Police state

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For the 1989 film, see Police State (1989 film). Police state_sentence_0

For the 2017 film, see Police State (2017 film). Police state_sentence_1

Not to be confused with State police. Police state_sentence_2

A police state is a government that exercises power through the power of the police force. Police state_sentence_3

Originally, a police state was a state regulated by a civil administration, but since the beginning of the 20th century it has "taken on an emotional and derogatory meaning" by describing an undesirable state of living characterized by the overbearing presence of civil authorities. Police state_sentence_4

The inhabitants of a police state may experience restrictions on their mobility, or on their freedom to express or communicate political or other views, which are subject to police monitoring or enforcement. Police state_sentence_5

Political control may be exerted by means of a secret police force that operates outside the boundaries normally imposed by a constitutional state. Police state_sentence_6

Robert von Mohl, who first introduced the rule of law to German jurisprudence, contrasted the Rechtsstaat ("legal" or "constitutional" state) with the anti-aristocratic Polizeistaat ("police state"). Police state_sentence_7

History of usage Police state_section_0

The Oxford English Dictionary traces the phrase "police state" back to 1851, when it was used in reference to the use of a national police force to maintain order in the Austrian Empire. Police state_sentence_8

The German term Polizeistaat came into English usage in the 1930s with reference to totalitarian governments that had begun to emerge in Europe. Police state_sentence_9

Because there are different political perspectives as to what an appropriate balance is between individual freedom and national security, there are no objective standards defining a police state. Police state_sentence_10

This concept can be viewed as a balance or scale. Police state_sentence_11

Along this spectrum, any law that has the effect of removing liberty is seen as moving towards a police state while any law that limits government oversight of the populace is seen as moving towards a free state. Police state_sentence_12

An electronic police state is one in which the government aggressively uses electronic technologies to record, organize, search and distribute forensic evidence against its citizens. Police state_sentence_13

Examples of states with related attributes Police state_section_1

Some have characterised the rule of King Henry VIII during the Tudor period as a police state. Police state_sentence_14

The Oprichnina established by Tsar Ivan IV within the Russian Tsardom in 1565 functioned as a predecessor to the modern police state, featuring persecutions and autocratic rule. Police state_sentence_15

Nazi Germany emerged from an originally democratic government, yet gradually exerted more and more repressive controls over its people in the lead-up to World War II. Police state_sentence_16

In addition to the SS and the Gestapo, the Nazi police state used the judiciary to assert control over the population from the 1930s until the end of the war in 1945. Police state_sentence_17

During the period of apartheid, South Africa maintained police-state attributes such as banning people and organizations, arresting political prisoners, maintaining segregated living communities and restricting movement and access. Police state_sentence_18

Augusto Pinochet's Chile operated as a police state, exhibiting "repression of public liberties, the elimination of political exchange, limiting freedom of speech, abolishing the right to strike, freezing wages". Police state_sentence_19

The Republic of Cuba under President (and later right-wing dictator) Fulgencio Batista was an authoritarian police state during his rule. Police state_sentence_20

Police influence increased following his overthrow during the Cuban Revolution in 1959 with the rise to power of Fidel Castro and foundation of a Marxist-Leninist republic. Police state_sentence_21

The region of modern-day North Korea is claimed to have elements of a police state, from the Juche-style Silla kingdom, to the imposition of a fascist police state by the Japanese, to the totalitarian police state imposed and maintained by the Kim family. Police state_sentence_22

Paris-based Reporters Without Borders has ranked North Korea last or second last in their test of press freedom since the Press Freedom Index's introduction, stating that the ruling Kim family control all of the media. Police state_sentence_23

In response to government proposals to enact new security measures to curb protests, the government of the AK Party has been accused of turning Turkey into a police state. Police state_sentence_24

Since the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, the military government of Egypt is said to have taken several steps to crack down on freedom of religion and expression with the intention of decreasing religious extremism, leading to accusations that it has effectively become a "Revolutionary Police State". Police state_sentence_25

The dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos from the 1970's to early 1980's in the Philippines has many characteristics of a police state. Police state_sentence_26

Fictional police states Police state_section_2

Main article: List of fictional police states Police state_sentence_27

Fictional police states have featured in media ranging from novels to films to video games. Police state_sentence_28

George Orwell's novel 1984 was described by The Encyclopedia of Police Science as "the definitive fictional treatment of a police state, which has also influenced contemporary usage of the term". Police state_sentence_29

Orwell's novel describes Britain under the totalitarian Oceanian regime that continuously invokes (and helps to create) a perpetual war. Police state_sentence_30

This perpetual war is used as a pretext for subjecting the people to mass surveillance and invasive police searches. Police state_sentence_31

The novel has been described as "the definitive fictional treatment of a police state, which has also influenced contemporary usage of the term." Police state_sentence_32

See also Police state_section_3

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Police state.