Portugal

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This article is about the country. Portugal_sentence_0

For other uses, see Portugal (disambiguation). Portugal_sentence_1

Portugal_table_infobox_0

Portuguese Republic

República Portuguesa (Portuguese)Portugal_header_cell_0_0_0

Capital

and largest cityPortugal_header_cell_0_1_0

LisbonPortugal_cell_0_1_1
Official language

and national languagePortugal_header_cell_0_2_0

PortuguesePortugal_cell_0_2_1
Recognized

regional languagePortugal_header_cell_0_3_0

MirandesePortugal_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2018)Portugal_header_cell_0_4_0 Portugal_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2011)Portugal_header_cell_0_5_0 Portugal_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Portugal_header_cell_0_6_0 PortuguesePortugal_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentPortugal_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republicPortugal_cell_0_7_1
PresidentPortugal_header_cell_0_8_0 Marcelo Rebelo de SousaPortugal_cell_0_8_1
President of the AssemblyPortugal_header_cell_0_9_0 Eduardo Ferro RodriguesPortugal_cell_0_9_1
Prime MinisterPortugal_header_cell_0_10_0 António CostaPortugal_cell_0_10_1
LegislaturePortugal_header_cell_0_11_0 Assembly of the RepublicPortugal_cell_0_11_1
EstablishmentPortugal_header_cell_0_12_0
FoundationPortugal_header_cell_0_13_0 868Portugal_cell_0_13_1
Re-foundingPortugal_header_cell_0_14_0 1095Portugal_cell_0_14_1
SovereigntyPortugal_header_cell_0_15_0 24 June 1128Portugal_cell_0_15_1
KingdomPortugal_header_cell_0_16_0 25 July 1139Portugal_cell_0_16_1
RestorationPortugal_header_cell_0_17_0 1 December 1640Portugal_cell_0_17_1
First ConstitutionPortugal_header_cell_0_18_0 23 September 1822Portugal_cell_0_18_1
RepublicPortugal_header_cell_0_19_0 5 October 1910Portugal_cell_0_19_1
DemocratizationPortugal_header_cell_0_20_0 25 April 1974Portugal_cell_0_20_1
Present constitutionPortugal_header_cell_0_21_0 25 April 1976Portugal_cell_0_21_1
EEC accessionPortugal_header_cell_0_22_0 1 January 1986Portugal_cell_0_22_1
Area Portugal_header_cell_0_23_0
TotalPortugal_header_cell_0_24_0 92,226 km (35,609 sq mi) (109th)Portugal_cell_0_24_1
Water (%)Portugal_header_cell_0_25_0 1.2 (as of 2015)Portugal_cell_0_25_1
PopulationPortugal_header_cell_0_26_0
2019 estimatePortugal_header_cell_0_27_0 10,295,909 (90th)Portugal_cell_0_27_1
2011 censusPortugal_header_cell_0_28_0 10,562,178Portugal_cell_0_28_1
DensityPortugal_header_cell_0_29_0 114.5/km (296.6/sq mi)Portugal_cell_0_29_1
GDP (PPP)Portugal_header_cell_0_30_0 2019 estimatePortugal_cell_0_30_1
TotalPortugal_header_cell_0_31_0 $372.5 billionPortugal_cell_0_31_1
Per capitaPortugal_header_cell_0_32_0 $36,246Portugal_cell_0_32_1
GDP (nominal)Portugal_header_cell_0_33_0 2019 estimatePortugal_cell_0_33_1
TotalPortugal_header_cell_0_34_0 $237.7 billionPortugal_cell_0_34_1
Per capitaPortugal_header_cell_0_35_0 $23,132Portugal_cell_0_35_1
Gini (2018)Portugal_header_cell_0_36_0 31.9

mediumPortugal_cell_0_36_1

HDI (2018)Portugal_header_cell_0_37_0 0.850

very high · 40thPortugal_cell_0_37_1

CurrencyPortugal_header_cell_0_38_0 Euro () (EUR)Portugal_cell_0_38_1
Time zonePortugal_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC (WET)
UTC−1 (Atlantic/Azores)Portugal_cell_0_39_1
Summer (DST)Portugal_header_cell_0_40_0 UTC+1 (WEST)
UTC (Atlantic/Azores)Portugal_cell_0_40_1
Portugal_header_cell_0_41_0 Note: Mainland Portugal and Madeira use WET/WEST, the Azores are 1 hour behind.Portugal_cell_0_41_1
Date formatPortugal_header_cell_0_42_0 dd/mm/yyyy (CE)Portugal_cell_0_42_1
Driving sidePortugal_header_cell_0_43_0 rightPortugal_cell_0_43_1
Calling codePortugal_header_cell_0_44_0 +351Portugal_cell_0_44_1
ISO 3166 codePortugal_header_cell_0_45_0 PTPortugal_cell_0_45_1
Internet TLDPortugal_header_cell_0_46_0 .ptPortugal_cell_0_46_1

Portugal (Portuguese: [puɾtuˈɣal), officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. Portugal_sentence_2

It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Portugal_sentence_3

Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal_sentence_4

The official and national language is Portuguese. Portugal_sentence_5

Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. Portugal_sentence_6

It was inhabited by pre-Celtic and Celtic peoples, visited by Phoenicians-Carthaginians, Ancient Greeks and ruled by the Romans, who were followed by the invasions of the Suebi and Visigothic Germanic peoples. Portugal_sentence_7

After the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, most of its territory was part of Al-Andalus. Portugal_sentence_8

Portugal as a country was established during the early Christian Reconquista. Portugal_sentence_9

Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede (1128). Portugal_sentence_10

The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique (1139), and independence from León was recognized by the Treaty of Zamora (1143). Portugal_sentence_11

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global maritime and commercial empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers. Portugal_sentence_12

During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration with the discovery of what would become Brazil (1500). Portugal_sentence_13

During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castile, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. Portugal_sentence_14

However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil (1822) erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. Portugal_sentence_15

After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo authoritarian regime. Portugal_sentence_16

Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution (1974), ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Portugal_sentence_17

Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. Portugal_sentence_18

The handover of Macau to China (1999) marked the end of what can be considered one of the longest-lived colonial empires. Portugal_sentence_19

Portugal has left a profound cultural, architectural and linguistic influence across the globe, with a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, and many Portuguese-based creoles. Portugal_sentence_20

It is a developed country with an advanced economy and high living standards. Portugal_sentence_21

Additionally, it is highly placed in rankings of moral freedom (2nd), peacefulness (3rd), democracy (7th), press freedom (10th), stability (15th), social progress (18th), and prosperity (26th). Portugal_sentence_22

A member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Schengen Area and the Council of Europe (CoE), Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. Portugal_sentence_23

Etymology Portugal_section_0

The word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale; a city where present-day Vila Nova de Gaia now stands, at the mouth of the River Douro in the north of what is now Portugal. Portugal_sentence_24

The name of the city is from the Latin word for port or harbour, portus, but the second element of Portus Cale is less clear. Portugal_sentence_25

The mainstream explanation for the name is that it is an ethnonym derived from the Castro people, also known as the Callaeci, Gallaeci or Gallaecia, who occupied the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal_sentence_26

The names Cale and Callaici are the origin of today's Gaia and Galicia. Portugal_sentence_27

Another theory proposes that Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port, like the Irish caladh or Scottish Gaelic cala. Portugal_sentence_28

These explanations, would require the pre-Roman language of the area to have been a branch of Q-Celtic, which is not generally accepted because the region's pre-Roman language was Gallaecian Celtic, usually considered P-Celtic. Portugal_sentence_29

However, scholars like Jean Markale and Tranoy propose that the Celtic branches all share the same origin, and placenames such as Cale, Gal, Gaia, Calais, Galatia, Galicia, Gaelic, Gael, Gaul, Wales, Cornwall, Wallonia and others all stem from one linguistic root. Portugal_sentence_30

Another theory has it that Cala was the name of a Celtic goddess (drawing a comparison with the Gaelic Cailleach a supernatural hag). Portugal_sentence_31

Some French scholars believe the name may have come from 'Portus Gallus', the port of the Gauls or Celts. Portugal_sentence_32

Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War. Portugal_sentence_33

In the process they conquered Cale, renaming it Portus Cale (Port of Cale) and incorporating it in the province of Gaellicia with its capital in Bracara Augusta (modern day Braga, Portugal). Portugal_sentence_34

During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale. Portugal_sentence_35

The name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, and by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. Portugal_sentence_36

By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugale, Portugallia, Portvgallo or Portvgalliae was already referred to as Portugal. Portugal_sentence_37

The 14th century Middle French name for the country, Portingal, which added an intrusive /n/ sound through the process of excrescence, spread to Middle English. Portugal_sentence_38

Middle English variant spellings included Portingall, Portingale, Portyngale and Portingaill. Portugal_sentence_39

The spelling Portyngale is found in Chaucer's Epilogue to the Nun's Priest's Tale. Portugal_sentence_40

These variants survive in the Torrent of Portyngale, a Middle English romance composed around 1400, and "Old Robin of Portingale", an English Child ballad. Portugal_sentence_41

Portingal and variants were also used in Scots and survive in the Cornish name for the country, . Portugal_sentence_42

History Portugal_section_1

Geography Portugal_section_2

Main article: Geography of Portugal Portugal_sentence_43

The territory of Portugal includes an area on the Iberian Peninsula (referred to as the continent by most Portuguese) and two archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean: the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores. Portugal_sentence_44

It lies between latitudes 30° and 42° N, and longitudes 32° and 6° W. Portugal_sentence_45

Mainland Portugal is split by its main river, the Tagus, that flows from Spain and disgorges in the Tagus Estuary, in Lisbon, before escaping into the Atlantic. Portugal_sentence_46

The northern landscape is mountainous towards the interior with several plateaus indented by river valleys, whereas the south, including the Algarve and the Alentejo regions, is characterized by rolling plains. Portugal_sentence_47

Portugal's highest peak is the similarly named Mount Pico on the island of Pico in the Azores. Portugal_sentence_48

This ancient volcano, which measures 2,351 m (7,713 ft) is an iconic symbol of the Azores, while the Serra da Estrela on the mainland (the summit being 1,991 m (6,532 ft) above sea level) is an important seasonal attraction for skiers and winter sports enthusiasts. Portugal_sentence_49

The archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores are scattered within the Atlantic Ocean: the Azores straddling the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on a tectonic triple junction, and Madeira along a range formed by in-plate hotspot geology. Portugal_sentence_50

Geologically, these islands were formed by volcanic and seismic events. Portugal_sentence_51

The last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in 1957–58 (Capelinhos) and minor earthquakes occur sporadically, usually of low intensity. Portugal_sentence_52

Portugal's exclusive economic zone, a sea zone over which the Portuguese have special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources, has 1,727,408 km. Portugal_sentence_53

This is the 3rd largest exclusive economic zone of the European Union and the 20th largest in the world. Portugal_sentence_54

