Portland, Oregon

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

For other uses, see Portland (disambiguation). Portland, Oregon_sentence_0

Portland, Oregon_table_infobox_0

Portland, OregonPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesPortland, Oregon_cell_0_1_1
StatePortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_2_0 OregonPortland, Oregon_cell_0_2_1
CountiesPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_3_0 Multnomah

Washington ClackamasPortland, Oregon_cell_0_3_1

BioregionPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_4_0 CascadiaPortland, Oregon_cell_0_4_1
FoundedPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_5_0 1845Portland, Oregon_cell_0_5_1
IncorporatedPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_6_0 February 8, 1851Portland, Oregon_cell_0_6_1
Named forPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_7_0 Portland, MainePortland, Oregon_cell_0_7_1
GovernmentPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_8_0
TypePortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_9_0 CommissionPortland, Oregon_cell_0_9_1
MayorPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_10_0 Ted Wheeler (D)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_10_1
CommissionersPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_11_0 Portland, Oregon_cell_0_11_1
AuditorPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_12_0 Mary Hull CaballeroPortland, Oregon_cell_0_12_1
AreaPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_13_0
CityPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_14_0 144.98 sq mi (375.50 km)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_14_1
LandPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_15_0 133.42 sq mi (345.57 km)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_15_1
WaterPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_16_0 11.56 sq mi (29.93 km)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_16_1
UrbanPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_17_0 524.38 sq mi (1,358.1 km)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_17_1
ElevationPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_18_0 50 ft (15.2 m)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_18_1
Highest elevationPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_19_0 1,188 ft (362 m)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_19_1
Lowest elevation (Columbia River)Portland, Oregon_header_cell_0_20_0 0.62 ft (0.19 m)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_20_1
Population (2010)Portland, Oregon_header_cell_0_21_0
CityPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_22_0 583,776Portland, Oregon_cell_0_22_1
Estimate (2019)Portland, Oregon_header_cell_0_23_0 654,741Portland, Oregon_cell_0_23_1
RankPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_24_0 US: 26thPortland, Oregon_cell_0_24_1
DensityPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_25_0 4,907.22/sq mi (1,894.68/km)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_25_1
UrbanPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_26_0 1,849,898 (US: 24th)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_26_1
MetroPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_27_0 2,478,810 (US: 25th)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_27_1
CSAPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_28_0 3,239,335 (US: 19th)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_28_1
Demonym(s)Portland, Oregon_header_cell_0_29_0 PortlanderPortland, Oregon_cell_0_29_1
Time zonePortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_30_0 UTC−08:00 (PST)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_30_1
Summer (DST)Portland, Oregon_header_cell_0_31_0 UTC−07:00 (PDT)Portland, Oregon_cell_0_31_1
ZIP CodesPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_32_0 97086–97299Portland, Oregon_cell_0_32_1
Area codesPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_33_0 503 and 971Portland, Oregon_cell_0_33_1
FIPS codePortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_34_0 41-59000Portland, Oregon_cell_0_34_1
GNIS feature IDPortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_35_0 1136645Portland, Oregon_cell_0_35_1
WebsitePortland, Oregon_header_cell_0_36_0 Portland, Oregon_cell_0_36_1

Portland (/ˈpɔːrtlənd/, PORT-lənd) is the largest and most populous city in the U.S. Portland, Oregon_sentence_1 state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. Portland, Oregon_sentence_2

It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in Northwestern Oregon. Portland, Oregon_sentence_3

As of 2019, Portland had an estimated population of 654,741, making it the 26th most populated city in the United States, the sixth-most populous on the West Coast, and the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest after Seattle. Portland, Oregon_sentence_4

Approximately 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area (MSA), making it the 25th most populous in the United States. Portland, Oregon_sentence_5

Its combined statistical area (CSA) ranks 19th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. Portland, Oregon_sentence_6

Approximately 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Portland, Oregon_sentence_7

Named after Portland, Maine, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail. Portland, Oregon_sentence_8

Its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, and the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. Portland, Oregon_sentence_9

At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering. Portland, Oregon_sentence_10

After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Portland, Oregon_sentence_11

Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture. Portland, Oregon_sentence_12

The city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. Portland, Oregon_sentence_13

Portland was the first city to enact a comprehensive plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Portland, Oregon_sentence_14

In 2018, a national survey ranked Portland as the 10th greenest city in the nation. Portland, Oregon_sentence_15

Its climate is marked by warm, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. Portland, Oregon_sentence_16

This climate is ideal for growing roses, and Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. Portland, Oregon_sentence_17

History Portland, Oregon_section_0

Main articles: History of Portland, Oregon and Timeline of Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_18

Pre-history Portland, Oregon_section_1

During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would later become Montana. Portland, Oregon_sentence_19

These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet (91 to 122 m) of water. Portland, Oregon_sentence_20

Before American colonizers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people – the Multnomah and the Clackamas. Portland, Oregon_sentence_21

The Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Portland, Oregon_sentence_22

Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Portland, Oregon_sentence_23

Establishment Portland, Oregon_section_2

Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was originally centered in nearby Oregon City. Portland, Oregon_sentence_24

In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River, roughly halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver. Portland, Oregon_sentence_25

This community was initially referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. Portland, Oregon_sentence_26

In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim. Portland, Oregon_sentence_27

For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre (2.6 km) site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. Portland, Oregon_sentence_28

In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Portland, Maine. Portland, Oregon_sentence_29

Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns (Lovejoy's being Boston, and Pettygrove's, Portland). Portland, Oregon_sentence_30

This controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. Portland, Oregon_sentence_31

The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. Portland, Oregon_sentence_32

At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, and a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. Portland, Oregon_sentence_33

A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, and causing $1.3 million in damage, roughly equivalent to $27.7 million today. Portland, Oregon_sentence_34

By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. Portland, Oregon_sentence_35

In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast. Portland, Oregon_sentence_36

In 1889, Henry Pittock's wife Georgiana, established the Portland Rose Society. Portland, Oregon_sentence_37

The movement to make Portland a "Rose City" started as the city was preparing for the 1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition. Portland, Oregon_sentence_38

Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road" (the route of current-day U.S. Portland, Oregon_sentence_39 Route 26), provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, and it grew very quickly. Portland, Oregon_sentence_40

Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River. Portland, Oregon_sentence_41

The city had its own Japantown, for one, and the lumber industry also became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas fir, western hemlock, red cedar, and big leaf maple trees. Portland, Oregon_sentence_42

Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a hard-edged and gritty port town. Portland, Oregon_sentence_43

Some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England; an ends-of-the-earth home for the exiled spawn of the eastern established elite." Portland, Oregon_sentence_44

In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world. Portland, Oregon_sentence_45

The city housed a large number of saloons, bordellos, gambling dens, and boardinghouses which were populated with miners after the California Gold Rush, as well as the multitude of sailors passing through the port. Portland, Oregon_sentence_46

By the early 20th century, the city had lost its reputation as a "sober frontier city" and garnered a reputation for being violent and dangerous. Portland, Oregon_sentence_47

20th-century development Portland, Oregon_section_3

Between 1900 and 1930, the city's population tripled from nearly 100,000 to 301,815. Portland, Oregon_sentence_48

During World War II, it housed an "assembly center" from which up to 3,676 people of Japanese descent were dispatched to internment camps in the heartland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_49

It was the first American city to have residents report thus, and the Pacific International Livestock Exposition operated from May through September 10, 1942 processing people from the city, northern Oregon, and central Washington. Portland, Oregon_sentence_50

General John DeWitt called the city the first "Jap-free city on the West Coast." Portland, Oregon_sentence_51

At the same time, Portland became a notorious hub for underground criminal activity and organized crime in the 1940s and 1950s. Portland, Oregon_sentence_52

In 1957, Life magazine published an article detailing the city's history of government corruption and crime, specifically its gambling rackets and illegal nightclubs. Portland, Oregon_sentence_53

The article, which focused on crime boss Jim Elkins, became the basis of a fictionalized film titled Portland Exposé (1957). Portland, Oregon_sentence_54

In spite of the city's seedier undercurrent of criminal activity, Portland enjoyed an economic and industrial surge during World War II. Portland, Oregon_sentence_55

Ship builder Henry J. Kaiser had been awarded contracts to build Liberty ships and aircraft carrier escorts, and chose sites in Portland and Vancouver, Washington, for work yards. Portland, Oregon_sentence_56

During this time, Portland's population rose by over 150,000, largely attributed to recruited laborers. Portland, Oregon_sentence_57

During the 1960s, an influx of hippie subculture began to take root in the city in the wake of San Francisco's burgeoning countercultural scene. Portland, Oregon_sentence_58

The city's Crystal Ballroom became a hub for the city's psychedelic culture, while food cooperatives and listener-funded media and radio stations were established. Portland, Oregon_sentence_59

A large social activist presence evolved during this time as well, specifically concerning Native American rights, environmentalist causes, and gay rights. Portland, Oregon_sentence_60

By the 1970s, Portland had well established itself as a progressive city, and experienced an economic boom for the majority of the decade; however, the slowing of the housing market in 1979 caused demand for the city and state timber industries to drop significantly. Portland, Oregon_sentence_61

1990s to present Portland, Oregon_section_4

In the 1990s, the technology industry began to emerge in Portland, specifically with the establishment of companies like Intel, which brought more than $10 billion in investments in 1995 alone. Portland, Oregon_sentence_62

After 2000, Portland experienced significant growth, with a population rise of over 90,000 between the years 2000 and 2014. Portland, Oregon_sentence_63

The city's increased presence within the cultural lexicon has established it as a popular city for young people, and it was second only to Louisville, Kentucky as one of the cities to attract and retain the highest number of college-educated people in the United States. Portland, Oregon_sentence_64

Between 2001 and 2012, Portland's gross domestic product per person grew fifty percent, more than any other city in the country. Portland, Oregon_sentence_65

In 2020, the city became a focal point for Black Lives Matter protests, resulting in at least one death. Portland, Oregon_sentence_66

The Portland police bureau was heavily criticized for what was perceived as an unnecessarily violent response to the protests. Portland, Oregon_sentence_67

Vandalism caused by protestors resulted in the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice sending unmarked federal agents to the city, resulting in a further escalation of violence that left many protestors injured. Portland, Oregon_sentence_68

