Poetry

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This article is about the art form. Poetry_sentence_0

For other uses, see Poetry (disambiguation). Poetry_sentence_1

"Poem", "Poems", and "Poetic" redirect here. Poetry_sentence_2

For other uses, see Poem (disambiguation), Poems (disambiguation), and Poetic (disambiguation). Poetry_sentence_3

"Love poem" redirects here. Poetry_sentence_4

For the EP, see Love Poem (EP). Poetry_sentence_5

For the IU song, see Love Poem (song). Poetry_sentence_6

Poetry (derived from the Greek poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry_sentence_7

Poetry has a long history – dating back to prehistoric times with hunting poetry in Africa, and to panegyric and elegiac court poetry of the empires of the Nile, Niger, and Volta River valleys. Poetry_sentence_8

Some of the earliest written poetry in Africa occurs among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE. Poetry_sentence_9

The earliest surviving Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Poetry_sentence_10

Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing; or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, the Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Poetry_sentence_11

Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song, and comedy. Poetry_sentence_12

Later attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form, and rhyme, and emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively-informative prosaic writing. Poetry_sentence_13

Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretations of words, or to evoke emotive responses. Poetry_sentence_14

Devices such as assonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia, and rhythm may convey musical or incantatory effects. Poetry_sentence_15

The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony, and other stylistic elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Poetry_sentence_16

Similarly, figures of speech such as metaphor, simile, and metonymy establish a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Poetry_sentence_17

Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm. Poetry_sentence_18

Some poetry types are unique to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Poetry_sentence_19

Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe, Mickiewicz, or Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter. Poetry_sentence_20

There are, however, traditions, such as Biblical poetry, that use other means to create rhythm and euphony. Poetry_sentence_21

Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, testing the principle of euphony itself or altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. Poetry_sentence_22

In an increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms, styles, and techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Poetry_sentence_23

A Western cultural tradition (which extends at least from Homer to Rilke) associates the production of poetry with inspiration – often by a Muse (either classical or contemporary). Poetry_sentence_24

History Poetry_section_0

Main articles: History of poetry and Literary theory Poetry_sentence_25

Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy. Poetry_sentence_26

Others, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. Poetry_sentence_27

The oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, dates from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer (in Mesopotamia, now Iraq), and was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and, later, on papyrus. Poetry_sentence_28

A tablet #2461 dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity; some have labelled it the world's oldest love poem. Poetry_sentence_29

An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe (c. 1800 BCE). Poetry_sentence_30

Other ancient epic poetry includes the Greek epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey; the Avestan books, the Gathic Avesta and the Yasna; the Roman national epic, Virgil's Aeneid (written between 29 and 19 BCE); and the Indian epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Poetry_sentence_31

Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, and the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission in ancient societies. Poetry_sentence_32

Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. Poetry_sentence_33

The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were initially lyrics. Poetry_sentence_34

The efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Poetry_sentence_35

Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing (Classic of Poetry), developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. Poetry_sentence_36

More recently, thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, and rap. Poetry_sentence_37

Western traditions Poetry_section_1

Classical thinkers in the West employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. Poetry_sentence_38

Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, and the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the perceived underlying purposes of the genre. Poetry_sentence_39

Later aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Poetry_sentence_40

Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poetry_sentence_41

Later poets and aestheticians often distinguished poetry from, and defined it in opposition to prose, which they generally understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure. Poetry_sentence_42

This does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought-process. Poetry_sentence_43

English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative capability". Poetry_sentence_44

This "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. Poetry_sentence_45

This approach remained influential into the 20th century. Poetry_sentence_46

During this period, there was also substantially more interaction among the various poetic traditions, in part due to the spread of European colonialism and the attendant rise in global trade. Poetry_sentence_47

In addition to a boom in translation, during the Romantic period numerous ancient works were rediscovered. Poetry_sentence_48

20th-century and 21st-century disputes Poetry_section_2

Some 20th-century literary theorists rely less on the ostensible opposition of prose and poetry, instead focusing on the poet as simply one who creates using language, and poetry as what the poet creates. Poetry_sentence_49

The underlying concept of the poet as creator is not uncommon, and some modernist poets essentially do not distinguish between the creation of a poem with words, and creative acts in other media. Poetry_sentence_50

Yet other modernists challenge the very attempt to define poetry as misguided. Poetry_sentence_51

The rejection of traditional forms and structures for poetry that began in the first half of the 20th century coincided with a questioning of the purpose and meaning of traditional definitions of poetry and of distinctions between poetry and prose, particularly given examples of poetic prose and prosaic poetry. Poetry_sentence_52

Numerous modernist poets have written in non-traditional forms or in what traditionally would have been considered prose, although their writing was generally infused with poetic diction and often with rhythm and tone established by non-metrical means. Poetry_sentence_53

While there was a substantial formalist reaction within the modernist schools to the breakdown of structure, this reaction focused as much on the development of new formal structures and syntheses as on the revival of older forms and structures. Poetry_sentence_54

Postmodernism goes beyond modernism's emphasis on the creative role of the poet, to emphasize the role of the reader of a text (hermeneutics), and to highlight the complex cultural web within which a poem is read. Poetry_sentence_55

Today, throughout the world, poetry often incorporates poetic form and diction from other cultures and from the past, further confounding attempts at definition and classification that once made sense within a tradition such as the Western canon. Poetry_sentence_56

The early 21st-century poetic tradition appears to continue to strongly orient itself to earlier precursor poetic traditions such as those initiated by Whitman, Emerson, and Wordsworth. Poetry_sentence_57

The literary critic Geoffrey Hartman (1929–2016) used the phrase "the anxiety of demand" to describe the contemporary response to older poetic traditions as "being fearful that the fact no longer has a form", building on a trope introduced by Emerson. Poetry_sentence_58

Emerson had maintained that in the debate concerning poetic structure where either "form" or "fact" could predominate, that one need simply "Ask the fact for the form." Poetry_sentence_59

This has been challenged at various levels by other literary scholars such as Bloom (1930–2019), who has stated: "The generation of poets who stand together now, mature and ready to write the major American verse of the twenty-first century, may yet be seen as what Stevens called 'a great shadow's last embellishment,' the shadow being Emerson's." Poetry_sentence_60

Elements Poetry_section_3

Prosody Poetry_section_4

Main article: Meter (poetry) Poetry_sentence_61

Prosody is the study of the meter, rhythm, and intonation of a poem. Poetry_sentence_62