Climate Portugal_section_3

Main article: Climate of Portugal Portugal_sentence_55

Portugal is defined as a Mediterranean climate (Csa in the South, interior, and Douro region; Csb in the North, Central coastal Portugal and a small portion of western Algarve), but has other climatic characteristics such as a Temperate Maritime climate (Cfb) in the mountains located in Northwestern sector (mainland) and also in some high altitude zones of Azorean islands, a Semi-arid climate in certain parts of Beja district far South (BSk) and in Porto Santo Island (BSh), a Warm Desertic climate (BWh) in the Selvagens Islands and a Humid subtropical climate in the western Azores (Cfa), according to the Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification. Portugal_sentence_56

It is one of the warmest European countries: the annual average temperature in mainland Portugal varies from 10–12 °C (50.0–53.6 °F) in the mountainous interior north to 16–18 °C (60.8–64.4 °F) in the south and on the Guadiana river basin. Portugal_sentence_57

There are however, variations from the highlands to the lowlands: Spanish biologist Salvador Rivas Martinez presents several different bioclimatic zones for Portugal. Portugal_sentence_58

The Algarve, separated from the Alentejo region by mountains reaching up to 900 metres (3,000 ft) in Alto da Fóia, has a climate similar to that of the southern coastal areas of Spain or Southwest Australia. Portugal_sentence_59

Annual average rainfall in the mainland varies from just over 3,200 mm (126.0 in) on the Peneda-Gerês National Park to less than 500 mm (19.7 in) in southern parts of Alentejo. Portugal_sentence_60

Mount Pico is recognized as receiving the largest annual rainfall (over 6,250 mm (246.1 in) per year) in Portugal, according to Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera. Portugal_sentence_61

In some areas, such as the Guadiana basin, annual diurnal average temperatures can be as high as 26 °C (79 °F), and summer's highest temperatures are routinely over 40 °C (104 °F). Portugal_sentence_62

The record high of 47.4 °C (117.3 °F) was recorded in Amareleja, although this might not be the hottest spot in summer, according to satellite readings. Portugal_sentence_63

Snowfalls occur regularly in the winter in the interior North and Centre of the country in districts such as Guarda, Bragança, Viseu and Vila Real, particularly on the mountains. Portugal_sentence_64

In winter temperatures may drop below −10.0 °C (14.0 °F) in particular in Serra da Estrela, Serra do Gerês, Serra do Marão and Serra de Montesinho. Portugal_sentence_65

In these places snow can fall any time from October to May. Portugal_sentence_66

In the South of the country snowfalls are rare but still occur in the highest elevations. Portugal_sentence_67

While the official absolute minimum by IPMA is −16.0 °C (3.2 °F) in Penhas da Saúde and Miranda do Douro, lower temperatures have been recorded, such as −17.5 °C (0.5 °F) by Bragança Polytechnic Institute in the outskirts of the city in 1983, and below −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F) in Serra da Estrela. Portugal_sentence_68

Portugal has around 2300 to 3200 hours of sunshine a year, an average of 4–6 h in winter and 10–12 h in the summer, with higher values in the south-east and lower in the north-west. Portugal_sentence_69

Portugal's west and southwest coasts have an extreme ocean seasonal lag, sea temperatures are warmer in October than in July and are their coldest in March. Portugal_sentence_70

The average sea surface temperature on the west coast of mainland Portugal varies from 14–16 °C (57.2–60.8 °F) in January−March to 19–21 °C (66.2–69.8 °F) in August−October while on the south coast it ranges from 16 °C (60.8 °F) in January−March and rises in the summer to about 22–23 °C (71.6–73.4 °F), occasionally reaching 26 °C (78.8 °F). Portugal_sentence_71

In the Azores, around 16 °C (60.8 °F) in February−April to 22–24 °C (71.6–75.2 °F) in July−September, and in Madeira, around 18 °C (64.4 °F) in February−April to 23–24 °C (73.4–75.2 °F) in August−October. Portugal_sentence_72

Both the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira have a subtropical climate, although variations between islands exist, making weather predictions very difficult (owing to rough topography). Portugal_sentence_73

The Madeira and Azorean archipelagos have a narrower temperature range, with annual average temperatures exceeding 20 °C (68 °F) in some parts of the coast (according to the Portuguese Meteorological Institute). Portugal_sentence_74

Some islands in Azores do have drier months in the summer. Portugal_sentence_75

Consequently, the islands of the Azores have been identified as having a Mediterranean Climate (both Csa and Csb types), while some islands (such as Flores or Corvo) are classified as Humid subtropical (Cfa), transitioning into an Oceanic climate (Cfb) at higher altitudes, according to Köppen-Geiger classification. Portugal_sentence_76

Porto Santo Island in Madeira has a warm semi-arid climate (BSh). Portugal_sentence_77

The Savage Islands, which are part of the regional territory of Madeira and a nature reserve are unique in being classified as a desert climate (BWh) with an annual average rainfall of approximately 150 mm (5.9 in). Portugal_sentence_78

The sea surface temperature in these islands varies from 18.5 °C (65.3 °F) in winter to 23–24 °C (73.4–75.2 °F) in the summer occasionally reaching 25 °C (77.0 °F). Portugal_sentence_79

Biodiversity Portugal_section_4

Despite the fact that Portugal has been occupied by humans for thousands of years, there is still a lot that's left of its original biome. Portugal_sentence_80

In Gerês both mature deciduous and coniferous forests can be found, an extremely rare worldwide mature Mediterranean forest remain in some parts of the Arrábida mountain and a subtropical laurissilva forest, dating back to the Tertiary period, covers its largest continuous area in the world in the Madeira main island. Portugal_sentence_81

Due to the human population decrease and rural exodus, Pyrenean oak and other local native trees are colonizing many abandoned areas. Portugal_sentence_82

Boar, Iberian red deer, roe deer, and the Iberian wild goat, are reported to have expanded greatly during recent decades. Portugal_sentence_83

Boars were found recently roaming at night inside large urban areas, like in Setubal. Portugal_sentence_84

Protected areas of Portugal include one national park, 12 natural parks, nine natural reserves, five natural monuments, and seven protected landscapes, which include the Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês, the Parque Natural da Serra da Estrela and the Paul d'Arzila. Portugal_sentence_85

These natural environments are shaped by diverse flora, and include widespread species of pine (especially the Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea species), the English oak (Quercus robur), the Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica) the chestnut (Castanea sativa), the cork-oak (Quercus suber), the holm oak (Quercus ilex) or the Portuguese oak (Quercus faginea). Portugal_sentence_86

Due to their economic value, some species of the genus Eucalyptus were introduced and are now common, despite their environmental impact. Portugal_sentence_87

Laurisilva is a unique type of subtropical rainforest, which nowadays, in Europe, is only restricted to the Iberian Peninsula: in the Azores, and in particular on the island of Madeira, there are large forests of endemic Laurisilva (the latter protected as a natural heritage preserve). Portugal_sentence_88

There are several species of diverse mammalian fauna, including the fox, badger, iberian lynx, iberian wolf, wild goat (Capra pyrenaica), wild cat (Felis silvestris), hare, weasel, polecat, chameleon, mongoose, civet, the occasional brown bear and many others. Portugal_sentence_89

Portugal is an important stopover for migratory birds, in places such as Cape St. Vincent or the Monchique mountains, where thousands of birds cross from Europe to Africa during the autumn or in the spring (return migration). Portugal_sentence_90

Most of the avian species congregate along the Iberian Peninsula since it is the closest stopover between Northern Europe and Africa. Portugal_sentence_91

Six hundred bird species occur in Portugal (either for nesting or during the course of migration), and annually there are new registries of nesting species. Portugal_sentence_92

The archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are transient stopover for American, European, and African birds, while continental Portugal mostly encounters European and African bird species. Portugal_sentence_93

There are more than 100 freshwater fish species, varying from the giant European catfish (in the Tagus International Natural Park) to some small and endemic species that live only in small lakes (along the western portion of country, for example). Portugal_sentence_94

Some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss, pollution and drought. Portugal_sentence_95

Up-welling along the west coast of Portugal makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and diverse species of marine fish; the Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in the world. Portugal_sentence_96

Marine fish species are more common, and include thousands of species, such as the sardine (Sardina pilchardus), tuna and Atlantic mackerel. Portugal_sentence_97

Bioluminescent species are also well represented (including species in different colour spectrum and forms), like the glowing plankton that are possible to observe on some beaches. Portugal_sentence_98

There are many endemic insect species, most only found in certain parts of Portugal, while other species are more widespread like the stag beetle (Lucanus cervus) and the cicada. Portugal_sentence_99

The Macaronesian islands (Azores and Madeira) have many endemic species (like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs) that evolved independently from other regions of Portugal. Portugal_sentence_100

In Madeira, for example, it is possible to observe more than 250 species of land gastropods. Portugal_sentence_101

Government and politics Portugal_section_5

Main articles: Government of Portugal and Politics of Portugal Portugal_sentence_102

Portugal has been a semi-presidential representative democratic republic since the ratification of the Constitution of 1976, with Lisbon, the nation's largest city, as its capital. Portugal_sentence_103

The Constitution grants the division or separation of powers among four bodies referred as "organs of Sovereignty": the President of the Republic, the Government, the Assembly of the Republic and the Courts. Portugal_sentence_104

The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has an executive role: the current President is Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa. Portugal_sentence_105

The Assembly of the Republic is a single chamber parliament composed of a maximum of 230 deputies elected for a four-year term. Portugal_sentence_106

The Government is headed by the Prime Minister (currently António Costa) and includes Ministers and Secretaries of State. Portugal_sentence_107

The Courts are organized into several levels, among the judicial, administrative and fiscal branches. Portugal_sentence_108

The Supreme Courts are institutions of last resort/appeal. Portugal_sentence_109

A thirteen-member Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws. Portugal_sentence_110

Portugal operates a multi-party system of competitive legislatures/local administrative governments at the national, regional and local levels. Portugal_sentence_111

The Assembly of the Republic, Regional Assemblies and local municipalities and parishes, are dominated by two political parties, the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party, in addition to the Unitary Democratic Coalition (Portuguese Communist Party and Ecologist Party "The Greens"), the Left Bloc and the Democratic and Social Centre – People's Party, which garner between 5 and 15% of the vote regularly. Portugal_sentence_112

Presidency of the Republic Portugal_section_6

Main articles: President of Portugal and List of Presidents of Portugal Portugal_sentence_113

The Head of State of Portugal is the President of the Republic, elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage. Portugal_sentence_114

He or she has also supervision and reserve powers. Portugal_sentence_115

Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government (where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections); dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic (to call early elections); vetoing legislation (which may be overridden by the Assembly); and declaring a state of war or siege. Portugal_sentence_116

The President is also the ex officio Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Portugal_sentence_117

The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State, which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the 1976 Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president. Portugal_sentence_118

Government Portugal_section_7

Main articles: Government of Portugal, Prime Minister of Portugal, and List of Prime Ministers of Portugal Portugal_sentence_119

The Government is headed by the presidentially appointed Prime Minister, also including one or more Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers, Secretaries of State and Under-Secretaries of State. Portugal_sentence_120

