Phoenix, Arizona

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"Phoenix City" redirects here. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_0

For other uses, see Phoenix (disambiguation). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_1

Phoenix, Arizona_table_infobox_0

Phoenix, ArizonaPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesPhoenix, Arizona_cell_0_1_1
StatePhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_2_0 ArizonaPhoenix, Arizona_cell_0_2_1
CountyPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_3_0 MaricopaPhoenix, Arizona_cell_0_3_1
SettledPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_4_0 1867Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_4_1
IncorporatedPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_5_0 February 25, 1881Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_6_0
TypePhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_7_0 Council-ManagerPhoenix, Arizona_cell_0_7_1
BodyPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_8_0 Phoenix City CouncilPhoenix, Arizona_cell_0_8_1
MayorPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_9_0 Kate GallegoPhoenix, Arizona_cell_0_9_1
AreaPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_10_0
State CapitalPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_11_0 519.11 sq mi (1,344.50 km)Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_11_1
LandPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_12_0 517.86 sq mi (1,341.26 km)Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_12_1
WaterPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_13_0 1.25 sq mi (3.24 km)Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_13_1
MetroPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_14_0 14,565.76 sq mi (37,725.1 km)Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_14_1
ElevationPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_15_0 1,086 ft (331 m)Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_15_1
Population (2010)Phoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_16_0
State CapitalPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_17_0 1,445,632Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_17_1
Estimate (2019)Phoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_18_0 1,680,992Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_18_1
RankPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_19_0 US: 5thPhoenix, Arizona_cell_0_19_1
DensityPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_20_0 3,246.02/sq mi (1,253.29/km)Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_20_1
UrbanPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_21_0 3,629,114 (US: 12th)Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_21_1
MetroPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_22_0 4,857,962 (US: 11th)Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_22_1
DemonymPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_23_0 PhoenicianPhoenix, Arizona_cell_0_23_1
Time zonePhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_24_0 UTC−7 (MST (no DST))Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_24_1
ZIP codesPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_25_0 85001–85099Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_25_1
Area codesPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_26_0 Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_26_1
FIPS codePhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_27_0 Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_27_1
GNIS ID(s)Phoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_28_0 ,Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_28_1
Major airportPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_29_0 Phoenix Sky Harbor International AirportPhoenix, Arizona_cell_0_29_1
Secondary AirportsPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_30_0 Deer Valley Airport

Phoenix–Mesa Gateway AirportPhoenix, Arizona_cell_0_30_1

InterstatesPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_31_0 Interstate_10_in_Arizona Interstate_17Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_31_1
U.S. HighwaysPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_32_0 U.S._Route_60_in_ArizonaPhoenix, Arizona_cell_0_32_1
State RoutesPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_33_0 Arizona_State_Route_51 Arizona_State_Route_74 Arizona_State_Route_101 Arizona_State_Route_143 Arizona_State_Route_202 Arizona_State_Route_303Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_33_1
WebsitePhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_0_34_0 Phoenix, Arizona_cell_0_34_1

Phoenix (/ˈfiːnɪks/ FEE-niks; Navajo: Hoozdo; Spanish: Fénix or Fínix) is the capital and most populous city in Arizona, with 1,680,992 people (as of 2019). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_2

It is also the fifth-most populous city in the United States and the largest state capital by population, and the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_3

Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area, also known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_4

The metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with approximately 4.73 million people as of 2017. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_5

Phoenix is the seat of Maricopa County and the largest city in the state at 517.9 square miles (1,341 km), more than twice the size of Tucson and one of the largest cities in the United States. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_6

Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_7

It became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_8

It is in the northeastern reaches of the Sonoran Desert and has a hot desert climate. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_9

Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settler's crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton, citrus, and hay. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_10

Cotton, cattle, citrus, climate, and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_11

These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_12

The city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_13

This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, and has rebounded slowly. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_14

Phoenix is the cultural center of the state of Arizona. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_15

History Phoenix, Arizona_section_0

See also: History of Phoenix, Arizona and Timeline of Phoenix, Arizona Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_16

Early history Phoenix, Arizona_section_1

The Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_17

They created roughly 135 miles (217 kilometers) of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, and paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, and the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_18

They also carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans, Mogollon, and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_19

It is believed periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_20

After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel O'odham (commonly known as Pima), Tohono O'odham, and Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_21

The O'odham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the Hohokam. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_22

The Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_23

They lived in small villages with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_24

Their crops included corn, beans, and squash for food as well as cotton and tobacco. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_25

They banded with the Maricopa for protection against incursions by the Yuma and Apache tribes. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_26

The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; however, they migrated east from the lower Colorado and Gila Rivers in the early 1800s, when they began to be enemies with other Yuma tribes, settling among the existing communities of the Akimel O'odham. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_27

The Tohono O'odham also lived in the region, but largely to the south and all the way to the Mexican border. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_28

The O'odham lived in small settlements as seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains, rather than the large-scale irrigation of the Akimel. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_29

They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, squash, lentils, sugar cane, and melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, and mesquite candy (sap from the mesquite tree). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_30

They also hunted local game such as deer, rabbit, and javelina for meat. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_31

The Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, and the region's residents became U.S. citizens. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_32

The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_33

In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_34

Maricopa County had not been incorporated; the land was within Yavapai County, which included the major town of Prescott to the north of Wickenburg. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_35

The Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Indian uprisings. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_36

The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, which was the first settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_37

Other nearby settlements later merged to become the city of Tempe. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_38

Founding and incorporation Phoenix, Arizona_section_2

The history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War who prospected in the nearby mining town of Wickenburg in the newly formed Arizona Territory. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_39

He was traveling through the Salt River Valley in 1867 and saw a potential for farming to supply Wickenburg with food. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_40

He also noted the eroded mounds of dirt that indicated previous canals dug by native peoples who had long since left the area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_41

He formed the Swilling Irrigation and Canal Company that year, dug a large canal that drew in river water, and erected several crop fields in a location that is now within the eastern portion of central Phoenix near its airport. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_42

Soon, other settlers began to arrive, appreciating the area's fertile soil and lack of frost, and the farmhouse that Swilling constructed became a frequently-visited location in the valley. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_43

Lord Darrell Duppa was one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, and he suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_44

The Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County officially recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, and the first post office was established the following month with Swilling as the postmaster. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_45

In October 1870, a meeting of valley residents was held to select a new townsite for the valley's growing population. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_46

A new location three miles to the west of the original settlement, containing several allotments of farmland, was chosen, and lots began to officially be sold under the name of Phoenix in December of that year. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_47

This established the downtown core in a grid layout pattern that has been the hallmark of Phoenix's urban development ever since. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_48

On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County; it was the sixth one formed in the Arizona Territory. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_49

The first election for county office was held in 1871 when Tom Barnum was elected the first sheriff. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_50

He ran unopposed when the other two candidates (John A. Chenowth and Jim Favorite) fought a duel; Chenowth killed Favorite and was forced to withdraw from the race. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_51

The town grew during the 1870s, and President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_52

By 1875, the town had a telegraph office, 16 saloons, and four dance halls, but the townsite-commissioner form of government needed an overhaul. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_53

An election was held in 1875, and three village trustees and other officials were elected. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_54

By 1880, the town's population stood at 2,453. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_55

By 1881, Phoenix's continued growth made the board of trustees obsolete. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_56

The Territorial Legislature passed the Phoenix Charter Bill, incorporating Phoenix and providing a mayor-council government; Governor John C. Fremont signed the bill on February 25, 1881, officially incorporating Phoenix as a city with a population of around 2,500. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_57

The railroad's arrival in the valley in the 1880s was the first of several events that made Phoenix a trade center whose products reached eastern and western markets. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_58

In response, the Phoenix Chamber of Commerce was organized on November 4, 1888. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_59

The city offices moved into the new City Hall at Washington and Central in 1888. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_60

The territorial capital was moved from Prescott to Phoenix in 1889, and the territorial offices were also in City Hall. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_61

With the arrival of the Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railroad in 1895, Phoenix was connected to Prescott, Flagstaff, and other communities in the northern part of the territory. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_62

The increased access to commerce expedited the city's economic rise. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_63

The Phoenix Union High School was established in 1895 with an enrollment of 90. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_64

1900 to World War II Phoenix, Arizona_section_3

On February 25, 1901, Governor Oakes Murphy dedicated the permanent Capitol building, and the Carnegie Free Library opened seven years later, on February 18, 1908, dedicated by Benjamin Fowler. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_65

The National Reclamation Act was signed by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1902, which allowed for dams to be built on waterways in the west for reclamation purposes. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_66

The first dam constructed under the act, Salt River Dam#1, began in 1903. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_67

It supplied both water and electricity, becoming the first multi-purpose dam, and Roosevelt himself attended the official dedication on May 18, 1911. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_68

At the time, it was the largest masonry dam in the world, forming a lake in the mountain east of Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_69

The dam would be renamed after Teddy Roosevelt in 1917, and the lake would follow suit in 1959. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_70

On February 14, 1912, Phoenix became a state capital, as Arizona was admitted to the Union as the 48th state under President William Howard Taft. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_71

This occurred just six months after Taft had vetoed a joint congressional resolution granting statehood to Arizona, due to his disapproval of the state constitution's position regarding the recall of judges. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_72

In 1913, Phoenix's move from a mayor-council system to council-manager made it one of the first cities in the United States with this form of city government. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_73

After statehood, Phoenix's growth started to accelerate, and eight years later, its population had reached 29,053. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_74

In 1920, Phoenix would see its first skyscraper, the Heard Building. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_75

In 1929, Sky Harbor was officially opened, at the time owned by Scenic Airways. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_76

It would later be purchased in 1935 by the city, which operates it today. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_77

