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This article is about the media format. Podcast_sentence_0

For the application from Apple, see Podcasts (software). Podcast_sentence_1

For the application from Google, see Google Podcasts. Podcast_sentence_2

A podcast is an episodic series of spoken word digital audio that a user can download to a personal device for easy listening. Podcast_sentence_3

Streaming applications and podcasting services provide a convenient and integrated way to manage a personal consumption queue across many podcast sources and playback devices. Podcast_sentence_4

A podcast series usually features one or more recurring hosts engaged in a discussion about a particular topic or current event. Podcast_sentence_5

Discussion and content within a podcast can range from carefully scripted to completely improvised. Podcast_sentence_6

Podcasts combine elaborate and artistic sound production with thematic concerns ranging from scientific research to slice-of-life journalism. Podcast_sentence_7

Many podcast series provide an associated website with links and show notes, guest biographies, transcripts, additional resources, commentary, and even a community forum dedicated to discussing the show's content. Podcast_sentence_8

The cost to the consumer is low. Podcast_sentence_9

While many podcasts are free to download, some are underwritten by corporations or sponsored, with the inclusion of commercial advertisements. Podcast_sentence_10

In other cases, a podcast could also be a business venture supported by some combination of a paid subscription model, advertising or product delivered after sale. Podcast_sentence_11

People are motivated to create a podcast for a number of reasons. Podcast_sentence_12

The podcast producer, who is often the podcast host as well, may wish to express a personal passion, increase professional visibility, enter into a social network of influencers or influential ideas, cultivate a community of like-minded viewership, or put forward pedagogical or ideological ideas (possibly under philanthropic support). Podcast_sentence_13

Because podcast content is often free or, at the very least, affordable for the average podcast consumer, podcasting is often classified as a disruptive medium, which is adverse to the maintenance of traditional revenue models. Podcast_sentence_14

Long-running podcasts with a substantial back catalogue are amenable to binge consumption. Podcast_sentence_15

Production Podcast_section_0

A podcast generator maintains a central list of the files on a server as a web feed that one can access through the Internet. Podcast_sentence_16

The listener or viewer uses special client application software on a computer or media player, known as a podcatcher, which accesses this web feed, checks it for updates, and downloads any new files in the series. Podcast_sentence_17

This process can be automated to download new files automatically, so it may seem to subscribers as though podcasters broadcast or "push" new episodes to them. Podcast_sentence_18

Files are stored locally on the user's device, ready for offline use. Podcast_sentence_19

There are several different mobile applications that allow people to subscribe and listen to podcasts. Podcast_sentence_20

Many of these applications allow users to download podcasts or stream them on demand. Podcast_sentence_21

Most podcast players or applications allow listeners to skip around the podcast and to control the playback speed. Podcast_sentence_22

Podcasting has been considered a converged medium (a medium that brings together audio, the web and portable media players), as well as a disruptive technology that has caused some individuals in radio broadcasting to reconsider established practices and preconceptions about audiences, consumption, production and distribution. Podcast_sentence_23

Podcasts can be produced at little to no cost and are usually disseminated free-of-charge, which sets this medium apart from the traditional 20th-Century model of "gate-kept" media and their production tools. Podcast_sentence_24

Podcasters can, however, still monetize their podcasts by allowing companies to purchase ad time. Podcast_sentence_25

They can also garner support from listeners through crowdfunding websites like Patreon, which provides special extras and content to listeners for a fee. Podcast_sentence_26

Podcasting is very much a horizontal media form—producers are consumers, consumers may become producers, and both can engage in conversations with each other. Podcast_sentence_27

Name Podcast_section_1

"Podcast" is a portmanteau, a combination of "iPod" and "broadcast". Podcast_sentence_28

The term "podcasting" was first suggested by The Guardian columnist and BBC journalist Ben Hammersley, who invented it in early February 2004 while writing an article for The Guardian newspaper. Podcast_sentence_29

The term was first used in the audioblogging community in September 2004, when Danny Gregoire introduced it in a message to the iPodder-dev mailing list, from where it was adopted by Adam Curry. Podcast_sentence_30

Despite the etymology, the content can be accessed using any computer or similar device that can play media files. Podcast_sentence_31

Use of the term "podcast" predated Apple's addition of formal support for podcasting to the iPod, or its iTunes software. Podcast_sentence_32

Other names for podcasting include "net cast", intended as a vendor-neutral term without the loose reference to the Apple iPod. Podcast_sentence_33

This name is used by shows from the TWiT.tv network. Podcast_sentence_34

Some sources have also suggested the backronym "portable on demand" or "POD", for similar reasons. Podcast_sentence_35

History Podcast_section_2

Main article: History of podcasting Podcast_sentence_36

In October 2000, the concept of attaching sound and video files in RSS feeds was proposed in a draft by Tristan Louis. Podcast_sentence_37

The idea was implemented by Dave Winer, a software developer and an author of the . Podcast_sentence_38