The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration. Portugal_sentence_121

It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited legislative powers. Portugal_sentence_122

The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly. Portugal_sentence_123

The Council of Ministers – under the presidency of the Prime Minister (or the President of Portugal at the latter's request) and the Ministers (may also include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers) – acts as the cabinet. Portugal_sentence_124

Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate. Portugal_sentence_125

The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office. Portugal_sentence_126

Parliament Portugal_section_8

Main articles: Assembly of the Republic (Portugal) and List of political parties in Portugal Portugal_sentence_127

The Assembly of the Republic, in Lisbon, is the national parliament of Portugal. Portugal_sentence_128

It is the main legislative body, although the Government also has limited legislative powers. Portugal_sentence_129

The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to 230 deputies. Portugal_sentence_130

Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation, deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections. Portugal_sentence_131

Currently the Government (PS) and the parties supporting it through a confidence-and-supply agreement (BE, PCP, PEV) control parliament with the most seats. Portugal_sentence_132

The PSD and CDS-PP parties form the opposition to the government alongside PAN, Chega, Iniciativa Liberal and Partido Livre. Portugal_sentence_133

Law and drug policy Portugal_section_9

Main articles: Judiciary of Portugal, Law of Portugal, Drug policy of Portugal, and LGBT rights in Portugal Portugal_sentence_134

The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system. Portugal_sentence_135

The main laws include the Constitution (1976, as amended), the Portuguese Civil Code (1966, as amended) and the Penal Code of Portugal (1982, as amended). Portugal_sentence_136

Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code (1888, as amended) and the Civil Procedure Code (1961, as amended). Portugal_sentence_137

The supreme national courts are the Supreme Court of Justice and the Constitutional Court. Portugal_sentence_138

The Public Ministry, headed by the Attorney General of the Republic, constitutes the independent body of public prosecutors. Portugal_sentence_139

Portuguese laws were applied in the former colonies and territories and continue to be major influences for those countries. Portugal_sentence_140

Portugal was the first country in the world to abolish life imprisonment (in 1884) and was one of the first countries to abolish the death penalty. Portugal_sentence_141

Maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years. Portugal_sentence_142

Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all common drugs in 2001, the first country in the world to do so. Portugal_sentence_143

Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are still illegal in other developed nations including cannabis, cocaine, heroin, and LSD. Portugal_sentence_144

While possession is legal, trafficking and possession of more than "10 days worth of personal use" are still punishable by jail time and fines. Portugal_sentence_145

People caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may refuse treatment without consequences. Portugal_sentence_146

Despite criticism from other European nations, who stated Portugal's drug consumption would tremendously increase, overall drug use has declined along with the number of HIV infection cases, which had dropped 50 percent by 2009. Portugal_sentence_147

Drug use among 16- to 18-year-olds also declined, however the use of marijuana rose only slightly among that age group. Portugal_sentence_148

LGBTI rights Portugal_section_10

Main article: LGBT rights in Portugal Portugal_sentence_149

LGBTI rights have increased substantially in the past years. Portugal_sentence_150

On 27 August 2003, Portugal added the anti-discrimination employment law on the basis of sexual orientation. Portugal_sentence_151

At 24 July 2004, sexual orientation was added to the Constitution as part of the protected from discrimination characteristics. Portugal_sentence_152

On 31 May 2010, Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriage at the national level. Portugal_sentence_153

The law came into force on 5 June 2010. Portugal_sentence_154

Same-sex adoption has been allowed since 1 March 2016 as is female same-sex couple access to medically assisted reproduction since 13 May 2016. Portugal_sentence_155

This bill was adopted by the Parliament and signed by President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa. Portugal_sentence_156

As of January 2017 the New Law of Gender Identity, simplified the legal process of gender and name change for transgender people, making it easier for minors to change their sex marker in legal documents. Portugal_sentence_157

At August 2018, the right to gender identity and gender expression self-determination became protected, intersex minors became protected by law from unnecessary medical procedures "until the minor gender identity manifests" and the right of protection from discrimination on the basis of sex characteristics also became protected by the same law. Portugal_sentence_158

Law enforcement Portugal_section_11

Main article: Law enforcement in Portugal Portugal_sentence_159

Portugal's main police organizations are the Guarda Nacional Republicana – GNR (National Republican Guard), a gendarmerie; the Polícia de Segurança Pública – PSP (Public Security Police), a civilian police force who work in urban areas; and the Polícia Judiciária – PJ (Judicial Police), a highly specialized criminal investigation police that is overseen by the Public Ministry. Portugal_sentence_160

Correctional services Portugal_section_12

Portugal has 49 correctional facilities in total run by the Ministry of Justice. Portugal_sentence_161

They include 17 central prisons, 4 special prisons, 27 regional prisons, and 1 'Cadeia de Apoio'(Support Detention Centre). Portugal_sentence_162

Their current prison population is about 12,806 inmates, which comes to about 0.12% of their entire population. Portugal_sentence_163

Their incarceration rate has been on the rise since 2010, with a 15% increase over the past eight years. Portugal_sentence_164

Administrative divisions Portugal_section_13

Main article: Administrative divisions of Portugal Portugal_sentence_165

Administratively, Portugal is divided into 308 municipalities (Portuguese: municípios or concelhos), which after a reform in 2013 are subdivided into 3,092 civil parishes (Portuguese: freguesia). Portugal_sentence_166

Operationally, the municipality and civil parish, along with the national government, are the only legally local administrative units identified by the government of Portugal (for example, cities, towns or villages have no standing in law, although may be used as catchment for the defining services). Portugal_sentence_167

For statistical purposes the Portuguese government also identifies Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), inter-municipal communities and informally, the district system, used until European integration (and being phased-out by the national government). Portugal_sentence_168

Continental Portugal is agglomerated into 18 districts, while the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are governed as autonomous regions; the largest units, established since 1976, are either mainland Portugal (Portuguese: Portugal Continental) and the autonomous regions of Portugal (Azores and Madeira). Portugal_sentence_169

The 18 districts of mainland Portugal are: Aveiro, Beja, Braga, Bragança, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Évora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisbon, Portalegre, Porto, Santarém, Setúbal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real and Viseu – each district takes the name of the district capital. Portugal_sentence_170

Within the European Union NUTS system, Portugal is divided into seven regions: the Azores, Alentejo, Algarve, Centro, Lisboa, Madeira and Norte, and with the exception of the Azores and Madeira, NUTS areas are subdivided into 28 subregions. Portugal_sentence_171

Foreign relations Portugal_section_14

Main article: Foreign relations of Portugal Portugal_sentence_172

A member state of the United Nations since 1955, Portugal is also a founding member of NATO (1949), OECD (1961) and EFTA (1960); it left the last in 1986 to join the European Economic Community, which became the European Union in 1993. Portugal_sentence_173

In 1996, Portugal co-founded the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language. Portugal_sentence_174

The global headquarters of the CPLP is in Penafiel Palace, in Lisbon. Portugal_sentence_175

António Guterres, who has served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1995 to 2002 and UN High Commissioner for Refugees from 2005 to 2015, assumed the post of UN Secretary-General on 1 January 2017; making him the first Secretary-General from Western Europe since Kurt Waldheim of Austria (1972–1981), the first former head of government to become Secretary-General and the first Secretary-General born after the establishment of the United Nations on 26 June 1945. Portugal_sentence_176

In addition, Portugal is a full member of the Latin Union (1983) and the Organization of Ibero-American States (1949). Portugal_sentence_177

It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazil. Portugal_sentence_178

Portugal and the United Kingdom share the world's oldest active military accord through their Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (Treaty of Windsor), which was signed in 1373. Portugal_sentence_179

There are two international territorial disputes, both with Spain: Portugal_sentence_180

Portugal_unordered_list_0

  • Olivenza. Under Portuguese sovereignty since 1297, the municipality of Olivenza was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Badajoz in 1801, after the War of the Oranges. Portugal claimed it back in 1815 under the Treaty of Vienna. However, since the 19th century, it has been continuously ruled by Spain which considers the territory theirs not only de facto but also de jure.Portugal_item_0_0
  • The Ilhas Selvagens (Savage Islands). The archipelago is under Portuguese domination but is geographically closer to the Canary Islands (165 km) than to Madeira (280 km). Found in 1364 by Italian navigators, the islands belonged to private owners until 1971, when the Portuguese government bought them and established a natural reserve area covering the whole archipelago. The islands have been claimed by Spain since 1911 and the dispute has caused some periods of political tension between the two countries. The main problem is not so much their intrinsic value but the fact that they expand the Exclusive Economic Zone of Portugal considerably to the south.Portugal_item_0_1

Military Portugal_section_15

Main article: Portuguese Armed Forces Portugal_sentence_181

The armed forces have three branches: Navy, Army and Air Force. Portugal_sentence_182

They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and provide humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad. Portugal_sentence_183

As of 2008, the three branches numbered 39,200 active personnel including 7,500 women. Portugal_sentence_184

Portuguese military expenditure in 2009 was 5 billion US$, representing 2.1 per cent of GDP. Portugal_sentence_185

Military conscription was abolished in 2004. Portugal_sentence_186

The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years. Portugal_sentence_187

The Army (21,000 personnel) comprises three brigades and other small units. Portugal_sentence_188

An infantry brigade (mainly equipped with Pandur II APC), a mechanized brigade (mainly equipped with Leopard 2 A6 tanks and M113 APC) and a Rapid Reaction Brigade (consisting of paratroopers, commandos and rangers). Portugal_sentence_189

The Navy (10,700 personnel, of which 1,580 are marines), the world's oldest surviving naval force, has five frigates, seven corvettes, two submarines, and 28 patrol and auxiliary vessels. Portugal_sentence_190

The Air Force (7,500 personnel) has the Lockheed F-16 Fighting Falcon as the main combat aircraft. Portugal_sentence_191

In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there is the National Republican Guard, a security force subject to military law and organization (gendarmerie) comprising 25,000 personnel. Portugal_sentence_192

This force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior Ministry. Portugal_sentence_193

It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor. Portugal_sentence_194

The United States maintains a military presence with 770 troops in the Lajes Air Base at Terceira Island, in the Azores. Portugal_sentence_195

The Allied Joint Force Command Lisbon (JFC Lisbon) – one of the three main subdivisions of NATO's Allied Command Operations – it is based in Oeiras, near Lisbon. Portugal_sentence_196

In the 20th century, Portugal engaged in two major conflicts: World War I and the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974). Portugal_sentence_197

After the end of the Portuguese Empire in 1975, the Portuguese Armed Forces have participated in peacekeeping missions in East Timor, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Somalia, Iraq (Nasiriyah), Lebanon, Mali and Central African Republic. Portugal_sentence_198

Portugal also conducted several independent unilateral military operations abroad, as were the cases of the interventions of the Portuguese Armed Forces in Angola in 1992 and in Guinea-Bissau in 1998 with the main objectives of protecting and withdrawing of Portuguese and foreign citizens threatened by local civil conflicts. Portugal_sentence_199