The city has acquired a diverse range of nicknames throughout its history, though it is most often called "Rose City" or "The City of Roses", the latter of which has been its unofficial nickname since 1888 and its official nickname since 2003. Portland, Oregon_sentence_69

Another widely used nickname by local residents in everyday speech is "PDX", which is also the airport code for Portland International Airport. Portland, Oregon_sentence_70

Other nicknames include Bridgetown, Stumptown, Rip City, Soccer City, P-Town, Portlandia, and the more antiquated Little Beirut. Portland, Oregon_sentence_71

Geography Portland, Oregon_section_5

Geology Portland, Oregon_section_6

See also: Geology of the Pacific Northwest Portland, Oregon_sentence_72

Portland lies on top of an extinct volcanic field known as the Boring Lava Field, named after the nearby bedroom community of Boring. Portland, Oregon_sentence_73

The Boring Lava Field has at least 32 cinder cones such as Mount Tabor, and its center lies in southeast Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_74

Mount St. Helens, a highly active volcano 50 miles (80 km) northeast of the city in Washington state, is easily visible on clear days and is close enough to have dusted the city with volcanic ash after its eruption on May 18, 1980. Portland, Oregon_sentence_75

The rocks of the Portland area range in age from late Eocene to more recent eras. Portland, Oregon_sentence_76

Multiple shallow, active fault lines traverse the Portland metropolitan area. Portland, Oregon_sentence_77

Among them are the Portland Hills Fault on the city's west side, and the East Bank Fault on the east side. Portland, Oregon_sentence_78

According to a 2017 survey, several of these faults were characterized as "probably more of a hazard" than the Cascadia subduction zone due to their proximities to population centers, with the potential of producing magnitude 7 earthquakes. Portland, Oregon_sentence_79

Notable earthquakes that have impacted the Portland area in recent history include the 6.8-magnitude Nisqually earthquake in 2001, and a 5.6-magnitude earthquake that struck on March 25, 1993. Portland, Oregon_sentence_80

Per a 2014 report, over 7,000 locations within the Portland area are at high-risk for landslides and soil liquefaction in the event of a major earthquake, including much of the city's west side (such as Washington Park) and sections of Clackamas County. Portland, Oregon_sentence_81

Topography Portland, Oregon_section_7

Portland is 60 miles (97 km) east of the Pacific Ocean at the northern end of Oregon's most populated region, the Willamette Valley. Portland, Oregon_sentence_82

Downtown Portland straddles the banks of the Willamette River, which flows north through the city center and separates the city's east and west neighborhoods. Portland, Oregon_sentence_83

Less than 10 miles (16 km) from downtown, the Willamette River flows into the Columbia River, the fourth-largest river in the United States, which divides Oregon from Washington state. Portland, Oregon_sentence_84

Portland is approximately 100 miles (160 km) upriver from the Pacific Ocean on the Columbia. Portland, Oregon_sentence_85

Though much of downtown Portland is relatively flat, the foothills of the Tualatin Mountains, more commonly referred to locally as the "West Hills", pierce through the northwest and southwest reaches of the city. Portland, Oregon_sentence_86

Council Crest Park at 1,073 feet (327 m) is often quoted as the highest point in Portland, however the highest point in Portland is on a section of NW Skyline Blvd just north of Willamette Stone Heritage site. Portland, Oregon_sentence_87

The highest point east of the river is Mt. Portland, Oregon_sentence_88 Tabor, an extinct volcanic cinder cone, which rises to 636 feet (194 m). Portland, Oregon_sentence_89

Nearby Powell Butte and Rocky Butte rise to 614 feet (187 m) and 612 feet (187 m), respectively. Portland, Oregon_sentence_90

To the west of the Tualatin Mountains lies the Oregon Coast Range, and to the east lies the actively volcanic Cascade Range. Portland, Oregon_sentence_91

On clear days, Mt. Portland, Oregon_sentence_92 Hood and Mt. Portland, Oregon_sentence_93 St. Helens dominate the horizon, while Mt. Portland, Oregon_sentence_94 Adams and Mt. Portland, Oregon_sentence_95 Rainier can also be seen in the distance. Portland, Oregon_sentence_96

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 145.09 square miles (375.78 km), of which 133.43 square miles (345.58 km) is land and 11.66 square miles (30.20 km) is water. Portland, Oregon_sentence_97

Although almost all of Portland is within Multnomah County, small portions of the city are within Clackamas and Washington Counties, with populations estimated at 785 and 1,455, respectively. Portland, Oregon_sentence_98

Climate Portland, Oregon_section_8

Portland has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) with cool and cloudy winters, and warm and dry summers. Portland, Oregon_sentence_99

This climate is characterized by having overcast, wet, and changing weather conditions in fall, winter, and spring, as Portland lies in the direct path of the stormy westerly flow, and mild and dry summers when the Pacific High reaches in northernmost point in mid summer. Portland, Oregon_sentence_100

Of the three most populated cities within the Pacific Northwest (Seattle, Vancouver, British Columbia and Portland) Portland has the warmest average temperature, the highest number of sunshine hours, and the fewest inches of rainfall and snowfall, although the city still is frequently overcast compared to other US cities at the same latitude. Portland, Oregon_sentence_101

According to the Köppen climate classification, Portland falls within the dry-summer temperate zone (Csb). Portland, Oregon_sentence_102

with a USDA Plant Hardiness Zones between 8b and 9a. Portland, Oregon_sentence_103

Other climate systems, such as the Trewartha climate classification, places it within the oceanic zone (Do), like much of the Pacific Northwest and Western Europe. Portland, Oregon_sentence_104

Winters are cool, cloudy, and rainy. Portland, Oregon_sentence_105

The coldest month is December with an average daily high of 45.6 °F (7.6 °C), although overnight lows usually remain above freezing by a few degrees. Portland, Oregon_sentence_106

Evening temperatures fall to or below freezing 33 nights per year on average, but very rarely to or below 18 °F (−8 °C). Portland, Oregon_sentence_107

There are only 2.1 days per year where the daytime high temperature fails to rise above freezing. Portland, Oregon_sentence_108

The lowest overnight temperature ever recorded was −3 °F (−19 °C), on February 2, 1950, while the coldest daytime high temperature ever recorded was 14 °F (−10 °C) on December 30, 1968. Portland, Oregon_sentence_109

The average window for freezing temperatures to potentially occur is between November 15 and March 19, allowing a growing season of 240 days. Portland, Oregon_sentence_110

Annual snowfall in Portland is 4.3 inches (10.9 cm), which usually falls during the December-to-March time frame. Portland, Oregon_sentence_111

The city of Portland avoids snow more frequently than its suburbs, due in part to its low elevation and urban heat island effect. Portland, Oregon_sentence_112

Neighborhoods outside of the downtown core, especially in slightly higher elevations near the West Hills and Mount Tabor, can experience a dusting of snow while downtown receives no accumulation at all. Portland, Oregon_sentence_113

The city has experienced a few major snow and ice storms in its past with extreme totals having reached 44.5 in (113 cm) at the airport in 1949–50 and 60.9 in (155 cm) at downtown in 1892–93. Portland, Oregon_sentence_114

Summers in Portland are warm, dry, and sunny, though the sunny warm weather is short lived from mid June through early September. Portland, Oregon_sentence_115

The months of June, July, August and September account for a combined 4.49 inches (114 mm) of total rainfall – only 12% of the 36.03 in (915 mm) of the precipitation that falls throughout the year. Portland, Oregon_sentence_116

The warmest month is August, with an average high temperature of 81.1 °F (27.3 °C). Portland, Oregon_sentence_117

Because of its inland location 70 miles (110 km) from the coast, as well as the protective nature of the Oregon Coast Range to its west, Portland summers are less susceptible to the moderating influence of the nearby Pacific Ocean. Portland, Oregon_sentence_118

Consequently, Portland experiences heat waves on rare occasion, with temperatures rising into the 90 °F (32 °C) for a few days. Portland, Oregon_sentence_119

However, on average, temperatures reach or exceed 80 °F (27 °C) on only 56 days per year, of which 12 days will reach 90 °F (32 °C) and only 1.4 days will reach 100 °F (38 °C). Portland, Oregon_sentence_120

The most 90-degree days ever recorded in one year is 31, which happened recently in 2018. Portland, Oregon_sentence_121

The highest temperature ever recorded was 107 °F (42 °C), on July 30, 1965, as well as August 8 and 10, 1981. Portland, Oregon_sentence_122

The warmest recorded overnight low was 74 °F (23 °C) on July 28, 2009. Portland, Oregon_sentence_123

A temperature of 100 °F (38 °C) has been recorded in all five months from May through September. Portland, Oregon_sentence_124

Spring and fall can bring variable weather including warm fronts that send temperatures surging above 80 °F (27 °C) and cold snaps that plunge daytime temperatures into the 40s °F (4–9 °C). Portland, Oregon_sentence_125

However, lengthy stretches of overcast days beginning in mid fall and continuing into mid spring are most common. Portland, Oregon_sentence_126

Rain often falls as a light drizzle for several consecutive days at a time, contributing to 155 days on average with measurable (≥0.01 in or 0.25 mm) precipitation annually. Portland, Oregon_sentence_127

Temperatures have reached 90 °F (32 °C) as early as May 3 and as late as October 5, while 80 °F (27 °C) has been reached as early as April 1 and as late as October 21. Portland, Oregon_sentence_128

Severe weather, such as thunder and lightning, is uncommon and tornadoes are exceptionally rare. Portland, Oregon_sentence_129

Cityscape Portland, Oregon_section_9

See also: Architecture of Portland, Oregon; List of tallest buildings in Portland, Oregon; and Downtown Portland Portland, Oregon_sentence_130

Portland's cityscape derives much of its character from the many bridges that span the Willamette River downtown, several of which are historic landmarks, and Portland has been nicknamed "Bridgetown" for many decades as a result. Portland, Oregon_sentence_131

Three of downtown's most heavily used bridges are more than 100 years old and are designated historic landmarks: Hawthorne Bridge (1910), Steel Bridge (1912), and Broadway Bridge (1913). Portland, Oregon_sentence_132

