Philosophie zoologique

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Philosophie zoologique_table_infobox_0

Philosophie zoologique ou exposition des considérations relatives à l'histoire naturelle des animauxPhilosophie zoologique_table_caption_0
AuthorPhilosophie zoologique_header_cell_0_0_0 Jean-Baptiste LamarckPhilosophie zoologique_cell_0_0_1
CountryPhilosophie zoologique_header_cell_0_1_0 FrancePhilosophie zoologique_cell_0_1_1
SubjectPhilosophie zoologique_header_cell_0_2_0 Zoology, evolutionPhilosophie zoologique_cell_0_2_1
PublisherPhilosophie zoologique_header_cell_0_3_0 Musée d'Histoire Naturelle (Jardin des Plantes)Philosophie zoologique_cell_0_3_1
Publication datePhilosophie zoologique_header_cell_0_4_0 1809Philosophie zoologique_cell_0_4_1
PagesPhilosophie zoologique_header_cell_0_5_0 nonPhilosophie zoologique_cell_0_5_1

Philosophie zoologique ("Zoological Philosophy, or Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals") is an 1809 book by the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in which he outlines his pre-Darwinian theory of evolution, part of which is now known as Lamarckism. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_0

In the book, Lamarck named two supposed laws that would enable animal species to acquire characteristics under the influence of the environment. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_1

The first law stated that use or disuse would cause body structures to grow or shrink over the generations. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_2

The second law asserted that such changes would be inherited. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_3

Those conditions together imply that species continuously change by adaptation to their environments, forming a branching series of evolutionary paths. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_4

Lamarck was largely ignored by the major French zoologist Cuvier, but he attracted much more interest abroad. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_5

The book was read carefully, but its thesis rejected, by nineteenth century scientists including the geologist Charles Lyell and the comparative anatomist Thomas Henry Huxley. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_6

Charles Darwin acknowledged Lamarck as an important zoologist, and his theory a forerunner of Darwin's evolution by natural selection. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_7

Context Philosophie zoologique_section_0

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and a professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes and then became the first professor of zoology at the new Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_8

He became known for his work on the taxonomy of the invertebrates, especially of molluscs. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_9

However, he is mainly remembered for the theory that now bears his name, Lamarckism, and in particular his view that the environment (called by Lamarck the conditions of life) gave rise to permanent, inherited, evolutionary changes in animals. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_10

He described his theory in his 1802 Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivants, and in his 1809 Philosophie zoologique, and later in his Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres, (1815–1822). Philosophie zoologique_sentence_11

Book Philosophie zoologique_section_1

In the Philosophie zoologique, Lamarck proposed that species could acquire new characteristics from influences in their environment, in two rules that he named as laws. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_12

His first law stated that use or disuse of a body's structures would cause them to grow or shrink in the course of several generations. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_13

His second law held that any changes made in this way would be inherited. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_14

Together, Lamarck's laws imply the steady adaptation of animals to their environments. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_15

He gave names to a number of vestigial structures in the book, among them "Olivier's Spalax, which lives underground like the mole, and is apparently exposed to daylight even less than the mole, has altogether lost the use of sight: so that it shows nothing more than vestiges of this organ." Philosophie zoologique_sentence_16

Lamarck described speciation as follows: Philosophie zoologique_sentence_17

He argued that gaps between differing kinds of animals resulted from the extinction of intermediate forms, in: Philosophie zoologique_sentence_18

Lamarck proposed the transmutation of species ("transformisme"), but did not believe that all living things shared a common ancestor. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_19

Rather he believed that simple forms of life were created continuously by spontaneous generation. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_20

He also believed that an innate life force, which he sometimes described as a nervous fluid, drove species to become more complex over time, advancing up a linear ladder of complexity similar to the mediaeval great chain of being. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_21

Contents Philosophie zoologique_section_2

The first volume concerns natural history, the second physiology, and the third psychology. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_22

Page numbers are given in parentheses. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_23

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Avertissement (I–XXV) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_24

Discours Préliminaire (1) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_25

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(Considérations sur l'Histoire naturelle des Animaux, leurs caractères, leurs rapports, leur organisation, leur distribution, leur classification et leur espèces) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_26

I. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_27

Des Parties de l'art dans les productions de la Nature (17) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_28

II. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_29

Importance des Rapports (39) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_30

III. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_31

De l'Espèce parmi les Corps vivans, et de l'idée que nous devons attacher à ce mot (53) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_32

IV. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_33

Généralités sur les Animaux (82) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_34

V. Sur l'Etat actuel de la Distribution et de la Classification des Animaux (102) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_35