Government finance Portugal_section_16

Further information: 2010–2014 Portuguese financial crisis Portugal_sentence_200

The Portuguese government is heavily indebted, and received a 78-billion-euro bailout from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund in May 2011. Portugal_sentence_201

The ratio of Portugal's debt to its overall economy, was 107 per cent when it received the bailout. Portugal_sentence_202

As part of the deal, the country agreed to cut its budget deficit from 9.8 per cent of GDP in 2010 to 5.9 per cent in 2011, 4.5 per cent in 2012 and 3 per cent in 2013. Portugal_sentence_203

After the bailout was announced, the Portuguese government headed by Pedro Passos Coelho managed to implement measures with the intention of improving the state's financial situation, including tax hikes, a freeze of civil service-related lower-wages and cuts of higher-wages by 14.3%, on top of the government's spending cuts. Portugal_sentence_204

The Portuguese government also agreed to eliminate its golden share in Portugal Telecom which gave it veto power over vital decisions. Portugal_sentence_205

In 2012, all public servants had already seen an average wage cut of 20% relative to their 2010 baseline, with cuts reaching 25% for those earning more than 1,500 euro per month. Portugal_sentence_206

The IMF, the European Commission (EC) and the European Central Bank (ECB) said in September 2012 that Portugal's debt would peak at 124 per cent of gross domestic product in 2014. Portugal_sentence_207

The IMF previously said in July 2012 that Portugal's debt would peak at about 118.5 per cent of GDP in 2013. Portugal_sentence_208

In September 2013, the Portuguese Government reviewed again the public debt of Portugal for 2013 to 127.8 per cent, after a peak of 130.9 per cent in that month. Portugal_sentence_209

A report released in January 2011 by the Diário de Notícias and published in Portugal by Gradiva, had demonstrated that in the period between the Carnation Revolution in 1974 and 2010, the democratic Portuguese Republic governments encouraged over-expenditure and investment bubbles through unclear Public–private partnerships and funding of numerous ineffective and unnecessary external consultancy and advisory of committees and firms. Portugal_sentence_210

This allowed considerable slippage in state-managed public works and inflated top management and head officer bonuses and wages. Portugal_sentence_211

Persistent and lasting recruitment policies boosted the number of redundant public servants. Portugal_sentence_212

Risky credit, public debt creation, and European structural and cohesion funds were mismanaged across almost four decades. Portugal_sentence_213

Two Portuguese banks, Banco Português de Negócios (BPN) and Banco Privado Português (BPP), had been accumulating losses for years due to bad investments, embezzlement and accounting fraud. Portugal_sentence_214

The case of BPN was particularly serious because of its size, market share, and the political implications – Portugal's then President, Cavaco Silva and some of his political allies, maintained personal and business relationships with the bank and its CEO, who was eventually charged and arrested for fraud and other crimes. Portugal_sentence_215

On grounds of avoiding a potentially serious financial crisis in the Portuguese economy, the Portuguese government decided to give them a bailout, eventually at a future loss to taxpayers and to the Portuguese people in general. Portugal_sentence_216

Economy Portugal_section_17

Main articles: Economy of Portugal and Economic history of Portugal Portugal_sentence_217

Portugal is a developed and a high-income country, with a GDP per capita of 77% of the EU28 average in 2017 (increasing from 75% in 2012) and a HDI of 0.850 (the 40th highest) in 2018. Portugal_sentence_218

By the end of 2018, Portugal's GDP (PPP) was $32,554 per capita, according to OECD's report. Portugal_sentence_219

The national currency of Portugal is the euro (€), which replaced the Portuguese Escudo, and the country was one of the original member states of the eurozone. Portugal_sentence_220

Portugal's central bank is the Banco de Portugal, an integral part of the European System of Central Banks. Portugal_sentence_221

Most industries, businesses and financial institutions are concentrated in the Lisbon and Porto metropolitan areas – the Setúbal, Aveiro, Braga, Coimbra and Leiria districts are the biggest economic centres outside these two main areas. Portugal_sentence_222

According to World Travel Awards, Portugal was Europe's Leading Golf Destination in 2012 and 2013. Portugal_sentence_223

Since the Carnation Revolution of 1974, which culminated in the end of one of Portugal's most notable phases of economic expansion (that started in the 1960s), a significant change has occurred in the nation's annual economic growth. Portugal_sentence_224

After the turmoil of the 1974 revolution and the PREC period, Portugal tried to adapt to a changing modern global economy, a process that continues in 2013. Portugal_sentence_225

Since the 1990s, Portugal's public consumption-based economic development model has been slowly changing to a system that is focused on exports, private investment and the development of the high-tech sector. Portugal_sentence_226

Consequently, business services have overtaken more traditional industries such as textiles, clothing, footwear and cork (Portugal is the world's leading cork producer), wood products and beverages. Portugal_sentence_227

In the second decade of the 21st century, the Portuguese economy suffered its most severe recession since the 1970s, resulting in the country having to be bailed out by the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). Portugal_sentence_228

The bailout, agreed to in 2011, required Portugal to enter into a range of austerity measures in exchange for funding support of €78,000,000,000. Portugal_sentence_229

In May 2014, the country exited the bailout but reaffirmed its commitment to maintaining its reformist momentum. Portugal_sentence_230

At the time of exiting the bailout, the economy had contracted by 0.7% in the first quarter of 2014; however, unemployment, while still high, had fallen to 15.3%. Portugal_sentence_231

The average salary in Portugal is €910 per month, excluding self-employed individuals and the minimum wage, which is regulated by law, is €635 per month (paid 14 times per annum) as of 2020. Portugal_sentence_232

The Global Competitiveness Report for 2014–2015, published by the World Economic Forum, placed Portugal on the 36th position on the economic index. Portugal_sentence_233

The Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life index placed Portugal as the country with the 19th-best quality of life in the world for 2005, ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries like France, Germany, the United Kingdom and South Korea, but 9 places behind its sole neighbour, Spain. Portugal_sentence_234

This is despite the fact that Portugal remains as one of the countries with the lowest per capita GDP in Western Europe. Portugal_sentence_235

Major state-owned companies include: Águas de Portugal (water), Caixa Geral de Depósitos (banking), Comboios de Portugal (railways), Companhia das Lezírias (agriculture) and RTP (media). Portugal_sentence_236

Some former state-owned entities are managed by state-run holding company Parpública, which is a shareholder of several public and private companies. Portugal_sentence_237

Among former state-owned companies recently privatized are: CTT (postal service) and ANA (airports). Portugal_sentence_238

Companies listed on Euronext Lisbon stock exchange like EDP, Galp, Jerónimo Martins, Mota-Engil, Novabase, Semapa, Portucel Soporcel, Portugal Telecom and Sonae, are amongst the largest corporations of Portugal by number of employees, net income or international market share. Portugal_sentence_239

The Euronext Lisbon is the major stock exchange of Portugal and is part of the NYSE Euronext, the first global stock exchange. Portugal_sentence_240

The PSI-20 is Portugal's most selective and widely known stock index. Portugal_sentence_241

The International Monetary Fund issued an update report on the economy of Portugal in late-June 2017 with a strong near-term outlook and an increase in investments and exports over previous years. Portugal_sentence_242

Because of a surplus in 2016, the country was no longer bound by the Excessive Deficit Procedure which had been implemented during an earlier financial crisis. Portugal_sentence_243

The banking system was more stable, although there were still non-performing loans and corporate debt. Portugal_sentence_244

The IMF recommended working on solving these problems for Portugal to be able to attract more private investment. Portugal_sentence_245

"Sustained strong growth, together with continued public debt reduction, would reduce vulnerabilities arising from high indebtedness, particularly when monetary accommodation is reduced." Portugal_sentence_246

The OECD economic reports since 2018 show recovery, albeit slow; and Portugal's growth prospects continue positive for 2020. Portugal_sentence_247

Primary sector Portugal_section_18

Main articles: Agriculture in Portugal, Fishing in Portugal, Mining in Portugal, and Portuguese wine Portugal_sentence_248

Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. Portugal_sentence_249

However, the sector also includes larger scale intensive farming export-oriented agrobusinesses backed by companies (like Grupo RAR's Vitacress, Sovena, Lactogal, Vale da Rosa, Companhia das Lezírias and Valouro). Portugal_sentence_250

The country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock products, including: tomatoes, citrus, green vegetables, rice, wheat, barley, maize, olives, oilseeds, nuts, cherries, bilberry, table grapes, edible mushrooms, dairy products, poultry and beef. Portugal_sentence_251

According to FAO, Portugal is the top producer of cork and carob in the world, accounting to about 50% and 30% of world production respectively. Portugal_sentence_252

Forestry has also played an important economic role among the rural communities and industry (namely paper industry that includes Portucel Soporcel Group, engineered wood that includes Sonae Indústria, and furniture that includes several manufacturing plants in and around Paços de Ferreira, the core of Portugal's major industrial operations of IKEA). Portugal_sentence_253

In 2001, the gross agricultural product accounted for 4% of the national GDP. Portugal_sentence_254

Traditionally a sea power, Portugal has had a strong tradition in the Portuguese fishing sector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita. Portugal_sentence_255

The main landing sites in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira), according to total landings in weight by year, are the harbours of Matosinhos, Peniche, Olhão, Sesimbra, Figueira da Foz, Sines, Portimão and Madeira. Portugal_sentence_256

Portuguese-processed fish products are exported through several companies, under a number of different brands and registered trademarks, such as Ramirez, the world's oldest active canned fish producer. Portugal_sentence_257

Portugal is a significant European minerals producer and is ranked among Europe's leading copper producers. Portugal_sentence_258

The nation is also a notable producer of tin, tungsten and uranium. Portugal_sentence_259

However, the country lacks the potential to conduct hydrocarbon exploration and aluminium, a limitation that has hindered the development of Portugal's mining and metallurgy sectors. Portugal_sentence_260

Although the country has vast iron and coal reserves – mainly in the north – after the 1974 revolution and the consequent economic globalization, low competitiveness forced a decrease in the extraction activity for these minerals. Portugal_sentence_261

The Panasqueira and Neves-Corvo mines are among the most recognized Portuguese mines that are still in operation. Portugal_sentence_262

Portugal is rich in its lithium subsoil, which is especially concentrated in the districts of Guarda, Viseu, Vila Real and Viana do Castelo, while most of the country's lithium comes from the Gonçalo aplite-pegmatite field. Portugal_sentence_263

The largest lithium mine in Europe is operated by Grupo Mota, Felmica, in the Guarda region, which is estimated to have reserves for 30 years of production. Portugal_sentence_264

It has 5 more deposits in its possession. Portugal_sentence_265

Savannah Resources in May 2018 announced a 52% increase in the estimated lithium resources at the Mina do Barroso Lithium Project in northern Portugal, saying the country could become the first European supplier of spodumene, a lithium-bearing mineral. Portugal_sentence_266

The company said the estimated mineral resources at the mine now stood at 14 million tonnes. Portugal_sentence_267

