Market Street) converging at Centre Square which later became the site of City Hall. Philadelphia_sentence_537

Interstate 95 (the Delaware Expressway) traverses the southern and eastern edges of the city along the Delaware River as the main north–south controlled-access highway, connecting Philadelphia with Newark, New Jersey and New York City to the north and with Baltimore and Washington, D.C. southward. Philadelphia_sentence_538

The city is also served by Interstate 76 (the Schuylkill Expressway), which runs along the Schuylkill River, intersecting the Pennsylvania Turnpike at King of Prussia and providing access to Harrisburg and points west. Philadelphia_sentence_539

Interstate 676 (the Vine Street Expressway) links I-95 and I-76 through Center City by running below street level between the eastbound and westbound lanes of Vine Street. Philadelphia_sentence_540

Entrance and exit ramps for the Benjamin Franklin Bridge are near the eastern end of the expressway, just west of the I-95 interchange. Philadelphia_sentence_541

The Roosevelt Boulevard and Expressway (U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_542 1) connect Northeast Philadelphia with Center City via I-76 through Fairmount Park. Philadelphia_sentence_543

Woodhaven Road (Route 63) and Cottman Avenue (Route 73) serve the neighborhoods of Northeast Philadelphia, running between I-95 and the Roosevelt Boulevard. Philadelphia_sentence_544

The Fort Washington Expressway (Route 309) extends north from the city's northern border, serving Montgomery County and Bucks County. Philadelphia_sentence_545

U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_546 Route 30 (Lancaster Avenue) extends westward from West Philadelphia to Lancaster. Philadelphia_sentence_547

Interstate 476 (locally referred to as the Blue Route) traverses Delaware County, bypassing the city to the west and serving the city's western suburbs, as well as providing a link to Allentown and points north. Philadelphia_sentence_548

Interstate 276 (the Pennsylvania Turnpike's Delaware River extension) acts as a bypass and commuter route to the north of the city as well as a link to the New Jersey Turnpike and New York City. Philadelphia_sentence_549

The Delaware River Port Authority operates four bridges in the Philadelphia area across the Delaware River to New Jersey: the Walt Whitman Bridge (I-76), the Benjamin Franklin Bridge (I-676 and U.S. 30), the Betsy Ross Bridge (New Jersey Route 90), and the Commodore Barry Bridge (U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_550 322 in Delaware County, south of the city). Philadelphia_sentence_551

The Burlington County Bridge Commission maintains two bridges across the Delaware River: the Tacony–Palmyra Bridge which connects PA Route 73 in the Tacony section of Northeast Philadelphia with New Jersey Route 73 in Palmyra, Burlington County, and the Burlington–Bristol Bridge which connects NJ Route 413/U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_552 Route 130 in Burlington, New Jersey with PA Route 413/U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_553 13 in Bristol Township, north of Philadelphia. Philadelphia_sentence_554

Bus service Philadelphia_section_41

Philadelphia is a hub for Greyhound Lines. Philadelphia_sentence_555

The Greyhound terminal is located at 1001 Filbert Street (at 10th Street) in Center City, southeast of the Pennsylvania Convention Center and south of Chinatown. Philadelphia_sentence_556

Several other bus operators provide service at the Greyhound terminal including Fullington Trailways, Martz Trailways, Peter Pan Bus Lines, and NJ Transit buses. Philadelphia_sentence_557

Other intercity bus services include Megabus with stops at 30th Street Station and the visitor center for Independence Hall, BoltBus (operated by Greyhound) at 30th Street Station, OurBus at various stops in the city. Philadelphia_sentence_558

Rail Philadelphia_section_42

Main article: History of rail transport in Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_559

Since the early days of rail transportation in the United States, Philadelphia has served as a hub for several major rail companies, particularly the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Reading Railroad. Philadelphia_sentence_560

The Pennsylvania Railroad first operated Broad Street Station, then 30th Street Station and Suburban Station, and the Reading Railroad operated Reading Terminal, now part of the Pennsylvania Convention Center. Philadelphia_sentence_561

The two companies also operated competing commuter rail systems in the area. Philadelphia_sentence_562

The two systems now operate as a single system under the control of SEPTA, the regional transit authority. Philadelphia_sentence_563

Additionally, the PATCO Speedline subway system and NJ Transit's Atlantic City Line operate successor services to southern New Jersey. Philadelphia_sentence_564