On March 4, 1930, former U.S. President Calvin Coolidge dedicated a dam on the Gila River named in his honor. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_78

However, the state had just been through a long drought, and the reservoir which was supposed to be behind the dam was virtually dry. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_79

The humorist Will Rogers, who was on hand as a guest speaker joked, "If that was my lake, I'd mow it." Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_80

Phoenix's population had more than doubled during the 1920s, and now stood at 48,118. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_81

It was also during the 1930s that Phoenix and its surrounding area began to be called "The Valley of the Sun", which was an advertising slogan invented to boost tourism. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_82

During World War II, Phoenix's economy shifted to that of a distribution center, transforming into an "embryonic industrial city" with the mass production of military supplies. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_83

There were three air force fields in the area: Luke Field, Williams Field, and Falcon Field, as well as two large pilot training camps, Thunderbird Field No. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_84 1 in Glendale and Thunderbird Field No. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_85 2 in Scottsdale. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_86

Post-World War II explosive growth Phoenix, Arizona_section_4

A town that had just over 65,000 residents in 1940 became America's sixth largest city by 2010, with a population of nearly 1.5 million, and millions more in nearby suburbs. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_87

When the war ended, many of the men who had undergone their training in Arizona returned, bringing their new families. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_88

Learning of this large untapped labor pool enticed many large industries to move their operations to the area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_89

In 1948 high-tech industry, which would become a staple of the state's economy, arrived in Phoenix when Motorola chose Phoenix as the site of its new research and development center for military electronics. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_90

Seeing the same advantages as Motorola, other high-tech companies such as Intel and McDonnell Douglas also moved into the valley and opened manufacturing operations. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_91

By 1950, over 105,000 people resided in the city and thousands more in surrounding communities. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_92

The 1950s growth was spurred on by advances in air conditioning, which allowed both homes and businesses to offset the extreme heat experienced in Phoenix and the surrounding areas during its long summers. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_93

There was more new construction in Phoenix in 1959 alone than from 1914 to 1946. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_94

Like many emerging American cities at the time, Phoenix's spectacular growth did not occur evenly. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_95

It largely took place on the city's north side, a region that was nearly all Caucasian. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_96

In 1962, one local activist testified at a US Commission on Civil Rights hearing that of 31,000 homes that had recently sprung up in this neighborhood, not a single one had been sold to an African-American. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_97

Phoenix's African-American and Mexican-American communities remained largely sequestered on the south side of town. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_98

The color lines were so rigid that no one north of Van Buren Street would rent to the African-American baseball star Willie Mays, in town for spring training in the 1960s. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_99

In 1964, a reporter from The New Republic wrote of segregation in these terms: "Apartheid is complete. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_100

The two cities look at each other across a golf course." Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_101

1960s to present Phoenix, Arizona_section_5

The continued rapid population growth led more businesses to the valley to take advantage of the labor pool, and manufacturing, particularly in the electronics sector, continued to grow. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_102

The convention and tourism industries saw rapid expansion during the 1960s, with tourism becoming the third largest industry by the end of the decade. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_103

In 1960 the Phoenix Corporate Center opened; at the time it was the tallest building in Arizona, topping off at 341 feet. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_104

The 1960s saw many other buildings constructed as the city expanded rapidly, including the Rosenzweig Center (1964), today called Phoenix City Square, the landmark Phoenix Financial Center (1964), as well as many of Phoenix's residential high-rises. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_105

In 1965 the Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum opened at the Arizona State Fairgrounds, west of downtown. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_106

When Phoenix was awarded an NBA franchise in 1968, which would be called the Phoenix Suns, they played their home games at the Coliseum until 1992, after which they moved to America West Arena. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_107

In 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson approved the Central Arizona Project, assuring future water supplies for Phoenix, Tucson, and the agricultural corridor in between them. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_108

The following year, Pope Paul VI created the Diocese of Phoenix on December 2, by splitting the Archdiocese of Tucson, with Edward A. McCarthy as the first Bishop. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_109

In the 1970s the downtown area experienced a resurgence, with a level of construction activity not seen again until the urban real estate boom of the 2000s. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_110

By the end of the decade, Phoenix adopted the Phoenix Concept 2000 plan which split the city into urban villages, each with its own village core where greater height and density was permitted, further shaping the free-market development culture. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_111

The nine original villages have expanded to 15 over the years (see Cityscape below). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_112

This officially turned Phoenix into a city of many nodes, which would later be connected by freeways. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_113

The Phoenix Symphony Hall opened in 1972; other major structures which saw construction downtown during this decade were the First National Bank Plaza, the Valley Center (the tallest building in the state of Arizona), and the Arizona Bank building. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_114

On September 25, 1981, Phoenix resident Sandra Day O'Connor broke the gender barrier on the U.S. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_115 Supreme Court, when she was sworn in as the first female justice. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_116

In 1985, the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, the nation's largest nuclear power plant, began electrical production. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_117

Pope John Paul II and Mother Teresa both visited the Valley in 1987. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_118

There was an influx of refugees due to low-cost housing in the Sunnyslope area in the 1990s, resulting in 43 different languages being spoken in local schools by the year 2000. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_119

The new 20-story City Hall opened in 1992. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_120

Phoenix has maintained a growth streak in recent years, growing by 24.2% before 2007. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_121

This made it the second-fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States, surpassed only by Las Vegas. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_122

In 2008, Squaw Peak, the city's second tallest mountain, was renamed Piestewa Peak after Army Specialist Lori Ann Piestewa, an Arizonan and the first Native American woman to die in combat while serving in the U.S. military, as well as being the first American female casualty of the 2003 Iraq War. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_123

2008 also saw Phoenix as one of the cities hardest hit by the subprime mortgage crisis, and by early 2009 the median home price was $150,000, down from its $262,000 peak in 2007. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_124

Crime rates in Phoenix have fallen in recent years, and once troubled, decaying neighborhoods such as South Mountain, Alhambra, and Maryvale have recovered and stabilized. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_125

Recently, downtown Phoenix and the central core have experienced renewed interest and growth, resulting in many restaurants, stores, and businesses opening or relocating to central Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_126

Geography Phoenix, Arizona_section_6

Phoenix is in the southwestern United States, in the south-central portion of Arizona; about halfway between Tucson to the southeast and Flagstaff to the north. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_127

By car, the city is approximately 150 miles (240 kilometers) north of the US-Mexico border at Sonoyta and 180 mi (290 km) north of the border at Nogales. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_128

The metropolitan area is known as the "Valley of the Sun" due to its location in the Salt River Valley. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_129

It lies at a mean elevation of 1,086 feet (331 m), in the northern reaches of the Sonoran Desert. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_130

Other than the mountains in and around the city, Phoenix's topography is generally flat, which allows the city's main streets to run on a precise grid with wide, open-spaced roadways. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_131

Scattered, low mountain ranges surround the valley: McDowell Mountains to the northeast, the White Tank Mountains to the west, the Superstition Mountains far to the east, and both South Mountain and the Sierra Estrella to the south/southwest. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_132

Camelback Mountain, North Mountain, Sunnyslope Mountain, and Piestewa Peak are within the heart of the valley. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_133

The city's outskirts have large fields of irrigated cropland and Native American reservation lands. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_134

The Salt River runs westward through Phoenix, but the riverbed is often dry or contains little water due to large irrigation diversions. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_135

South Mountain separates the community of Ahwatukee from the rest of the city. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_136

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 517.9 square miles (1,341 km). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_137

516.7 square miles (1,338 km) of it is land, and 1.2 square miles (3.1 km, or 0.2%) of it is water. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_138

Maricopa County grew by 811% from 186,000 in 1940 to 1,509,000 by 1980, thanks in part to air conditioning, cheap housing, and an influx of retirees. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_139

The once "modest urban sprawl" now "grew by 'epic' proportions— not only a myriad of residential tract developments on both farmland and desert." Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_140

Retail outlets and office complexes spread out and did not concentrate in the small downtown area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_141

There was low population density and a lack of widespread and significant high-rise development. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_142

As a consequence Phoenix became a textbook case of urban sprawl for geographers. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_143

Even though it is the fifth most populated city, the large area gives it a low density rate of approximately 2,797 people per square mile. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_144

In comparison, Philadelphia, the sixth most populous city, has a density of over 11,000. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_145

Like most of Arizona, Phoenix does not observe daylight saving time. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_146

In 1973, Governor Jack Williams argued to the U.S. Congress that energy use would increase in the evening should Arizona observe DST. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_147

He went on to say energy use would also rise early in the day "because there would be more lights on in the early morning." Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_148

Additionally, he said daylight saving time would cause children to go to school in the dark. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_149

Cityscape Phoenix, Arizona_section_7

See also: List of tallest buildings in Phoenix Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_150

Neighborhoods Phoenix, Arizona_section_8

Since 1979, the city of Phoenix has been divided into urban villages, many of which are based upon historically significant neighborhoods and communities that have since been annexed into Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_151

Each village has a planning committee appointed directly by the city council. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_152

According to the city-issued village planning handbook, the purpose of the village planning committees is to "work with the city's planning commission to ensure a balance of housing and employment in each village, concentrate development at identified village cores, and to promote the unique character and identity of the villages." Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_153

There are 15 urban villages: Ahwatukee Foothills, Alhambra, Camelback East, Central City, Deer Valley, Desert View, Encanto, Estrella, Laveen, Maryvale, North Gateway, North Mountain, Paradise Valley, Rio Vista, and South Mountain. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_154

The urban village of Paradise Valley is distinct from the nearby Town of Paradise Valley. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_155

Although the urban village is part of Phoenix, the town is independent. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_156

In addition to the above urban villages, Phoenix has a variety of commonly referred-to regions and districts, such as Downtown, Midtown, Uptown, West Phoenix, North Phoenix, South Phoenix, Biltmore Area, Arcadia, and Sunnyslope. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_157