Portland's newest bridge in the downtown area, Tilikum Crossing, opened in 2015 and is the first new bridge to span the Willamette in Portland since the 1973 opening of the double-decker Fremont Bridge. Portland, Oregon_sentence_133

Other bridges that span the Willamette river in the downtown area include the Burnside Bridge, the Ross Island Bridge (both built 1926), and the double-decker Marquam Bridge (built 1966). Portland, Oregon_sentence_134

Other bridges outside the downtown area include the Sellwood Bridge (built 2016) to the south; and the St. Portland, Oregon_sentence_135 Johns Bridge, a Gothic revival suspension bridge built in 1931, to the north. Portland, Oregon_sentence_136

The Glenn L. Jackson Memorial Bridge and the Interstate Bridge provide access from Portland across the Columbia River into Washington state. Portland, Oregon_sentence_137

Neighborhoods Portland, Oregon_section_10

See also: Neighborhoods of Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_138

The Willamette River, which flows north through downtown, serves as the natural boundary between east and west Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_139

The denser and earlier-developed west side extends into the lap of the West Hills, while the flatter east side extends for roughly 180 blocks until it meets the suburb of Gresham. Portland, Oregon_sentence_140

In 1891 the cities of Portland, Albina, and East Portland were consolidated, creating inconsistent patterns of street names and addresses. Portland, Oregon_sentence_141

It was not unusual for a street name to be duplicated in disparate areas. Portland, Oregon_sentence_142

The "Great Renumbering" on September 2, 1931 standardized street naming patterns and divided Portland into five "general districts." Portland, Oregon_sentence_143

It also changed house numbers from 20 per block to 100 per block and adopted a single street name on a grid. Portland, Oregon_sentence_144

For example, the 200 block north of Burnside is either NW Davis Street or NE Davis Street throughout the entire city. Portland, Oregon_sentence_145

The five previous addressing sections of Portland, which were colloquially known as quadrants despite there being five, have developed distinctive identities, with mild cultural differences and friendly rivalries between their residents, especially between those who live east of the Willamette River versus west of the river. Portland, Oregon_sentence_146

Portland's addressing sections are North, Northwest, Northeast, South, Southeast, and Southwest (which includes downtown Portland). Portland, Oregon_sentence_147

The Willamette River divides the city into east and west while Burnside Street, which traverses the entire city lengthwise, divides the north and south. Portland, Oregon_sentence_148

North Portland consists of the peninsula formed by the Willamette and Columbia Rivers, with N Williams Ave serving as its eastern boundary. Portland, Oregon_sentence_149

All addresses and streets within the city are prefixed by N, NW, NE, SW or SE with the exception of Burnside Street, which is prefixed with W or E. Starting on May 1, 2020, former Southwest prefix addresses with house numbers on east–west streets leading with zero dropped the zero and the street prefix on all streets (including north–south streets) converted from Southwest to South. Portland, Oregon_sentence_150

For example, the current address of 246 S. California St. was changed from 0246 SW California St. and the current address of 4310 S. Macadam Ave. was converted from 4310 SW Macadam Ave. effective on May 1, 2020. Portland, Oregon_sentence_151

The new South Portland addressing section was approved by the Portland City Council on June 6, 2018 and is bounded by SW Naito Parkway SW View Point Terrace and Tryon Creek State Natural Area to the west, SW Clay Street to the north and the Clackamas County line to the south. Portland, Oregon_sentence_152

It includes the Lair Hill, Johns Landing and South Waterfront districts and Lewis & Clark College as well as the Riverdale area of unincorporated Multnomah County south of the Portland city limits. Portland, Oregon_sentence_153

In 2018, the city's Bureau of Transportation finalized a plan to transition this part of Portland into South Portland, beginning on May 1, 2020 to reduce confusion by 9-1-1 dispatchers and delivery services. Portland, Oregon_sentence_154

With the addition of South Portland, all six addressing sectors (N, NE, NW, S, SE and SW) are now officially known as sextants. Portland, Oregon_sentence_155

The Pearl District in Northwest Portland, which was largely occupied by warehouses, light industry and railroad classification yards in the early to mid-20th century, now houses upscale art galleries, restaurants, and retail stores, and is one of the wealthiest neighborhoods in the city. Portland, Oregon_sentence_156

Areas further west of the Pearl District include neighborhoods known as Uptown and Nob Hill, as well as the Alphabet District and NW 23rd Ave., a major shopping street lined with clothing boutiques and other upscale retail, mixed with cafes and restaurants. Portland, Oregon_sentence_157

Northeast Portland is home to the Lloyd District, Alberta Arts District, and the Hollywood District. Portland, Oregon_sentence_158

North Portland is largely residential and industrial. Portland, Oregon_sentence_159

It contains Kelley Point Park, the northernmost point of the city. Portland, Oregon_sentence_160

It also contains the St. Portland, Oregon_sentence_161 Johns neighborhood, which is historically one of the most ethnically diverse and poorest neighborhoods in the city. Portland, Oregon_sentence_162

Old Town Chinatown is next to the Pearl District in Northwest Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_163

In 2017, the crime rate was several times above the city average. Portland, Oregon_sentence_164

This neighborhood has been called Portland's skid row. Portland, Oregon_sentence_165

Southwest Portland is largely residential. Portland, Oregon_sentence_166

Downtown district, made up of commercial businesses, museums, skyscrapers, and public landmarks represents a small area within the southwest address section. Portland, Oregon_sentence_167

Portland's South Waterfront area has been developing into a dense neighborhood of shops, condominiums, and apartments starting in the mid-2000s. Portland, Oregon_sentence_168

Development in this area is ongoing. Portland, Oregon_sentence_169

The area is served by the Portland Streetcar, the MAX Orange Line and four TriMet bus lines. Portland, Oregon_sentence_170

This former industrial area sat as a brownfield prior to development in the mid-2000s. Portland, Oregon_sentence_171

Southeast Portland is largely residential, and consists of several neighborhoods, including Hawthorne District, Belmont, Brooklyn, and Mount Tabor. Portland, Oregon_sentence_172

Reed College, a private liberal arts college that was founded in 1908, is located within the confines of Southeast Portland as is Mount Tabor, a volcanic landform. Portland, Oregon_sentence_173

Demographics Portland, Oregon_section_11

See also: Gentrification of Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_174

Portland, Oregon_table_general_1

Demographic profilePortland, Oregon_header_cell_1_0_0 2010Portland, Oregon_header_cell_1_0_1 1990Portland, Oregon_header_cell_1_0_2 1970Portland, Oregon_header_cell_1_0_3 1940Portland, Oregon_header_cell_1_0_4
WhitePortland, Oregon_cell_1_1_0 76.1%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_1_1 84.6%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_1_2 92.2%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_1_3 98.1%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_1_4
Non-Hispanic whitesPortland, Oregon_cell_1_2_0 72.2%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_2_1 82.9%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_2_2 90.7%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_2_3 Portland, Oregon_cell_1_2_4
Black or African AmericanPortland, Oregon_cell_1_3_0 6.3%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_3_1 7.7%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_3_2 5.6%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_3_3 0.6%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_3_4
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Portland, Oregon_cell_1_4_0 9.4%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_4_1 3.2%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_4_2 1.7%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_4_3 Portland, Oregon_cell_1_4_4
AsianPortland, Oregon_cell_1_5_0 7.1%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_5_1 5.3%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_5_2 1.3%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_5_3 1.2%Portland, Oregon_cell_1_5_4

The 2010 census reported the city as 76.1% White (444,254 people), 7.1% Asian (41,448), 6.3% Black or African American (36,778), 1.0% Native American (5,838), 0.5% Pacific Islander (2,919), 4.7% belonging to two or more racial groups (24,437) and 5.0% from other races (28,987). Portland, Oregon_sentence_175

9.4% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race (54,840). Portland, Oregon_sentence_176

Whites not of Hispanic origin made up 72.2% of the total population. Portland, Oregon_sentence_177

In 1940, Portland's African-American population was approximately 2,000 and largely consisted of railroad employees and their families. Portland, Oregon_sentence_178

During the war-time Liberty Ship construction boom, the need for workers drew many blacks to the city. Portland, Oregon_sentence_179

The new influx of blacks settled in specific neighborhoods, such as the Albina district and Vanport. Portland, Oregon_sentence_180

The May 1948 flood which destroyed Vanport eliminated the only integrated neighborhood, and an influx of blacks into the northeast quadrant of the city continued. Portland, Oregon_sentence_181

Portland's longshoremen racial mix was described as being "lily-white" in the 1960s, when the local International Longshore and Warehouse Union declined to represent grain handlers since some were black. Portland, Oregon_sentence_182

At 6.3%, Portland's African American population is three times the state average. Portland, Oregon_sentence_183

Over two thirds of Oregon's African-American residents live in Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_184

As of the 2000 census, three of its high schools (Cleveland, Lincoln and Wilson) were over 70% white, reflecting the overall population, while Jefferson High School was 87% non-white. Portland, Oregon_sentence_185

The remaining six schools have a higher number of non-whites, including blacks and Asians. Portland, Oregon_sentence_186

Hispanic students average from 3.3% at Wilson to 31% at Roosevelt. Portland, Oregon_sentence_187

Portland residents identifying solely as Asian Americans account for 7.1% of the population; an additional 1.8% is partially of Asian heritage. Portland, Oregon_sentence_188

Vietnamese Americans make up 2.2% of Portland's population, and make up the largest Asian ethnic group in the city, followed by Chinese (1.7%), Filipinos (0.6%), Japanese (0.5%), Koreans (0.4%), Laotians (0.4%), Hmong (0.2%), and Cambodians (0.1%). Portland, Oregon_sentence_189

A small population of Iu Mien live in Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_190

Portland has two Chinatowns, with New Chinatown along SE 82nd Avenue with Chinese supermarkets, Hong Kong style noodle houses, dim sum, and Vietnamese phở restaurants. Portland, Oregon_sentence_191

With about 12,000 Vietnamese residing in the city proper, Portland has one of the largest Vietnamese populations in America per capita. Portland, Oregon_sentence_192

According to statistics, there are over 4,500 Pacific Islanders in Portland, making up 0.7% of the city's population. Portland, Oregon_sentence_193

There is a Tongan community in Portland, who arrived in the area in the 1970s, and Tongans and Pacific Islanders as a whole are one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the Portland area. Portland, Oregon_sentence_194