Lithium prices have risen in expectation of growing demand for the mineral, which is used in batteries for electric vehicles and for storing electricity from the power grid. Portugal_sentence_268

Europe consumes more than 20 per cent of the global supply of battery-grade lithium but currently has to import all its supplies of the mineral. Portugal_sentence_269

W Resources stated in 2018 that it had started a new drilling campaign at its São Martinho gold project in Portugal. Portugal_sentence_270

The so-called reverse circulation drilling program included 15 holes with around 2,000 metres of total drilling. Portugal_sentence_271

The objective is to extend resources by integrating the data from 2016 drilling results with the expansion expected with the ongoing campaign. Portugal_sentence_272

Secondary sector Portugal_section_19

Industry is diversified, ranging from automotive (Volkswagen Autoeuropa and Peugeot Citroën), aerospace (Embraer and OGMA), electronics and textiles, to food, chemicals, cement and wood pulp. Portugal_sentence_273

Volkswagen Group's AutoEuropa motor vehicle assembly plant in Palmela is among the largest foreign direct investment projects in Portugal. Portugal_sentence_274

Modern non-traditional technology-based industries, such as aerospace, biotechnology and information technology, have been developed in several locations across the country. Portugal_sentence_275

Alverca, Covilhã, Évora, and Ponte de Sor are the main centres of the Portuguese aerospace industry, which is led by Brazil-based company Embraer and the Portuguese company OGMA. Portugal_sentence_276

Following the turn of the 21st century, many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded, and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon, Porto, Braga, Coimbra and Aveiro. Portugal_sentence_277

Tertiary sector Portugal_section_20

Main article: Tourism in Portugal Portugal_sentence_278

The banking and insurance sectors performed well until the financial crisis of 2007–2008, and this partly reflected a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal. Portugal_sentence_279

While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks, it has been estimated that overall both the life and non-life sectors will be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely. Portugal_sentence_280

Travel and tourism continue to be extremely important for Portugal. Portugal_sentence_281

It has been necessary for the country to focus upon its niche attractions, such as health, nature and rural tourism, to stay ahead of its competitors. Portugal_sentence_282

Portugal is among the top 20 most-visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 20,000,000 foreign tourists each year. Portugal_sentence_283

In 2014, Portugal was elected The Best European Country by USA Today. Portugal_sentence_284

In 2017, Portugal was elected both Europe's Leading Destination and in 2018 and 2019, World's Leading Destination Portugal_sentence_285

Tourist hotspots in Portugal are: Lisbon, Cascais, Fatima, Algarve, Madeira, Porto and Coimbra. Portugal_sentence_286

Lisbon attracts the sixteenth-most tourists among European cities (with seven million tourists occupying the city's hotels in 2006). Portugal_sentence_287

Notable luxury destinations include the Portuguese Riviera and the Comporta Coast. Portugal_sentence_288

Also, between 5–6 million religious pilgrims visit Fatima each year, where apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary to three shepherd children reportedly took place in 1917. Portugal_sentence_289

The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fatima is one of the largest Roman Catholic shrines in the world. Portugal_sentence_290

The Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist destinations, such as the Douro Valley, the island of Porto Santo, and Alentejo. Portugal_sentence_291

The legend of the Rooster of Barcelos tells the story of a dead rooster's miraculous intervention in proving the innocence of a man who had been falsely accused and sentenced to death. Portugal_sentence_292

The story is associated with the 17th-century calvary that is part of the collection of the Archaeological Museum located in Paço dos Condes, a gothic-style palace in Barcelos, a city in northwest Portugal. Portugal_sentence_293

The Rooster of Barcelos is bought by thousands of tourists as a national souvenir. Portugal_sentence_294

On 30 November 2016, the United Nations added the Portuguese Bisalhães tradition of making black pottery to the UNESCO Heritage Protection List. Portugal_sentence_295

On 7 December 2017, the United Nations added the Bonecos de Estremoz – Toys of Estremoz tradition as an UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humankind. Portugal_sentence_296

Quaternary sector Portugal_section_21

Main article: Science and technology in Portugal Portugal_sentence_297

Scientific and technological research activities in Portugal are mainly conducted within a network of R&D units belonging to public universities and state-managed autonomous research institutions like the INETI – Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovação and the INRB – Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos. Portugal_sentence_298

The funding and management of this research system is mainly conducted under the authority of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (MCTES) and the MCTES's Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT). Portugal_sentence_299

The largest R&D units of the public universities by volume of research grants and peer-reviewed publications, include biosciences research institutions like the Instituto de Medicina Molecular, the Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, the IPATIMUP, the Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular and the Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute. Portugal_sentence_300

Among the largest non-state-run research institutions in Portugal are the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência and the Champalimaud Foundation, a neuroscience and oncology research centre which awards every year one of the highest monetary prizes of any science prize in the world. Portugal_sentence_301

A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects. Portugal_sentence_302

One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon, founded in 1779. Portugal_sentence_303

Iberian bilateral state-supported research efforts include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory and the Ibercivis distributed computing platform, which are joint research programmes of both Portugal and Spain. Portugal_sentence_304

Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. Portugal_sentence_305

These include the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), ITER, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Portugal_sentence_306

Portugal has the largest aquarium in Europe, the Lisbon Oceanarium, and the Portuguese have several other notable organizations focused on science-related exhibits and divulgation, like the state agency Ciência Viva, a programme of the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology to the promotion of a scientific and technological culture among the Portuguese population, the Science Museum of the University of Coimbra, the National Museum of Natural History at the University of Lisbon, and the Visionarium. Portugal_sentence_307

With the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several science parks across the country. Portugal_sentence_308

These include the Taguspark (in Oeiras), the Coimbra iParque (in Coimbra), the biocant (in Cantanhede), the Madeira Tecnopolo (in Funchal), Sines Tecnopolo (in Sines), Tecmaia (in Maia) and Parkurbis (in Covilhã). Portugal_sentence_309

Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support. Portugal_sentence_310

Egas Moniz, a Portuguese physician who developed the cerebral angiography and leucotomy, received in 1949 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – he is the first Portuguese recipient of a Nobel Prize and the only in the sciences. Portugal_sentence_311

The European Innovation Scoreboard 2011, placed Portugal-based innovation in the 15th position, with an impressive increase in innovation expenditure and output. Portugal_sentence_312

Transport Portugal_section_22

Main article: Transport in Portugal Portugal_sentence_313

By the early-1970s, Portugal's fast economic growth with increasing consumption and purchase of new automobiles set the priority for improvements in transportation. Portugal_sentence_314

Again in the 1990s, after joining the European Economic Community, the country built many new motorways. Portugal_sentence_315

Today, the country has a 68,732 km (42,708 mi) road network, of which almost 3,000 km (1,864 mi) are part of system of 44 motorways. Portugal_sentence_316

Opened in 1944, the first motorway (which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium) was an innovative project that made Portugal one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway (this roadway eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5). Portugal_sentence_317

Although a few other tracts were created (around 1960 and 1970), it was only after the beginning of the 1980s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented. Portugal_sentence_318

In 1972, Brisa, the highway concessionaire, was founded to handle the management of many of the region's motorways. Portugal_sentence_319

On many highways, a toll needs to be paid (see Via Verde). Portugal_sentence_320

Vasco da Gama bridge is the longest bridge in Europe at 12.345 km. Portugal_sentence_321

Continental Portugal's 89,015 km (34,369 sq mi) territory is serviced by four international airports located near the principal cities of Lisbon, Porto, Faro and Beja. Portugal_sentence_322

Lisbon's geographical position makes it a stopover for many foreign airlines at several airports within the country. Portugal_sentence_323

The primary flag-carrier is TAP Air Portugal, although many other domestic airlines provide services within and without the country. Portugal_sentence_324

The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, in Alcochete, to replace Lisbon Portela Airport, though this plan has been suspended due to austerity measures. Portugal_sentence_325

Currently, the most important airports are in Lisbon, Porto, Faro, Funchal (Madeira), and Ponta Delgada (Azores), managed by the national airport authority group ANA – Aeroportos de Portugal. Portugal_sentence_326

One other important airport is the Aeroporto Internacional das Lajes on the island of Terceira in the Azores. Portugal_sentence_327

This airport serves as one of two international airports serving countries outside the European Union for all nine islands of the Azores. Portugal_sentence_328

It also serves as a military air base for the United States Air Force. Portugal_sentence_329

The base remains in use to the present day. Portugal_sentence_330

A national railway system that extends throughout the country and into Spain, is supported and administered by Comboios de Portugal (CP). Portugal_sentence_331

Rail transport of passengers and goods is derived using the 2,791 km (1,734 mi) of railway lines currently in service, of which 1,430 km (889 mi) are electrified and about 900 km (559 mi) allow train speeds greater than 120 km/h (75 mph). Portugal_sentence_332

The railway network is managed by Infraestruturas de Portugal while the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of CP, both public companies. Portugal_sentence_333

In 2006, the CP carried 133,000,000 passengers and 9,750,000 tonnes (9,600,000 long tons; 10,700,000 short tons) of goods. Portugal_sentence_334

The major seaports are located in Sines, Lisbon, Leixões, Setúbal, Aveiro, Figueira da Foz, and Faro. Portugal_sentence_335

The two largest metropolitan areas have subway systems: Lisbon Metro and Metro Sul do Tejo in the Lisbon metropolitan area and Porto Metro in the Porto Metropolitan Area, each with more than 35 km (22 mi) of lines. Portugal_sentence_336

In Portugal, Lisbon tram services have been supplied by the Companhia de Carris de Ferro de Lisboa (Carris), for over a century. Portugal_sentence_337

In Porto, a tram network, of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remains, began construction on 12 September 1895 (a first for the Iberian Peninsula). Portugal_sentence_338

All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services. Portugal_sentence_339

Energy Portugal_section_23

Main article: Energy in Portugal Portugal_sentence_340

Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most cost-effective renewable energy sources. Portugal_sentence_341

Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuels. Portugal_sentence_342

In 2006, the world's largest solar power plant at that date, the Moura Photovoltaic Power Station, began operating near Moura, in the south, while the world's first commercial wave power farm, the Aguçadoura Wave Farm, opened in the Norte region (2008). Portugal_sentence_343

By the end of 2006, 66% of the country's electrical production was from coal and fuel power plants, while 29% were derived from hydroelectric dams, and 6% by wind energy. Portugal_sentence_344

In 2008, renewable energy resources were producing 43% of the nation's consumption of electricity, even as hydroelectric production decreased with severe droughts. Portugal_sentence_345

As of June 2010, electricity exports had outnumbered imports. Portugal_sentence_346

In the period between January and May 2010, 70% of the national production of energy came from renewable sources. Portugal_sentence_347

Portugal's national energy transmission company, Redes Energéticas Nacionais (REN), uses sophisticated modelling to predict weather, especially wind patterns, and computer programs to calculate energy from the various renewable-energy plants. Portugal_sentence_348

Before the solar/wind revolution, Portugal had generated electricity from hydropower plants on its rivers for decades. Portugal_sentence_349