Climate Phoenix, Arizona_section_9

Phoenix has a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh), typical of the Sonoran Desert and is the largest city of America in this climatic zone. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_158

Phoenix has long, extremely hot summers and short, mild winters. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_159

The city is within one of the world's sunniest regions, with its sunshine duration comparable to the Sahara region. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_160

With 3,872 hours of bright sunshine annually, Phoenix receives the most sunshine of any major city on Earth. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_161

Average high temperatures in summer are the hottest of any major city in the United States. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_162

On average, there are 107 days annually with a high of at least 100 °F (38 °C) including most days from late May through early October. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_163

Highs top 110 °F (43 °C) an average of 18 days during the year. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_164

On June 26, 1990, the temperature reached an all-time recorded high of 122 °F (50 °C). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_165

Maricopa County, which includes Phoenix, was ranked 7th for most ozone pollution in the United States according to the American Lung Association. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_166

Ozone forms in sunlight, so Phoenix is particularly susceptible to ozone formation. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_167

Vehicle emissions are cited as precursors to ozone formation. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_168

Phoenix also has high levels of particulate pollution; although, cities in California lead the nation in this hazard. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_169

PM2.5 particlulate matter, which is a component of diesel engine exhaust, and larger PM10 particles, which can come from dust, can both reach concerning levels in Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_170

In fact, people, pets, and other animals exposed to high concentrations of PM10 dust particles―primarily from dust storms or from disturbed agricultural or construction sites―are at risk of contracting Valley Fever, a fungal lung infection. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_171

Unlike most desert locations which have drastic fluctuations between day and nighttime temperatures, the urban heat island effect limits Phoenix's diurnal temperature variation. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_172

As the city has expanded, average summer low temperatures have been steadily rising. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_173

Pavement, sidewalks, and buildings store the sun's heat and radiate it at night. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_174

The daily normal low remains at or above 80 °F (27 °C) for an average of 67 days per summer. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_175

On July 15, 2003, Phoenix set its record for the warmest daily low temperature, at 96 °F (36 °C). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_176

The city averages approximately 300 days of sunshine, or over 85% of daylight hours, per year, and receives scant rainfall―the average annual total at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport is 8.03 in (204 mm). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_177

The region's trademark dry and sunny weather is interrupted by Pacific storms in the winter and the arrival of the North American Monsoon in the summer. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_178

Historically, the monsoon officially started when the average dew point was 55 °F (13 °C) for three days in a row—typically occurring in early July. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_179

In order to increase monsoon awareness and promote safety, however, the National Weather Service decreed that starting in 2008, June 15 would be the official "first day" of the monsoon, and it would end on September 30. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_180

When active, the monsoon raises humidity levels and can cause heavy localized precipitation, flash floods, hail, destructive winds, and dust storms—which can rise to the level of a haboob in some years. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_181

July is the wettest month (1.05 in (27 mm)), while June is the driest (0.02 in (0.51 mm)). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_182

On September 8, 2014, the city of Phoenix recorded its single highest rainfall total by the National Weather Service with 3.30 in (84 mm) breaking the 75-year-old record of 2.91 in (74 mm), set on September 4, 1939. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_183

The September 2014 storm was created from the remnants of Hurricane Norbert which had moved up from the Gulf of California and flooded the city's major interstates and low-lying roadways, stranding hundreds of motorists. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_184

On average, dew points range from 29 °F (−2 °C) in April to 57 °F (14 °C) in August. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_185

Occasionally, dew points can drop as low as 0 °F (−18 °C), or they can rise as high as 70 °F (21 °C), or higher, during periods of strong monsoon activity—creating muggy conditions in the area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_186

Desert lands in and around the city have become increasingly susceptible to wildfire outbreaks. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_187

Fire risk is highest in the dry spring and summer months following wet winters, due to the resulting carpet of invasive buffelgrass, weeds, and brush. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_188

Rugged terrain often makes firefighting efforts difficult. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_189

Because many desert plants are not adapted to fire, wildfires pose a considerable threat to the future of the desert ecosystem. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_190

Generally speaking, the annual minimum temperature in Phoenix is in the mid-to-low 30s. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_191

It rarely drops to 32 °F (0 °C) or below, having done so in only seven of the years between 1995 and 2015 on a total of sixteen days. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_192

However, peripheral portions of the greater Phoenix metropolitan area frequently see frost in the winter. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_193

The earliest freeze on record occurred on November 4, 1956, and the latest occurred on March 31, 1987. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_194

The all-time lowest recorded temperature in Phoenix was 16 °F (−9 °C) on January 7, 1913, while the coldest daily high temperature ever recorded was 36 °F (2 °C) on December 10, 1898. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_195

The longest continuous stretch without a day of frost in Phoenix was over 5 years, from November 23, 1979, to January 31, 1985. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_196

Snow is a rare occurrence in Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_197

Snowfall was first officially recorded in 1898, and since then, accumulations of 0.1 inches (0.25 cm) or greater have occurred only eight times. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_198

The heaviest snowstorm on record took place on January 21–22, 1937, when 1 to 4 inches (2.5 to 10.2 cm) fell in parts of the city and did not melt entirely for three days. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_199

On December 6, 1998, snow fell across the northwest portions of the city, and Sky Harbor reported a dusting of snow. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_200

On December 30, 2010, and February 20, 2013, graupel fell across much of the city, although it was widely believed to be snow. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_201

Most recently, on February 21–22, 2019, the far northern and northeastern sections of the metro area were blanketed with several inches of snow while Sky Harbor received record rainfall. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_202

Phoenix, Arizona_table_general_1

Climate data for PhoenixPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_0_0
MonthPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_0 JanPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_1 FebPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_2 MarPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_3 AprPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_4 MayPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_5 JunPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_6 JulPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_7 AugPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_8 SepPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_9 OctPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_10 NovPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_11 DecPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_12 YearPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_1_13
Mean daily daylight hoursPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_2_0 10.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_1 11.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_2 12.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_3 13.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_4 14.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_5 14.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_6 14.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_7 13.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_8 12.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_9 11.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_10 10.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_11 10.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_12 12.0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_2_13
Average Ultraviolet indexPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_3_0 3Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_1 4Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_2 6Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_3 8Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_4 10Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_5 10Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_6 11Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_7 10Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_8 8Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_9 6Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_10 4Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_11 3Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_12 6.9Phoenix, Arizona_cell_1_3_13
Source: Weather AtlasPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_1_4_0

Flora and fauna Phoenix, Arizona_section_10

While some of the native flora and fauna of the Sonoran Desert can be found within Phoenix city limits, most are found in the suburbs and the undeveloped desert areas that surround the city. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_203

Native mammal species include coyote, javelina, bobcat, mountain lion, desert cottontail rabbit, jackrabbit, antelope ground squirrel, mule deer, ringtail, coati, and multiple species of bats, such as the Mexican free-tailed bat and western pipistrelle, that roost in and around the city. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_204

There are many species of native birds, including Costa's hummingbird, Anna's hummingbird, Gambel's quail, Gila woodpecker, mourning dove, white-winged dove, the roadrunner, the cactus wren, and many species of raptors, including falcons, hawks, owls, vultures (such as the turkey vulture and black vulture), and eagles, including the golden and the bald eagle. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_205

The greater Phoenix region is home to the only thriving feral population of rosy-faced lovebirds in the U.S. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_206

This bird is a popular birdcage pet, native to southwestern Africa. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_207

Feral birds were first observed living outdoors in 1987, probably escaped or released pets, and by 2010 the Greater Phoenix population had grown to about 950 birds. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_208

These lovebirds prefer older neighborhoods where they nest under untrimmed, dead palm tree fronds. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_209

The area is also home to a plethora of native reptile species including the Western diamondback rattlesnake, Sonoran sidewinder, several other types of rattlesnakes, Sonoran coral snake, dozens of species of non-venomous snakes (including the Sonoran gopher snake and the California kingsnake), the gila monster, desert spiny lizard, several types of whiptail lizards, the chuckwalla, desert horned lizard, western banded gecko, Sonora mud turtle, and the desert tortoise. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_210

Native amphibian species include the Couch's spadefoot toad, Chiricahua leopard frog, and the Sonoran desert toad. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_211

Phoenix and the surrounding areas are also home to a wide variety of native invertebrates including the Arizona bark scorpion, giant desert hairy scorpion, Arizona blond tarantula, Sonoran Desert centipede, tarantula hawk wasp, camel spider, and tailless whip scorpion. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_212

Of great concern is the presence of Africanized bees which can be extremely dangerous—even lethal—when provoked. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_213

The Arizona Upland subdivision of the Sonoran Desert (of which Phoenix is a part) has "the most structurally diverse flora in the United States." Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_214

One of the most well-known types of succulents, the giant saguaro cactus, is found throughout the city and its neighboring environs. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_215

Other native species are the organpipe, barrel, fishhook, senita, prickly pear and cholla cacti; ocotillo; Palo Verde trees and foothill and blue paloverde; California fan palm; agaves; soaptree yucca, Spanish bayonet, desert spoon, and red yucca; ironwood; mesquite; and the creosote bush. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_216

Many non-native plants also thrive in Phoenix including, but not limited to, the date palm, Mexican fan palm, pineapple palm, Afghan pine, Canary Island pine, Mexican fencepost cactus, cardon cactus, acacia, eucalyptus, aloe, bougainvillea, oleander, lantana, bottlebrush, olive, citrus, and red bird of paradise. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_217

Demographics Phoenix, Arizona_section_11

Phoenix is the sixth most populous city in the United States according to the 2010 United States Census, with a population of 1,445,632, making it the most populous state capital in the United States. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_218