Rhythm and meter are different, although closely related. Poetry_sentence_63

Meter is the definitive pattern established for a verse (such as iambic pentameter), while rhythm is the actual sound that results from a line of poetry. Poetry_sentence_64

Prosody also may be used more specifically to refer to the scanning of poetic lines to show meter. Poetry_sentence_65

Rhythm Poetry_section_5

Main articles: Timing (linguistics), tone (linguistics), and Pitch accent Poetry_sentence_66

The methods for creating poetic rhythm vary across languages and between poetic traditions. Poetry_sentence_67

Languages are often described as having timing set primarily by accents, syllables, or moras, depending on how rhythm is established, though a language can be influenced by multiple approaches. Poetry_sentence_68

Japanese is a mora-timed language. Poetry_sentence_69

Latin, Catalan, French, Leonese, Galician and Spanish are called syllable-timed languages. Poetry_sentence_70

Stress-timed languages include English, Russian and, generally, German. Poetry_sentence_71

Varying intonation also affects how rhythm is perceived. Poetry_sentence_72

Languages can rely on either pitch or tone. Poetry_sentence_73

Some languages with a pitch accent are Vedic Sanskrit or Ancient Greek. Poetry_sentence_74

Tonal languages include Chinese, Vietnamese and most Subsaharan languages. Poetry_sentence_75

Metrical rhythm generally involves precise arrangements of stresses or syllables into repeated patterns called feet within a line. Poetry_sentence_76

In Modern English verse the pattern of stresses primarily differentiate feet, so rhythm based on meter in Modern English is most often founded on the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables (alone or elided). Poetry_sentence_77

In the classical languages, on the other hand, while the metrical units are similar, vowel length rather than stresses define the meter. Poetry_sentence_78

Old English poetry used a metrical pattern involving varied numbers of syllables but a fixed number of strong stresses in each line. Poetry_sentence_79

The chief device of ancient Hebrew Biblical poetry, including many of the psalms, was parallelism, a rhetorical structure in which successive lines reflected each other in grammatical structure, sound structure, notional content, or all three. Poetry_sentence_80

Parallelism lent itself to antiphonal or call-and-response performance, which could also be reinforced by intonation. Poetry_sentence_81

Thus, Biblical poetry relies much less on metrical feet to create rhythm, but instead creates rhythm based on much larger sound units of lines, phrases and sentences. Poetry_sentence_82

Some classical poetry forms, such as Venpa of the Tamil language, had rigid grammars (to the point that they could be expressed as a context-free grammar) which ensured a rhythm. Poetry_sentence_83

Classical Chinese poetics, based on the tone system of Middle Chinese, recognized two kinds of tones: the level (平 píng) tone and the oblique (仄 zè) tones, a category consisting of the rising (上 sháng) tone, the departing (去 qù) tone and the entering (入 rù) tone. Poetry_sentence_84

Certain forms of poetry placed constraints on which syllables were required to be level and which oblique. Poetry_sentence_85

The formal patterns of meter used in Modern English verse to create rhythm no longer dominate contemporary English poetry. Poetry_sentence_86

In the case of free verse, rhythm is often organized based on looser units of cadence rather than a regular meter. Poetry_sentence_87

Robinson Jeffers, Marianne Moore, and William Carlos Williams are three notable poets who reject the idea that regular accentual meter is critical to English poetry. Poetry_sentence_88

Jeffers experimented with sprung rhythm as an alternative to accentual rhythm. Poetry_sentence_89

Meter Poetry_section_6

Main article: Scansion Poetry_sentence_90

In the Western poetic tradition, meters are customarily grouped according to a characteristic metrical foot and the number of feet per line. Poetry_sentence_91

The number of metrical feet in a line are described using Greek terminology: tetrameter for four feet and hexameter for six feet, for example. Poetry_sentence_92

Thus, "iambic pentameter" is a meter comprising five feet per line, in which the predominant kind of foot is the "iamb". Poetry_sentence_93

This metric system originated in ancient Greek poetry, and was used by poets such as Pindar and Sappho, and by the great tragedians of Athens. Poetry_sentence_94

Similarly, "dactylic hexameter", comprises six feet per line, of which the dominant kind of foot is the "dactyl". Poetry_sentence_95

Dactylic hexameter was the traditional meter of Greek epic poetry, the earliest extant examples of which are the works of Homer and Hesiod. Poetry_sentence_96

Iambic pentameter and dactylic hexameter were later used by a number of poets, including William Shakespeare and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, respectively. Poetry_sentence_97

The most common metrical feet in English are: Poetry_sentence_98

Poetry_unordered_list_0

  • iamb – one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable (e.g. des-cribe, in-clude, re-tract)Poetry_item_0_0
  • trochee—one stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable (e.g. pic-ture, flow-er)Poetry_item_0_1
  • dactyl – one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables (e.g. an-no-tate, sim-i-lar)Poetry_item_0_2
  • anapaest—two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable (e.g. com-pre-hend)Poetry_item_0_3
  • spondee—two stressed syllables together (e.g. heart-beat, four-teen)Poetry_item_0_4
  • pyrrhic—two unstressed syllables together (rare, usually used to end dactylic hexameter)Poetry_item_0_5

There are a wide range of names for other types of feet, right up to a choriamb, a four syllable metric foot with a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables and closing with a stressed syllable. Poetry_sentence_99

The choriamb is derived from some ancient Greek and Latin poetry. Poetry_sentence_100

Languages which utilize vowel length or intonation rather than or in addition to syllabic accents in determining meter, such as Ottoman Turkish or Vedic, often have concepts similar to the iamb and dactyl to describe common combinations of long and short sounds. Poetry_sentence_101

Each of these types of feet has a certain "feel," whether alone or in combination with other feet. Poetry_sentence_102

The iamb, for example, is the most natural form of rhythm in the English language, and generally produces a subtle but stable verse. Poetry_sentence_103

Scanning meter can often show the basic or fundamental pattern underlying a verse, but does not show the varying degrees of stress, as well as the differing pitches and lengths of syllables. Poetry_sentence_104

There is debate over how useful a multiplicity of different "feet" is in describing meter. Poetry_sentence_105

For example, Robert Pinsky has argued that while dactyls are important in classical verse, English dactylic verse uses dactyls very irregularly and can be better described based on patterns of iambs and anapests, feet which he considers natural to the language. Poetry_sentence_106