New programmes combine wind and water: wind-driven turbines pump water uphill at night, the most blustery period; then the water flows downhill by day, generating electricity, when consumer demand is highest. Portugal_sentence_350

Portugal's distribution system is also now a two-way street. Portugal_sentence_351

Instead of just delivering electricity, it draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop solar panels. Portugal_sentence_352

The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity. Portugal_sentence_353

Demographics Portugal_section_24

Main article: Demographics of Portugal Portugal_sentence_354

The Statistics Portugal (Portuguese: INE – Instituto Nacional de Estatística) estimates that, according to the 2011 census, the population was 10,562,178 (of which 52% was female, 48% was male). Portugal_sentence_355

In 2019 and according to more up-to-date figures, the population decreased to 10,295,909, although it was an increase compared with 2018. Portugal_sentence_356

This population has been relatively homogeneous for most of its history: a single religion (Roman Catholicism) and a single language have contributed to this ethnic and national unity. Portugal_sentence_357

The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in Paleolithic peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45,000 years ago. Portugal_sentence_358

All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic. Portugal_sentence_359

Genetic studies show Portuguese populations not to be significantly different from other European populations. Portugal_sentence_360

Portuguese people have a preponderancy of genetics (Iron Age Period) which belong to R1b haplogroup family along with Brythonic, Alpine and Goidelic genetical markers. Portugal_sentence_361

Also expectable but not so common are South European (Sardinian, Italian and Balkans), Broadly Northwestern (West Germanic) and to a lesser extent British/Irish (Brythonic/Gaelic) and French (Alpine). Portugal_sentence_362

With a low confidence range there are Scandinavian and East European genetical markers. Portugal_sentence_363

Other sources would point out a small presence of Berber and Jewish that would be also part of a low confidence region. Portugal_sentence_364

Native Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group and they form 95% of the whole population, whose ancestry is very similar to Spaniards and have strong ties with fellow Atlantic Arc countries like Ireland, British Isles, France and Belgium due to maritime trade dated as far back as the Bronze Age. Portugal_sentence_365

These maritime contacts and the prevalence of R1b haplogroup as the main genetical marker of these countries suggest a common ancestry and cultural proximity. Portugal_sentence_366

Other maritime contacts with the Mediterranean especially with Greeks, Phoenicians, Romans and Moors add some particular phenotypes in Southern Portugal and particularly Southern Spain (Tartessos culture) making Portugal and Northwestern Spain a bridge between North Western Europe and the Mediterranean but maintaining the Atlantic character. Portugal_sentence_367

Despite the good economic development in the past three decades the Portuguese were the shortest in Europe since 1890. Portugal_sentence_368

This emerging height gap took place in the 1840s and has increased since. Portugal_sentence_369

One of the driving factors was the modest real wage development, given the late industrialization and economic growth in Portugal compared to the European core. Portugal_sentence_370

Another determinant was the delayed human capital formation. Portugal_sentence_371

The total fertility rate (TFR) as of 2015 was estimated at 1.52 children born/woman, one of the lowest in the world, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 5.02 children born per woman in 1911. Portugal_sentence_372

In 2016, 52.8% of births were to unmarried women. Portugal_sentence_373

Like most Western countries, Portugal has to deal with low fertility levels: the country has experienced a sub-replacement fertility rate since the 1980s. Portugal_sentence_374

Portugal subsequently has the 17th oldest population in the world, with the average age of 43.7 years. Portugal_sentence_375

The structure of Portuguese society is characterized by a significant inequality which in 2016 placed the country in the lowest seventh of the Social Justice Index for the European Union. Portugal_sentence_376

Portugal's parliament in 2018 approved a budget plan for 2019 that includes tax breaks for returning emigrants in a bid to lure back those who left during the financial crisis of 2007–2008. Portugal_sentence_377

The expansionary 2019 budget, backed by a left-wing majority in parliament, also aims to boost the purchasing power of households while cutting the already low deficit even further. Portugal_sentence_378

Returning emigrants will be allowed to declare only half their taxable income for five years if they return, provided they lived abroad for at least three years. Portugal_sentence_379

The "Return Programme" is to run for two years. Portugal_sentence_380

Around 500,000 residents left Portugal between 2010 and 2015 after the Great Recession. Portugal_sentence_381

Although some 350,000 have since returned, Lisbon wants to tempt the rest to come home – in a similar scheme to the Irish one. Portugal_sentence_382

Portugal has approved a credit line for Portuguese emigrants aiming to invest in the country on their return. Portugal_sentence_383

Furthermore, Emigrants returning in 2019 and 2020 will see their taxes halved as part of the stimulus to bring native Portuguese back and revitalize the population and promote continued economic growth – as Portugal struggles with a low birth rate and an ageing population. Portugal_sentence_384

According to projections by the national statistics office, Portugal's population will fall to 7.7 million by 2080 from 10.3 million now and the population will continue to age. Portugal_sentence_385

Urbanization Portugal_section_25

Metropolitan areas Portugal_section_26

Main article: Metropolitan areas of Portugal Portugal_sentence_386

There are two Greater Metropolitan Areas (GAMs): Lisbon and Porto. Portugal_sentence_387

The following is a list of those with mainland Functional Urban Areas (FUA). Portugal_sentence_388

Portugal_table_general_1

 dPortugal_table_caption_1
RankPortugal_header_cell_1_0_0 City namePortugal_header_cell_1_0_1 PopulationPortugal_header_cell_1_0_2
1Portugal_cell_1_1_0 LisbonPortugal_cell_1_1_1 2,818,000Portugal_cell_1_1_2
2Portugal_cell_1_2_0 PortoPortugal_cell_1_2_1 1,758,531Portugal_cell_1_2_2
3Portugal_cell_1_3_0 CoimbraPortugal_cell_1_3_1 270,000Portugal_cell_1_3_2
4Portugal_cell_1_4_0 BragaPortugal_cell_1_4_1 250,000Portugal_cell_1_4_2
5Portugal_cell_1_5_0 FunchalPortugal_cell_1_5_1 210,000Portugal_cell_1_5_2
6Portugal_cell_1_6_0 GuimarãesPortugal_cell_1_6_1 180,000Portugal_cell_1_6_2
7Portugal_cell_1_7_0 AveiroPortugal_cell_1_7_1 140,000Portugal_cell_1_7_2
8Portugal_cell_1_8_0 Ponta DelgadaPortugal_cell_1_8_1 120,000Portugal_cell_1_8_2
9Portugal_cell_1_9_0 Vila Franca de XiraPortugal_cell_1_9_1 120,000Portugal_cell_1_9_2
10Portugal_cell_1_10_0 FaroPortugal_cell_1_10_1 118,000Portugal_cell_1_10_2
11Portugal_cell_1_11_0 ViseuPortugal_cell_1_11_1 110,000Portugal_cell_1_11_2

Regions by HDI Portugal_section_27

This is a list of NUTS2 statistical regions of Portugal by Human Development Index as of 2017. Portugal_sentence_389

Immigration Portugal_section_28

Main article: Immigration to Portugal Portugal_sentence_390

In 2007, Portugal had 10,617,575 inhabitants of whom about 332,137 were legal immigrants. Portugal_sentence_391

In 2015, Portugal had 10,341,330 inhabitants of whom about 383,759 were legal migrants, making up 3.7% of the population. Portugal_sentence_392

In 2017, Portugal had 416,682 legal residents of foreign origin, of which 203,753 identified as male, and 212,929 as female. Portugal_sentence_393

In 2019, 21,099 residents of foreign origin acquired the Portuguese nationality, of which 11.179 were female and 9.920 were male. Portugal_sentence_394

Portugal's colonial history has long since been a cornerstone of its national identity, as has its geographic position at the south-western corner of Europe, looking out into the Atlantic Ocean. Portugal_sentence_395

It was one of the last western colonial European powers to give up its overseas territories (among them Angola and Mozambique in 1975), turning over the administration of Macau to the People's Republic of China at the end of 1999. Portugal_sentence_396

Consequently, it has both influenced and been influenced by cultures from former colonies or dependencies, resulting in immigration from these former territories for both economic and personal reasons. Portugal_sentence_397

Portugal, long a country of emigration (the vast majority of Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry), has now become a country of net immigration, and not just from the last Indian (Portuguese until 1961), African (Portuguese until 1975), and Far East Asian (Portuguese until 1999) overseas territories. Portugal_sentence_398

An estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country's African possessions gained independence in 1975. Portugal_sentence_399

Since the 1990s, along with a boom in construction, several new waves of Ukrainian, Brazilian, Lusophone Africans and other Africans have settled in the country. Portugal_sentence_400

Romanians, Moldovans, Kosovo Albanians, Russians and Chinese have also migrated to the country. Portugal_sentence_401

Portugal's Romani population is estimated to be at about 40,000. Portugal_sentence_402

Numbers of Venezuelan, Pakistani and Indian migrants are also significant. Portugal_sentence_403

It is estimated that over 30,000 seasonal, often illegal immigrants work in agriculture, mainly in the south where they are often exploited by organised seasonal-worker’s networks. Portugal_sentence_404

The workers sometimes get paid less than half the minimum pay established by law. Portugal_sentence_405

These migrants who often arrive without due documentation or work-contracts, make make over 90% of agricultural workers in the south of Portugal. Portugal_sentence_406

Most are Indo-Asians, from India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Thailand. Portugal_sentence_407

In the interior of the Alentejo there are many African workers. Portugal_sentence_408

Significant numbers also come from Eastern Europe, Moldova, Ukraine, Romania and Brazil. Portugal_sentence_409

In addition, a number of EU citizens, mostly from the United Kingdom or other northern European countries, have become permanent residents in the country (with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners who live in the Algarve and Madeira). Portugal_sentence_410

Religion Portugal_section_29

Main article: Religion in Portugal Portugal_sentence_411

According to the 2011 Census, 81.0% of the Portuguese population was Roman Catholic Christian. Portugal_sentence_412

The country has small Protestant, Latter-day Saint, Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, Eastern Orthodox Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Baháʼí, Buddhist, Jewish and Spiritist communities. Portugal_sentence_413

Influences from African Traditional Religion and Chinese Traditional Religion are also felt among many people, particularly in fields related with Traditional Chinese Medicine and Traditional African Herbal Medicine. Portugal_sentence_414

Some 6.8% of the population declared themselves to be non-religious, and 8.3% did not give any answer about their religion. Portugal_sentence_415

Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Portugal_sentence_416

Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated. Portugal_sentence_417

In the 13th and 14th centuries, the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest, its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including its first university. Portugal_sentence_418

The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization, with important roles in the education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited continents. Portugal_sentence_419

The growth of liberal and nascent republican movements during the eras leading to the formation of the First Portuguese Republic (1910–26) changed the role and importance of organized religion. Portugal_sentence_420

Portugal is a secular state: church and state were formally separated during the First Portuguese Republic, and this was reiterated in the 1976 Portuguese Constitution. Portugal_sentence_421

Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal are the 1940 Concordata (later amended in 1971) between Portugal and the Holy See and the 2001 Religious Freedom Act. Portugal_sentence_422

Languages Portugal_section_30

Main articles: Languages of Portugal and Portuguese language Portugal_sentence_423

Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. Portugal_sentence_424

It is a Romance language that is derived from Galician-Portuguese, which was spoken in what is now Galicia and Northern Portugal. Portugal_sentence_425

There are still many similarities between the Galician and Portuguese cultures. Portugal_sentence_426

Galicia is a consultative observer of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. Portugal_sentence_427

The Portuguese language is derived from the Latin spoken by the romanized pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around 2000 years ago – particularly the Celts, Conii, Lusitanians and Turduli. Portugal_sentence_428

In the 15th and 16th centuries, the language spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire between 1415 and 1999. Portugal_sentence_429

Portuguese is spoken as a native language in five different continents, with Brazil accounting for the largest number of native Portuguese speakers of any country. Portugal_sentence_430

In 2013 the Portuguese language is the official language spoken in Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, and East Timor. Portugal_sentence_431

These countries, plus Macau Special Administrative Region (People's Republic of China) where Portuguese is co-official with Cantonese, make up the Lusosphere, a term derived from the ancient Roman province of "Lusitania", which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the Douro river. Portugal_sentence_432

Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of North-Eastern Portugal. Portugal_sentence_433

It is part of the Astur-Leonese group of languages. Portugal_sentence_434

An estimate of between 6,000 and 7,000 Mirandese speakers has been documented for Portugal. Portugal_sentence_435

According to the International English Proficiency Index, Portugal has a high proficiency level in English, higher than those of other Romance-speaking European countries like Italy, France or Spain. Portugal_sentence_436

Education Portugal_section_31

Main article: Education in Portugal Portugal_sentence_437

The educational system is divided into preschool (for those under age 6), basic education (9 years, in three stages, compulsory), secondary education (3 years, compulsory since 2010), and higher education (subdivided in university and polytechnic education). Portugal_sentence_438

Universities are usually organized into faculties. Portugal_sentence_439

Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions. Portugal_sentence_440

The total adult literacy rate is 99.4 per cent. Portugal_sentence_441

Portuguese primary school enrolments are 100 per cent. Portugal_sentence_442

According to the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, the average Portuguese 15-year-old student, when rated in terms of reading literacy, mathematics and science knowledge, is placed significantly above the OECD's average, at a similar level as those students from Norway, Denmark and Belgium, with 501 points (493 is the average). Portugal_sentence_443

The PISA results of the Portuguese students have been continuously improving, overcoming a number of other highly developed western countries like the US, Austria, France and Sweden. Portugal_sentence_444

About 46,9% of college-age citizens (20 years old) attend one of Portugal's higher education institutions (compared with 50% in the United States and 35% in the OECD countries). Portugal_sentence_445

In addition to being a destination for international students, Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students. Portugal_sentence_446

All higher education students, both domestic and international, totalled 380,937 in 2005. Portugal_sentence_447

Portuguese universities have existed since 1290. Portugal_sentence_448

The oldest Portuguese university was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra. Portugal_sentence_449

Historically, within the scope of the Portuguese Empire, the Portuguese founded the oldest engineering school of the Americas (the Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho of Rio de Janeiro) in 1792, as well as the oldest medical college in Asia (the Escola Médico-Cirúrgica of Goa) in 1842. Portugal_sentence_450

Presently, the largest university in Portugal is the University of Lisbon. Portugal_sentence_451

The Bologna process has been adopted by Portuguese universities and poly-technical institutes in 2006. Portugal_sentence_452

Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of numerus clausus is enforced through a national database on student admissions. Portugal_sentence_453

However, every higher education institution offers also a number of additional vacant places through other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen, mature applicants (over 23 years old), international students, foreign students from the Lusosphere, degree owners from other institutions, students from other institutions (academic transfer), former students (readmission), and course change, which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each institution or course department. Portugal_sentence_454

Most student costs are supported with public money. Portugal_sentence_455

However, with the increasing tuition fees a student has to pay to attend a Portuguese state-run higher education institution and the attraction of new types of students (many as part-time students or in evening classes) like employees, businessmen, parents, and pensioners, many departments make a substantial profit from every additional student enrolled in courses, with benefits for the college or university's gross tuition revenue and without loss of educational quality (teacher per student, computer per student, classroom size per student, etc.). Portugal_sentence_456

Portugal has entered into cooperation agreements with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other US institutions to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research. Portugal_sentence_457

Health Portugal_section_32

Main article: Health in Portugal Portugal_sentence_458

According to the Human Development Report, the average life expectancy in Portugal had reached 82 years in 2017, in 2020 it is estimated at 82.11 years. Portugal_sentence_459

As projected by the United Nations, the life expectancy of the Portuguese population will be over 90 years when we reach 2100. Portugal_sentence_460

The trajectory of the Portuguese life expectancy is visualized with historical data from 1950 and future projections up to 2100, as can be seen in the graph on the left. Portugal_sentence_461

Portugal ranks 12th in the best public health systems in the world, ahead of other countries like the United Kingdom, Germany or Sweden. Portugal_sentence_462

The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems: the National Health Service (Serviço Nacional de Saúde, SNS), special social health insurance schemes for certain professions (health subsystems) and voluntary private health insurance. Portugal_sentence_463

The SNS provides universal coverage. Portugal_sentence_464

In addition, about 25% of the population is covered by the health subsystems, 10% by private insurance schemes and another 7% by mutual funds. Portugal_sentence_465

The Ministry of Health is responsible for developing health policy as well as managing the SNS. Portugal_sentence_466

Five regional health administrations are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives, developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care delivery. Portugal_sentence_467

Decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial and management responsibility to the regional level. Portugal_sentence_468

In practice, however, the autonomy of regional health administrations over budget setting and spending has been limited to primary care. Portugal_sentence_469

The SNS is predominantly funded through general taxation. Portugal_sentence_470

Employer (including the state) and employee contributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems. Portugal_sentence_471

In addition, direct payments by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding. Portugal_sentence_472

Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die from noncommunicable diseases. Portugal_sentence_473

Mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is higher than in the eurozone, but its two main components, ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, display inverse trends compared with the Eur-A, with cerebrovascular disease being the single biggest killer in Portugal (17%). Portugal_sentence_474

Portuguese people die 12% less often from cancer than in the Eur-A, but mortality is not declining as rapidly as in the Eur-A. Portugal_sentence_475

Cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger than 44 years. Portugal_sentence_476

Although lung cancer (slowly increasing among women) and breast cancer (decreasing rapidly) are scarcer, cervical cancer and prostate cancer are more frequent. Portugal_sentence_477

Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the 1980s. Portugal_sentence_478

Portugal's infant mortality rate is around 2 deaths per 1000 newborns, with 2.4 deaths per 1000 live births. Portugal_sentence_479

People are usually well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of their behaviour on their health, and their use of health care services. Portugal_sentence_480

Yet their perceptions of their health, can differ from what administrative and examination-based data show about levels of illness within populations. Portugal_sentence_481

Thus, survey results based on self-reporting at household level, complement other data on health status and the use of services. Portugal_sentence_482

Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal (Kasmel et al., 2004). Portugal_sentence_483

This is the lowest of the Eur-A countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity. Portugal_sentence_484

Hospital de Santa Maria is the largest university hospital in Portugal. Portugal_sentence_485

Culture Portugal_section_33

Main article: Culture of Portugal Portugal_sentence_486

Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role during the Age of Discovery. Portugal_sentence_487

In the 1990s and 2000s (decade), Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities, in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in 1956 in Lisbon. Portugal_sentence_488

These include the Belém Cultural Centre in Lisbon, Serralves Foundation and the Casa da Música, both in Porto, as well as new public cultural facilities like municipal libraries and concert halls that were built or renovated in many municipalities across the country. Portugal_sentence_489

Portugal is home to 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, ranking it 9th in Europe and 18th in the world. Portugal_sentence_490

Architecture Portugal_section_34

Main articles: Architecture of Portugal and Classification of Built Heritage in Portugal Portugal_sentence_491

Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the Manueline, also known as Portuguese late Gothic a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, followed by Pombaline style of the 18th century. Portugal_sentence_492

A 20th-century interpretation of traditional architecture, Soft Portuguese style, appears extensively in major cities, especially Lisbon. Portugal_sentence_493

Modern Portugal has given the world renowned architects like Eduardo Souto de Moura, Álvaro Siza Vieira (both Pritzker Prize winners) and Gonçalo Byrne. Portugal_sentence_494

In Portugal Tomás Taveira is also noteworthy, particularly for stadium design. Portugal_sentence_495

Cinema Portugal_section_35

Main article: Cinema of Portugal Portugal_sentence_496

Portuguese cinema has a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century. Portugal_sentence_497

António Lopes Ribeiro, António Reis, Pedro Costa, Manoel de Oliveira, João César Monteiro, Edgar Pêra, António-Pedro Vasconcelos, Fernando Lopes, João Botelho and Leonel Vieira, are among those that gained notability. Portugal_sentence_498

Noted Portuguese film actors include Joaquim de Almeida, Nuno Lopes, Daniela Ruah, Maria de Medeiros, Diogo Infante, Soraia Chaves, Ribeirinho, Lúcia Moniz, and Diogo Morgado. Portugal_sentence_499

Literature Portugal_section_36

Main article: Portuguese literature Portugal_sentence_500

Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text as well as song. Portugal_sentence_501

Until 1350, the Portuguese-Galician troubadours spread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal_sentence_502

Gil Vicente (c. 1465–c. Portugal_sentence_503

1536) was one of the founders of Portuguese dramatic traditions. Portugal_sentence_504

Adventurer and poet Luís de Camões (c. 1524–1580) wrote the epic poem Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads), with Virgil's Aeneid as his main influence. Portugal_sentence_505

Modern Portuguese poetry is rooted in neoclassic and contemporary styles, as exemplified by Bocage (1765–1805), Antero de Quental (1842–1891) and Fernando Pessoa (1888–1935). Portugal_sentence_506

Modern Portuguese literature is represented by authors such as Almeida Garrett, Camilo Castelo Branco, Eça de Queirós, Fernando Pessoa, Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen, António Lobo Antunes and Miguel Torga. Portugal_sentence_507

Particularly popular and distinguished is José Saramago, recipient of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Literature. Portugal_sentence_508

Cuisine Portugal_section_37

Main articles: Portuguese cuisine and Portuguese wine Portugal_sentence_509

Portuguese cuisine is very diverse. Portugal_sentence_510

The Portuguese consume a lot of dry cod (bacalhau in Portuguese), for which there are hundreds of recipes. Portugal_sentence_511

There are more than enough bacalhau dishes; over one for each day of the year. Portugal_sentence_512

Two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardines and caldeirada, a tomato-based stew that can be made from several types of fish with a mix of onion, garlic, peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, parsley or coriander. Portugal_sentence_513