Portland's population has been and remains predominantly white. Portland, Oregon_sentence_195

In 1940, whites were over 98% of the city's population. Portland, Oregon_sentence_196

In 2009, Portland had the fifth-highest percentage of white residents among the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas. Portland, Oregon_sentence_197

A 2007 survey of the 40 largest cities in the U.S. concluded Portland's urban core has the highest percentage of white residents. Portland, Oregon_sentence_198

Some scholars have noted the Pacific Northwest as a whole is "one of the last Caucasian bastions of the United States". Portland, Oregon_sentence_199

While Portland's diversity was historically comparable to metro Seattle and Salt Lake City, those areas grew more diverse in the late 1990s and 2000s. Portland, Oregon_sentence_200

Portland not only remains white, but migration to Portland is disproportionately white. Portland, Oregon_sentence_201

The Oregon Territory banned African American settlement in 1849. Portland, Oregon_sentence_202

In the 19th century, certain laws allowed the immigration of Chinese laborers but prohibited them from owning property or bringing their families. Portland, Oregon_sentence_203

The early 1920s saw the rapid growth of the Ku Klux Klan, which became very influential in Oregon politics, culminating in the election of Walter M. Pierce as governor. Portland, Oregon_sentence_204

The largest influxes of minority populations occurred during World War II, as the African American population grew by a factor of 10 for wartime work. Portland, Oregon_sentence_205

After World War II, the Vanport flood in 1948 displaced many African Americans. Portland, Oregon_sentence_206

As they resettled, redlining directed the displaced workers from the wartime settlement to neighboring Albina. Portland, Oregon_sentence_207

There and elsewhere in Portland, they experienced police hostility, lack of employment, and mortgage discrimination, leading to half the black population leaving after the war. Portland, Oregon_sentence_208

In the 1980s and 1990s, radical skinhead groups flourished in Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_209

In 1988, Mulugeta Seraw, an Ethiopian immigrant, was killed by three skinheads. Portland, Oregon_sentence_210

The response to his murder involved a community-driven series of rallies, campaigns, nonprofits and events designed to address Portland's racial history, leading to a city considered significantly more tolerant than in 1988 at Seraw's death. Portland, Oregon_sentence_211

Households Portland, Oregon_section_12

As of the 2010 census, there were 583,776 people living in the city, organized into 235,508 households. Portland, Oregon_sentence_212

The population density was 4,375.2 people per square mile. Portland, Oregon_sentence_213

There were 265,439 housing units at an average density of 1989.4 per square mile (1,236.3/km). Portland, Oregon_sentence_214

Population growth in Portland increased 10.3% between 2000 and 2010. Portland, Oregon_sentence_215

Population growth in the Portland metropolitan area has outpaced the national average during the last decade, and this is expected to continue over the next 50 years. Portland, Oregon_sentence_216

Out of 223,737 households, 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.1% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.1% were non-families. Portland, Oregon_sentence_217

34.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. Portland, Oregon_sentence_218

The average household size was 2.3 and the average family size was 3. Portland, Oregon_sentence_219

The age distribution was 21.1% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 34.7% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. Portland, Oregon_sentence_220

The median age was 35 years. Portland, Oregon_sentence_221

For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. Portland, Oregon_sentence_222

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.9 males. Portland, Oregon_sentence_223

The median income for a household in the city was $40,146, and the median income for a family was $50,271. Portland, Oregon_sentence_224

Males had a reported median income of $35,279 versus $29,344 reported for females. Portland, Oregon_sentence_225

The per capita income for the city was $22,643. Portland, Oregon_sentence_226

13.1% of the population and 8.5% of families were below the poverty line. Portland, Oregon_sentence_227

Out of the total population, 15.7% of those under the age of 18 and 10.4% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Portland, Oregon_sentence_228

Figures delineating the income levels based on race are not available at this time. Portland, Oregon_sentence_229

According to the Modern Language Association, in 2010 80.9% (539,885) percent of Multnomah County residents ages 5 and over spoke English as their primary language at home. Portland, Oregon_sentence_230

8.1% of the population spoke Spanish (54,036), with Vietnamese speakers making up 1.9%, and Russian 1.5%. Portland, Oregon_sentence_231

Social Portland, Oregon_section_13

The Portland metropolitan area has historically had a significant LGBT population throughout the late 20th and 21st century. Portland, Oregon_sentence_232

In 2015, the city metro had the second highest percentage of LGBT residents in the United States with 5.4% of residents identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender, second only to San Francisco. Portland, Oregon_sentence_233

In 2006, it was reported to have the seventh highest LGBT population in the country, with 8.8% of residents identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, and the metro ranking fourth in the nation at 6.1%. Portland, Oregon_sentence_234

The city held its first pride festival in 1975 on the Portland State University campus. Portland, Oregon_sentence_235

Portland has been cited as the least religious city in the United States, with over 42% of residents identifying as religiously "unaffiliated", according to the nonpartisan and nonprofit Public Religion Research Institute's American Values Atlas. Portland, Oregon_sentence_236

Homelessness Portland, Oregon_section_14

Homelessness is a significant issue in Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_237

A survey taken by the city's own budget office showed homelessness is the biggest issue. Portland, Oregon_sentence_238

Calls to 911 concerning "unwanted persons" have significantly increased between 2013 and 2018, and the police are increasingly dealing with homeless and mentally ill. Portland, Oregon_sentence_239

It is taking a toll on sense of safety among visitors and residents and business owners are adversely impacted. Portland, Oregon_sentence_240

Even though homeless services and shelter beds have increased, as of 2020 homelessness is considered an intractable problem in Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_241

Economy Portland, Oregon_section_15

See also: Companies based in Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_242

Portland's location is beneficial for several industries. Portland, Oregon_sentence_243

Relatively low energy cost, accessible resources, north–south and east–west Interstates, international air terminals, large marine shipping facilities, and both west coast intercontinental railroads are all economic advantages. Portland, Oregon_sentence_244

The city's marine terminals alone handle over 13 million tons of cargo per year, and the port is home to one of the largest commercial dry docks in the country. Portland, Oregon_sentence_245

The Port of Portland is the third-largest export tonnage port on the west coast of the U.S., and being about 80 miles (130 km) upriver, it is the largest fresh-water port. Portland, Oregon_sentence_246

The city of Portland is the largest shipper of wheat in the United States, and is the second-largest port for wheat in the world. Portland, Oregon_sentence_247

The steel industry's history in Portland predates World War II. Portland, Oregon_sentence_248

By the 1950s, the steel industry became the city's number one industry for employment. Portland, Oregon_sentence_249

The steel industry thrives in the region, with Schnitzer Steel Industries, a prominent steel company, shipping a record 1.15 billion tons of scrap metal to Asia during 2003. Portland, Oregon_sentence_250

Other heavy industry companies include ESCO Corporation and Oregon Steel Mills. Portland, Oregon_sentence_251

Technology is a major component of the city's economy, with more than 1,200 technology companies existing within the metro. Portland, Oregon_sentence_252

This high density of technology companies has led to the nickname Silicon Forest being used to describe the Portland area, a reference to the abundance of trees in the region and to the Silicon Valley region in Northern California. Portland, Oregon_sentence_253

The area also hosts facilities for software companies and online startup companies, some supported by local seed funding organizations and business incubators. Portland, Oregon_sentence_254

Computer components manufacturer Intel is the Portland area's largest employer, providing jobs for more than 15,000 people, with several campuses to the west of central Portland in the city of Hillsboro. Portland, Oregon_sentence_255

The Portland metro area has become a business cluster for athletic/outdoor gear and footwear manufacturers. Portland, Oregon_sentence_256

The area is home to the global, North American or U.S. headquarters of Nike, Adidas, Columbia Sportswear, LaCrosse Footwear, Dr. Portland, Oregon_sentence_257 Martens, Li-Ning, Keen, and Hi-Tec Sports. Portland, Oregon_sentence_258

While headquartered elsewhere, Merrell, Amer Sports and Under Armour have design studios and local offices in the Portland area. Portland, Oregon_sentence_259

Portland-based Precision Castparts is one of two Fortune 500 companies headquartered in Oregon, the other being Nike. Portland, Oregon_sentence_260

Other notable Portland-based companies include film animation studio Laika; commercial vehicle manufacturer Daimler Trucks North America; advertising firm Wieden+Kennedy; bankers Umpqua Holdings; and retailers Fred Meyer, New Seasons Market, KinderCare Learning Centers and Storables. Portland, Oregon_sentence_261

Breweries are another major industry in Portland, which is home to 139 breweries/microbreweries, the 7th most in the nation, as of December 2018. Portland, Oregon_sentence_262

Additionally, the city boasts a robust coffee culture that now rivals Seattle and hosts over 20 coffee roasters. Portland, Oregon_sentence_263

Housing Portland, Oregon_section_16

In 2016, home prices in Portland grew faster than in any other city in the United States. Portland, Oregon_sentence_264

Apartment rental costs in Portland reported in November 2019 was $1,337 for two bedroom and $1,133 for one bedroom. Portland, Oregon_sentence_265

In 2017, developers projected an additional 6,500 apartments to be built in the Portland Metro Area over the next year. Portland, Oregon_sentence_266

However, as of December 2019, the number of homes available for rent or purchase in Portland continues to shrink. Portland, Oregon_sentence_267

Over the past year, housing prices in Portland have risen 2.5%. Portland, Oregon_sentence_268

Housing prices in Portland continue to rise, the median price rising from $391,400 in November 2018 to $415,000 in November 2019. Portland, Oregon_sentence_269

There has been a rise of people from out of state moving to Portland, which impacts housing availability. Portland, Oregon_sentence_270

Because of the demand for affordable housing and influx of new residents, more Portlanders in their 20s and 30s are still living in their parents' homes. Portland, Oregon_sentence_271

Culture Portland, Oregon_section_17

Music, film, and performing arts Portland, Oregon_section_18

See also: Music of Oregon; Cinemas in Portland, Oregon; and List of films shot in Northwestern Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_272

Portland is home to a range of classical performing arts institutions, including the Portland Opera, the Oregon Symphony, and the Portland Youth Philharmonic; the latter, established in 1924, was the first youth orchestra established in the United States. Portland, Oregon_sentence_273