Phoenix's ranking as the sixth most populous city was a drop from the number five position it had held since the U. S. Census Bureau released population estimates on June 28, 2007. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_219

Those statistics used data from 2006, which showed Phoenix's population at 1,512,986, which put it just ahead of Philadelphia. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_220

In 2016, Phoenix regained the position of 5th most populous city, with the census bureau estimating its population at 1,615,017, edging out Philadelphia with a population of 1,567,872. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_221

After leading the U.S. in population growth for over a decade, the sub-prime mortgage crisis, followed by the recession, led to a slowing in the growth of Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_222

There were approximately 77,000 people added to the population of the Phoenix metropolitan area in 2009, which was down significantly from its peak in 2006 of 162,000. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_223

Despite this slowing, Phoenix's population grew by 9.4% since the 2000 census (a total of 124,000 people), while the entire Phoenix metropolitan area grew by 28.9% during the same period. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_224

This compares with an overall growth rate nationally during the same time frame of 9.7%. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_225

Not since 1940–50, when the city had a population of 107,000, had the city gained less than 124,000 in a decade. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_226

Phoenix's recent growth rate of 9.4% from the 2010 census is the first time it has recorded a growth rate under 24% in a census decade. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_227

However, in 2016, Phoenix once again became the fastest growing city in the United States, adding approximately 88 people per day during the preceding year. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_228

The Phoenix Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) (officially known as the Phoenix-Mesa-Chandler MSA ), is one of 10 MSAs in Arizona, and was the 11th largest in the United States, with a 2018 U.S. Census population estimate of 4,857,962, up from the 2010 Census population of 4,192,887. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_229

Consisting of both Pinal and Maricopa counties, the MSA accounts for 65.5% of Arizona's population. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_230

Phoenix only contributed 13% to the total growth rate of the MSA, down significantly from its 33% share during the prior decade. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_231

Phoenix is also part of the Arizona Sun Corridor megaregion (MR), which is the 10th most populous of the 11 MRs, and the 8th largest by area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_232

It had the 2nd largest growth by percentage of the MRs (behind only the Gulf Coast MR) between 2000 and 2010. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_233

The population is almost equally split between men and women, with men making up 50.2% of city's citizens. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_234

The population density is 2,797.8 people per square mile, and the city's median age is 32.2 years, with only 10.9 of the population being over 62. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_235

98.5% of Phoenix's population lives in households with an average household size of 2.77 people. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_236

There were 514,806 total households, with 64.2% of those households consisting of families: 42.3% married couples, 7% with an unmarried male as head of household, and 14.9% with an unmarried female as head of household. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_237

33.6% of those households have children below the age of 18. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_238

Of the 35.8% of non-family households, 27.1% have a householder living alone, almost evenly split between men and women, with women having 13.7% and men occupying 13.5%. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_239

Phoenix has 590,149 housing units, with an occupancy rate of 87.2%. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_240

The largest segment of vacancies is in the rental market, where the vacancy rate is 14.9%, and 51% of all vacancies are in rentals. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_241

Vacant houses for sale only make up 17.7% of the vacancies, with the rest being split among vacation properties and other various reasons. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_242

The city's median household income was $47,866, and the median family income was $54,804. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_243

Males had a median income of $32,820 versus $27,466 for females. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_244

The city's per capita income was $24,110. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_245

21.8% of the population and 17.1% of families were below the poverty line. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_246

Of the total population, 31.4% of those under the age of 18 and 10.5% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_247

According to the 2010 Census, the racial breakdown of Phoenix was as follows: Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_248

Phoenix, Arizona_unordered_list_0

Phoenix, Arizona_table_general_2

Racial compositionPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_2_0_0 1940Phoenix, Arizona_header_cell_2_0_1 1970Phoenix, Arizona_header_cell_2_0_2 1990Phoenix, Arizona_header_cell_2_0_3 2010Phoenix, Arizona_header_cell_2_0_4
White (includes White Hispanics)Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_1_0 92.3%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_1_1 93.3%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_1_2 81.7%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_1_3 65.9%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_1_4
Black or African AmericanPhoenix, Arizona_cell_2_2_0 6.5%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_2_1 4.8%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_2_2 5.2%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_2_3 6.5%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_2_4
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_3_0 n/aPhoenix, Arizona_cell_2_3_1 12.7%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_3_2 20.0%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_3_3 40.8%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_3_4
AsianPhoenix, Arizona_cell_2_4_0 0.8%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_4_1 0.5%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_4_2 1.7%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_4_3 3.2%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_4_4
Non-Hispanic WhitesPhoenix, Arizona_cell_2_5_0 n/aPhoenix, Arizona_cell_2_5_1 81.3%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_5_2 71.8%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_5_3 46.5%Phoenix, Arizona_cell_2_5_4

Phoenix's population has historically been predominantly white. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_249

From 1890 to 1970, over 90% of the citizens were white. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_250

In recent years, this percentage has dropped, reaching 65% in 2010. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_251

However, a large part of this decrease can be attributed to new guidelines put out by the U.S. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_252 Census Bureau in 1980, when a question regarding Hispanic origin was added to the census questionnaire. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_253

This has led to an increasing tendency for some groups to no longer self-identify as white, and instead categorize themselves as "other races". Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_254

20.6% of the population of the city was foreign born in 2010. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_255

Of the 1,342,803 residents over 5 years of age, 63.5% spoke only English, 30.6% spoke Spanish at home, 2.5% spoke another Indo-European language, 2.1% spoke Asian or Islander languages, with the remaining 1.4% speaking other languages. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_256

About 15.7% of non-English speakers reported speaking English less than "very well". Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_257

The largest national ancestries reported were Mexican (35.9%), German (15.3%), Irish (10.3%), English (9.4%), Black (6.5%), Italian (4.5%), French (2.7%), Polish (2.5%), American Indian (2.2%), and Scottish (2.0%). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_258

Hispanics or Latinos of any race make up 40.8% of the population. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_259

Of these the largest groups are at 35.9% Mexican, 0.6% Puerto Rican, 0.5% Guatemalan, 0.3% Salvadoran, 0.3% Cuban. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_260

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 66% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, while 26% claimed no religious affiliation. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_261

The same study says other religions (including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism) collectively make up about 7% of the population. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_262

In 2010, according to the Association of Religion Data Archives, which conducts religious census each ten years, 39% of those polled in Maricopa county considered themselves a member of a religious group. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_263

Of those who expressed a religious affiliation, the area's religious composition was reported as 35% Catholic, 22% to Evangelical Protestant denominations, 16% Latter-Day Saints (LDS), 14% to nondenominational congregations, 7% to Mainline Protestant denominations, and 2% Hindu. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_264

The remaining 4% belong to other religions, such as Buddhism and Judaism. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_265

While the number of religious adherents increased by 103,000 during the decade, the growth did not keep pace with the county's overall population increase of almost three-quarters of million individuals during the same period. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_266

The largest aggregate increases were in the LDS (a 58% increase) and Evangelical Protestant churches (14% increase), while all other categories saw their numbers drop slightly or remain static. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_267

The Catholic Church had an 8% drop, while mainline Protestant groups saw a 28% decline. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_268

Economy Phoenix, Arizona_section_12

Main article: Economy of Phoenix Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_269

The early economy of Phoenix focused on agriculture and natural resources, especially the "5Cs" of copper, cattle, climate, cotton, and citrus. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_270

With the establishment of the Southern Pacific rail line in 1926, the opening of the Union Station in 1923, and the creation of Sky Harbor airport by the end of the decade, the city became more easily accessible. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_271

The Great Depression affected Phoenix, but Phoenix had a diverse economy and by 1934 the recovery was underway. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_272

At the conclusion of World War II, the valley's economy surged, as many men who had completed their military training at the bases in and around Phoenix returned with their families. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_273

The construction industry, spurred on by the city's growth, further expanded with the development of Sun City. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_274

It became the template for suburban development in post-WWII America, and Sun City became the template for retirement communities when it opened in 1960. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_275

The city averaged a 4 percent annual growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_276

As the national financial crisis of 2007–10 began, construction in Phoenix collapsed and housing prices plunged. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_277

Arizona jobs declined by 11.8% from peak to trough; in 2007 Phoenix had 1,918,100 employed individuals, by 2010 that number had shrunk by 226,500 to 1,691,600. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_278

By the end of 2015, the employment number in Phoenix had risen to 1.97 million, finally regaining its pre-recession levels, with job growth occurring across the board. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_279

As of 2017, the Phoenix MSA had a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of just under $243 billion. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_280

The top five industries were: real estate ($41.96), Finance and insurance ($19.71), manufacturing ($19.91), Retail trade ($18.64), and health care ($19.78). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_281

Government (including federal, state and local), if it had been a private industry, would have been ranked second on the list, generating $23.37 billion. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_282

In Phoenix, real estate developers face few constraints when planning and developing new projects. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_283

Accordingly, the city is prone to overbuilding during times of economic prosperity. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_284

This explains the city's higher-than-average vacancy rates. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_285

As of 2010, the top five employment categories were office and administrative support (17.8%), sales (11.6%), food preparation and serving (9%), transportation and material moving (6.1%), and management (5.8%). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_286

The single largest occupation is retail salespersons, which account for 3.7% of the workforce. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_287

As of January 2016, 10.5% of the workforce were government employees, a high number because the city is both the county seat and state capital. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_288

The civilian labor force was 2,200,900, and the unemployment rate stood at 4.6%. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_289

Phoenix is home to four Fortune 500 companies: electronics corporation Avnet, mining company Freeport-McMoRan, retailer PetSmart, and waste hauler Republic Services. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_290