VI. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_36

Dégradation et simplification de l'organisation d'une extrémité a l'autre de la Chaîne animale (130) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_37

VII. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_38

De l'influence des Circonstances sur les actions et les habitudes des Animaux, et de celle des actions et des habitudes de ces Corps vivans, comme causes qui modifient leur organisation et leurs parties (218) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_39

VIII. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_40

De l'Ordre naturel des Animaux et de la disposition qu'il faut donner a leur distribution generale pour la rendre conforme a l'ordre meme de la nature (269) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_41

Philosophie zoologique_description_list_2

(Considerations sur les Causes physiques de la Vie, les conditions qu'elle exige pour exister, la force excitatrice de ses mouvemens, les facultes qu'elle donne aux corps qui la possedent, et les resultats de son existence dans les corps)(359) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_42

Introduction (359) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_43

I. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_44

Comparison des Corps inorganiques avec les Corps vivans, suivie d'un Parallele entre les Animaux et les Vegetaux (377) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_45

II. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_46

De la Vie, de ce qui la constitue, et des Conditions essentielles a son existence dans un corps (400) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_47

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III. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_48

De la cause excitatrice des mouvemens organiques (1) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_49

IV. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_50

De l'orgasme et de l'irritabilité (20) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_51

V. Du tissu cellulaire, considere comme la gangue dans laquelle toute organisation a ete formee (46) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_52

VI. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_53

Des generations directes ou spontanees (61) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_54

VII. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_55

Des resultats immediats de la vie dans un corps (91) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_56

VIII. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_57

Des facultes communes a tous les corps vivans (113) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_58

IX. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_59

Des facultes particulieres a certains corps vivans (127) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_60

Philosophie zoologique_description_list_4

Introduction (169) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_61

I. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_62

Du système nerveux (180) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_63

II. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_64

Du fluide nerveux (235) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_65

III. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_66

De la sensibilité physique et du mécanisme des sensations (252) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_67

IV. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_68

Du sentiment intérieur, des émotions qu'il est susceptible d'éprouver, et de la puissance (276) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_69

V. De la force productrice des actions des animaux (302) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_70

VI. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_71

De la volonté (330) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_72

VII. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_73

De l'entendement, de son origine, et de celle des idees (346) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_74

VIII. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_75

Des principaux actes de l'entendement (388) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_76

De l'imagination (411) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_77

De la raison et de sa comparaison avec l'instinct (441) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_78

Additions relatives aux chapitres VII et VIII de la premiere partie (451) Philosophie zoologique_sentence_79

Reception Philosophie zoologique_section_3

Lamarck's evolutionary theory made little immediate impact on his fellow zoologists, or on the public at the time. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_80

The historian of science Richard Burkhardt argues that this was because Lamarck was convinced his views would be poorly received, and made little effort to present his theory persuasively. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_81

In the French-speaking world in his lifetime, Lamarck and his theories were rejected by the major zoologists of the day, including Cuvier. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_82

However, he made more of an impact outside France and after his death, where leading scientists such as Ernst Haeckel, Charles Lyell and Darwin himself recognised him as a major zoologist, with theories that presaged Darwinian evolution. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_83

In 1830–1833, Charles Lyell, in his Principles of Geology, carefully summarised Lamarck's theory (in about 6 pages, with cross-references to the Philosophie zoologique) and then roundly criticised it. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_84

Lyell begins by noting that Lamarck gives no examples at all of the development of any entirely new function ("the substitution of some entirely new sense, faculty, or organ") but only proves that the "dimensions and strength" of some parts can be increased or decreased. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_85

Lyell says that with this "disregard to the strict rules of induction" Lamarck "resorts to fictions". Philosophie zoologique_sentence_86

Lyell goes on, assuming for the sake of argument that Lamarck was right about the creation of new organs, that Lamarck's theory would mean that instead of the nature and form of an animal giving rise to its behaviour, its behaviour would determine Philosophie zoologique_sentence_87

Lyell similarly criticises the way Lamarck supposed the antelope and gazelle acquired "light agile forms" able to run swiftly; or the "camelopard" (giraffe) became "gifted with a long flexible neck". Philosophie zoologique_sentence_88

Lamarckism was popularised in the English-speaking world by the speculative Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, published anonymously by Robert Chambers in 1844. Philosophie zoologique_sentence_89

In 1887 Thomas Henry Huxley, the comparative anatomist known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his energetic advocacy of Darwinian evolution, wrote that Philosophie zoologique_sentence_90

Versions Philosophie zoologique_section_4

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: zoologique.