This article is about the country.
For other uses, see Portugal (disambiguation).
República Portuguesa (Portuguese)
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2018)|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|President||Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa|
|President of the Assembly||Eduardo Ferro Rodrigues|
|Prime Minister||António Costa|
|Legislature||Assembly of the Republic|
|Sovereignty||24 June 1128|
|Kingdom||25 July 1139|
|Restoration||1 December 1640|
|First Constitution||23 September 1822|
|Republic||5 October 1910|
|Democratization||25 April 1974|
|Present constitution||25 April 1976|
|EEC accession||1 January 1986|
|Total||92,226 km (35,609 sq mi) (109th)|
|Water (%)||1.2 (as of 2015)|
|2019 estimate||10,295,909 (90th)|
|Density||114.5/km (296.6/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
very high · 40th
|Currency||Euro (€) (EUR)|
|Time zone||UTC (WET)
|Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (WEST)
|Note: Mainland Portugal and Madeira use WET/WEST, the Azores are 1 hour behind.|
|Date format||dd/mm/yyyy (CE)|
|ISO 3166 code||PT|
The official and national language is Portuguese.
It was inhabited by pre-Celtic and Celtic peoples, visited by Phoenicians-Carthaginians, Ancient Greeks and ruled by the Romans, who were followed by the invasions of the Suebi and Visigothic Germanic peoples.
Portugal as a country was established during the early Christian Reconquista.
During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castile, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia.
Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories.
A member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Schengen Area and the Council of Europe (CoE), Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
The name of the city is from the Latin word for port or harbour, portus, but the second element of Portus Cale is less clear.
The mainstream explanation for the name is that it is an ethnonym derived from the Castro people, also known as the Callaeci, Gallaeci or Gallaecia, who occupied the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula.
These explanations, would require the pre-Roman language of the area to have been a branch of Q-Celtic, which is not generally accepted because the region's pre-Roman language was Gallaecian Celtic, usually considered P-Celtic.
However, scholars like Jean Markale and Tranoy propose that the Celtic branches all share the same origin, and placenames such as Cale, Gal, Gaia, Calais, Galatia, Galicia, Gaelic, Gael, Gaul, Wales, Cornwall, Wallonia and others all stem from one linguistic root.
Some French scholars believe the name may have come from 'Portus Gallus', the port of the Gauls or Celts.
By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugale, Portugallia, Portvgallo or Portvgalliae was already referred to as Portugal.
Middle English variant spellings included Portingall, Portingale, Portyngale and Portingaill.
The spelling Portyngale is found in Chaucer's Epilogue to the Nun's Priest's Tale.
Main article: Geography of Portugal
The territory of Portugal includes an area on the Iberian Peninsula (referred to as the continent by most Portuguese) and two archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean: the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores.
The northern landscape is mountainous towards the interior with several plateaus indented by river valleys, whereas the south, including the Algarve and the Alentejo regions, is characterized by rolling plains.
This ancient volcano, which measures 2,351 m (7,713 ft) is an iconic symbol of the Azores, while the Serra da Estrela on the mainland (the summit being 1,991 m (6,532 ft) above sea level) is an important seasonal attraction for skiers and winter sports enthusiasts.
The archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores are scattered within the Atlantic Ocean: the Azores straddling the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on a tectonic triple junction, and Madeira along a range formed by in-plate hotspot geology.
Geologically, these islands were formed by volcanic and seismic events.
The last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in 1957–58 (Capelinhos) and minor earthquakes occur sporadically, usually of low intensity.
Portugal's exclusive economic zone, a sea zone over which the Portuguese have special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources, has 1,727,408 km.
This is the 3rd largest exclusive economic zone of the European Union and the 20th largest in the world.
Main article: Climate of Portugal
Portugal is defined as a Mediterranean climate (Csa in the South, interior, and Douro region; Csb in the North, Central coastal Portugal and a small portion of western Algarve), but has other climatic characteristics such as a Temperate Maritime climate (Cfb) in the mountains located in Northwestern sector (mainland) and also in some high altitude zones of Azorean islands, a Semi-arid climate in certain parts of Beja district far South (BSk) and in Porto Santo Island (BSh), a Warm Desertic climate (BWh) in the Selvagens Islands and a Humid subtropical climate in the western Azores (Cfa), according to the Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification.