The city is also home to several theaters and performing arts institutions, including the Oregon Ballet Theatre, Northwest Children's Theatre, Portland Center Stage, Artists Repertory Theatre, Miracle Theatre, and Tears of Joy Theatre. Portland, Oregon_sentence_274

In 2013, the Guardian named the city's music scene as one of the "most vibrant" in the United States. Portland, Oregon_sentence_275

Portland is home to famous bands such as the Kingsmen and Paul Revere & the Raiders, both famous for their association with the song "Louie Louie" (1963). Portland, Oregon_sentence_276

Other widely known musical groups include the Dandy Warhols, Quarterflash, Everclear, Pink Martini, The Hugs, Sleater-Kinney, the Shins, Blitzen Trapper, the Decemberists, and the late Elliott Smith. Portland, Oregon_sentence_277

In the 1980s, the city was home to a burgeoning punk scene, which included bands such as the Wipers and Dead Moon. Portland, Oregon_sentence_278

The city's now-demolished Satyricon nightclub was a punk venue notorious for being the place where Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain first encountered future wife and Hole frontwoman Courtney Love in 1990. Portland, Oregon_sentence_279

Love was then a resident of Portland and started several bands there with Kat Bjelland, later of Babes in Toyland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_280

Multi-Grammy award-winning jazz artist Esperanza Spalding is from Portland and performed with the Chamber Music Society of Oregon at a young age. Portland, Oregon_sentence_281

A wide range of films have been shot in Portland, from various independent features to major big-budget productions. Portland, Oregon_sentence_282

Director Gus Van Sant has notably set and shot many of his films in the city. Portland, Oregon_sentence_283

The city has also been featured in various television programs, notably the IFC sketch comedy series Portlandia. Portland, Oregon_sentence_284

The series, which ran for eight seasons from 2011 to 2018, was shot on location in Portland, and satirized the city as a hub of liberal politics, organic food, alternative lifestyles, and anti-establishment attitudes. Portland, Oregon_sentence_285

MTV's long-time running reality show The Real World was also shot in Portland for the show's 29th season: The Real World: Portland premiered on MTV in 2013. Portland, Oregon_sentence_286

Other television series shot in the city include Leverage, The Librarians, Under Suspicion, Grimm, and Nowhere Man. Portland, Oregon_sentence_287

An unusual feature of Portland entertainment is the large number of movie theaters serving beer, often with second-run or revival films. Portland, Oregon_sentence_288

Notable examples of these "brew and view" theaters include the Bagdad Theater and Pub, a former vaudeville theater built in 1927 by Universal Studios; Cinema 21; and the Laurelhurst Theater, in operation since 1923. Portland, Oregon_sentence_289

Portland hosts the world's longest-running H. Portland, Oregon_sentence_290 P. Lovecraft Film Festival at the Hollywood Theatre. Portland, Oregon_sentence_291

Museums and recreation Portland, Oregon_section_19

See also: List of museums in Portland, Oregon; Tourism in Portland, Oregon; and List of artists and art institutions in Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_292

Portland is home to numerous museums and educational institutions, ranging from art museums to institutions devoted to science and wildlife. Portland, Oregon_sentence_293

Among the science-oriented institutions are the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI), which consists of five main halls and other ticketed attractions, such as the USS Blueback submarine, the ultra-large-screen Empirical Theater (which replaced an OMNIMAX theater in 2013), and the Kendall Planetarium. Portland, Oregon_sentence_294

The World Forestry Center Discovery Museum, located in the city's Washington Park area, offers educational exhibits on forests and forest-related subjects. Portland, Oregon_sentence_295

Also located in Washington Park are the Hoyt Arboretum, the International Rose Test Garden, the Japanese Garden, and the Oregon Zoo. Portland, Oregon_sentence_296

The Portland Art Museum owns the city's largest art collection and presents a variety of touring exhibitions each year and, with the recent addition of the Modern and Contemporary Art wing, it became one of the United States' 25 largest museums. Portland, Oregon_sentence_297

Other museums include the Portland Children's Museum, a museum specifically geared for early childhood development; and the Oregon Historical Society Museum, founded in 1898, which has a variety of books, film, pictures, artifacts, and maps dating back throughout Oregon's history. Portland, Oregon_sentence_298

It houses permanent and temporary exhibits about Oregon history, and hosts traveling exhibits about the history of the United States. Portland, Oregon_sentence_299

Oaks Amusement Park, in the Sellwood district of Southeast Portland, is the city's only amusement park and is also one of the country's longest-running amusement parks. Portland, Oregon_sentence_300

It has operated since 1905 and was known as the "Coney Island of the Northwest" upon its opening. Portland, Oregon_sentence_301

Cuisine and breweries Portland, Oregon_section_20

Portland has been named the best city in the world for street food by several publications and news outlets, including the U.S. Portland, Oregon_sentence_302 News & World Report and CNN. Portland, Oregon_sentence_303

Food carts are extremely popular within the city, with over 600 licensed carts, making Portland one of the most robust street food scenes in North America. Portland, Oregon_sentence_304

In 2014, the Washington Post called Portland the fourth best city for food in the United States. Portland, Oregon_sentence_305

Portland is also known as a leader in specialty coffee. Portland, Oregon_sentence_306

The city is home to Stumptown Coffee Roasters as well as dozens of other micro-roasteries and cafes. Portland, Oregon_sentence_307

It is frequently claimed that Portland has the most breweries and independent microbreweries of any city in the world, with 58 active breweries within city limits and 70+ within the surrounding metro area. Portland, Oregon_sentence_308

However, data compiled by the Brewers Association ranks Portland seventh in the United States as of 2018. Portland, Oregon_sentence_309

The McMenamin brothers have over thirty brewpubs, distilleries, and wineries scattered throughout the metropolitan area, several in renovated cinemas and other historically significant buildings otherwise destined for demolition. Portland, Oregon_sentence_310

Other notable Portland brewers include Widmer Brothers, BridgePort, Portland Brewing, Hair of the Dog, and Hopworks Urban Brewery. Portland, Oregon_sentence_311

Portland hosts a number of festivals throughout the year that celebrate beer and brewing, including the Oregon Brewers Festival, held in Tom McCall Waterfront Park. Portland, Oregon_sentence_312

Held each summer during the last full weekend of July, it is the largest outdoor craft beer festival in North America, with over 70,000 attendees in 2008. Portland, Oregon_sentence_313

Other major beer festivals throughout the calendar year include the Spring Beer and Wine Festival in April, the North American Organic Brewers Festival in June, the Portland International Beerfest in July, and the Holiday Ale Festival in December. Portland, Oregon_sentence_314

Sustainability Portland, Oregon_section_21

Popular Science awarded Portland the title of the Greenest City in America in 2008, and Grist magazine listed it in 2007 as the second greenest city in the world. Portland, Oregon_sentence_315

Ten years later, WalletHub rated the city as the 10th greenest. Portland, Oregon_sentence_316

The city became a pioneer of state-directed metropolitan planning, a program which was instituted statewide in 1969 to compact the urban growth boundaries of the city. Portland, Oregon_sentence_317

Sports Portland, Oregon_section_22

Main article: Sports in Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_318

Portland is home to three major league sports franchises: the Portland Trail Blazers of the NBA, the Portland Timbers of Major League Soccer, and the Portland Thorns of the National Women's Soccer League. Portland, Oregon_sentence_319

In 2015, the Timbers won the MLS Cup, which was the first male professional sports championship for a team from Portland since the Trail Blazers won the NBA championship in 1977. Portland, Oregon_sentence_320

Despite being the 19th most populated metro area in the United States, Portland contains only one franchise from the NFL, NBA, NHL, or MLB, making it America's second most populated metro area with that distinction, behind San Antonio. Portland, Oregon_sentence_321

The city has been often rumored to receive an additional franchise, although efforts to acquire a team have failed due to stadium funding issues. Portland, Oregon_sentence_322

An organization known as the Portland Diamond Project (PDP) has worked with the MLB and local government, and there are plans to have an MLB stadium constructed in the industrial district of Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_323

The PDP has not yet received the funding for this project. Portland, Oregon_sentence_324

Portland sports fans are characterized by their passionate support. Portland, Oregon_sentence_325

The Trail Blazers sold out every home game between 1977 and 1995, a span of 814 consecutive games, the second-longest streak in American sports history. Portland, Oregon_sentence_326

The Timbers joined MLS in 2011 and have sold out every home match since joining the league, a streak that has now reached 70+ matches. Portland, Oregon_sentence_327

The Timbers season ticket waiting list has reached 10,000+, the longest waiting list in MLS. Portland, Oregon_sentence_328

In 2015, they became the first team in the Northwest to win the MLS Cup. Portland, Oregon_sentence_329

Player Diego Valeri marked a new record for fastest goal in MLS Cup history at 27 seconds into the game. Portland, Oregon_sentence_330

Two rival universities exist within Portland city limits: the University of Portland Pilots and the Portland State University Vikings, both of whom field teams in popular spectator sports including soccer, baseball, and basketball. Portland, Oregon_sentence_331

Portland State also has a football team. Portland, Oregon_sentence_332

Additionally, the University of Oregon Ducks and the Oregon State University Beavers both receive substantial attention and support from many Portland residents, despite their campuses being 110 and 84 miles from the city, respectively. Portland, Oregon_sentence_333

Running is a popular activity in Portland, and every year the city hosts the Portland Marathon as well as parts of the Hood to Coast Relay, the world's largest long-distance relay race (by number of participants). Portland, Oregon_sentence_334

Portland serves as the center to an elite running group, the Nike Oregon Project, and is the residence of several elite runners including British 2012 Olympic 10,000m and 5,000m champion Mo Farah, American record holder at 10,000m Galen Rupp, and 2008 American Olympic bronze medalist at 10,000m Shalane Flanagan. Portland, Oregon_sentence_335

Historic Erv Lind Stadium is located in Normandale Park. Portland, Oregon_sentence_336

It has been home to professional and college softball. Portland, Oregon_sentence_337

Portland also hosts numerous cycling events and has become an elite bicycle racing destination. Portland, Oregon_sentence_338

The Oregon Bicycle Racing Association supports hundreds of official bicycling events every year. Portland, Oregon_sentence_339