Typical Portuguese meat recipes made out of beef, pork, lamb, goat or chicken include cozido à portuguesa, feijoada, frango de churrasco, leitão (roast suckling pig), chanfana and carne de porco à alentejana. Portugal_sentence_514

A very popular northern dish is dobrada, a tripe with white beans and carrots stew, often served with steamed white rice. Portugal_sentence_515

Peri-peri chicken is a spicy charcoal chicken dish served with rice and vegetables, a favourite throughout Portugal, but most common in the Algarve region. Portugal_sentence_516

Typical fast food dishes include the Francesinha (Frenchie) from Porto, "Tripas à moda do Porto" which is also a traditional plate from Porto, and bifanas (grilled pork) or prego (grilled beef) sandwiches, which are well known around the country. Portugal_sentence_517

The Portuguese art of pastry has its origins in the many medieval Catholic monasteries spread widely across the country. Portugal_sentence_518

These monasteries, using very few ingredients (mostly almonds, vanilla, cinnamon, flour, eggs and some liquor), managed to create a spectacular wide range of different pastries, of which pastéis de Belém (or pastéis de nata) originally from Lisbon, and ovos moles from Aveiro are examples. Portugal_sentence_519

Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes. Portugal_sentence_520

The Portuguese have a culture of good food, and throughout the country there are myriads of good restaurants and typical small tasquinhas. Portugal_sentence_521

Portuguese wines have enjoyed international recognition since the times of the Romans, who associated Portugal with their god Bacchus. Portugal_sentence_522

Today, the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes. Portugal_sentence_523

Some of the best Portuguese wines are Vinho Verde, Vinho Alvarinho, Vinho do Douro, Vinho do Alentejo, Vinho do Dão, Vinho da Bairrada and the sweet Port Wine, Madeira Wine, and the Moscatel from Setúbal and Favaios. Portugal_sentence_524

Port and Madeira are particularly appreciated in a wide range of places around the world. Portugal_sentence_525

Music Portugal_section_38

Main article: Music of Portugal Portugal_sentence_526

Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres. Portugal_sentence_527

The traditional one is the Portuguese folk music which has deep roots in local customs having as instruments bagpipes (gaita), drums, flutes, tambourines, accordions and ukuleles (cavaquinho). Portugal_sentence_528

Within Portuguese folk music is the renowned genre of Fado, a melancholic urban music originated in Lisbon in the 19th century, probably inside bohemian environments, usually associated with the Portuguese guitar and saudade, or longing. Portugal_sentence_529

Coimbra fado, a unique type of "troubadour serenading" fado, is also noteworthy. Portugal_sentence_530

Internationally notable performers include Amália Rodrigues, Carlos Paredes, José Afonso, Mariza, Carlos do Carmo, António Chainho, Mísia, Dulce Pontes and Madredeus. Portugal_sentence_531

In the classical music domain, Portugal is represented by names as the pianists Artur Pizarro, Maria João Pires, Sequeira Costa, the violinists Carlos Damas, Gerardo Ribeiro and in the past by the great cellist Guilhermina Suggia. Portugal_sentence_532

Notable composers include José Vianna da Motta, Carlos Seixas, João Domingos Bomtempo, João de Sousa Carvalho, Luís de Freitas Branco and his student Joly Braga Santos, Fernando Lopes-Graça, Emmanuel Nunes and Sérgio Azevedo. Portugal_sentence_533

Similarly, contemporary composers such as Nuno Malo and Miguel d'Oliveira have achieved some international success writing. Portugal_sentence_534

In addition to Folk, Fado and Classical music, other genres are present at Portugal like pop and other types of modern music, particularly from North America and the United Kingdom, as well as a wide range of Portuguese, Caribbean, Lusophone African and Brazilian artists and bands. Portugal_sentence_535

Artists with international recognition include Dulce Pontes, Moonspell, Buraka Som Sistema, Blasted Mechanism, David Carreira and The Gift, with the three latter being nominees for a MTV Europe Music Award. Portugal_sentence_536

Portugal has several summer music festivals, such as Festival Sudoeste in Zambujeira do Mar, Festival de Paredes de Coura in Paredes de Coura, Festival Vilar de Mouros near Caminha, Boom Festival in Idanha-a-Nova Municipality, NOS Alive, Sumol Summer Fest in Ericeira, Rock in Rio Lisboa and Super Bock Super Rock in Greater Lisbon. Portugal_sentence_537

Out of the summer season, Portugal has a large number of festivals, designed more to an urban audience, like Flowfest or Hip Hop Porto. Portugal_sentence_538

Furthermore, one of the largest international Goa trance festivals takes place in central Portugal every two years, the Boom Festival, that is also the only festival in Portugal to win international awards: European Festival Award 2010 – Green'n'Clean Festival of the Year and the Greener Festival Award Outstanding 2008 and 2010. Portugal_sentence_539

There is also the student festivals of Queima das Fitas are major events in a number of cities across Portugal. Portugal_sentence_540

In 2005, Portugal held the MTV Europe Music Awards, in Pavilhão Atlântico, Lisbon. Portugal_sentence_541

Furthermore, Portugal won the Eurovision Song Contest 2017 in Kyiv with the song "Amar pelos dois" presented by Salvador Sobral, and subsequently hosted the 2018 contest at the Altice Arena in Lisbon. Portugal_sentence_542

Visual arts Portugal_section_39

Main article: Portuguese art Portugal_sentence_543

Portugal has a rich history in painting. Portugal_sentence_544

The first well-known painters date back to the 15th century – like Nuno Gonçalves and Vasco Fernandes – were part of the late Gothic painting period. Portugal_sentence_545

During the renaissance Portuguese painting was highly influenced by north European painting. Portugal_sentence_546

In the Baroque period Josefa de Óbidos and Vieira Lusitano were the most prolific painters. Portugal_sentence_547

José Malhoa, known for his work Fado, and Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (who painted the portraits of Teófilo Braga and Antero de Quental) were both references in naturalist painting. Portugal_sentence_548

The 20th century saw the arrival of Modernism, and along with it came the most prominent Portuguese painters: Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, who was heavily influenced by French painters, particularly the Delaunays (Robert and Sonia). Portugal_sentence_549

Among his best-known works is Canção Popular a Russa e o Fígaro. Portugal_sentence_550

Another great modernist painters/writers were Carlos Botelho and Almada Negreiros, friend to the poet Fernando Pessoa, who painted Pessoa's portrait. Portugal_sentence_551

He was deeply influenced by both Cubist and Futurist trends. Portugal_sentence_552

Prominent international figures in visual arts nowadays include painters Vieira da Silva, Júlio Pomar, Helena Almeida, Joana Vasconcelos, Julião Sarmento and Paula Rego. Portugal_sentence_553

Sport Portugal_section_40

Main article: Sport in Portugal Portugal_sentence_554

Football is the most popular sport in Portugal. Portugal_sentence_555

There are several football competitions ranging from local amateur to world-class professional level. Portugal_sentence_556

The legendary Eusébio is still a major symbol of Portuguese football history. Portugal_sentence_557

FIFA World Player of the Year winners Luís Figo and Cristiano Ronaldo, who won the FIFA Ballon d'Or, are two world-class Portuguese football players. Portugal_sentence_558

Portuguese football managers are also noteworthy, with José Mourinho being among the most renowned. Portugal_sentence_559

The Portugal national football team – Seleção Nacional – have won one UEFA European Championship title: the UEFA Euro 2016, with a 1–0 victory in the final over France, the tournament hosts. Portugal_sentence_560

In addition, Portugal finished first in the 2018–19 UEFA Nations League with a 1–0 win over the Netherlands in the final (held in Portugal), second in the Euro 2004 (also held in Portugal), third in the 1966 FIFA World Cup and 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup, and fourth in the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Portugal_sentence_561

At youth level, Portugal have won two FIFA World Youth Championships (in 1989 and 1991) and several UEFA European Youth Championships. Portugal_sentence_562

S.L. Portugal_sentence_563 Benfica, Sporting CP and FC Porto are the largest sports clubs by popularity and by number of trophies won, often known as "os três grandes" ("the big three"). Portugal_sentence_564

They have won eight titles in the European UEFA club competitions, were present in 21 finals and have been regular contenders in the last stages almost every season. Portugal_sentence_565

Other than football, many Portuguese sports clubs, including the "big three", compete in several other sports events with a varying level of success and popularity, these may include roller hockey, basketball, futsal, handball, and volleyball. Portugal_sentence_566

The Portuguese Football Federation (FPF)  – Federação Portuguesa de Futebol – annually hosts the Algarve Cup, a prestigious women's football tournament that has been celebrated in the Algarvian part of Portugal. Portugal_sentence_567

The Portuguese national rugby union team qualified for the 2007 Rugby World Cup and the Portuguese national rugby sevens team has played in the World Rugby Sevens Series. Portugal_sentence_568

In athletics, the Portuguese have won a number of gold, silver and bronze medals in the European, World and Olympic Games competitions. Portugal_sentence_569

Cycling, with Volta a Portugal being the most important race, is also a popular sports event and includes professional cycling teams such as Sporting CP, Boavista, Clube de Ciclismo de Tavira and União Ciclista da Maia. Portugal_sentence_570

At international level, Portuguese cyclists have already achieved good results. Portugal_sentence_571

Joaquim Agostinho finished on the podium in 1978 and 1979 Tour de France, and 1974 Vuelta a España. Portugal_sentence_572

Rui Costa has won the world title in the men's road race. Portugal_sentence_573

The country has also achieved notable performances in sports like fencing, judo, kitesurf, rowing, sailing, surfing, shooting, taekwondo, triathlon and windsurf, owning several European and world titles. Portugal_sentence_574

The paralympic athletes have also conquered many medals in sports like swimming, boccia, athletics, mixed martial arts and wrestling. Portugal_sentence_575

In motorsport, Portugal is internationally noted for the Rally of Portugal, and the Estoril, Algarve Circuits and the revived Porto Street Circuit which holds a stage of the WTCC every two years, as well as for a number of internationally noted pilots in varied motorsports. Portugal_sentence_576

In equestrian sports, Portugal won the only Horseball-Pato World Championship in 2006 achieved the third position in the First Horseball World Cup and has achieved several victories in the European Working Equitation Championship. Portugal_sentence_577

In water sports, Portugal has three major sports: swimming, water polo and surfing. Portugal_sentence_578

Most recently, Portugal had success in canoeing with several world and European champions, such as olympic medalists. Portugal_sentence_579

Annually, the country also hosts one of the stages of the World Surf League men's and women's Championship Tour, the MEO Rip Curl Pro Portugal at the Supertubos in Peniche. Portugal_sentence_580

Northern Portugal has its own original martial art, Jogo do Pau, in which the fighters use staffs to confront one or several opponents. Portugal_sentence_581

Other popular sport-related recreational outdoor activities with thousands of enthusiasts nationwide include airsoft, fishing, golf, hiking, hunting and orienteering. Portugal_sentence_582

Portugal is one of the world's best golf destinations. Portugal_sentence_583

It has received several awards by the World Golf Awards. Portugal_sentence_584

See also Portugal_section_41

Portugal_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portugal.