Honeywell's Aerospace division is headquartered in Phoenix, and the valley hosts many of their avionics and mechanical facilities. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_291

Intel has one of their largest sites in the area, employing about 12,000 employees, the second largest Intel location in the country. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_292

The city is also home to the headquarters of U-HAUL International, Best Western, and Apollo Group, parent of the University of Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_293

US Air/American Airlines is the largest carrier at Phoenix's Sky Harbor International Airport. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_294

Mesa Air Group, a regional airline group, is headquartered in Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_295

The military has a large presence in Phoenix, with Luke Air Force Base in the western suburbs. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_296

The city was severely impacted by the effects of the sub-prime mortgage crash. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_297

However, Phoenix has recovered 83% of the jobs lost due to the recession. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_298

Culture Phoenix, Arizona_section_13

Performing arts Phoenix, Arizona_section_14

The city has numerous performing arts venues, most of which are in and around downtown Phoenix or Scottsdale. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_299

The Phoenix Symphony Hall is home to the Phoenix Symphony Orchestra, the Arizona Opera and Ballet Arizona. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_300

The Arizona Opera company also has intimate performances at its new Arizona Opera Center, which opened in March 2013. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_301

Another venue is the Orpheum Theatre, which is home to the Phoenix Opera. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_302

Ballet Arizona, in addition to the Symphony Hall, also has performances at the Orpheum Theatre as well at the Dorrance Theater. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_303

Concerts also regularly make stops in the area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_304

The largest downtown performing art venue is the Herberger Theater Center, which houses three performance spaces and is home to two resident companies, the Arizona Theatre Company and the Centre Dance Ensemble. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_305

Three other groups also use the facility: Valley Youth Theatre, iTheatre Collaborative and Actors Theater. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_306

Concerts can be attended at Talking Stick Resort Arena and Comerica Theatre in downtown Phoenix, Ak-Chin Pavilion in Maryvale, Gila River Arena in Glendale, and Gammage Auditorium in Tempe (the last public building designed by Frank Lloyd Wright). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_307

Several smaller theaters including Trunk Space, the Mesa Arts Center, the Crescent Ballroom, Celebrity Theatre, and Modified Arts support regular independent musical and theater performances. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_308

Music can also be seen in some of the venues usually reserved for sports, such as the Wells Fargo Arena and State Farm Stadium. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_309

Several television series have been set in Phoenix, including Alice (1976–85), the 2000s paranormal drama Medium, the 1960–61 syndicated crime drama The Brothers Brannagan, and The New Dick Van Dyke Show from 1971 to 1974. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_310

Museums Phoenix, Arizona_section_15

Dozens of museums exist throughout the valley. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_311

They include the Phoenix Art Museum, Arizona Capitol Museum, Scottsdale Museum of Contemporary Art, Arizona Military Museum, Hall of Flame Firefighting Museum, the Pueblo Grande Museum Archaeological Park, Children's Museum of Phoenix, Arizona Science Center, and the Heard Museum. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_312

In 2010, the Musical Instrument Museum opened their doors, featuring the biggest musical instrument collection in the world. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_313

In 2015 the Children's Museum of Phoenix was recognized as one of the top three children's museums in the United States. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_314

Designed by Alden B. Dow, a student of Frank Lloyd Wright, the Phoenix Art Museum was constructed in a single year, opening in November 1959. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_315

The Phoenix Art Museum has the southwest's largest collection of visual art, containing more than 17,000 works of contemporary and modern art from around the world. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_316

Interactive exhibits can be found in nearby Peoria's Challenger Space Center, where individuals learn about space, renewable energies, and meet astronauts. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_317

The Heard Museum has over 130,000 sq ft (12,000 m) of gallery, classroom and performance space. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_318

Some of the museum's signature exhibits include a full Navajo hogan, the Mareen Allen Nichols Collection of 260 pieces of contemporary jewelry, the Barry Goldwater Collection of 437 historic Hopi kachina dolls, and an exhibit on the 19th-century boarding school experiences of Native Americans. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_319

The Heard Museum attracts about 250,000 visitors a year. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_320

Fine arts Phoenix, Arizona_section_16

The downtown Phoenix art scene has developed in the past decade. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_321

The Artlink organization and the galleries downtown have launched a First Friday cross-Phoenix gallery opening, as well as hosting Art Detour which has become central to the city's cultural identity. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_322

In April 2009, artist Janet Echelman inaugurated her monumental sculpture, Her Secret Is Patience, a civic icon suspended above the new Phoenix Civic Space Park, a two-city-block park in the middle of downtown. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_323

This netted sculpture makes the invisible patterns of desert wind visible to the human eye. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_324

During the day, the 100-foot (30 m)-tall sculpture hovers high above heads, treetops, and buildings, the sculpture creates what the artist calls "shadow drawings", which she says are inspired by Phoenix's cloud shadows. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_325

At night, the illumination changes color gradually through the seasons. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_326

Author Prof. Patrick Frank writes of the sculpture that "... most Arizonans look on the work with pride: this unique visual delight will forever mark the city of Phoenix just as the Eiffel Tower marks Paris." Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_327

Architecture Phoenix, Arizona_section_17

Phoenix is the home of a unique architectural tradition and community. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_328

Frank Lloyd Wright moved to Phoenix in 1937 and built his winter home, Taliesin West, and the main campus for The Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_329

Over the years, Phoenix has attracted notable architects who have made it their home and grown successful practices. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_330

These architectural studios embrace the desert climate, and are unconventional in their approach to the practice of design. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_331

They include the Paolo Soleri (who created Arcosanti), Al Beadle, Will Bruder, Wendell Burnette, and Blank Studio architectural design studios. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_332

Another major force in architectural landscape of the city was Ralph Haver whose firm, Haver & Nunn, designed commercial, industrial and residential structures throughout the valley. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_333

Of particular note was his trademark, "Haver Home", which were affordable contemporary-style tract houses. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_334

Tourism Phoenix, Arizona_section_18

The tourist industry is the longest running of today's top industries in Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_335

Starting with promotions back in the 1920s, the industry has grown into one of the top 10 in the city. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_336

Due to its climate, Phoenix and its neighbors have consistently ranked among the nation's top destinations in the number of Five Diamond/Five Star resorts. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_337

With more than 62,000 hotel rooms in over 500 hotels and 40 resorts, greater Phoenix sees over 16 million visitors each year, most of whom are leisure (as opposed to business) travelers. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_338

Sky Harbor Airport, which serves the Greater Phoenix area, serves about 40 million passengers a year, ranking it among the 10 busiest airports in the nation. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_339

One of the biggest attractions of the Phoenix area is golf, with over 200 golf courses. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_340

In addition to the sites of interest in the city, there are many attractions near Phoenix, such as Agua Fria National Monument, Arcosanti, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Lost Dutchman State Park, Montezuma's Castle, Montezuma's Well, and Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_341

Phoenix also serves as a central point to many of the sights around the state of Arizona, such as the Grand Canyon, Lake Havasu (where the London Bridge is located), Meteor Crater, the Painted Desert, the Petrified Forest, Tombstone, Kartchner Caverns, Sedona and Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_342

Other attractions and annual events Phoenix, Arizona_section_19

Due to its natural environment and climate, Phoenix has a number of outdoor attractions and recreational activities. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_343

The Phoenix Zoo is the largest privately owned, non-profit zoo in the United States. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_344

Since opening in 1962, the zoo has developed an international reputation for its efforts on animal conservation, including breeding and reintroducing endangered species back into the wild. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_345

Right next to the zoo, the Phoenix Botanical Gardens were opened in 1939, and are acclaimed worldwide for their art and flora exhibits and educational programs, featuring the largest collection of arid plants in the U.S. South Mountain Park, the largest municipal park in the U.S., is also the highest desert mountain preserve in the world. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_346

Other popular sites in the city are Japanese Friendship Garden, Historic Heritage Square, Phoenix Mountains Park, Pueblo Grande Museum, Tovrea Castle, Camelback Mountain, Hole in the Rock, Mystery Castle, St. Mary's Basilica, Taliesin West, and the Wrigley Mansion. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_347

Many annual events in and near Phoenix celebrate the city's heritage and its diversity. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_348

They include the Scottsdale Arabian Horse Show, the world's largest horse show; Matsuri, a celebration of Japanese culture; Pueblo Grande Indian Market, an event highlighting Native American arts and crafts; Grand Menorah Lighting, a December event celebrating Hanukah; ZooLights, a December evening event at the Phoenix Zoo that features millions of lights; the Arizona State Fair, begun in 1884; Scottish Gathering & Highland Games, an event celebrating Scottish heritage; Estrella War, a celebration of medieval life; Tohono O'odham Nation Rodeo & Fair, Oldest Indian rodeo in Arizona; and the Chinese Week & Culture & Cuisine Festival, a celebration of Chinese culture. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_349

Cuisine Phoenix, Arizona_section_20

Like many other western towns, Phoenix's earliest restaurants were often steakhouses. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_350

Today, Phoenix is also renowned for its Mexican food, thanks to its large Hispanic population and its proximity to Mexico. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_351

Some of Phoenix's restaurants have a long history. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_352

The Stockyards steakhouse dates to 1947, while Monti's La Casa Vieja (Spanish for "The Old House") was in operation as a restaurant since the 1890s, but closed its doors November 17, 2014. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_353

Macayo's (a Mexican restaurant chain) was established in Phoenix in 1946, and other major Mexican restaurants include Garcia's (1956) and Manuel's (1964). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_354

The recent population boom has brought people from all over the nation, and to a lesser extent from other countries, and has since influenced the local cuisine. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_355