Podcasting, once an obscure method of spreading audio information, has become a recognized medium for distributing audio content, whether for corporate or personal use. Podcast_sentence_39

Podcasts are similar to radio programs in form, but they exist as audio files that can be played at a listener's convenience, anytime or anywhere. Podcast_sentence_40

The first application to make this process feasible was iPodderX, developed by August Trometer and Ray Slakinski. Podcast_sentence_41

By 2007, audio podcasts were doing what was historically accomplished via radio broadcasts, which had been the source of radio talk shows and news programs since the 1930s. Podcast_sentence_42

This shift occurred as a result of the evolution of internet capabilities along with increased consumer access to cheaper hardware and software for audio recording and editing. Podcast_sentence_43

In October 2003, Matt Schichter launched his weekly chat show The BackStage Pass. Podcast_sentence_44

B.B. Podcast_sentence_45 King, Third Eye Blind, Gavin DeGraw, The Beach Boys, and Jason Mraz were notable guests the first season. Podcast_sentence_46

The hour long radio show was recorded live, transcoded to 16kbit/s audio for dial-up online streaming. Podcast_sentence_47

Despite a lack of a commonly accepted identifying name for the medium at the time of its creation, The Backstage Pass which became known as Matt Schichter Interviews is commonly believed to be the first podcast to be published online. Podcast_sentence_48

In August 2004, Adam Curry launched his show Daily Source Code. Podcast_sentence_49

It was a show focused on chronicling his everyday life, delivering news, and discussions about the development of podcasting, as well as promoting new and emerging podcasts. Podcast_sentence_50

Curry published it in an attempt to gain traction in the development of what would come to be known as podcasting and as a means of testing the software outside of a lab setting. Podcast_sentence_51

The name Daily Source Code was chosen in the hope that it would attract an audience with an interest in technology. Podcast_sentence_52

Daily Source Code started at a grassroots level of production and was initially directed at podcast developers. Podcast_sentence_53

As its audience became interested in the format, these developers were inspired to create and produce their own projects and, as a result, they improved the code used to create podcasts. Podcast_sentence_54

As more people learned how easy it was to produce podcasts, a community of pioneer podcasters quickly appeared. Podcast_sentence_55

In June 2005, Apple released iTunes 4.9 which added formal support for podcasts, thus negating the need to use a separate program in order to download and transfer them to a mobile device. Podcast_sentence_56

While this made access to podcasts more convenient and widespread, it also effectively ended advancement of podcatchers by independent developers. Podcast_sentence_57

Additionally, Apple issued cease and desist orders to many podcast application developers and service providers for using the term "iPod" or "Pod" in their products' names. Podcast_sentence_58

Within a year, many podcasts from public radio networks like the BBC, CBC Radio One, NPR, and Public Radio International placed many of their radio shows on the iTunes platform. Podcast_sentence_59

In addition, major local radio stations like WNYC in New York City and WHYY-FM radio in Philadelphia, KCRW in Los Angeles placed their programs on their websites and later on the iTunes platform. Podcast_sentence_60

Concurrently, CNET, This Week in Tech, and later Bloomberg Radio, the Financial Times, and other for-profit companies provided podcast content, some using podcasting as their only distribution system. Podcast_sentence_61

IP issues in trademark and patent law Podcast_section_3

Trademark applications Podcast_section_4

Between February 10 and 25 March 2005, Shae Spencer Management, LLC of Fairport, New York filed a trademark application to register the term "podcast" for an "online prerecorded radio program over the internet". Podcast_sentence_62

On September 9, 2005, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) rejected the application, citing Wikipedia's podcast entry as describing the history of the term. Podcast_sentence_63

The company amended their application in March 2006, but the USPTO rejected the amended application as not sufficiently differentiated from the original. Podcast_sentence_64

In November 2006, the application was marked as abandoned. Podcast_sentence_65

As of September 20, 2005, known trademarks that attempted to capitalize on podcast included: ePodcast, GodCast, GuidePod, MyPod, Pod-Casting, Podango, PodCabin, Podcast, Podcast Realty, Podcaster, PodcastPeople, Podgram PodKitchen, PodShop, and Podvertiser. Podcast_sentence_66

By February 2007, there had been 24 attempts to register trademarks containing the word "PODCAST" in the United States, but only "PODCAST READY" from Podcast Ready, Inc. was approved. Podcast_sentence_67

Apple trademark protections Podcast_section_5

On September 26, 2004, it was reported that Apple Inc. had started to crack down on businesses using the string "POD", in product and company names. Podcast_sentence_68

Apple sent a cease and desist letter that week to Podcast Ready, Inc., which markets an application known as "myPodder". Podcast_sentence_69

Lawyers for Apple contended that the term "pod" has been used by the public to refer to Apple's music player so extensively that it falls under Apple's trademark cover. Podcast_sentence_70

Such activity was speculated to be part of a bigger campaign for Apple to expand the scope of its existing iPod trademark, which included trademarking "IPOD", "IPODCAST", and "POD". Podcast_sentence_71