Weekly events at Alpenrose Velodrome and Portland International Raceway allow for racing nearly every night of the week from March through September. Portland, Oregon_sentence_340

Cyclocross races, such as the Cross Crusade, can attract over 1,000 riders and spectators. Portland, Oregon_sentence_341

On December 4, 2019, the Vancouver Riptide of the American Ultimate Disc League announced that they ceased team operations in Vancouver in 2017 and are moving down to Portland Oregon for the 2020 AUDL season. Portland, Oregon_sentence_342

Parks and gardens Portland, Oregon_section_23

Main article: List of parks in Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_343

Parks and greenspace planning date back to John Charles Olmsted's 1903 Report to the Portland Park Board. Portland, Oregon_sentence_344

In 1995, voters in the Portland metropolitan region passed a regional bond measure to acquire valuable natural areas for fish, wildlife, and people. Portland, Oregon_sentence_345

Ten years later, more than 8,100 acres (33 km) of ecologically valuable natural areas had been purchased and permanently protected from development. Portland, Oregon_sentence_346

Portland is one of only four cities in the U.S. with extinct volcanoes within its boundaries (along with Pilot Butte in Bend, Oregon, Jackson Volcano in Jackson, Mississippi, and Diamond Head in Honolulu, Hawaii). Portland, Oregon_sentence_347

Mount Tabor Park is known for its scenic views and historic reservoirs. Portland, Oregon_sentence_348

Forest Park is the largest wilderness park within city limits in the United States, covering more than 5,000 acres (2,023 ha). Portland, Oregon_sentence_349

Portland is also home to Mill Ends Park, the world's smallest park (a two-foot-diameter circle, the park's area is only about 0.3 m). Portland, Oregon_sentence_350

Washington Park is just west of downtown and is home to the Oregon Zoo, Hoyt Arboretum, the Portland Japanese Garden, and the International Rose Test Garden. Portland, Oregon_sentence_351

Portland is also home to Lan Su Chinese Garden (formerly the Portland Classical Chinese Garden), an authentic representation of a Suzhou-style walled garden. Portland, Oregon_sentence_352

Portland's east side has several formal public gardens: the historic Peninsula Park Rose Garden, the rose gardens of Ladd's Addition, the Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden, the Leach Botanical Garden, and The Grotto. Portland, Oregon_sentence_353

Portland's downtown features two groups of contiguous city blocks dedicated for park space: the North and South Park Blocks. Portland, Oregon_sentence_354

The 37-acre (15 ha) Tom McCall Waterfront Park was built in 1974 along the length of the downtown waterfront after Harbor Drive was removed; it now hosts large events throughout the year. Portland, Oregon_sentence_355

The nearby historically significant Burnside Skatepark and five indoor skateparks give Portland a reputation as possibly "the most skateboard-friendly town in America." Portland, Oregon_sentence_356

Tryon Creek State Natural Area is one of three Oregon State Parks in Portland and the most popular; its creek has a run of steelhead. Portland, Oregon_sentence_357

The other two State Parks are Willamette Stone State Heritage Site, in the West Hills, and the Government Island State Recreation Area in the Columbia River near Portland International Airport. Portland, Oregon_sentence_358

Portland's city park system has been proclaimed one of the best in America. Portland, Oregon_sentence_359

In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, the Trust for Public Land reported Portland had the seventh best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities. Portland, Oregon_sentence_360

In February 2015, the City Council approved a total ban of smoking in all of city parks and natural area and the ban has been in force since July 1, 2015. Portland, Oregon_sentence_361

The ban is includes cigarettes, vaping as well as marijuana. Portland, Oregon_sentence_362

Law and government Portland, Oregon_section_24

See also: Government of Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_363

The city of Portland is governed by the Portland City Council, which includes the Mayor, four Commissioners, and an auditor. Portland, Oregon_sentence_364

Each is elected citywide to serve a four-year term. Portland, Oregon_sentence_365

The auditor provides checks and balances in the commission form of government and accountability for the use of public resources. Portland, Oregon_sentence_366

In addition, the auditor provides access to information and reports on various matters of city government. Portland, Oregon_sentence_367

Portland is the only large city left in the United States with the commission form of government. Portland, Oregon_sentence_368

The city's Community & Civic Life (formerly Office of Neighborhood Involvement) serves as a conduit between city government and Portland's 95 officially recognized neighborhoods. Portland, Oregon_sentence_369

Each neighborhood is represented by a volunteer-based neighborhood association which serves as a liaison between residents of the neighborhood and the city government. Portland, Oregon_sentence_370

The city provides funding to neighborhood associations through seven district coalitions, each of which is a geographical grouping of several neighborhood associations. Portland, Oregon_sentence_371

Most (but not all) neighborhood associations belong to one of these district coalitions. Portland, Oregon_sentence_372

Portland and its surrounding metropolitan area are served by Metro, the United States' only directly elected metropolitan planning organization. Portland, Oregon_sentence_373

Metro's charter gives it responsibility for land use and transportation planning, solid waste management, and map development. Portland, Oregon_sentence_374

Metro also owns and operates the Oregon Convention Center, Oregon Zoo, Portland Center for the Performing Arts, and Portland Metropolitan Exposition Center. Portland, Oregon_sentence_375

The Multnomah County government provides many services to the Portland area, as do Washington and Clackamas counties to the west and south. Portland, Oregon_sentence_376

Law enforcement is provided by the Portland Police Bureau. Portland, Oregon_sentence_377

Fire and emergency services are provided by Portland Fire & Rescue. Portland, Oregon_sentence_378

Politics Portland, Oregon_section_25

Portland is a territorial charter city, and strongly favors the Democratic Party. Portland, Oregon_sentence_379

All city offices are non-partisan. Portland, Oregon_sentence_380

Portland's delegation to the Oregon Legislative Assembly is entirely Democratic. Portland, Oregon_sentence_381

In the current 76th Oregon Legislative Assembly, which first convened in 2011, four state Senators represent Portland in the state Senate: Diane Rosenbaum (District 21), Chip Shields (District 22), Jackie Dingfelder (District 23), and Rod Monroe (District 24). Portland, Oregon_sentence_382

Portland sends six Representatives to the state House of Representatives: Rob Nosse (District 42), Tawna Sanchez (District 43), Tina Kotek (District 44), Barbara Smith Warner (District 45), Alissa Keny-Guyer (District 46), and Diego Hernandez (District 47). Portland, Oregon_sentence_383

Portland is split among three U.S. congressional districts. Portland, Oregon_sentence_384

Most of the city is in the 3rd District, represented by Earl Blumenauer, who served on the city council from 1986 until his election to Congress in 1996. Portland, Oregon_sentence_385

Most of the city west of the Willamette River is part of the 1st District, represented by Suzanne Bonamici. Portland, Oregon_sentence_386

A small portion of southwestern Portland is in the 5th District, represented by Kurt Schrader. Portland, Oregon_sentence_387

All three are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Portland in the U.S. Portland, Oregon_sentence_388 House of Representatives since 1975. Portland, Oregon_sentence_389

Both of Oregon's senators, Ron Wyden and Jeff Merkley, are from Portland and are also both Democrats. Portland, Oregon_sentence_390

In the 2008 presidential election, Democratic candidate Barack Obama easily carried Portland, winning 245,464 votes from city residents to 50,614 for his Republican rival, John McCain. Portland, Oregon_sentence_391

In the 2012 presidential election, Democratic candidate Barack Obama again easily carried Portland, winning 256,925 votes from Multnomah county residents to 70,958 for his Republican rival, Mitt Romney. Portland, Oregon_sentence_392

Sam Adams, the former mayor of Portland, became the city's first openly gay mayor in 2009. Portland, Oregon_sentence_393

In 2004, 59.7 percent of Multnomah County voters cast ballots against Oregon Ballot Measure 36, which amended the Oregon Constitution to prohibit recognition of same-sex marriages. Portland, Oregon_sentence_394

The measure passed with 56.6% of the statewide vote. Portland, Oregon_sentence_395

Multnomah County is one of two counties where a majority voted against the initiative; the other is Benton County, which includes Corvallis, home of Oregon State University. Portland, Oregon_sentence_396

On April 28, 2005, Portland became the only city in the nation to withdraw from a Joint Terrorism Task Force. Portland, Oregon_sentence_397

As of February 19, 2015, the Portland city council approved permanently staffing the JTTF with two of its city's police officers. Portland, Oregon_sentence_398

Planning and development Portland, Oregon_section_26

The city consulted with urban planners as far back as 1904, resulting in the development of Washington Park and the 40-Mile Loop greenway, which interconnects many of the city's parks. Portland, Oregon_sentence_399

Portland is often cited as an example of a city with strong land use planning controls. Portland, Oregon_sentence_400

This is largely the result of statewide land conservation policies adopted in 1973 under Governor Tom McCall, in particular the requirement for an urban growth boundary (UGB) for every city and metropolitan area. Portland, Oregon_sentence_401

The opposite extreme, a city with few or no controls, is typically illustrated by Houston. Portland, Oregon_sentence_402

Portland's urban growth boundary, adopted in 1979, separates urban areas (where high-density development is encouraged and focused) from traditional farm land (where restrictions on non-agricultural development are very strict). Portland, Oregon_sentence_403

This was atypical in an era when automobile use led many areas to neglect their core cities in favor of development along interstate highways, in suburbs, and satellite cities. Portland, Oregon_sentence_404

The original state rules included a provision for expanding urban growth boundaries, but critics felt this wasn't being accomplished. Portland, Oregon_sentence_405

In 1995, the State passed a law requiring cities to expand UGBs to provide enough undeveloped land for a 20-year supply of future housing at projected growth levels. Portland, Oregon_sentence_406

Oregon's 1973 "urban growth boundary" law limits the boundaries for large-scale development in each metropolitan area in Oregon. Portland, Oregon_sentence_407

This limits access to utilities such as sewage, water and telecommunications, as well as coverage by fire, police and schools. Portland, Oregon_sentence_408

Originally this law mandated the city must maintain enough land within the boundary to provide an estimated 20 years of growth; however, in 2007 the legislature changed the law to require the maintenance of an estimated 50 years of growth within the boundary, as well as the protection of accompanying farm and rural lands. Portland, Oregon_sentence_409