Phoenix boasts cuisines from all over the world, such as Korean, barbecue, Cajun/Creole, Greek, Hawaiian, Irish, Japanese, sushi, Italian, fusion, Persian, Indian (South Asian), Spanish, Thai, Chinese, southwestern, Tex-Mex, Vietnamese, Brazilian, and French. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_356

The first McDonald's franchise was sold by the McDonald brothers to a Phoenix entrepreneur in 1952. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_357

Neil Fox paid $1,000 for the rights to open an establishment based on the McDonald brothers' restaurant. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_358

The hamburger stand opened in 1953 on the southwest corner of Central Avenue and Indian School Road, on the growing north side of Phoenix, and was the first location to sport the now internationally known golden arches, which were initially twice the height of the building. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_359

Three other franchise locations opened that year, two years before Ray Kroc purchased McDonald's and opened his first franchise in Chicago, Illinois. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_360

Sports Phoenix, Arizona_section_21

Main article: Sports in Phoenix Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_361

Major league Phoenix, Arizona_section_22

See also: U.S. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_362 cities with teams from four major sports Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_363

Phoenix is home to several professional sports franchises, and is one of only 13 U.S. metropolitan areas to have representatives of all four major professional sports leagues, although only one of these teams actually carry the city name and two of them play within the city limits. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_364

The Phoenix Suns were the first major sports team in Phoenix, being granted a National Basketball Association (NBA) franchise in 1968. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_365

They had originally played at the Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum before moving to America West Arena (now PHX Arena) in 1992. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_366

The year following their move to the new arena, the Suns made it to the NBA Finals for the second time in franchise history, losing to Michael Jordan's Chicago Bulls, 4 games to 2. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_367

The U.S. Airways Center hosted both the 1995 and the 2009 NBA All-Star Games. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_368

In 1997, the Phoenix Mercury were one of the original eight teams to launch the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_369

They also play at Talking Stick Resorts Arena. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_370

They have won the WNBA championship three times: first in 2007 when they defeated the Detroit Shock, again in 2009 when they defeated the Indiana Fever, and in 2014 when they swept the Chicago Sky. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_371

The Arizona Diamondbacks of Major League Baseball began play as an expansion team in 1998. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_372

The team has played all of its home games in the same downtown park, now known as Chase Field. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_373

It is the second highest stadium in the U.S. (after Coors Field in Denver), and is known for its swimming pool beyond the outfield fence. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_374

In 2001, the Diamondbacks defeated the New York Yankees 4 games to 3 in the World Series, becoming the city's first professional sports franchise to win a national championship while in Arizona. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_375

The win was also the fastest an expansion team had ever won the World Series, surpassing the old mark of the Florida Marlins of 5 years, set in 1997. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_376

The Arizona Cardinals are the oldest continuously run professional football franchise in the nation. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_377

Founded in 1898 in Chicago, they moved to Phoenix from St. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_378 Louis, Missouri in 1988 and play in the Western Division of the National Football League's National Football Conference. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_379

Upon their move to Phoenix, the Cardinals played their home games at Sun Devil Stadium on the campus of Arizona State University in nearby Tempe. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_380

In 2006, they moved to the new State Farm Stadium in suburban Glendale. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_381

Since moving to Phoenix, the Cardinals have made one championship appearance, Super Bowl XLIII in 2009, where they lost 27–23 to the Pittsburgh Steelers. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_382

Sun Devil Stadium held Super Bowl XXX in 1996. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_383

State Farm Stadium hosted Super Bowl XLII in 2008, and Super Bowl XLIX in 2015. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_384

It was also selected to host Super Bowl LVII. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_385

The Arizona Coyotes of the National Hockey League moved to the area in 1996, formerly known as the Winnipeg Jets. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_386

They originally played their home games at America West Arena in downtown Phoenix before moving in December 2003 to the Arena (now named the Gila River Arena) in Glendale. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_387

In 2018, the now-defunct Alliance of American Football announced the league's Phoenix franchise, the Arizona Hotshots, would begin playing in 2019. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_388

Phoenix, Arizona_table_general_3

Professional teams in the Phoenix areaPhoenix, Arizona_table_caption_3
ClubPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_3_0_0 SportPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_3_0_1 LeaguePhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_3_0_2 VenuePhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_3_0_3 TitlesPhoenix, Arizona_header_cell_3_0_4
Arizona CardinalsPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_1_0 FootballPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_1_1 NFLPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_1_2 State Farm StadiumPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_1_3 2*Phoenix, Arizona_cell_3_1_4
Arizona DiamondbacksPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_2_0 BaseballPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_2_1 MLBPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_2_2 Chase FieldPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_2_3 1Phoenix, Arizona_cell_3_2_4
Phoenix SunsPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_3_0 BasketballPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_3_1 NBAPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_3_2 PHX ArenaPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_3_3 0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_3_3_4
Arizona CoyotesPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_4_0 Ice hockeyPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_4_1 NHLPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_4_2 Gila River ArenaPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_4_3 0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_3_4_4
Phoenix MercuryPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_5_0 BasketballPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_5_1 WNBAPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_5_2 PHX ArenaPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_5_3 3Phoenix, Arizona_cell_3_5_4
Arizona RattlersPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_6_0 Indoor footballPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_6_1 IFLPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_6_2 PHX ArenaPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_6_3 6Phoenix, Arizona_cell_3_6_4
Phoenix Rising FCPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_7_0 SoccerPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_7_1 USLPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_7_2 Phoenix Rising FC Soccer ComplexPhoenix, Arizona_cell_3_7_3 0Phoenix, Arizona_cell_3_7_4
  • Note: The Cardinals won two of their championships while in Chicago, pre-modern era. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_389

Other sports Phoenix, Arizona_section_23

The Phoenix area hosts two annual college football bowl games: the Fiesta Bowl, played at State Farm Stadium, and the Cheez-It Bowl, held at Sun Devil Stadium (though Chase Field has substituted as host while ASU's football stadium undergoes renovations). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_390

Phoenix has an indoor football team, the Arizona Rattlers of the Indoor Football League. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_391

Their games are also played at Talking Stick Resort Arena. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_392

They played in the Arena Football League from 1992 to 2016 and had won five AFL championships before leaving the league. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_393

The Greater Phoenix area is home to the Cactus League, one of two spring training leagues for Major League Baseball. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_394

With the move by the Colorado Rockies and the Diamondbacks to their new facility in the Salt River Indian Community, the league is entirely based in the Greater Phoenix area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_395

With the Cincinnati Reds' move to Goodyear, half of MLB's 30 teams are now included in the Cactus League. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_396

Phoenix International Raceway (was built in 1964 with a one-mile (1.6 km) oval, with a one-of-a-kind design, as well as a 2.5-mile (4.0 km) road course. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_397

It hosts several NASCAR events per season, and the annual Fall NASCAR weekend, which includes events from four different NASCAR classes, is a huge event. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_398

Wild Horse Pass Motorsports Park (formerly Firebird International Raceway) hosts NHRA events in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_399

The city also hosts several major professional golf events, including the LPGA's Founder's Cup and, since 1932, The Phoenix Open of the PGA Tour. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_400

The Phoenix Marathon is a new addition to the city's sports scene, and is a qualifier for the Boston Marathon. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_401

The Rock 'n' Roll Marathon series has held an event in Phoenix every January since 2004. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_402

Phoenix is also home to a soccer club, Phoenix Rising FC. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_403

Parks and recreation Phoenix, Arizona_section_24

Phoenix is home to a large number of parks and recreation areas. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_404

The city of Phoenix includes national parks, county (Maricopa County) parks and city parks. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_405

Tonto National Forest forms part of the city's northeast boundary, while the county has the largest park system in the country. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_406

The city park system established to preserve the desert landscape in areas that would otherwise have succumbed to development includes South Mountain Park, the world's largest municipal park with 16,500 acres (67 km). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_407

The system's 182 parks contain over 41,900 acres (16,956 ha), making it the largest municipal park system in the country. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_408

The park system has facilities for hiking, camping, swimming, horseback riding, cycling, and climbing. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_409

Some of the system's other notable parks include Camelback Mountain, Encanto Park (another large urban park) and Sunnyslope Mountain, also known as "S" Mountain. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_410

Papago Park in east Phoenix is home to both the Desert Botanical Garden and the Phoenix Zoo, in addition to several golf courses and the Hole-in-the-Rock geological formation. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_411

The Desert Botanical Garden, which opened in 1939, is one of the few public gardens in the country dedicated to desert plants, and displays desert plant life from all over the world. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_412

The Phoenix Zoo is the largest privately owned non-profit zoo in the United States and is internationally known for its programs devoted to saving endangered species. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_413

Government Phoenix, Arizona_section_25

See also: List of mayors of Phoenix, Arizona Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_414

In 1913, Phoenix adopted a new form of government, switching from the mayor-council system to the council-manager system, making it one of the first cities in the United States with this form of city government, where a city manager supervises all city departments and executes the policies adopted by the council. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_415

Today, Phoenix represents the largest municipal government of this type in the country. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_416

The city council consists of a mayor and eight city council members. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_417

While the mayor is elected in a citywide election, Phoenix City Council members are elected by votes only in the districts they represent, with both the Mayor and the Council members serving four-year terms. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_418

The mayor of Phoenix is Kate Gallego. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_419

The mayor and city council members each have equal voting power in regards to setting city policy and passing rules and regulations. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_420

Sunshine Review gave the city's website a Sunny Award for its transparency efforts. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_421

State government facilities Phoenix, Arizona_section_26

As the capital of Arizona, Phoenix houses the state legislature, along with numerous state government agencies, many of which are in the State Capitol district immediately west of downtown. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_422

The Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections operates the Adobe Mountain and Black Canyon Schools in Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_423

Another major state government facility is the Arizona State Hospital, operated by the Arizona Department of Health Services. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_424