Actual rhythm is significantly more complex than the basic scanned meter described above, and many scholars have sought to develop systems that would scan such complexity. Poetry_sentence_107

Vladimir Nabokov noted that overlaid on top of the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of verse was a separate pattern of accents resulting from the natural pitch of the spoken words, and suggested that the term "scud" be used to distinguish an unaccented stress from an accented stress. Poetry_sentence_108

Metrical patterns Poetry_section_7

Main article: Meter (poetry) Poetry_sentence_109

Different traditions and genres of poetry tend to use different meters, ranging from the Shakespearean iambic pentameter and the Homeric dactylic hexameter to the anapestic tetrameter used in many nursery rhymes. Poetry_sentence_110

However, a number of variations to the established meter are common, both to provide emphasis or attention to a given foot or line and to avoid boring repetition. Poetry_sentence_111

For example, the stress in a foot may be inverted, a caesura (or pause) may be added (sometimes in place of a foot or stress), or the final foot in a line may be given a feminine ending to soften it or be replaced by a spondee to emphasize it and create a hard stop. Poetry_sentence_112

Some patterns (such as iambic pentameter) tend to be fairly regular, while other patterns, such as dactylic hexameter, tend to be highly irregular. Poetry_sentence_113

Regularity can vary between language. Poetry_sentence_114

In addition, different patterns often develop distinctively in different languages, so that, for example, iambic tetrameter in Russian will generally reflect a regularity in the use of accents to reinforce the meter, which does not occur, or occurs to a much lesser extent, in English. Poetry_sentence_115

Some common metrical patterns, with notable examples of poets and poems who use them, include: Poetry_sentence_116

Poetry_unordered_list_1

Rhyme, alliteration, assonance Poetry_section_8

Main articles: Rhyme, Alliterative verse, and Assonance Poetry_sentence_117

Rhyme, alliteration, assonance and consonance are ways of creating repetitive patterns of sound. Poetry_sentence_118

They may be used as an independent structural element in a poem, to reinforce rhythmic patterns, or as an ornamental element. Poetry_sentence_119

They can also carry a meaning separate from the repetitive sound patterns created. Poetry_sentence_120

For example, Chaucer used heavy alliteration to mock Old English verse and to paint a character as archaic. Poetry_sentence_121

Rhyme consists of identical ("hard-rhyme") or similar ("soft-rhyme") sounds placed at the ends of lines or at predictable locations within lines ("internal rhyme"). Poetry_sentence_122

Languages vary in the richness of their rhyming structures; Italian, for example, has a rich rhyming structure permitting maintenance of a limited set of rhymes throughout a lengthy poem. Poetry_sentence_123

The richness results from word endings that follow regular forms. Poetry_sentence_124

English, with its irregular word endings adopted from other languages, is less rich in rhyme. Poetry_sentence_125

The degree of richness of a language's rhyming structures plays a substantial role in determining what poetic forms are commonly used in that language. Poetry_sentence_126

Alliteration is the repetition of letters or letter-sounds at the beginning of two or more words immediately succeeding each other, or at short intervals; or the recurrence of the same letter in accented parts of words. Poetry_sentence_127

Alliteration and assonance played a key role in structuring early Germanic, Norse and Old English forms of poetry. Poetry_sentence_128

The alliterative patterns of early Germanic poetry interweave meter and alliteration as a key part of their structure, so that the metrical pattern determines when the listener expects instances of alliteration to occur. Poetry_sentence_129

This can be compared to an ornamental use of alliteration in most Modern European poetry, where alliterative patterns are not formal or carried through full stanzas. Poetry_sentence_130

Alliteration is particularly useful in languages with less rich rhyming structures. Poetry_sentence_131

Assonance, where the use of similar vowel sounds within a word rather than similar sounds at the beginning or end of a word, was widely used in skaldic poetry but goes back to the Homeric epic. Poetry_sentence_132

Because verbs carry much of the pitch in the English language, assonance can loosely evoke the tonal elements of Chinese poetry and so is useful in translating Chinese poetry. Poetry_sentence_133

Consonance occurs where a consonant sound is repeated throughout a sentence without putting the sound only at the front of a word. Poetry_sentence_134

Consonance provokes a more subtle effect than alliteration and so is less useful as a structural element. Poetry_sentence_135

Rhyming schemes Poetry_section_9

Main article: Rhyme scheme Poetry_sentence_136

In many languages, including modern European languages and Arabic, poets use rhyme in set patterns as a structural element for specific poetic forms, such as ballads, sonnets and rhyming couplets. Poetry_sentence_137

However, the use of structural rhyme is not universal even within the European tradition. Poetry_sentence_138

Much modern poetry avoids traditional rhyme schemes. Poetry_sentence_139

Classical Greek and Latin poetry did not use rhyme. Poetry_sentence_140

Rhyme entered European poetry in the High Middle Ages, in part under the influence of the Arabic language in Al Andalus (modern Spain). Poetry_sentence_141

Arabic language poets used rhyme extensively from the first development of literary Arabic in the sixth century, as in their long, rhyming qasidas. Poetry_sentence_142

Some rhyming schemes have become associated with a specific language, culture or period, while other rhyming schemes have achieved use across languages, cultures or time periods. Poetry_sentence_143

Some forms of poetry carry a consistent and well-defined rhyming scheme, such as the chant royal or the rubaiyat, while other poetic forms have variable rhyme schemes. Poetry_sentence_144

Most rhyme schemes are described using letters that correspond to sets of rhymes, so if the first, second and fourth lines of a quatrain rhyme with each other and the third line do not rhyme, the quatrain is said to have an "aa-ba" rhyme scheme. Poetry_sentence_145

This rhyme scheme is the one used, for example, in the rubaiyat form. Poetry_sentence_146

Similarly, an "a-bb-a" quatrain (what is known as "enclosed rhyme") is used in such forms as the Petrarchan sonnet. Poetry_sentence_147

Some types of more complicated rhyming schemes have developed names of their own, separate from the "a-bc" convention, such as the ottava rima and terza rima. Poetry_sentence_148

The types and use of differing rhyming schemes are discussed further in the main article. Poetry_sentence_149

Form in poetry Poetry_section_10

Poetic form is more flexible in modernist and post-modernist poetry and continues to be less structured than in previous literary eras. Poetry_sentence_150

