# Population density

Population density (in agriculture: standing stock or plant density) is a measurement of population per unit area, or exceptionally unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. Population density_sentence_0

It is frequently applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans. Population density_sentence_1

It is a key geographical term. Population density_sentence_2

In simple terms, population density refers to the number of people living in an area per square kilometre. Population density_sentence_3

## Biological population densities Population density_section_0

Population density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate. Population density_sentence_4

Low densities may cause an extinction vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. Population density_sentence_5

This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it. Population density_sentence_6

Examples of the causes of reduced fertility in low population densities are: Population density_sentence_7

Population density_unordered_list_0

• Increased problems with locating sexual matesPopulation density_item_0_0
• Increased inbreedingPopulation density_item_0_1

### Human densities Population density_section_1

Main article: List of countries and territories by population density Population density_sentence_8

Population density is the number of people per unit of area, usually quoted per square kilometre or square mile, and which may include or exclude for example areas of water or glaciers. Population density_sentence_9

Commonly this may be calculated for a county, city, country, another territory or the entire world. Population density_sentence_10

The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area (including land and water) is 510,000,000 km (197,000,000 sq. Population density_sentence_11

mi.). Population density_sentence_12

Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km (38 per sq. Population density_sentence_13

mi.). Population density_sentence_14

If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km (58,000,000 sq. Population density_sentence_15

mi.) Population density_sentence_16

is taken into account, then human population density is 50 per km (129 per sq. Population density_sentence_17

mi.). Population density_sentence_18

This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. Population density_sentence_19

If Antarctica is also excluded, then population density rises to over 55 people per km (over 142 per sq. Population density_sentence_20

mi.). Population density_sentence_21

However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, and population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Population density_sentence_22

Thus, additional criteria are needed to make simple population density values useful. Population density_sentence_23

Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, microstates and urban dependencies. Population density_sentence_24

In fact, 95% of the world's population is concentrated on just 10% of the world's land. Population density_sentence_25

These territories have a relatively small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing also on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation. Population density_sentence_26

Deserts have very limited potential for growing crops as there is not enough rain to support them. Population density_sentence_27

Thus their population density is generally low. Population density_sentence_28

However some cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace. Population density_sentence_29

Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Population density_sentence_30

Very densely populated cities are mostly in Asia (particularly Southeast Asia); Africa's Lagos, Kinshasa and Cairo; South America's Bogotá, Lima and São Paulo; and Mexico City and Saint Petersburg also fall into this category. Population density_sentence_31

City population and especially area are, however, heavily dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are almost invariably higher for the centre only than when suburban settlements and intervening rural areas are included, as in the agglomeration or metropolitan area (the latter sometimes including neighboring cities). Population density_sentence_32

In comparison, based on a world population of 7 billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up almost 1 m (10 sq. Population density_sentence_33

ft) per person (cf. Population density_sentence_34

Jacobs Method), would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area. Population density_sentence_35

### Countries and dependent territories Population density_section_2

Main article: List of countries and dependencies by population density Population density_sentence_36

Population density_table_general_0

With population under 10,000,000Population density_table_caption_0
RankPopulation density_header_cell_0_0_0 Country or

kmPopulation density_header_cell_0_1_0 sq. mi.Population density_header_cell_0_1_1 per kmPopulation density_header_cell_0_1_2 per sq.

1Population density_cell_0_2_0 Macau (China)Population density_cell_0_2_1 30.5Population density_cell_0_2_2 12Population density_cell_0_2_3 650,834Population density_cell_0_2_4 21,339Population density_cell_0_2_5 55,268Population density_cell_0_2_6
2Population density_cell_0_3_0 MonacoPopulation density_cell_0_3_1 2.02Population density_cell_0_3_2 0.78Population density_cell_0_3_3 37,550Population density_cell_0_3_4 18,589Population density_cell_0_3_5 48,145Population density_cell_0_3_6
3Population density_cell_0_4_0 SingaporePopulation density_cell_0_4_1 719.9Population density_cell_0_4_2 278Population density_cell_0_4_3 5,612,300Population density_cell_0_4_4 7,796Population density_cell_0_4_5 20,192Population density_cell_0_4_6
4Population density_cell_0_5_0 Hong Kong (China)Population density_cell_0_5_1 1,106.3Population density_cell_0_5_2 427Population density_cell_0_5_3 7,409,800Population density_cell_0_5_4 6,698Population density_cell_0_5_5 17,348Population density_cell_0_5_6
5Population density_cell_0_6_0 Gibraltar (UK)Population density_cell_0_6_1 6.8Population density_cell_0_6_2 2.6Population density_cell_0_6_3 33,140Population density_cell_0_6_4 4,874Population density_cell_0_6_5 12,624Population density_cell_0_6_6
6Population density_cell_0_7_0 BahrainPopulation density_cell_0_7_1 757Population density_cell_0_7_2 292Population density_cell_0_7_3 1,451,200Population density_cell_0_7_4 1,917Population density_cell_0_7_5 4,965Population density_cell_0_7_6
7Population density_cell_0_8_0 Vatican CityPopulation density_cell_0_8_1 0.44Population density_cell_0_8_2 0.17Population density_cell_0_8_3 800Population density_cell_0_8_4 1,818Population density_cell_0_8_5 4,709Population density_cell_0_8_6
8Population density_cell_0_9_0 MaltaPopulation density_cell_0_9_1 315Population density_cell_0_9_2 122Population density_cell_0_9_3 475,701Population density_cell_0_9_4 1,510Population density_cell_0_9_5 3,911Population density_cell_0_9_6
9Population density_cell_0_10_0 MaldivesPopulation density_cell_0_10_1 298Population density_cell_0_10_2 115Population density_cell_0_10_3 378,114Population density_cell_0_10_4 1,269Population density_cell_0_10_5 3,287Population density_cell_0_10_6
10Population density_cell_0_11_0 Bermuda (UK)Population density_cell_0_11_1 52Population density_cell_0_11_2 20Population density_cell_0_11_3 63,779Population density_cell_0_11_4 1,227Population density_cell_0_11_5 3,178Population density_cell_0_11_6