On November 16, 2006, the Apple Trademark Department stated that "Apple does not object to third-party usage of the generic term 'podcast' to accurately refer to podcasting services" and that "Apple does not license the term". Podcast_sentence_72

However, no statement was made as to whether or not Apple believed they held rights to it. Podcast_sentence_73

Personal Audio lawsuits Podcast_section_6

Personal Audio, a company referred to as a "patent troll" by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, filed a patent on podcasting in 2009 for a claimed invention in 1996. Podcast_sentence_74

In February 2013, Personal Audio started suing high-profile podcasters for royalties, including The Adam Carolla Show and the HowStuffWorks podcast. Podcast_sentence_75

In October 2013, the EFF filed a petition with the US Trademark Office to invalidate the Personal Audio patent. Podcast_sentence_76

On August 18, 2014, the Electronic Frontier Foundation announced that Adam Carolla had settled with Personal Audio. Podcast_sentence_77

On April 10, 2015, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office invalidated five provisions of Personal Audio's podcasting patent. Podcast_sentence_78

Variants Podcast_section_7

Enhanced podcasts Podcast_section_8

An enhanced podcast includes links to images which are synchronized with the podcast, turning it into a narrated slide show. Podcast_sentence_79

Podcast novels Podcast_section_9

A podcast novel (also known as a "serialized audiobook" or "podcast audiobook") is a literary form that combines the concepts of a podcast and an audiobook. Podcast_sentence_80

Like a traditional novel, a podcast novel is a work of literary fiction; however it is recorded into episodes that are delivered online over a period of time. Podcast_sentence_81

The episodes may be delivered automatically via RSS or through a website, blog, or other syndication method. Podcast_sentence_82

Episodes can be released on a regular schedule, e.g., once a week, or irregularly as each episode is completed. Podcast_sentence_83

In the same manner as audiobooks, podcast novels may be elaborately narrated with sound effects and separate voice actors for each character, similar to a radio play, or they may have a single narrator and few or no sound effects. Podcast_sentence_84

Some podcast novelists give away a free podcast version of their book as a form of promotion. Podcast_sentence_85

On occasion such novelists have secured publishing contracts to have their novels printed. Podcast_sentence_86

Podcast novelists have commented that podcasting their novels lets them build audiences even if they cannot get a publisher to buy their books. Podcast_sentence_87

These audiences then make it easier to secure a printing deal with a publisher at a later date. Podcast_sentence_88

These podcast novelists also claim the exposure that releasing a free podcast gains them makes up for the fact that they are giving away their work for free. Podcast_sentence_89

Video podcasts Podcast_section_10

A video podcast or vodcast is a podcast that contains video content. Podcast_sentence_90

Web television series are often distributed as video podcasts. Podcast_sentence_91

Dead End Days, a serialized dark comedy about zombies released from 31 October 2003 through 2004, is commonly believed to be the first video podcast. Podcast_sentence_92

Live podcasts Podcast_section_11

A number of podcasts are recorded either in total or for specific episodes in front of a live audience. Podcast_sentence_93

Ticket sales allow the podcasters an additional way of monetising. Podcast_sentence_94

Some podcasts create specific live shows to tour which are not necessarily included on the podcast feed. Podcast_sentence_95

Events including the London Podcast Festival, SF Sketchfest and others regularly give a platform for podcasters to perform live to audiences. Podcast_sentence_96

Uses Podcast_section_12

Main article: Uses of podcasting Podcast_sentence_97

Communities use collaborative podcasts to support multiple contributors podcasting through generally simplified processes, and without having to host their own individual feeds. Podcast_sentence_98

A community podcast can also allow members of the community (related to the podcast topic) to contribute to the podcast in many different ways. Podcast_sentence_99

This method was first used for a series of podcasts hosted by the Regional Educational Technology Center at Fordham University in 2005. Podcast_sentence_100

Anders Gronstedt explores how businesses like IBM and EMC use podcasts as an employee training and communication channel. Podcast_sentence_101

As of early 2019, the podcasting industry still generated little overall revenue, although the number of persons who listen to podcasts continues to grow steadily. Podcast_sentence_102

Edison Research, which issues the Podcast Consumer quarterly tracking report, estimates that in 2019, 90 million persons in the U.S. have listened to a podcast in the last month. Podcast_sentence_103

In 2020, 58% of the population of South Korea and 40% of the Spanish population had listened to a podcast in the last month. Podcast_sentence_104

12.5% of the UK population had listened to a podcast in the last week. Podcast_sentence_105

A small, yet efficient number of listeners are also podcast creators. Podcast_sentence_106

Creating a podcast is reasonably inexpensive. Podcast_sentence_107

It requires just a microphone, laptop or other personal computer, and a room with some sound blocking. Podcast_sentence_108

Podcast creators tend to have a good listener base because of their relationships with the listeners. Podcast_sentence_109

See also Podcast_section_13


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podcast.