Many modern poets eschew recognizable structures or forms and write in free verse. Poetry_sentence_151

But poetry remains distinguished from prose by its form; some regard for basic formal structures of poetry will be found in even the best free verse, however much such structures may appear to have been ignored. Poetry_sentence_152

Similarly, in the best poetry written in classic styles there will be departures from strict form for emphasis or effect. Poetry_sentence_153

Among major structural elements used in poetry are the line, the stanza or verse paragraph, and larger combinations of stanzas or lines such as cantos. Poetry_sentence_154

Also sometimes used are broader visual presentations of words and calligraphy. Poetry_sentence_155

These basic units of poetic form are often combined into larger structures, called poetic forms or poetic modes (see the following section), as in the sonnet. Poetry_sentence_156

Lines and stanzas Poetry_section_11

Main articles: Line (poetry) and Stanza Poetry_sentence_157

Poetry is often separated into lines on a page, in a process known as lineation. Poetry_sentence_158

These lines may be based on the number of metrical feet or may emphasize a rhyming pattern at the ends of lines. Poetry_sentence_159

Lines may serve other functions, particularly where the poem is not written in a formal metrical pattern. Poetry_sentence_160

Lines can separate, compare or contrast thoughts expressed in different units, or can highlight a change in tone. Poetry_sentence_161

See the article on line breaks for information about the division between lines. Poetry_sentence_162

Lines of poems are often organized into stanzas, which are denominated by the number of lines included. Poetry_sentence_163

Thus a collection of two lines is a couplet (or distich), three lines a triplet (or tercet), four lines a quatrain, and so on. Poetry_sentence_164

These lines may or may not relate to each other by rhyme or rhythm. Poetry_sentence_165

For example, a couplet may be two lines with identical meters which rhyme or two lines held together by a common meter alone. Poetry_sentence_166

Other poems may be organized into verse paragraphs, in which regular rhymes with established rhythms are not used, but the poetic tone is instead established by a collection of rhythms, alliterations, and rhymes established in paragraph form. Poetry_sentence_167

Many medieval poems were written in verse paragraphs, even where regular rhymes and rhythms were used. Poetry_sentence_168

In many forms of poetry, stanzas are interlocking, so that the rhyming scheme or other structural elements of one stanza determine those of succeeding stanzas. Poetry_sentence_169

Examples of such interlocking stanzas include, for example, the ghazal and the villanelle, where a refrain (or, in the case of the villanelle, refrains) is established in the first stanza which then repeats in subsequent stanzas. Poetry_sentence_170

Related to the use of interlocking stanzas is their use to separate thematic parts of a poem. Poetry_sentence_171

For example, the strophe, antistrophe and epode of the ode form are often separated into one or more stanzas. Poetry_sentence_172

In some cases, particularly lengthier formal poetry such as some forms of epic poetry, stanzas themselves are constructed according to strict rules and then combined. Poetry_sentence_173

In skaldic poetry, the dróttkvætt stanza had eight lines, each having three "lifts" produced with alliteration or assonance. Poetry_sentence_174

In addition to two or three alliterations, the odd-numbered lines had partial rhyme of consonants with dissimilar vowels, not necessarily at the beginning of the word; the even lines contained internal rhyme in set syllables (not necessarily at the end of the word). Poetry_sentence_175

Each half-line had exactly six syllables, and each line ended in a trochee. Poetry_sentence_176

The arrangement of dróttkvætts followed far less rigid rules than the construction of the individual dróttkvætts. Poetry_sentence_177

Visual presentation Poetry_section_12

Main article: Visual poetry Poetry_sentence_178

Even before the advent of printing, the visual appearance of poetry often added meaning or depth. Poetry_sentence_179

Acrostic poems conveyed meanings in the initial letters of lines or in letters at other specific places in a poem. Poetry_sentence_180

In Arabic, Hebrew and Chinese poetry, the visual presentation of finely calligraphed poems has played an important part in the overall effect of many poems. Poetry_sentence_181

With the advent of printing, poets gained greater control over the mass-produced visual presentations of their work. Poetry_sentence_182

Visual elements have become an important part of the poet's toolbox, and many poets have sought to use visual presentation for a wide range of purposes. Poetry_sentence_183

Some Modernist poets have made the placement of individual lines or groups of lines on the page an integral part of the poem's composition. Poetry_sentence_184

At times, this complements the poem's rhythm through visual caesuras of various lengths, or creates juxtapositions so as to accentuate meaning, ambiguity or irony, or simply to create an aesthetically pleasing form. Poetry_sentence_185

In its most extreme form, this can lead to concrete poetry or asemic writing. Poetry_sentence_186

Diction Poetry_section_13

Main article: Poetic diction Poetry_sentence_187

Poetic diction treats the manner in which language is used, and refers not only to the sound but also to the underlying meaning and its interaction with sound and form. Poetry_sentence_188

Many languages and poetic forms have very specific poetic dictions, to the point where distinct grammars and dialects are used specifically for poetry. Poetry_sentence_189

Registers in poetry can range from strict employment of ordinary speech patterns, as favoured in much late-20th-century prosody, through to highly ornate uses of language, as in medieval and Renaissance poetry. Poetry_sentence_190

Poetic diction can include rhetorical devices such as simile and metaphor, as well as tones of voice, such as irony. Poetry_sentence_191

Aristotle wrote in the Poetics that "the greatest thing by far is to be a master of metaphor." Poetry_sentence_192

Since the rise of Modernism, some poets have opted for a poetic diction that de-emphasizes rhetorical devices, attempting instead the direct presentation of things and experiences and the exploration of tone. Poetry_sentence_193

On the other hand, Surrealists have pushed rhetorical devices to their limits, making frequent use of catachresis. Poetry_sentence_194

Allegorical stories are central to the poetic diction of many cultures, and were prominent in the West during classical times, the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Poetry_sentence_195

Aesop's Fables, repeatedly rendered in both verse and prose since first being recorded about 500 BCE, are perhaps the richest single source of allegorical poetry through the ages. Poetry_sentence_196

Other notables examples include the Roman de la Rose, a 13th-century French poem, William Langland's Piers Ploughman in the 14th century, and Jean de la Fontaine's Fables (influenced by Aesop's) in the 17th century. Poetry_sentence_197