The growth boundary, along with efforts of the Portland Development Commission to create economic development zones, has led to the development of a large portion of downtown, a large number of mid- and high-rise developments, and an overall increase in housing and business density. Portland, Oregon_sentence_410

Prosper Portland (formerly Portland Development Commission) is a semi-public agency that plays a major role in downtown development; city voters created it in 1958 to serve as the city's urban renewal agency. Portland, Oregon_sentence_411

It provides housing and economic development programs within the city, and works behind the scenes with major local developers to create large projects. Portland, Oregon_sentence_412

In the early 1960s, the Portland Development Commission led the razing of a large Italian-Jewish neighborhood downtown, bounded roughly by I-405, the Willamette River, 4th Avenue and Market street. Portland, Oregon_sentence_413

Mayor Neil Goldschmidt took office in 1972 as a proponent of bringing housing and the associated vitality back to the downtown area, which was seen as emptying out after 5 pm. Portland, Oregon_sentence_414

The effort has had dramatic effects in the 30 years since, with many thousands of new housing units clustered in three areas: north of Portland State University (between I-405, SW Broadway, and SW Taylor St.); the RiverPlace development along the waterfront under the Marquam (I-5) bridge; and most notably in the Pearl District (between I-405, Burnside St., NW Northrup St., and NW 9th Ave.). Portland, Oregon_sentence_415

Historically, environmental consciousness has weighed significantly in the city's planning and development efforts. Portland, Oregon_sentence_416

Portland was one of the first cities in the United States to promote and integrate alternative forms of transportation, such as the MAX Light Rail and extensive bike paths. Portland, Oregon_sentence_417

The Urban Greenspaces Institute, housed in Portland State University Geography Department's Center for Mapping Research, promotes better integration of the built and natural environments. Portland, Oregon_sentence_418

The institute works on urban park, trail, and natural areas planning issues, both at the local and regional levels. Portland, Oregon_sentence_419

In October 2009, the Portland City Council unanimously adopted a climate action plan that will cut the city's greenhouse gas emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. Portland, Oregon_sentence_420

The city's longstanding efforts were recognized in a 2010 Reuters report, which named Portland the second-most environmentally conscious or "green" city in the world after Reykjavík, Iceland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_421

As of 2012, Portland was the largest city in the United States that did not add fluoride to its public water supply, and fluoridation has historically been a subject of controversy in the city. Portland, Oregon_sentence_422

Portland voters have four times voted against fluoridation, in 1956, 1962, 1980 (repealing a 1978 vote in favor), and 2013. Portland, Oregon_sentence_423

In 2012 the city council, responding to advocacy from public health organizations and others, voted unanimously to begin fluoridation by 2014. Portland, Oregon_sentence_424

Fluoridation opponents forced a public vote on the issue, and on May 21, 2013, city voters again rejected fluoridation. Portland, Oregon_sentence_425

Free speech Portland, Oregon_section_27

Strong free speech protections of the Oregon Constitution upheld by the Oregon Supreme Court in State v. Henry, specifically found that full nudity and lap dances in strip clubs are protected speech. Portland, Oregon_sentence_426

Portland has the highest number of strip clubs per-capita in a city in the United States, and Oregon ranks as the highest state for per-capita strip clubs. Portland, Oregon_sentence_427

In November 2008, a Multnomah County judge dismissed charges against a nude bicyclist arrested on June 26, 2008. Portland, Oregon_sentence_428

The judge stated that the city's annual World Naked Bike Ride – held each year in June since 2004 – has created a "well-established tradition" in Portland where cyclists may ride naked as a form of protest against cars and fossil fuel dependence. Portland, Oregon_sentence_429

The defendant was not riding in the official World Naked Bike Ride at the time of his arrest as it had occurred 12 days earlier that year, on June 14. Portland, Oregon_sentence_430

From November 10 to 12, 2016, protests in Portland turned into a riot, when a group of anarchists broke off from a larger group of peaceful protesters who were opposed to the election of Donald Trump as president of the United States. Portland, Oregon_sentence_431

Crime Portland, Oregon_section_28

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Report in 2009, Portland ranked 53rd in violent crime out of the top 75 U.S. cities with a population greater than 250,000. Portland, Oregon_sentence_432

The murder rate in Portland in 2013 averaged 2.3 murders per 100,000 people per year, which was lower than the national average. Portland, Oregon_sentence_433

In October 2009, Forbes magazine rated Portland as the third safest city in America. Portland, Oregon_sentence_434

In 2011, 72% of arrested male subjects tested positive for illegal drugs and the city was dubbed the "deadliest drug market in the Pacific Northwest" due to drug related deaths. Portland, Oregon_sentence_435

In 2010, ABC's Nightline reported that Portland is one of the largest hubs for child sex trafficking. Portland, Oregon_sentence_436

In the Portland Metropolitan statistical area which includes Clackamas, Columbia, Multnomah, Washington, and Yamhill Counties, OR and Clark and Skamania Counties, WA for 2017, murder rate was 2.6, violent crime was 283.2 per 100,000 people per year. Portland, Oregon_sentence_437

In 2017, the population within the city of Portland was 649,408 and there were 24 murders and 3,349 violent crimes. Portland, Oregon_sentence_438

Below is a sortable table containing violent crime data from each Portland neighborhood during the calendar year of 2014. Portland, Oregon_sentence_439

2020 George Floyd protests Portland, Oregon_section_29

Main article: George Floyd protests in Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_440

Starting May 28, 2020, and extending into the summer, daily protests occurred regarding the killing of George Floyd by police and perceived racial injustice. Portland, Oregon_sentence_441

While most peaceful, there were a few instances of looting, vandalism, and police brutality caused injuries as well as one self defense fatality. Portland, Oregon_sentence_442

Some protests involved confrontations with law enforcement involving injury to protesters, but no injuries to police. Portland, Oregon_sentence_443

In July federal officers were deployed to safeguard federal property, whose presence and tactics were criticized by Oregon officials who demanded they leave, while lawsuits were filed against local and federal law enforcement alleging wrongful actions by them. Portland, Oregon_sentence_444

Education Portland, Oregon_section_30

Main article: Education in Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_445

Primary and secondary education Portland, Oregon_section_31

Nine public school districts and many private schools serve Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_446

Portland Public Schools is the largest school district, operating 85 public schools. Portland, Oregon_sentence_447

David Douglas High School, in the Powellhurst neighborhood, has the largest enrollment of any public high school in the city. Portland, Oregon_sentence_448

Other high schools include Benson, Cleveland, Franklin, Grant, Jefferson, Madison, Parkrose, Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson, and several suburban high schools which serve the city's outer areas. Portland, Oregon_sentence_449

Established in 1869, Lincoln High School (formerly Portland High School) is the city's oldest public education institution, and is one of two of the oldest high schools west of the Mississippi River (after San Francisco's Lowell High School). Portland, Oregon_sentence_450

Former public schools in the city included Washington High School, which operated from 1906 until 1981, as well as Adams and Jackson, which also closed the same year. Portland, Oregon_sentence_451

The area's private schools include The Northwest Academy, Portland Jewish Academy, Rosemary Anderson High School, Portland Adventist Academy, Portland Lutheran School, Trinity Academy, Catlin Gabel School, and Oregon Episcopal School. Portland, Oregon_sentence_452

The city and surrounding metropolitan area is also home to a large number of Roman Catholic-affiliated private schools, including St. Mary's Academy, an all-girls school; De La Salle North Catholic High School; the co-educational Jesuit High School; La Salle High School; and Central Catholic High School, the only archdiocesan high school in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_453

Higher education Portland, Oregon_section_32

Portland State University has the second-largest enrollment rate of any university in the state (after Oregon State University), with a student body of nearly 30,000. Portland, Oregon_sentence_454

It has been named among the top fifteen percentile of American regional universities by The Princeton Review for undergraduate education, and has been internationally recognized for its degrees in Master of Business Administration and urban planning. Portland, Oregon_sentence_455

The city is also home to the Oregon Health & Science University, as well as Portland Community College. Portland, Oregon_sentence_456

Notable private universities include the University of Portland, a Roman Catholic university affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross; Reed College, a liberal arts college, and Lewis & Clark College. Portland, Oregon_sentence_457

Other institutions of higher learning within the city are: Portland, Oregon_sentence_458

Media Portland, Oregon_section_33

Main article: Media in Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_459

See also: List of radio stations in Oregon and List of television stations in Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_460

The Oregonian is the only daily general-interest newspaper serving Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_461

It also circulates throughout the state and in Clark County, Washington. Portland, Oregon_sentence_462

Smaller local newspapers, distributed free of charge in newspaper boxes and at venues around the city, include the Portland Tribune (general-interest paper published on Tuesdays and Thursdays), Willamette Week (general-interest alternative weekly published on Wednesdays), and The Portland Mercury (another alt-weekly, targeted at younger urban readers and published every other Thursdays). Portland, Oregon_sentence_463

The Portland area also has newspapers that are published for specific communities, including The Asian Reporter (a weekly covering Asian news, both international and local) and The Skanner (a weekly African-American newspaper covering both local and national news). Portland, Oregon_sentence_464

The Portland Business Journal covers business-related news on a weekly basis, as does The Daily Journal of Commerce, its main competitor. Portland, Oregon_sentence_465

Portland Monthly is a monthly news and culture magazine. Portland, Oregon_sentence_466

The Bee, over 105 years old, is another neighborhood newspaper serving the inner southeast neighborhoods. Portland, Oregon_sentence_467

Infrastructure Portland, Oregon_section_34

Healthcare Portland, Oregon_section_35

Main article: List of hospitals in Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_468

Legacy Health, a non-profit healthcare system in Portland, operates multiple facilities in the city and surrounding suburbs. Portland, Oregon_sentence_469

These include Legacy Emanuel, founded in 1912, in Northeast Portland; and Legacy Good Samaritan, founded in 1875, and in Northwest Portland. Portland, Oregon_sentence_470

Randall's Children's Hospital operates at the Legacy Emanuel Campus. Portland, Oregon_sentence_471

Good Samaritan has centers for breast health, cancer, and stroke, and is home to the Legacy Devers Eye Institute, the Legacy Obesity and Diabetes Institute, the Legacy Diabetes and Endocrinology Center, the Legacy Rehabilitation Clinic of Oregon, and the Linfield-Good Samaritan School of Nursing. Portland, Oregon_sentence_472