In 1911, Philadelphia had nearly 4,000 electric trolleys running on 86 lines. Philadelphia_sentence_565

In 2005, SEPTA reintroduced trolley service to the Girard Avenue Line, Route 15. Philadelphia_sentence_566

SEPTA operates six "subway-surface" trolleys that run on street-level tracks in West Philadelphia and subway tunnels in Center City, along with two surface trolleys in adjacent suburbs. Philadelphia_sentence_567

Philadelphia is a regional hub of the federally owned Amtrak system, with 30th Street Station being a primary stop on the Washington-Boston Northeast Corridor and the Keystone Corridor to Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. Philadelphia_sentence_568

30th Street also serves as a major station for services via the Pennsylvania Railroad's former Pennsylvania Main Line to Chicago. Philadelphia_sentence_569

As of 2018, 30th Street is Amtrak's third-busiest station in the country, after New York City and Washington. Philadelphia_sentence_570

Walk Score ranks Philadelphia_section_43

A 2017 study by Walk Score ranked Philadelphia the fifth most walkable major city in the United States with a score of 79 out of 100, in the middle of the "very walkable" range. Philadelphia_sentence_571

The city was just edged out by fourth place Miami (79.2), with the top three cities being New York, San Francisco, and Boston. Philadelphia_sentence_572

Philadelphia placed fifth in the public transit friendly category, behind Washington, D.C., with the same three cities for walkability topping this category. Philadelphia_sentence_573

The city ranked tenth in the bike friendly cities category, with the top three cities being Minneapolis, San Francisco and Portland. Philadelphia_sentence_574

The readers of USA Today newspaper voted the Schuylkill River Trail the best urban trail in the nation in 2015. Philadelphia_sentence_575

Utilities Philadelphia_section_44

Water purity and availability Philadelphia_section_45

In 1815, Philadelphia began sourcing its water via the Fairmount Water Works located on the Schuylkill River, the nation's first major urban water supply system. Philadelphia_sentence_576

In 1909, the Water Works was decommissioned as the city transitioned to modern sand filtration methods. Philadelphia_sentence_577

Today, the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) provides drinking water, wastewater collection, and stormwater services for Philadelphia, as well as surrounding counties. Philadelphia_sentence_578

PWD draws about 57 percent of its drinking water from the Delaware River and the balance from the Schuylkill River. Philadelphia_sentence_579

The city has two filtration plants on the Schuylkill River and one on the Delaware River. Philadelphia_sentence_580

The three plants can treat up to 546 million gallons of water per day, while the total storage capacity of the combined plant and distribution system exceeds one billion gallons. Philadelphia_sentence_581

The wastewater system consists of three water pollution control plants, 21 pumping stations, and about 3,657 miles (5,885 km) of sewers. Philadelphia_sentence_582

Electricity Philadelphia_section_46

Exelon subsidiary PECO Energy Company, founded as the Brush Electric Light Company of Philadelphia in 1881 and renamed Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) in 1902, provides electricity to about 1.6 million customers and more than 500,000 natural gas customers in the southeastern Pennsylvania area including the city of Philadelphia and most of its suburbs. Philadelphia_sentence_583

PECO is the largest electric and natural gas utility in the state with 472 power substations and nearly 23,000 miles (37,000 km) of electric transmission and distribution lines, along with 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of natural gas transmission, distribution & service lines. Philadelphia_sentence_584

Natural gas Philadelphia_section_47

Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW), overseen by the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, is the nation's largest municipally-owned natural gas utility. Philadelphia_sentence_585

PGW serves over 500,000 homes and businesses in the Philadelphia area. Philadelphia_sentence_586

Founded in 1836, the company came under city ownership in 1987 and has been providing the majority of gas distributed within city limits. Philadelphia_sentence_587

In 2014, the City Council refused to conduct hearings on a $1.86 billion sale of PGW, part of a two-year effort that was proposed by the mayor. Philadelphia_sentence_588

The refusal led to the prospective buyer terminating its offer. Philadelphia_sentence_589

Telecommunications Philadelphia_section_48

Southeastern Pennsylvania was assigned the 215 area code in 1947 when the North American Numbering Plan of the Bell System went into effect. Philadelphia_sentence_590