Rather than being fully allegorical, however, a poem may contain symbols or allusions that deepen the meaning or effect of its words without constructing a full allegory. Poetry_sentence_198

Another element of poetic diction can be the use of vivid imagery for effect. Poetry_sentence_199

The juxtaposition of unexpected or impossible images is, for example, a particularly strong element in surrealist poetry and haiku. Poetry_sentence_200

Vivid images are often endowed with symbolism or metaphor. Poetry_sentence_201

Many poetic dictions use repetitive phrases for effect, either a short phrase (such as Homer's "rosy-fingered dawn" or "the wine-dark sea") or a longer refrain. Poetry_sentence_202

Such repetition can add a somber tone to a poem, or can be laced with irony as the context of the words changes. Poetry_sentence_203

Forms Poetry_section_14

See also: :Category: Poetic form Poetry_sentence_204

Specific poetic forms have been developed by many cultures. Poetry_sentence_205

In more developed, closed or "received" poetic forms, the rhyming scheme, meter and other elements of a poem are based on sets of rules, ranging from the relatively loose rules that govern the construction of an elegy to the highly formalized structure of the ghazal or villanelle. Poetry_sentence_206

Described below are some common forms of poetry widely used across a number of languages. Poetry_sentence_207

Additional forms of poetry may be found in the discussions of the poetry of particular cultures or periods and in the glossary. Poetry_sentence_208

Sonnet Poetry_section_15

Main article: Sonnet Poetry_sentence_209

Among the most common forms of poetry, popular from the Late Middle Ages on, is the sonnet, which by the 13th century had become standardized as fourteen lines following a set rhyme scheme and logical structure. Poetry_sentence_210

By the 14th century and the Italian Renaissance, the form had further crystallized under the pen of Petrarch, whose sonnets were translated in the 16th century by Sir Thomas Wyatt, who is credited with introducing the sonnet form into English literature. Poetry_sentence_211

A traditional Italian or Petrarchan sonnet follows the rhyme scheme ABBA, ABBA, CDECDE, though some variation, perhaps the most common being CDCDCD, especially within the final six lines (or sestet), is common. Poetry_sentence_212

The English (or Shakespearean) sonnet follows the rhyme scheme ABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GG, introducing a third quatrain (grouping of four lines), a final couplet, and a greater amount of variety with regard to rhyme than is usually found in its Italian predecessors. Poetry_sentence_213

By convention, sonnets in English typically use iambic pentameter, while in the Romance languages, the hendecasyllable and Alexandrine are the most widely used meters. Poetry_sentence_214

Sonnets of all types often make use of a volta, or "turn," a point in the poem at which an idea is turned on its head, a question is answered (or introduced), or the subject matter is further complicated. Poetry_sentence_215

This volta can often take the form of a "but" statement contradicting or complicating the content of the earlier lines. Poetry_sentence_216

In the Petrarchan sonnet, the turn tends to fall around the division between the first two quatrains and the sestet, while English sonnets usually place it at or near the beginning of the closing couplet. Poetry_sentence_217

Sonnets are particularly associated with high poetic diction, vivid imagery, and romantic love, largely due to the influence of Petrarch as well as of early English practitioners such as Edmund Spenser (who gave his name to the Spenserian sonnet), Michael Drayton, and Shakespeare, whose sonnets are among the most famous in English poetry, with twenty being included in the Oxford Book of English Verse. Poetry_sentence_218

However, the twists and turns associated with the volta allow for a logical flexibility applicable to many subjects. Poetry_sentence_219

Poets from the earliest centuries of the sonnet to the present have utilized the form to address topics related to politics (John Milton, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Claude McKay), theology (John Donne, Gerard Manley Hopkins), war (Wilfred Owen, e.e. Poetry_sentence_220 cummings), and gender and sexuality (Carol Ann Duffy). Poetry_sentence_221

Further, postmodern authors such as Ted Berrigan and John Berryman have challenged the traditional definitions of the sonnet form, rendering entire sequences of "sonnets" that often lack rhyme, a clear logical progression, or even a consistent count of fourteen lines. Poetry_sentence_222

Shi Poetry_section_16

Main article: Shi (poetry) Poetry_sentence_223

Shi (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: shī; Wade–Giles: shih) Is the main type of Classical Chinese poetry. Poetry_sentence_224

Within this form of poetry the most important variations are "folk song" styled verse (yuefu), "old style" verse (gushi), "modern style" verse (jintishi). Poetry_sentence_225

In all cases, rhyming is obligatory. Poetry_sentence_226

The Yuefu is a folk ballad or a poem written in the folk ballad style, and the number of lines and the length of the lines could be irregular. Poetry_sentence_227

For the other variations of shi poetry, generally either a four line (quatrain, or jueju) or else an eight-line poem is normal; either way with the even numbered lines rhyming. Poetry_sentence_228

The line length is scanned by an according number of characters (according to the convention that one character equals one syllable), and are predominantly either five or seven characters long, with a caesura before the final three syllables. Poetry_sentence_229

The lines are generally end-stopped, considered as a series of couplets, and exhibit verbal parallelism as a key poetic device. Poetry_sentence_230

The "old style" verse (Gushi) is less formally strict than the jintishi, or regulated verse, which, despite the name "new style" verse actually had its theoretical basis laid as far back as Shen Yue (441–513 CE), although not considered to have reached its full development until the time of Chen Zi'ang (661–702 CE). Poetry_sentence_231

A good example of a poet known for his Gushi poems is Li Bai (701–762 CE). Poetry_sentence_232

Among its other rules, the jintishi rules regulate the tonal variations within a poem, including the use of set patterns of the four tones of Middle Chinese. Poetry_sentence_233

The basic form of jintishi (sushi) has eight lines in four couplets, with parallelism between the lines in the second and third couplets. Poetry_sentence_234

The couplets with parallel lines contain contrasting content but an identical grammatical relationship between words. Poetry_sentence_235

Jintishi often have a rich poetic diction, full of allusion, and can have a wide range of subject, including history and politics. Poetry_sentence_236

One of the masters of the form was Du Fu (712–770 CE), who wrote during the Tang Dynasty (8th century). Poetry_sentence_237

Villanelle Poetry_section_17

Main article: Villanelle Poetry_sentence_238

The villanelle is a nineteen-line poem made up of five triplets with a closing quatrain; the poem is characterized by having two refrains, initially used in the first and third lines of the first stanza, and then alternately used at the close of each subsequent stanza until the final quatrain, which is concluded by the two refrains. Poetry_sentence_239