This is a mental health center and is the only medical facility run by the state government. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_425

The headquarters of numerous Arizona state government agencies are in Phoenix, with many in the State Capitol district. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_426

Federal government facilities Phoenix, Arizona_section_27

The Federal Bureau of Prisons operates the Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) Phoenix, which is within the city limits, near its northern boundary. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_427

The Sandra Day O'Connor U.S. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_428 Courthouse, the U.S. District Court of Arizona, is on Washington Street downtown. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_429

It is named in honor of retired U.S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, who was raised in Arizona. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_430

The Federal Building is at the intersection of Van Buren Street and First Avenue downtown. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_431

It contains various federal field offices and the local division of the U.S. Bankruptcy Court. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_432

This building formerly housed the U.S. District Court offices and courtrooms, but these were moved in 2001 to the new Sandra Day O'Connor U.S. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_433

Courthouse. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_434

Before the construction of this building in 1961, federal government offices were housed in the historic U.S. Post Office on Central Avenue, completed in the 1930s. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_435

Crime Phoenix, Arizona_section_28

Main article: Crime in Phoenix Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_436

By the 1960s, crime was a major problem in Phoenix, and by the 1970s crime continued to increase in the city at a faster rate than almost anywhere else in the country. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_437

It was during this time frame when an incident occurred in Phoenix which would have national implications. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_438

On March 16, 1963, Ernesto Miranda was arrested and charged with rape. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_439

The subsequent Supreme Court ruling on June 13, 1966, Miranda v. Arizona, has led to practice in the United States of issuing a Miranda Warning to all suspected criminals. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_440

With Phoenix's rapid growth, one of the prime areas of criminal activity was land fraud. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_441

The practice became so widespread that newspapers would refer to Phoenix as the Tainted Desert. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_442

These land frauds led to one of the more infamous murders in the history of the valley, when Arizona Republic writer Don Bolles was murdered by a car bomb in 1976. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_443

It was believed his investigative reporting on organized crime and land fraud in Phoenix made him a target. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_444

Bolles was the only reporter from a major U.S. newspaper to be murdered on U.S. soil due to his coverage of a story. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_445

Max Dunlap was convicted of first-degree murder in the case. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_446

Street gangs and the drug trade had turned into public safety issues by the 1980s, and the crime rate in Phoenix continued to grow. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_447

After seeing a peak in the early and mid-1990s, the city has seen a general decrease in crime rates. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_448

The Maricopa County Jail system is the fourth-largest in the country. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_449

The violent crime rate peaked in 1993 at 1146 crimes per 100,000 people, while the property crime rate peaked a few years earlier, in 1989, at 9,966 crimes per 100,000. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_450

In the most recent numbers from the FBI (2012), those rates stand at 637 and 4091, respectively. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_451

Since their peak in 2003, murders have dropped from 241 to 114 in 2014. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_452

In 2001 and 2002, Phoenix ranked first in the nation in vehicle thefts, with over 22,000 and 25,000 cars stolen each year respectively. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_453

It has declined every year since then, eventually falling to 7,200 in 2014, a drop of almost 70% during that timeframe. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_454

The Phoenix MSA has dropped to 70th in the nation in terms of car thefts in 2012. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_455

As the first decade of the new century ended, Arizona had become the gateway to the U.S. for drug trafficking. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_456

Another crime issue related to the drug trade are kidnappings. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_457

In the late 2000s, Phoenix earned the title "Kidnapping capital of the USA". Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_458

Most of the kidnapped are believed to be victims of human smuggling, or related to illegal drug trade, while the kidnappers are believed to be part of Mexican drug cartels. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_459

Cultural heritage resources Phoenix, Arizona_section_29

Arizona has museums, journals, societies, and libraries that serve as sources of important cultural heritage knowledge. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_460

They include the Arizona State Archives Historic Photographs Memory Project, which includes over 90,000 images that focus on the unique history of Arizona as a state and territory, the Arizona Historical Society, the Journal of Arizona History, and numerous museum databases. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_461

Education Phoenix, Arizona_section_30

See also: List of school districts in Phoenix, Arizona Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_462

33 school districts provide public education in the Phoenix area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_463

This is a legacy of numerous annexations over the years; many of the school districts were in existence prior to their territories becoming part of Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_464

There are 21 elementary school districts, which have over 215 elementary schools, paired with 4 high school districts with 31 high schools serving Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_465

Three of the high school districts (Glendale Union, Tempe Union, and Tolleson Union) only partially serve Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_466

In addition, there are 4 unified districts, which cover grades K-12, which add an additional 58 elementary schools and 4 high schools to Phoenix's educational system. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_467

Of those four, only the Paradise Valley district completely serves Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_468

With over 27,000 students, and spread over 220 square miles, Phoenix Union High School District is one of the largest high school districts in the country, containing 16 schools and nearly 3,000 employees. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_469

Phoenix is also served by an expanding number of charter schools, with well over 100 operating in the city. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_470

Post-secondary education Phoenix, Arizona_section_31

Arizona State University is the region's largest institution of higher education. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_471

While its main campus is in Tempe, ASU also has campuses in northwest Phoenix (ASU West Campus), downtown Phoenix (ASU Downtown Campus), Mesa (ASU Polytechnic Campus), and Glendale (Thunderbird School of Global Management). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_472

ASU is one of the largest public universities in the U.S., with a 2012 enrollment of 72,254. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_473

An independent, LCME accredited, four-year medical school of the University of Arizona College of Medicine is near ASU's downtown Phoenix campus. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_474

There is also a small satellite Phoenix Biomedical Campus for Northern Arizona University (based in Flagstaff). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_475

The Maricopa County Community College District includes ten community colleges and two skills centers throughout Maricopa County, providing adult education and job training. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_476

Phoenix College, part of the district, was founded in 1920 and is the oldest community college in Arizona and one of the oldest in the country. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_477

The city is also home to many other institutions of higher learning. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_478

Notable institutions include: Barrow Neurological Institute, the world's largest neurological disease treatment and research institution; Grand Canyon University, a private Christian university initially founded in 1949 as a non-profit school, it now operates as a for-profit institution; the University of Phoenix is the nation's largest for-profit university with over 300,000 students at campuses throughout North America, as well as online; and the Arizona Summit Law School, a private, for-profit law school in downtown Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_479

Media Phoenix, Arizona_section_32

See also: List of radio stations in Arizona and List of films shot in Arizona Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_480

Phoenix's first newspaper was the weekly Salt River Valley Herald, established in 1878, which would change its name the following year to the Phoenix Herald. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_481

The paper would go through several additional name changes in its early years before finally settling on the Phoenix Herald, which still exists today in an online form. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_482

Today, the city is served by one major daily newspaper: The Arizona Republic, which along with its online entity,, serves the greater metropolitan area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_483

The Jewish News of Greater Phoenix is an independent weekly newspaper established in 1948. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_484

In addition, the city is also served by numerous free neighborhood papers and alternative weeklies such as the Phoenix New Times' the East Valley Tribune, which primarily serves the cities of the East Valley; and Arizona State University's The State Press. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_485

The Phoenix metro area is served by many local television stations and is the largest designated market area (DMA) in the Southwest, and the 12th largest in the U.S., with over 1.8 million homes (1.6% of the total U.S.). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_486

The major network television affiliates are KNXV 15 (ABC), KPHO 5 (CBS), KPNX 12 (NBC), KSAZ 10 (Fox), KASW 61 (The CW), KUTP 45 (MyNetworkTV), and KAET 8 (PBS, operated by Arizona State University). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_487

Other network television affiliates operating in the area include KPAZ 21 (TBN), KTVW-DT 33 (Univision), KFPH-DT (UniMás), KTAZ 39 (Telemundo), KDPH 48 (Daystar), and KPPX-TV 51 (ION). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_488

KTVK 3 (3TV) and KAZT 7 (AZ-TV) are independent television stations operating in the metro area. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_489

KSAZ-TV, KUTP, KPAZ-TV, KTVW-DT, KFPH-DT, KTAZ, KDPH-LP, and KPPX-TV are network owned-and-operated stations. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_490

Many major feature films and television programs have been filmed in the city. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_491

From the opening sequences in Psycho, to the night attack by the aliens in 1953's The War of the Worlds, to freeway scenes in Little Miss Sunshine, Phoenix has been the location for numerous major feature films. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_492

Other notable pictures filmed at least partially in Phoenix include Raising Arizona, A Home at the End of the World, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, Days of Thunder, The Gauntlet, The Grifters, Waiting to Exhale and Bus Stop. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_493

The radio airwaves in Phoenix cater to a wide variety of musical and talk radio interests. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_494

Stations include classic rock formats of KOOL-FM and KSLX-FM, to pop stations like KYOT and alternative stations like KDKB-FM, to the talk radio of KFYI-AM and KKNT-AM, the pop and top 40 programming of KZZP-FM and KALV-FM, and the country sounds of KMLE-FM. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_495

With its large Hispanic population there are numerous Spanish stations, such as KHOT-FM and KOMR-FM. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_496

Infrastructure Phoenix, Arizona_section_33

Transportation Phoenix, Arizona_section_34

Air Phoenix, Arizona_section_35

Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX), one of the ten busiest airports in the United States, serves over 110,000 people on over 1000 flights per day. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_497

Centrally located in the metro area near several major freeway interchanges east of downtown Phoenix, the airport serves more than 100 cities with non-stop flights. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_498

Air Canada, British Airways, Condor, Volaris, and WestJet are among several international carriers as well as American carrier American Airlines (which maintains a hub at the airport) that provide flights to destinations such as Canada, Costa Rica, Mexico, and London. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_499

In addition to American, other domestic carriers include Alaska Airlines, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Southwest, Spirit, Sun Country, and United. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_500

The Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (IATA: AZA, ICAO: KIWA) in neighboring Mesa also serves the area's commercial air traffic. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_501

It was converted from Williams Air Force Base, which closed in 1993. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_502

The airport has recently received substantial commercial service with Allegiant Air opening a hub operation at the airport with non-stop service to over a dozen destinations. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_503

Smaller airports that primarily handle private and corporate jets include Phoenix Deer Valley Airport, in the Deer Valley district of north Phoenix, and Scottsdale Airport, just east of the Phoenix/Scottsdale border. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_504

There are also other municipal airports including Glendale Municipal Airport, Falcon Field Airport in Mesa, and Phoenix Goodyear Airport. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_505

Rail and bus Phoenix, Arizona_section_36

Amtrak served Phoenix Union Station until 1996 when the Union Pacific Railroad (UP) threatened to abandon the route between Yuma, Arizona and Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_506

Amtrak rerouted trains to Maricopa, 30 miles (48 km) south of downtown Phoenix, where passengers can board the Texas Eagle (Los Angeles-San Antonio-Chicago) and Sunset Limited (Los Angeles-New Orleans). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_507

Though UP retained the trackage and the station remains, Amtrak did not return. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_508

Amtrak Thruway buses connect Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport to Flagstaff for connection with the Los Angeles-Chicago Southwest Chief. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_509

Phoenix is also served by Greyhound bus service, which stops at 24th Street near the airport. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_510

Valley Metro provides public transportation throughout the metropolitan area, with its trains, buses, and a ride-share program. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_511

3.38% of workers commute by public transit. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_512

Valley Metro's 20-mile (32 km) light rail project, called Valley Metro Rail, through north-central Phoenix, downtown, and eastward through Tempe and Mesa, opened December 27, 2008. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_513

Future rail segments of more than 30 miles (48 km) are planned to open by 2030. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_514

Roads and freeways Phoenix, Arizona_section_37

Main article: Roads and freeways in metropolitan Phoenix Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_515

Phoenix auto traffic depends on both freeways and surface streets. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_516

Freeways fall under the auspices of the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_517

Phoenix ranks first in the nation in the quality of its urban freeways, and the state as a whole ranks first in the nation in the quality of bridges. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_518

While being the fifth most populous city in the nation, Phoenix's freeways do not suffer from the same type of congestion seen in other large cities. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_519

In fact, in a recent study, there is not a single stretch of freeway in Phoenix ranked in the 100 worst freeways for either congestion or unreliability. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_520

Part of the reason for this is the extensive freeway system in the city, due to most of that system being funded by local, rather than federal funds, through a half-cent general sales tax measure approved by voters in 1985. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_521

Another offshoot of this local funding is that Phoenix is the largest city in the United States to have two Interstate Highways but no three-digit interstates. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_522

As of 2005, the metropolitan area of Phoenix contains one of the nation's largest and fastest growing freeway systems, consisting of over 1,405 lane miles (2,261 lane km). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_523

The freeway system is a mix of Interstate, U.S., and state highways which include Interstate 10, Interstate 17, US 60, Loop 101, Loop 202, SR 51, SR 143, and Loop 303. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_524

There are still major additions to routes 101, 202 and 303 underway, as well as several other smaller projects around the valley. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_525

State Routes 87, 85, and 74 connect Phoenix with other areas of the Valley and Arizona. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_526

The street system in Phoenix (and some of its suburbs) is laid out in a grid system, with most roads oriented either north–south or east–west, and the zero point of the grid being the intersection of Central Avenue and Washington Street. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_527

The one notable exception to this is the diagonal Grand Avenue, which runs northwest–southeast. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_528

The original plan was for the east–west streets to be named after U.S. Presidents, with the north–south streets named after Native Americans; but the north–south streets were quickly changed to numbers, with numbered Avenues running to the west of Central, and numbered Streets to its east. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_529

Major arterial streets are spaced one mile (1.6 km) apart, divided into smaller blocks approximately every ⁄8 mile (200 m). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_530

For example, Scottsdale Road, being the 7200 block east, lies nine miles (14 km) to the east of Central Avenue (72 / 8). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_531

Freeways and state highways in Phoenix: Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_532

Alternate forms of transportation Phoenix, Arizona_section_38

The Maricopa Association of Governments has a bicycle advisory committee working to improve conditions for bicycling on city streets and off-road paths. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_533

Bicycling Magazine ranked Phoenix the 15th most bicycle friendly city of 50 cities in the United States with a population greater than 100,000. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_534

Utilities Phoenix, Arizona_section_39

Being in the desert, Phoenix relies on a water supply delivered to the city via a system of canals which divert water from the region's rivers and lakes, with the largest portion of the city's water coming from the Colorado River through the Central Arizona Project's canal. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_535

The city's electrical needs are served primarily by Arizona Public Service, although some customers receive their electricity from the Salt River Project (SRP). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_536

The main sources of electrical generation are nuclear and coal power plants. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_537

Arizona is home to the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, the largest nuclear-generating facility in the United States. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_538

SRP is also the largest water provider in Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_539

Health care Phoenix, Arizona_section_40

Main articles: List of hospitals in Phoenix and List of hospitals in Arizona Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_540

In 2011 (the last year for which information is available), Phoenix had a slightly younger population than the country as a whole. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_541

While the United States had 13.3% of its population over the age of 65, Phoenix's percentage stood significantly lower, at 8.1%. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_542

Phoenix's percentage of 18.8% in the next age group, 45–64 was also a great deal lower than the national average of 26.6%. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_543

This results in 73% of Phoenix's population being 44 or younger, as compared to the national percentage of 60. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_544

In 2010 (the last year for nationally reported figures), Phoenix was at or below national levels for most reportable diseases, with the exception of both hepatitis A and B, where they were slightly over the national average (0.8 and 1.8 to 0.5 and 1.1%, respectively). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_545

In most major categories, Phoenix had a lower incidence of death than the rest of the nation. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_546

Only deaths due to Alzheimer's (29.7 to 27.2 deaths per 100,000) and pre-natal conditions (5.3 to 3.8 deaths per 100,000) were slightly above the national average. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_547

Deaths due to HIV and liver disease were exactly at the national average of 2.5 and 10.8 respectively. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_548

However, in several major categories, Phoenix had significantly lower indices of death: deaths by cancer stood at only 57% (106) of the national average of 184.6 deaths per 100,000; deaths due to heart disease, 56.1% of the national rate of 249.8 per 100,000. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_549

Cancer and heart disease were the two top causes of death in the country. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_550

Low-weight births (7.5%) were below the national average of 8.1%, yet infant mortality (7.2%) was higher than the rest of the U.S. (6.1%). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_551

Births to teen mothers were significantly higher than the rest of the country, sitting at 12.2% as compared to 8.4% nationally. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_552

The Phoenix metropolitan area is serviced by 56 hospitals and medical centers. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_553

The Mayo Clinic, a not-for-profit medical practice and medical research group based in Rochester, Minnesota. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_554

Phoenix is one of two other locations with Mayo Clinic campuses (the other being Jacksonville, Florida). Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_555

It is the first and largest integrated not-for-profit medical group practice in the world; Mayo Clinic has been near or at the top of the U.S. News & World Report List of "Best Hospitals" for more than 20 years. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_556

St. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_557 Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center is part of Dignity Health (formerly Catholic Healthcare West), one of the largest healthcare systems in the western United States. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_558

St. Joseph's is a not-for-profit hospital with special advocacy for the poor and underserved. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_559

John C. Lincoln North Mountain Hospital is a general medical and surgical hospital, which performed nearly at the level of nationally ranked U.S. News Best Hospitals in 4 adult specialties. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_560

The Phoenix Children's Hospital is nationally ranked in 5 pediatric specialties according to U.S. News & World Report. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_561

It is a 425-bed children's teaching hospital. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_562

Arizona Heart Institute, opened in 1971, is known internationally as one of the first freestanding outpatient clinics dedicated exclusively to cardiovascular health. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_563

Banner Health is a non-profit health system in the United States, based in Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_564

It operates 23 hospitals as well as specialized facilities. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_565

The health system is the 2nd largest employer in Arizona, behind Walmart, employing more than 35,000. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_566

Banner Health was created in 1999 through a merger of Lutheran Health Systems, based in North Dakota, and Samaritan Health System, based in Phoenix. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_567

Of the top 10 rated hospitals in the city (top 12 in the state), 4 are Banner hospitals. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_568

Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) at St. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_569 Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center is the world's largest dedicated neurosurgical center and a leader in neurosurgical training, research, and patient care. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_570

More operative neurosurgical procedures take place at BNI than at any other institution in the United States. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_571

Notable people Phoenix, Arizona_section_41

Main article: List of people from Phoenix Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_572

See also: List of Arizona State University alumni Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_573

Sister cities Phoenix, Arizona_section_42

With the creation of the Phoenix Sister Cities (PSC) organization in 1972, Phoenix became a member of the international Sister City movement. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_574

It would take the organization several years to become official, not filing for Articles of Incorporation until 1975, and not entering into their first Sister City agreement until 1976, with Hermosillo, Mexico. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_575

The organization's mission statement states their purpose is to "create people-to-people relationships between the residents of Phoenix and its sister cities through commercial, educational, cultural and artistic exchange programs and events that create and sustain global, long-term, international partnerships and business opportunities for the citizens of Phoenix." Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_576

Phoenix has ten sister cities, as designated by the Phoenix Sister Cities Commission and Sister Cities International, shown in the table below. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_577

Phoenix and Prague have shared a Capital Cities relationship since May 1991, which was expanded to Sister City Status in 2013. Phoenix, Arizona_sentence_578

See also Phoenix, Arizona_section_43

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page:, Arizona.