Population density_table_general_1

With population above 10,000,000Population density_table_caption_1
kmPopulation density_header_cell_1_1_0 sq. mi.Population density_header_cell_1_1_1 per kmPopulation density_header_cell_1_1_2 per sq.

12Population density_cell_1_2_0 BangladeshPopulation density_cell_1_2_1 143,998Population density_cell_1_2_2 55,598Population density_cell_1_2_3 165,001,946Population density_cell_1_2_4 1,146Population density_cell_1_2_5 2,968Population density_cell_1_2_6
19Population density_cell_1_3_0 TaiwanPopulation density_cell_1_3_1 36,193Population density_cell_1_3_2 13,974Population density_cell_1_3_3 23,572,049Population density_cell_1_3_4 651Population density_cell_1_3_5 1,686Population density_cell_1_3_6
25Population density_cell_1_4_0 South KoreaPopulation density_cell_1_4_1 100,210Population density_cell_1_4_2 38,691Population density_cell_1_4_3 51,635,256Population density_cell_1_4_4 515Population density_cell_1_4_5 1,334Population density_cell_1_4_6
27Population density_cell_1_5_0 RwandaPopulation density_cell_1_5_1 26,338Population density_cell_1_5_2 10,169Population density_cell_1_5_3 12,001,136Population density_cell_1_5_4 456Population density_cell_1_5_5 1,181Population density_cell_1_5_6
31Population density_cell_1_6_0 NetherlandsPopulation density_cell_1_6_1 41,526Population density_cell_1_6_2 16,033Population density_cell_1_6_3 17,271,819Population density_cell_1_6_4 416Population density_cell_1_6_5 1,077Population density_cell_1_6_6
33Population density_cell_1_7_0 HaitiPopulation density_cell_1_7_1 27,065Population density_cell_1_7_2 10,450Population density_cell_1_7_3 11,112,945Population density_cell_1_7_4 411Population density_cell_1_7_5 1,064Population density_cell_1_7_6
34Population density_cell_1_8_0 IndiaPopulation density_cell_1_8_1 3,287,240Population density_cell_1_8_2 1,269,210Population density_cell_1_8_3 1,335,543,957Population density_cell_1_8_4 406Population density_cell_1_8_5 1,052Population density_cell_1_8_6
36Population density_cell_1_9_0 BurundiPopulation density_cell_1_9_1 27,816Population density_cell_1_9_2 10,740Population density_cell_1_9_3 10,681,186Population density_cell_1_9_4 384Population density_cell_1_9_5 995Population density_cell_1_9_6
38Population density_cell_1_10_0 BelgiumPopulation density_cell_1_10_1 30,528Population density_cell_1_10_2 11,787Population density_cell_1_10_3 11,414,214Population density_cell_1_10_4 374Population density_cell_1_10_5 969Population density_cell_1_10_6
39Population density_cell_1_11_0 PhilippinesPopulation density_cell_1_11_1 300,000Population density_cell_1_11_2 115,831Population density_cell_1_11_3 106,302,840Population density_cell_1_11_4 354Population density_cell_1_11_5 917Population density_cell_1_11_6

### Other methods of measurement Population density_section_3

Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Population density_sentence_37

Population density_unordered_list_1

• Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of landPopulation density_item_1_2
• Physiological density: The total population / area of arable landPopulation density_item_1_3
• Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable landPopulation density_item_1_4
• Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential landPopulation density_item_1_5
• Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban landPopulation density_item_1_6
• Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resourcesPopulation density_item_1_7