The Catholic-affiliated Providence Health & Services operates Providence Portland Medical Center in the North Tabor neighborhood of the city. Portland, Oregon_sentence_473

Oregon Health & Science University is a university hospital formed in 1974. Portland, Oregon_sentence_474

The Veterans Affairs Medical Center operates next to the Oregon Health & Science University main campus. Portland, Oregon_sentence_475

Adventist Medical Center also serves the city. Portland, Oregon_sentence_476

Shriners Hospital for Children is a small children's hospital established in 1923. Portland, Oregon_sentence_477

Transportation Portland, Oregon_section_36

Main article: Transportation in Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_478

The Portland metropolitan area has transportation services common to major U.S. cities, though Oregon's emphasis on proactive land-use planning and transit-oriented development within the urban growth boundary means commuters have multiple well-developed options. Portland, Oregon_sentence_479

In 2014, Travel + Leisure magazine rated Portland as the No. Portland, Oregon_sentence_480

1 most pedestrian and transit-friendly city in the United States. Portland, Oregon_sentence_481

A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Portland 12th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities. Portland, Oregon_sentence_482

In 2008, 12.6% of all commutes in Portland were on public transit. Portland, Oregon_sentence_483

TriMet operates most of the region's buses and the MAX (short for Metropolitan Area Express) light rail system, which connects the city and suburbs. Portland, Oregon_sentence_484

The 1986-opened MAX system has expanded to five lines, with the latest being the Orange Line to Milwaukie, in service as of September 2015. Portland, Oregon_sentence_485

WES Commuter Rail opened in February 2009 in Portland's western suburbs, linking Beaverton and Wilsonville. Portland, Oregon_sentence_486

The city-owned Portland Streetcar serves two routes in the Central City – downtown and adjacent districts. Portland, Oregon_sentence_487

The first line, which opened in 2001 and was extended in 2005–07, operates from the South Waterfront District through Portland State University and north through the West End of downtown, to shopping areas and dense residential districts north and northwest of downtown. Portland, Oregon_sentence_488

The second line that opened in 2012 added 3.3 miles (5.3 km) of tracks on the east side of the Willamette River and across the Broadway Bridge to a connection with the original line. Portland, Oregon_sentence_489

The east-side line completed a loop to the tracks on the west side of the river upon completion of the new Tilikum Crossing in 2015, and, in anticipation of that, had been named the Central Loop line in 2012. Portland, Oregon_sentence_490

However, it was renamed the Loop Service, with an A Loop (clockwise) and B Loop (counterclockwise), when it became a complete loop with the opening of the Tilikum Crossing bridge. Portland, Oregon_sentence_491

Fifth and Sixth avenues within downtown comprise the Portland Transit Mall, two streets devoted primarily to bus and light rail traffic with limited automobile access. Portland, Oregon_sentence_492

Opened in 1977 for buses, the transit mall was renovated and rebuilt in 2007–09, with light rail added. Portland, Oregon_sentence_493

Starting in 1975 and lasting nearly four decades, all transit service within downtown Portland was free, the area being known by TriMet as Fareless Square, but a need for minor budget cuts and funding needed for expansion prompted the agency to limit free rides to rail service only in 2010, and subsequently to discontinue the fare-free zone entirely in 2012. Portland, Oregon_sentence_494

TriMet provides real-time tracking of buses and trains with its TransitTracker, and makes the data available to software developers so they can create customized tools of their own. Portland, Oregon_sentence_495

I-5 connects Portland with the Willamette Valley, Southern Oregon, and California to the south and with Washington to the north. Portland, Oregon_sentence_496

I-405 forms a loop with I-5 around the central downtown area of the city and I-205 is a loop freeway route on the east side which connects to the Portland International Airport. Portland, Oregon_sentence_497

U.S. Portland, Oregon_sentence_498 26 supports commuting within the metro area and continues to the Pacific Ocean westward and Mount Hood and Central Oregon eastward. Portland, Oregon_sentence_499

U.S. Portland, Oregon_sentence_500 30 has a main, bypass, and business route through the city extending to Astoria to the west; through Gresham, Oregon, and the eastern exurbs, and connects to I-84, traveling towards Boise, Idaho. Portland, Oregon_sentence_501

Portland ranked 13th in traffic congestion of all American cities. Portland, Oregon_sentence_502

By 2018, it ranked 10th Portland, Oregon_sentence_503

Portland's main airport is Portland International Airport, about 20 minutes by car (40 minutes by MAX) northeast of downtown. Portland, Oregon_sentence_504

Portland's airport has been named the best US airport for seven consecutive years (2013–2019). Portland, Oregon_sentence_505

Portland is also home to Oregon's only public use heliport, the Portland Downtown Heliport. Portland, Oregon_sentence_506

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Portland at Union Station on three routes. Portland, Oregon_sentence_507

Long-haul train routes include the Coast Starlight (with service from Los Angeles to Seattle) and the Empire Builder (with service to Chicago). Portland, Oregon_sentence_508

The Amtrak Cascades state-supported trains operate between Vancouver, B.C., and Eugene, Oregon, and serve Portland several times daily. Portland, Oregon_sentence_509

The city is also served by Greyhound Lines intercity bus service, which also operates BoltBus, an express bus service. Portland, Oregon_sentence_510

The city's first airport was the Swan Island Municipal Airport, which was closed in the 1940s. Portland, Oregon_sentence_511

Portland is the only city in the United States that owns operating mainline steam locomotives, donated to the city in 1958 by the railroads that ran them. Portland, Oregon_sentence_512

Spokane, Portland & Seattle 700 and the world-famous Southern Pacific 4449 can be seen several times a year pulling a special excursion train, either locally or on an extended trip. Portland, Oregon_sentence_513

The "Holiday Express", pulled over the tracks of the Oregon Pacific Railroad on weekends in December, has become a Portland tradition over its several years running. Portland, Oregon_sentence_514

These trains and others are operated by volunteers of the Oregon Rail Heritage Foundation, an amalgamation of rail preservation groups which collaborated on the finance and construction of the Oregon Rail Heritage Center, a permanent and publicly accessible home for the locomotives, which opened in 2012 adjacent to OMSI. Portland, Oregon_sentence_515

In Portland, cycling is a significant mode of transportation. Portland, Oregon_sentence_516

As the city has been particularly supportive of urban bicycling it now ranks highly among the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world. Portland, Oregon_sentence_517

Bicycles accounted for 6.3% of commuting in 2017. Portland, Oregon_sentence_518

For its achievements in promoting cycling as an everyday means of transportation, Portland has been recognized by the League of American Bicyclists and other cycling organizations for its network of on-street bicycling facilities and other bicycle-friendly services, being one of only three U.S. cities to have earned a Platinum-level rating. Portland, Oregon_sentence_519

A new bicycle-sharing system, Biketown, launched on July 19, 2016, with 100 stations in the city's central and eastside neighborhoods. Portland, Oregon_sentence_520

The bikes were provided by Social Bicycles, and the system is operated by Motivate. Portland, Oregon_sentence_521

Car sharing through Zipcar, Getaround, and Uhaul Car Share is available to residents of the city and some inner suburbs. Portland, Oregon_sentence_522

Portland has a commuter aerial cableway, the Portland Aerial Tram, which connects the South Waterfront district on the Willamette River to the Oregon Health & Science University campus on Marquam Hill above. Portland, Oregon_sentence_523

Notable people Portland, Oregon_section_37

Main article: List of people from Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon_sentence_524

International relations Portland, Oregon_section_38

Portland has ten sister cities; each city is required to maintain long-term involvement and participation: Portland, Oregon_sentence_525

Portland, Oregon_table_general_2

Sister Cities of PortlandPortland, Oregon_table_caption_2
CityPortland, Oregon_header_cell_2_0_0 ImagePortland, Oregon_header_cell_2_0_1 CountryPortland, Oregon_header_cell_2_0_2 DatePortland, Oregon_header_cell_2_0_3 ReferencesPortland, Oregon_header_cell_2_0_4
SapporoPortland, Oregon_cell_2_1_0 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_1_1 JapanPortland, Oregon_cell_2_1_2 November 17, 1959Portland, Oregon_cell_2_1_3 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_1_4
GuadalajaraPortland, Oregon_cell_2_2_0 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_2_1 MexicoPortland, Oregon_cell_2_2_2 September 23, 1983Portland, Oregon_cell_2_2_3 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_2_4
AshkelonPortland, Oregon_cell_2_3_0 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_3_1 IsraelPortland, Oregon_cell_2_3_2 October 13, 1987Portland, Oregon_cell_2_3_3 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_3_4
UlsanPortland, Oregon_cell_2_4_0 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_4_1 South KoreaPortland, Oregon_cell_2_4_2 November 20, 1987Portland, Oregon_cell_2_4_3 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_4_4
SuzhouPortland, Oregon_cell_2_5_0 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_5_1 People's Republic of ChinaPortland, Oregon_cell_2_5_2 June 7, 1988Portland, Oregon_cell_2_5_3 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_5_4
KhabarovskPortland, Oregon_cell_2_6_0 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_6_1 RussiaPortland, Oregon_cell_2_6_2 June 10, 1988Portland, Oregon_cell_2_6_3 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_6_4
KaohsiungPortland, Oregon_cell_2_7_0 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_7_1 TaiwanPortland, Oregon_cell_2_7_2 October 11, 1988Portland, Oregon_cell_2_7_3 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_7_4
MutarePortland, Oregon_cell_2_8_0 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_8_1 ZimbabwePortland, Oregon_cell_2_8_2 December 18, 1991Portland, Oregon_cell_2_8_3 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_8_4
BolognaPortland, Oregon_cell_2_9_0 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_9_1 ItalyPortland, Oregon_cell_2_9_2 June 5, 2003Portland, Oregon_cell_2_9_3 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_9_4
Kota KinabaluPortland, Oregon_cell_2_10_0 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_10_1 MalaysiaPortland, Oregon_cell_2_10_2 September 29, 2014Portland, Oregon_cell_2_10_3 Portland, Oregon_cell_2_10_4

See also Portland, Oregon_section_39

Portland, Oregon_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portland, Oregon.