The remaining lines of the poem have an a-b alternating rhyme. Poetry_sentence_240

The villanelle has been used regularly in the English language since the late 19th century by such poets as Dylan Thomas, W. Poetry_sentence_241 H. Auden, and Elizabeth Bishop. Poetry_sentence_242

Limerick Poetry_section_18

Main article: Limerick (poetry) Poetry_sentence_243

A limerick is a poem that consists of five lines and is often humorous. Poetry_sentence_244

Rhythm is very important in limericks for the first, second and fifth lines must have seven to ten syllables. Poetry_sentence_245

However, the third and fourth lines only need five to seven. Poetry_sentence_246

All of the lines must rhyme and have the same rhythm. Poetry_sentence_247

Practitioners of the limerick included Edward Lear, Lord Alfred Tennyson, Rudyard Kipling, Robert Louis Stevenson. Poetry_sentence_248

Tanka Poetry_section_19

Main article: Tanka Poetry_sentence_249

Tanka is a form of unrhymed Japanese poetry, with five sections totalling 31 on (phonological units identical to morae), structured in a 5-7-5-7-7 pattern. Poetry_sentence_250

There is generally a shift in tone and subject matter between the upper 5-7-5 phrase and the lower 7-7 phrase. Poetry_sentence_251

Tanka were written as early as the Asuka period by such poets as Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (fl. late 7th century), at a time when Japan was emerging from a period where much of its poetry followed Chinese form. Poetry_sentence_252

Tanka was originally the shorter form of Japanese formal poetry (which was generally referred to as "waka"), and was used more heavily to explore personal rather than public themes. Poetry_sentence_253

By the tenth century, tanka had become the dominant form of Japanese poetry, to the point where the originally general term waka ("Japanese poetry") came to be used exclusively for tanka. Poetry_sentence_254

Tanka are still widely written today. Poetry_sentence_255

Haiku Poetry_section_20

Main article: Haiku Poetry_sentence_256

Haiku is a popular form of unrhymed Japanese poetry, which evolved in the 17th century from the hokku, or opening verse of a renku. Poetry_sentence_257

Generally written in a single vertical line, the haiku contains three sections totalling 17 on (morae), structured in a 5-7-5 pattern. Poetry_sentence_258

Traditionally, haiku contain a kireji, or cutting word, usually placed at the end of one of the poem's three sections, and a kigo, or season-word. Poetry_sentence_259

The most famous exponent of the haiku was Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694). Poetry_sentence_260

An example of his writing: Poetry_sentence_261

Poetry_description_list_2

  • 富士の風や扇にのせて江戸土産Poetry_item_2_12
  • fuji no kaze ya oogi ni nosete Edo miyagePoetry_item_2_13

Poetry_description_list_3

  • the wind of Mt. FujiPoetry_item_3_14
  • I've brought on my fan!Poetry_item_3_15
  • a gift from EdoPoetry_item_3_16

Khlong Poetry_section_21

Main article: Thai poetry Poetry_sentence_262

The khlong (โคลง, [kʰlōːŋ) is among the oldest Thai poetic forms. Poetry_sentence_263

This is reflected in its requirements on the tone markings of certain syllables, which must be marked with mai ek (ไม้เอก, Thai pronunciation: [máj èːk, ◌่) or mai tho (ไม้โท, [máj tʰōː, ◌้). Poetry_sentence_264

This was likely derived from when the Thai language had three tones (as opposed to today's five, a split which occurred during the Ayutthaya Kingdom period), two of which corresponded directly to the aforementioned marks. Poetry_sentence_265

It is usually regarded as an advanced and sophisticated poetic form. Poetry_sentence_266

In khlong, a stanza (bot, บท, Thai pronunciation: [bòt) has a number of lines (bat, บาท, Thai pronunciation: [bàːt, from Pali and Sanskrit pāda), depending on the type. Poetry_sentence_267

The bat are subdivided into two wak (วรรค, Thai pronunciation: [wák, from Sanskrit varga). Poetry_sentence_268

The first wak has five syllables, the second has a variable number, also depending on the type, and may be optional. Poetry_sentence_269

The type of khlong is named by the number of bat in a stanza; it may also be divided into two main types: khlong suphap (โคลงสุภาพ, [kʰlōːŋ sù.pʰâːp) and khlong dan (โคลงดั้น, [kʰlōːŋ dân). Poetry_sentence_270

The two differ in the number of syllables in the second wak of the final bat and inter-stanza rhyming rules. Poetry_sentence_271

Khlong si suphap Poetry_section_22

The khlong si suphap (โคลงสี่สุภาพ, [kʰlōːŋ sìː sù.pʰâːp) is the most common form still currently employed. Poetry_sentence_272

It has four bat per stanza (si translates as four). Poetry_sentence_273

The first wak of each bat has five syllables. Poetry_sentence_274

The second wak has two or four syllables in the first and third bat, two syllables in the second, and four syllables in the fourth. Poetry_sentence_275

Mai ek is required for seven syllables and Mai tho is required for four, as shown below. Poetry_sentence_276

"Dead word" syllables are allowed in place of syllables which require mai ek, and changing the spelling of words to satisfy the criteria is usually acceptable. Poetry_sentence_277

Ode Poetry_section_23

Main article: Ode Poetry_sentence_278

Odes were first developed by poets writing in ancient Greek, such as Pindar, and Latin, such as Horace. Poetry_sentence_279

Forms of odes appear in many of the cultures that were influenced by the Greeks and Latins. Poetry_sentence_280

The ode generally has three parts: a strophe, an antistrophe, and an epode. Poetry_sentence_281

The antistrophes of the ode possess similar metrical structures and, depending on the tradition, similar rhyme structures. Poetry_sentence_282

In contrast, the epode is written with a different scheme and structure. Poetry_sentence_283

Odes have a formal poetic diction and generally deal with a serious subject. Poetry_sentence_284

The strophe and antistrophe look at the subject from different, often conflicting, perspectives, with the epode moving to a higher level to either view or resolve the underlying issues. Poetry_sentence_285

Odes are often intended to be recited or sung by two choruses (or individuals), with the first reciting the strophe, the second the antistrophe, and both together the epode. Poetry_sentence_286

Over time, differing forms for odes have developed with considerable variations in form and structure, but generally showing the original influence of the Pindaric or Horatian ode. Poetry_sentence_287