The geographic area covered by the code was split nearly in half in 1994 when area code 610 was created, with the city and its northern suburbs retaining 215. Philadelphia_sentence_591

Overlay area code 267 was added to the 215 service area in 1997, and 484 was added to the 610 area in 1999. Philadelphia_sentence_592

A plan in 2001 to introduce a third overlay code to both service areas (area code 445 to 215, area code 835 to 610) was delayed and later rescinded. Philadelphia_sentence_593

Area code 445 was implemented as an overlay for area codes 215 and 267 starting on February 3, 2018. Philadelphia_sentence_594

Notable people Philadelphia_section_49

Main article: List of people from Philadelphia Philadelphia_sentence_595

Sister cities Philadelphia_section_50

Philadelphia_table_general_5

CityPhiladelphia_header_cell_5_0_0 CountryPhiladelphia_header_cell_5_0_1 DatePhiladelphia_header_cell_5_0_2
FlorencePhiladelphia_cell_5_1_0 ItalyPhiladelphia_cell_5_1_1 1964Philadelphia_cell_5_1_2
Tel AvivPhiladelphia_cell_5_2_0 IsraelPhiladelphia_cell_5_2_1 1966Philadelphia_cell_5_2_2
ToruńPhiladelphia_cell_5_3_0 PolandPhiladelphia_cell_5_3_1 1976Philadelphia_cell_5_3_2
TianjinPhiladelphia_cell_5_4_0 ChinaPhiladelphia_cell_5_4_1 1979Philadelphia_cell_5_4_2
IncheonPhiladelphia_cell_5_5_0 South KoreaPhiladelphia_cell_5_5_1 1984Philadelphia_cell_5_5_2
DoualaPhiladelphia_cell_5_6_0 CameroonPhiladelphia_cell_5_6_1 1986Philadelphia_cell_5_6_2
Nizhny NovgorodPhiladelphia_cell_5_7_0 RussiaPhiladelphia_cell_5_7_1 1992Philadelphia_cell_5_7_2
FrankfurtPhiladelphia_cell_5_8_0 GermanyPhiladelphia_cell_5_8_1 2015Philadelphia_cell_5_8_2

Philadelphia also has three partnership cities or regions: Philadelphia_sentence_596

Philadelphia_table_general_6

CityPhiladelphia_header_cell_6_0_0 CountryPhiladelphia_header_cell_6_0_1 DatePhiladelphia_header_cell_6_0_2
KobePhiladelphia_cell_6_1_0 JapanPhiladelphia_cell_6_1_1 1986Philadelphia_cell_6_1_2
AbruzzoPhiladelphia_cell_6_2_0 ItalyPhiladelphia_cell_6_2_1 1997Philadelphia_cell_6_2_2
Aix-en-ProvencePhiladelphia_cell_6_3_0 FrancePhiladelphia_cell_6_3_1 1999Philadelphia_cell_6_3_2

Philadelphia has eight official sister cities as designated by the Citizen Diplomacy International of Philadelphia: Philadelphia has dedicated landmarks to its sister cities. Philadelphia_sentence_597

The Sister Cities Park, a site of 0.5 acres (2,400 sq yd) located at 18th and Benjamin Franklin Parkway within Logan Square, was dedicated in June 1976. Philadelphia_sentence_598

The park was built to commemorate Philadelphia's first two sister city relationships, with Tel Aviv and Florence. Philadelphia_sentence_599

The Toruń Triangle, honoring the sister city relationship with Toruń, Poland, was constructed in 1976, west of the United Way building at 18th Street and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway. Philadelphia_sentence_600

Sister Cities Park was redesigned and reopened in 2012, featuring an interactive fountain honoring Philadelphia's sister and partnership cities, a café and visitor's center, children's play area, outdoor garden, and boat pond, as well as a pavilion built to environmentally friendly standards. Philadelphia_sentence_601

The Chinatown Gate, erected in 1984 and crafted by artisans of Tianjin, stands astride 10th Street, on the north side of its intersection with Arch Street, as a symbol of the sister city relationship. Philadelphia_sentence_602

The CDI of Philadelphia has participated in the U.S. Philadelphia_sentence_603 Department of State's "Partners for Peace" project with Mosul, Iraq, as well as accepting visiting delegations from dozens of other countries. Philadelphia_sentence_604

See also Philadelphia_section_51

Philadelphia_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia.