Pinewood Studios

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This article is about the film studios in Britain. Pinewood Studios_sentence_0

For other Pinewood Studios, see Pinewood Group. Pinewood Studios_sentence_1

Pinewood Studios_table_infobox_0

Pinewood StudiosPinewood Studios_header_cell_0_0_0
General informationPinewood Studios_header_cell_0_1_0
AddressPinewood Studios_header_cell_0_2_0 Pinewood Road,

Iver, Buckinghamshire, SL0 0NHPinewood Studios_cell_0_2_1

CountryPinewood Studios_header_cell_0_3_0 United KingdomPinewood Studios_cell_0_3_1
CoordinatesPinewood Studios_header_cell_0_4_0 Pinewood Studios_cell_0_4_1
OpeningPinewood Studios_header_cell_0_5_0 30 September 1936Pinewood Studios_cell_0_5_1
OwnerPinewood Studios_header_cell_0_6_0 Pinewood Group (2001–present)Pinewood Studios_cell_0_6_1
WebsitePinewood Studios_header_cell_0_7_0

Pinewood Studios is an English film and television studio located in the village of Iver Heath in Buckinghamshire. Pinewood Studios_sentence_2

It is approximately 20 miles (32 km) west of central London. Pinewood Studios_sentence_3

The studio has been the base for many productions over the years from large-scale films to television programmes, commercials, and pop promos. Pinewood Studios_sentence_4

It is well known as the home of the James Bond and Carry On film franchises. Pinewood Studios_sentence_5

History Pinewood Studios_section_0

Pinewood Studios was built on the estate of Heatherden Hall, a large Victorian country house which was purchased by Canadian financier, and MP for Brentford and Chiswick, Lt. Col. Grant Morden (1880–1932). Pinewood Studios_sentence_6

He added refinements such as a ballroom, a Turkish bath and an indoor squash court. Pinewood Studios_sentence_7

Due to its seclusion, it was used as a discreet meeting place for high-ranking politicians and diplomats; the agreement to create the Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed there. Pinewood Studios_sentence_8

In 1934, building tycoon Charles Boot (1874–1945) bought the land and turned it into a country club. Pinewood Studios_sentence_9

The ballroom was converted into a restaurant and many of the bedrooms became furnished suites. Pinewood Studios_sentence_10

1930s Pinewood Studios_section_1

In 1935, millionaire Methodist and flour magnate J. Pinewood Studios_sentence_11 Arthur Rank (1888–1972) went into partnership with Boot and they transformed the estate into a film studio. Pinewood Studios_sentence_12

Boot based designs for the studio complex on the latest ideas being employed by film studios in Hollywood, California. Pinewood Studios_sentence_13

Boot named the new studio Pinewood because "of the number of trees which grow there and because it seemed to suggest something of the American film centre in its second syllable". Pinewood Studios_sentence_14

Construction began in December of that year, with a new stage completed every three weeks. Pinewood Studios_sentence_15

The studios were finished nine months later, having cost £1 million (approx. Pinewood Studios_sentence_16

£37 million at 2012 prices). Pinewood Studios_sentence_17

Five stages were initially completed and there was provision for an enclosed water tank capable of holding 65,000 imperial gallons (300,000 L), which is still in use. Pinewood Studios_sentence_18

In the years that followed, he also undertook further work on both the Pinewood Film Studios and the Denham Film Studios, both of which had by then become a part of the newly-formed Rank Organisation. Pinewood Studios_sentence_19

On 30 September 1936, the studio complex was officially opened by Dr Leslie Burgin, Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade. Pinewood Studios_sentence_20

The first film director to use the facilities was Herbert Wilcox, completing London Melody (1937) featuring Anna Neagle, portions of which had already been filmed at British and Dominions Imperial Studios in Elstree, before a fire there halted production. Pinewood Studios_sentence_21

The first film to be made entirely at Pinewood was Talk of the Devil (1936), directed by Carol Reed. Pinewood Studios_sentence_22

There followed a prolific period of Pinewood and British film history, with Pinewood following the studios adopting the "unit system", an American industry practice. Pinewood Studios_sentence_23

That enabled several pictures to be filmed simultaneously and, ultimately, Pinewood achieved the highest output of any studio in the world. Pinewood Studios_sentence_24

1940s Pinewood Studios_section_2

During the Second World War, Pinewood was requisitioned, and the Crown Film Unit, No. Pinewood Studios_sentence_25

5 Army Film and Photographic Unit, Royal Air Force Film Production Unit, and Polish Air Force Film Unit were based there. Pinewood Studios_sentence_26

The Crown Film Unit completed many classic wartime documentaries, and Roy Boulting's Desert Victory, Humphrey Jennings' Fires Were Started, Coastal Command and Pat Jackson's Western Approaches (all 1943) were filmed there during that period. Pinewood Studios_sentence_27

As well its use by the armed forces, the Royal Mint and Lloyd's of London were installed on sound stages at Pinewood, and were open for business for the duration of the war. Pinewood Studios_sentence_28

The Company of Youth, the Rank Organisation acting school (often referred to as "The Charm School"), which launched several film careers, was founded in 1945. Pinewood Studios_sentence_29

The next year, Pinewood re-opened for (non-war-related) business. Pinewood Studios_sentence_30

Two landmarks in British film produced at Pinewood were released within two months of each other in 1948: Oliver Twist, directed by David Lean, and Powell and Pressburger's The Red Shoes. Pinewood Studios_sentence_31

Due to a shortfall in funds, brought about by financial overspends the previous year, Rank did not have enough money to market The Red Shoes sufficiently at first in the US, but it became Rank's biggest earner up to that point, grossing over £1 million (the equivalent of £26 million in 2012 terms). Pinewood Studios_sentence_32

In the same year, John Davis was appointed managing director. Pinewood Studios_sentence_33

By the following year, Rank had run up an overdraft of £16 million (the equivalent of £364.5 million in 2012), and announced a loss of £3.5 million, mainly due to big budget flops. Pinewood Studios_sentence_34

One of the largest of these had been Caesar and Cleopatra (1946), which was originally budgeted at £250,000, but which eventually cost £1,278,000 (the equivalent of £33 million in 2012). Pinewood Studios_sentence_35

1950s Pinewood Studios_section_3

The Doctor film series, produced by Betty E. Box and directed by Ralph Thomas, began with Doctor in the House (1954), the most successful film at the box-office of its year in Great Britain. Pinewood Studios_sentence_36

All of the Doctor films, running until 1970, were shot at Pinewood. Pinewood Studios_sentence_37

The Carry On franchise began in 1958, produced on behalf of Rank by Peter Rogers (who was married to Box), and directed by Gerald Thomas (brother of Ralph). Pinewood Studios_sentence_38

The Norman Wisdom comedies, the last of which was released in 1966, were also filmed at the facility. Pinewood Studios_sentence_39

1960s Pinewood Studios_section_4

The 1960s were buoyant years for Pinewood, which was no longer solely dependent on the Rank Organisation to fill its stages. Pinewood Studios_sentence_40

"Renters" (producers hiring the sound stages for a film-by-film agreement) were using half of the stages as Pinewood turned into a four walls facility. Pinewood Studios_sentence_41

The James Bond franchise began at Pinewood with the Terence Young directed Dr. No (1962), and has continued to be based at the studios since then. Pinewood Studios_sentence_42

J. Arthur Rank (by then Lord Rank) retired as chairman in 1962 and was succeeded by John Davis, who had begun to move the Rank Organisation away from mass film production and towards more profitable and less risky businesses such as bingo and holidays. Pinewood Studios_sentence_43

1970s Pinewood Studios_section_5

The 1970s were an uncertain period for Pinewood and the film industry in general, with the studios being used more for television programmes, including ITC Entertainment's UFO (1970), The Persuaders! Pinewood Studios_sentence_44

(1971), starring Tony Curtis and Roger Moore, Space: 1999 (1975–1977), and Superman. Pinewood Studios_sentence_45

1980s Pinewood Studios_section_6

Four James Bond movies, For Your Eyes Only; Octopussy; A View to a Kill and The Living Daylights, among several other very large productions, such as Aliens and Tim Burton's Batman, were all produced at Pinewood. Pinewood Studios_sentence_46

1990s Pinewood Studios_section_7

Due in large part to unfavourable UK tax laws for inward investment in the UK film industry, the 1990s were precarious, and witnessed an all-time low in British film production generally. Pinewood Studios_sentence_47

However, many large-scale productions, such as Alien 3, Tim Burton's Batman Returns and three further Bond films, GoldenEye, Tomorrow Never Dies and The World Is Not Enough, kept Pinewood operating. Pinewood Studios_sentence_48

As well, Swear It Again, the debut music video of the first single by Irish pop vocal band Westlife, was shot at the studios in 1999. Pinewood Studios_sentence_49

The Rank Group owned the studio until 2001, when it sold Pinewood to a group led by Michael Grade and Ivan Dunleavy. Pinewood Studios_sentence_50

The purchase of Shepperton Studios from a consortium headed by Ridley and Tony Scott, gave rise to the Pinewood Group, eventually comprising Pinewood Studios, Shepperton Studios, Teddington Studios, Pinewood Toronto Studios, Pinewood Indomina Studios, Pinewood Studio Berlin, Pinewood Iskandar Malaysia Studios, and a joint venture in the US with Pinewood Atlanta Studios. Pinewood Studios_sentence_51

2000s Pinewood Studios_section_8

In 2009, Pinewood and Shepperton received a BAFTA Award for their Outstanding British Contribution to Cinema. Pinewood Studios_sentence_52

2010s Pinewood Studios_section_9

The Pinewood Studios Group was subject to a hostile takeover approach in 2011. Pinewood Studios_sentence_53

Manchester-based The Peel Group acquired a 73% stake, but Warren James Jewellers retained a 27% stake, so preventing a full takeover. Pinewood Studios_sentence_54

As of 2012, Pinewood's management is waiting to see if the Financial Services Authority would cancel the stock market listing in recognition of the fact that nearly all the shares are held by two groups. Pinewood Studios_sentence_55

In June 2016, five new stages and 10 new workshops were opened at Pinewood. Pinewood Studios_sentence_56

The Walt Disney Studios announced a 10-year lease of most of the Pinewood Studios in September 2019, to start in 2020. Pinewood Studios_sentence_57

Stages, studios and locations Pinewood Studios_section_10

Main article: 007 Stage Pinewood Studios_sentence_58

The 007 Stage was originally built for the Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me (1977) and featured a massive water tank, one of the largest in Europe. Pinewood Studios_sentence_59

The stage was destroyed by fire in 1984; it was rebuilt four months later and renamed Albert R. Broccoli's 007 Stage in time for filming to commence on A View to a Kill. Pinewood Studios_sentence_60

Another fire on 30 July 2006 seriously damaged the stage, causing the roof to partly collapse. Pinewood Studios_sentence_61

Construction of a new stage began on 18 September and was completed in under six months. Pinewood Studios_sentence_62

Since then, the stage has accommodated large productions including Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time (2010), Quantum of Solace (2008) and the whole fishing village from Mamma Mia! Pinewood Studios_sentence_63

(2008) was built on the stage. Pinewood Studios_sentence_64

As well as the 007 Stage, which is the largest stage at any of the studios under The Pinewood Studios Group at 5,500 m (59,202 sq ft), the studio has fifteen other stages ranging from just 160 m (1,722 sq ft), to cater for productions of all sizes. Pinewood Studios_sentence_65

One of those studios, the T Stage, is a specialist stage for both television and film productions and the Studios second largest stage at 2,800 m (30,139 sq ft). Pinewood Studios_sentence_66

Pinewood Studios paid tribute to Richard Attenborough's body of work by naming a purpose-built film and television stage after him. Pinewood Studios_sentence_67

The Richard Attenborough Stage has an area of 2,800 m (30,139 sq ft). Pinewood Studios_sentence_68

In his absence because of illness, Lord Puttnam and Pinewood chairman Lord Grade officially unveiled the stage on 23 April 2012. Pinewood Studios_sentence_69

Opposite it, is a post-production block named in honour of Stanley Kubrick. Pinewood Studios_sentence_70

The studio also has two specialist TV studios, named TV One and TV Two, complete with integral galleries, TV studio floors, TV lighting grids and SD or HD facilities. Pinewood Studios_sentence_71

Both studios stand at just under 835 m (8,988 sq ft). Pinewood Studios_sentence_72

As stated earlier, Pinewood is situated on the old estate of Heatherden Hall which still stands today. Pinewood Studios_sentence_73

The mansion, its gardens and other parts of the studios have been used in various productions over the years. Pinewood Studios_sentence_74

Peeping Tom (1960) shows people driving out through the main gate and has various shots in the studios (showing things behind the camera), offices and corridors. Pinewood Studios_sentence_75

Return to the Edge of the World (1978) includes shots of director Michael Powell driving into the studio. Pinewood Studios_sentence_76

The iconic main gate (now no longer used due to the construction of a purpose-built security entrance 500 m (1,600 ft) further along the road) also features in My Week with Marilyn (2011) when Eddie Redmayne greets Judi Dench. Pinewood Studios_sentence_77

This film also contains many shots of the dressing-room corridors in the main make-up block. Pinewood Studios_sentence_78

Heatherden Hall (converted to production offices) has appeared in several films: it was made to look fire-damaged and derelict for the children's film The Amazing Mr Blunden (1972) and also appeared as the Indian residence of Governor Sir Sidney Ruff-Diamond in Carry on up the Khyber (1969). Pinewood Studios_sentence_79

The studios have acres of backlots where huge sets have been built, from castles to whole villages including the Baker Street set built for Billy Wilder's The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes and Godric's Hollow from the Harry Potter film series. Pinewood Studios_sentence_80

Burnham Beeches and Black Park Pinewood Studios_section_11

The proximity of the ancient woodland Burnham Beeches and Black Park to Pinewood (as well as to Shepperton and Bray studios) and the outstanding natural beauty of the forest have made Burnham Beeches a desirable filming location for productions being filmed at Pinewood. Pinewood Studios_sentence_81

Burnham Beeches has been used for a large number of films, including Robin Hood Prince of Thieves, First Knight, Goldfinger, The Princess Bride and Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Fahrenheit 451 at Black Park. Pinewood Studios_sentence_82

Many other films and TV productions have made use of the facilities on offer at the Beeches. Pinewood Studios_sentence_83

(For a more comprehensive list, see.) Pinewood Studios_sentence_84

Former Pinewood Studios_section_12

Pinewood Atlanta Studios Pinewood Studios_section_13

Main article: Trilith Studios Pinewood Studios_sentence_85

The studios announced in April 2013 that its first film production facility in the United States would be located south of Atlanta at a complex consisting of 280 ha (690 acres) in Fayette County, Georgia. Pinewood Studios_sentence_86

Pinewood Atlanta is a joint venture between Pinewood and River's Rock LLC, an independently managed trust of the Cathy family, founders of the Chick-fil-A fast-food chain. Pinewood Studios_sentence_87

In August 2019, Pinewood sold their shares in the Atlanta location. Pinewood Studios_sentence_88

The studio officially ended its relationship with the location in October 2020 with the renaming of the studio to Trilith. Pinewood Studios_sentence_89

Pinewood Iskandar Malaysia Studios Pinewood Studios_section_14

Pinewood Iskandar Malaysia Studios is a studio complex located at a 20 ha (49 acres) site in Iskandar Puteri, Johor, managed by The Pinewood Studios Group. Pinewood Studios_sentence_90

It targets the Asia-Pacific region. Pinewood Studios_sentence_91

Pinewood Shepperton plc entered into a strategic agreement with Khazanah Nasional Berhad,the investment holding arm of the Government of Malaysia in connection with the development of a new film and television studio facility in Iskandar Malaysia. Pinewood Studios_sentence_92

Heavy investment is pouring into the region, providing necessary funds for infrastructure projects and large business developments. Pinewood Studios_sentence_93

Construction began towards the end of 2010, with completion expected by the end of 2012. Pinewood Studios_sentence_94

The state-of-the-art facilities being built as part of the studio complex include 9,300 m (100,000 sq ft) of film stages, ranging from 1,400 m (15,000 sq ft) to 2,800 m (30,000 sq ft). Pinewood Studios_sentence_95

The first two at 1,400 m (15,000 sq ft) while the other two at 1,900 m (20,000 sq ft). Pinewood Studios_sentence_96

The biggest stage at 2,800 m (30,000 sq ft) will have a water tank for productions that require work on or under water. Pinewood Studios_sentence_97

There are 2 TV studios, each at 1,100 m (12,000 sq ft). Pinewood Studios_sentence_98

In July 2019, Pinewood Iskandar Malaysia Studios was rebranded to Iskandar Malaysia Studios and the affiliation with Pinewood Shepperton plc ended. Pinewood Studios_sentence_99

Water filming Pinewood Studios_section_15

Main article: Underwater Stage Pinewood Studios_sentence_100

Pinewood has extensive water filming facilities including the Underwater Stage, and an Exterior Tank backed with a green screen measuring 73 m (240 ft)x18 m (59 ft). Pinewood Studios_sentence_101

Project Pinewood Pinewood Studios_section_16

In November 2007, Pinewood announced a £200m expansion plan, known as Project Pinewood. Pinewood Studios_sentence_102

If built the development would see replicas of streetscapes and zones replicating locations from the UK, Europe and the USA. Pinewood Studios_sentence_103

Planned zones include a college campus, Amsterdam, modern European housing, Venice, Lake Como, Paris, an Amphitheatre, Prague, West coast American housing, warehousing and downtown New York sets, Chicago, Vienna, a castle, a UK canal, Chinatown and a London street market built. Pinewood Studios_sentence_104

In addition it will also be used as residential housing, with the proposed creative community, expected to be in the region of 2000 and 2250, being integrated with the film locations. Pinewood Studios_sentence_105

Job creation is also a key part of the plan, helping to boost the economy of both the region and the nation as a whole. Pinewood Studios_sentence_106

Following consultations with the local community the plans changed to reflect the community's opinions and suggestions. Pinewood Studios_sentence_107

However, the planning application was still rejected by South Bucks District Council in October 2009, following a prolonged opposition campaign by local residents, who formed a "Stop Project Pinewood" group. Pinewood Studios_sentence_108

Pinewood appealed against the decision and a public inquiry commenced on 5 April 2011 and on 20 January 2012, it was announced that the appeal had been turned down. Pinewood Studios_sentence_109

On 15 May 2013, local councillors in South Buckinghamshire rejected a pared down version of the expansion plans. Pinewood Studios_sentence_110

The Chief Executive of the studios, Ivan Dunleavy, said he expected to appeal against the latest decision to the Secretary of State, Eric Pickles, who rejected the previous application, a year earlier. Pinewood Studios_sentence_111

On 19 June 2014 it was reported that Pinewood Studios had received approval to go ahead with the multimillion-pound expansion plans which would see it rival Hollywood film sets. Pinewood Studios_sentence_112

Enter the Pitch Pinewood Studios_section_17

Pinewood Studios is one of the sponsors for the short film competition Enter the Pitch, also known as The Pitch, which launched in 2009. Pinewood Studios_sentence_113

The Pitch is an online short film pitching competition that invites film makers to submit a project that takes inspiration from any story, character or theme in the Bible. Pinewood Studios_sentence_114

The top ten finalists are taken to Pinewood Studios, where they pitch their film to a panel of judges who are industry professionals. Pinewood Studios_sentence_115

The person giving the winning pitch will win an apprenticeship with industry professionals and will be mentored on how to turn their pitch into a short film. Pinewood Studios_sentence_116

Past winners are Derelict (2009), Rahab (2010), The Black Scholes Conspiracy (2011), The Light (2012), Pulsar (2013), and Only Child (2014). Pinewood Studios_sentence_117

Production history Pinewood Studios_section_18

Main article: List of Pinewood Studios productions Pinewood Studios_sentence_118

Since its beginning, Pinewood Studios has been the location for many well-known films, with the long-running James Bond and Carry On British film series making Pinewood their home. Pinewood Studios_sentence_119

See also Pinewood Studios_section_19

Pinewood Studios_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Studios.