One non-Western form which resembles the ode is the qasida in Persian poetry. Poetry_sentence_288

Ghazal Poetry_section_24

Main article: Ghazal Poetry_sentence_289

The ghazal (also ghazel, gazel, gazal, or gozol) is a form of poetry common in Arabic, Bengali, Persian and Urdu. Poetry_sentence_290

In classic form, the ghazal has from five to fifteen rhyming couplets that share a refrain at the end of the second line. Poetry_sentence_291

This refrain may be of one or several syllables and is preceded by a rhyme. Poetry_sentence_292

Each line has an identical meter. Poetry_sentence_293

The ghazal often reflects on a theme of unattainable love or divinity. Poetry_sentence_294

As with other forms with a long history in many languages, many variations have been developed, including forms with a quasi-musical poetic diction in Urdu. Poetry_sentence_295

Ghazals have a classical affinity with Sufism, and a number of major Sufi religious works are written in ghazal form. Poetry_sentence_296

The relatively steady meter and the use of the refrain produce an incantatory effect, which complements Sufi mystical themes well. Poetry_sentence_297

Among the masters of the form is Rumi, a 13th-century Persian poet. Poetry_sentence_298

One of the most famous poet in this type of poetry is Hafez, whose poems often include the theme of exposing hypocrisy. Poetry_sentence_299

His life and poems have been the subject of much analysis, commentary and interpretation, influencing post-fourteenth century Persian writing more than any other author. Poetry_sentence_300

The West-östlicher Diwan of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, a collection of lyrical poems, is inspired by the Persian poet Hafez. Poetry_sentence_301

Ginans Poetry_section_25

Main article: Ginans Poetry_sentence_302

Gināns, a part of the corpus of Ismaili Muslim devotional literature, are a form of poetic composition. Poetry_sentence_303

Genres Poetry_section_26

In addition to specific forms of poems, poetry is often thought of in terms of different genres and subgenres. Poetry_sentence_304

A poetic genre is generally a tradition or classification of poetry based on the subject matter, style, or other broader literary characteristics. Poetry_sentence_305

Some commentators view genres as natural forms of literature. Poetry_sentence_306

Others view the study of genres as the study of how different works relate and refer to other works. Poetry_sentence_307

Narrative poetry Poetry_section_27

Main article: Narrative poetry Poetry_sentence_308

Narrative poetry is a genre of poetry that tells a story. Poetry_sentence_309

Broadly it subsumes epic poetry, but the term "narrative poetry" is often reserved for smaller works, generally with more appeal to human interest. Poetry_sentence_310

Narrative poetry may be the oldest type of poetry. Poetry_sentence_311

Many scholars of Homer have concluded that his Iliad and Odyssey were composed of compilations of shorter narrative poems that related individual episodes. Poetry_sentence_312

Much narrative poetry—such as Scottish and English ballads, and Baltic and Slavic heroic poems—is performance poetry with roots in a preliterate oral tradition. Poetry_sentence_313

It has been speculated that some features that distinguish poetry from prose, such as meter, alliteration and kennings, once served as memory aids for bards who recited traditional tales. Poetry_sentence_314

Notable narrative poets have included Ovid, Dante, Juan Ruiz, William Langland, Chaucer, Fernando de Rojas, Luís de Camões, Shakespeare, Alexander Pope, Robert Burns, Adam Mickiewicz, Alexander Pushkin, Edgar Allan Poe, Alfred Tennyson, and Anne Carson. Poetry_sentence_315

Lyric poetry Poetry_section_28

Main article: Lyric poetry Poetry_sentence_316

Lyric poetry is a genre that, unlike epic and dramatic poetry, does not attempt to tell a story but instead is of a more personal nature. Poetry_sentence_317

Poems in this genre tend to be shorter, melodic, and contemplative. Poetry_sentence_318

Rather than depicting characters and actions, it portrays the poet's own feelings, states of mind, and perceptions. Poetry_sentence_319

Notable poets in this genre include Christine de Pizan, John Donne, Charles Baudelaire, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Antonio Machado, and Edna St. Vincent Millay. Poetry_sentence_320

Epic poetry Poetry_section_29

Main article: Epic poetry Poetry_sentence_321

Epic poetry is a genre of poetry, and a major form of narrative literature. Poetry_sentence_322

This genre is often defined as lengthy poems concerning events of a heroic or important nature to the culture of the time. Poetry_sentence_323

It recounts, in a continuous narrative, the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons. Poetry_sentence_324

Examples of epic poems are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, the Nibelungenlied, Luís de Camões' Os Lusíadas, the Cantar de Mio Cid, the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Mahabharata, Lönnrot's Kalevala, Valmiki's Ramayana, Ferdowsi's Shahnama, Nizami (or Nezami)'s Khamse (Five Books), and the Epic of King Gesar. Poetry_sentence_325

While the composition of epic poetry, and of long poems generally, became less common in the west after the early 20th century, some notable epics have continued to be written. Poetry_sentence_326

The Cantos by Ezra Pound, Helen in Egypt by H.D. Poetry_sentence_327 , Paterson (poem) by William Carlos Williams, and Empire of Dreams (poetry collection) by Giannina Braschi are examples of modern epics. Poetry_sentence_328

Derek Walcott won a Nobel prize in 1992 to a great extent on the basis of his epic, Omeros. Poetry_sentence_329

Satirical poetry Poetry_section_30

Poetry can be a powerful vehicle for satire. Poetry_sentence_330

The Romans had a strong tradition of satirical poetry, often written for political purposes. Poetry_sentence_331

A notable example is the Roman poet Juvenal's satires. Poetry_sentence_332

The same is true of the English satirical tradition. Poetry_sentence_333

John Dryden (a Tory), the first Poet Laureate, produced in 1682 Mac Flecknoe, subtitled "A Satire on the True Blue Protestant Poet, T.S." Poetry_sentence_334

(a reference to Thomas Shadwell). Poetry_sentence_335

Another master of 17th-century English satirical poetry was John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester. Poetry_sentence_336

Satirical poets outside England include Poland's Ignacy Krasicki, Azerbaijan's Sabir, Portugal's Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage, and Korea's Kim Kirim, especially noted for his Gisangdo. Poetry_sentence_337

Elegy Poetry_section_31

Main article: Elegy Poetry_sentence_338

An elegy is a mournful, melancholy or plaintive poem, especially a lament for the dead or a funeral song. Poetry_sentence_339

The term "elegy," which originally denoted a type of poetic meter (elegiac meter), commonly describes a poem of mourning. Poetry_sentence_340

An elegy may also reflect something that seems to the author to be strange or mysterious. Poetry_sentence_341

The elegy, as a reflection on a death, on a sorrow more generally, or on something mysterious, may be classified as a form of lyric poetry. Poetry_sentence_342

Notable practitioners of elegiac poetry have included Propertius, Jorge Manrique, Jan Kochanowski, Chidiock Tichborne, Edmund Spenser, Ben Jonson, John Milton, Thomas Gray, Charlotte Turner Smith, William Cullen Bryant, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Evgeny Baratynsky, Alfred Tennyson, Walt Whitman, Antonio Machado, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Giannina Braschi, William Butler Yeats, Rainer Maria Rilke, and Virginia Woolf. Poetry_sentence_343

Verse fable Poetry_section_32

Main article: Fable Poetry_sentence_344

The fable is an ancient literary genre, often (though not invariably) set in verse. Poetry_sentence_345

It is a succinct story that features anthropomorphised animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that illustrate a moral lesson (a "moral"). Poetry_sentence_346

Verse fables have used a variety of meter and rhyme patterns. Poetry_sentence_347

Notable verse fabulists have included Aesop, Vishnu Sarma, Phaedrus, Marie de France, Robert Henryson, Biernat of Lublin, Jean de La Fontaine, Ignacy Krasicki, Félix María de Samaniego, Tomás de Iriarte, Ivan Krylov and Ambrose Bierce. Poetry_sentence_348

Dramatic poetry Poetry_section_33

Main articles: Verse drama and dramatic verse, Theatre of ancient Greece, Sanskrit drama, Chinese Opera, and Noh Poetry_sentence_349

Dramatic poetry is drama written in verse to be spoken or sung, and appears in varying, sometimes related forms in many cultures. Poetry_sentence_350

Greek tragedy in verse dates to the 6th century B.C., and may have been an influence on the development of Sanskrit drama, just as Indian drama in turn appears to have influenced the development of the bianwen verse dramas in China, forerunners of Chinese Opera. Poetry_sentence_351

East Asian verse dramas also include Japanese Noh. Poetry_sentence_352

Examples of dramatic poetry in Persian literature include Nizami's two famous dramatic works, Layla and Majnun and Khosrow and Shirin, Ferdowsi's tragedies such as Rostam and Sohrab, Rumi's Masnavi, Gorgani's tragedy of Vis and Ramin, and Vahshi's tragedy of Farhad. Poetry_sentence_353

American poets of 20th century revive dramatic poetry, including Ezra Pound in “Sestina: Altaforte,” T.S. Poetry_sentence_354 Eliot with “The Love Song of J. Alfred Proufrock,” and Giannina Braschi's Empire of Dreams. Poetry_sentence_355

Speculative poetry Poetry_section_34

Main article: Speculative poetry Poetry_sentence_356

Speculative poetry, also known as fantastic poetry (of which weird or macabre poetry is a major sub-classification), is a poetic genre which deals thematically with subjects which are "beyond reality", whether via extrapolation as in science fiction or via weird and horrific themes as in horror fiction. Poetry_sentence_357

Such poetry appears regularly in modern science fiction and horror fiction magazines. Poetry_sentence_358

Edgar Allan Poe is sometimes seen as the "father of speculative poetry". Poetry_sentence_359

Poe's most remarkable achievement in the genre was his anticipation, by three-quarters of a century, of the Big Bang theory of the universe's origin, in his then much-derided 1848 essay (which, due to its very speculative nature, he termed a "prose poem"), Eureka: A Prose Poem. Poetry_sentence_360

Prose poetry Poetry_section_35

Main article: Prose poetry Poetry_sentence_361

Prose poetry is a hybrid genre that shows attributes of both prose and poetry. Poetry_sentence_362

It may be indistinguishable from the micro-story (a.k.a. Poetry_sentence_363

the "short short story", "flash fiction"). Poetry_sentence_364

While some examples of earlier prose strike modern readers as poetic, prose poetry is commonly regarded as having originated in 19th-century France, where its practitioners included Aloysius Bertrand, Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud and Stéphane Mallarmé. Poetry_sentence_365

Since the late 1980s especially, prose poetry has gained increasing popularity, with entire journals, such as The Prose Poem: An International Journal, Contemporary Haibun Online, and Haibun Today devoted to that genre and its hybrids. Poetry_sentence_366

Latin American poets of the 20th century who wrote prose poems include Octavio Paz, Alejandra Pizarnik, and Giannina Braschi Poetry_sentence_367

Light poetry Poetry_section_36

Main article: Light poetry Poetry_sentence_368

Light poetry, or light verse, is poetry that attempts to be humorous. Poetry_sentence_369

Poems considered "light" are usually brief, and can be on a frivolous or serious subject, and often feature word play, including puns, adventurous rhyme and heavy alliteration. Poetry_sentence_370

Although a few free verse poets have excelled at light verse outside the formal verse tradition, light verse in English usually obeys at least some formal conventions. Poetry_sentence_371

Common forms include the limerick, the clerihew, and the double dactyl. Poetry_sentence_372

While light poetry is sometimes condemned as doggerel, or thought of as poetry composed casually, humor often makes a serious point in a subtle or subversive way. Poetry_sentence_373

Many of the most renowned "serious" poets have also excelled at light verse. Poetry_sentence_374

Notable writers of light poetry include Lewis Carroll, Ogden Nash, X. Poetry_sentence_375 J. Kennedy, Willard R. Espy, Shel Silverstein, and Wendy Cope. Poetry_sentence_376

Slam poetry Poetry_section_37

Main article: Poetry slam Poetry_sentence_377

Slam poetry as a genre originated in 1986 in Chicago, Illinois, when Marc Kelly Smith organized the first slam. Poetry_sentence_378

Slam performers comment emotively, aloud before an audience, on personal, social, or other matters. Poetry_sentence_379

Slam focuses on the aesthetics of word play, intonation, and voice inflection. Poetry_sentence_380

Slam poetry is often competitive, at dedicated "poetry slam" contests. Poetry_sentence_381

See also Poetry_section_38

Poetry_unordered_list_4


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poetry.