It is one of the warmest European countries: the annual average temperature in mainland Portugal varies from 10–12 °C (50.0–53.6 °F) in the mountainous interior north to 16–18 °C (60.8–64.4 °F) in the south and on the Guadiana river basin.
There are however, variations from the highlands to the lowlands: Spanish biologist Salvador Rivas Martinez presents several different bioclimatic zones for Portugal.
The Algarve, separated from the Alentejo region by mountains reaching up to 900 metres (3,000 ft) in Alto da Fóia, has a climate similar to that of the southern coastal areas of Spain or Southwest Australia.
In some areas, such as the Guadiana basin, annual diurnal average temperatures can be as high as 26 °C (79 °F), and summer's highest temperatures are routinely over 40 °C (104 °F).
The record high of 47.4 °C (117.3 °F) was recorded in Amareleja, although this might not be the hottest spot in summer, according to satellite readings.
In these places snow can fall any time from October to May.
In the South of the country snowfalls are rare but still occur in the highest elevations.
While the official absolute minimum by IPMA is −16.0 °C (3.2 °F) in Penhas da Saúde and Miranda do Douro, lower temperatures have been recorded, such as −17.5 °C (0.5 °F) by Bragança Polytechnic Institute in the outskirts of the city in 1983, and below −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F) in Serra da Estrela.
Portugal has around 2300 to 3200 hours of sunshine a year, an average of 4–6 h in winter and 10–12 h in the summer, with higher values in the south-east and lower in the north-west.
Portugal's west and southwest coasts have an extreme ocean seasonal lag, sea temperatures are warmer in October than in July and are their coldest in March.
The average sea surface temperature on the west coast of mainland Portugal varies from 14–16 °C (57.2–60.8 °F) in January−March to 19–21 °C (66.2–69.8 °F) in August−October while on the south coast it ranges from 16 °C (60.8 °F) in January−March and rises in the summer to about 22–23 °C (71.6–73.4 °F), occasionally reaching 26 °C (78.8 °F).
In the Azores, around 16 °C (60.8 °F) in February−April to 22–24 °C (71.6–75.2 °F) in July−September, and in Madeira, around 18 °C (64.4 °F) in February−April to 23–24 °C (73.4–75.2 °F) in August−October.
Both the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira have a subtropical climate, although variations between islands exist, making weather predictions very difficult (owing to rough topography).
The Madeira and Azorean archipelagos have a narrower temperature range, with annual average temperatures exceeding 20 °C (68 °F) in some parts of the coast (according to the Portuguese Meteorological Institute).
Some islands in Azores do have drier months in the summer.
Consequently, the islands of the Azores have been identified as having a Mediterranean Climate (both Csa and Csb types), while some islands (such as Flores or Corvo) are classified as Humid subtropical (Cfa), transitioning into an Oceanic climate (Cfb) at higher altitudes, according to Köppen-Geiger classification.
Porto Santo Island in Madeira has a warm semi-arid climate (BSh).
The Savage Islands, which are part of the regional territory of Madeira and a nature reserve are unique in being classified as a desert climate (BWh) with an annual average rainfall of approximately 150 mm (5.9 in).
The sea surface temperature in these islands varies from 18.5 °C (65.3 °F) in winter to 23–24 °C (73.4–75.2 °F) in the summer occasionally reaching 25 °C (77.0 °F).
Despite the fact that Portugal has been occupied by humans for thousands of years, there is still a lot that's left of its original biome.
In Gerês both mature deciduous and coniferous forests can be found, an extremely rare worldwide mature Mediterranean forest remain in some parts of the Arrábida mountain and a subtropical laurissilva forest, dating back to the Tertiary period, covers its largest continuous area in the world in the Madeira main island.
Due to the human population decrease and rural exodus, Pyrenean oak and other local native trees are colonizing many abandoned areas.
Boar, Iberian red deer, roe deer, and the Iberian wild goat, are reported to have expanded greatly during recent decades.
Boars were found recently roaming at night inside large urban areas, like in Setubal.
Protected areas of Portugal include one national park, 12 natural parks, nine natural reserves, five natural monuments, and seven protected landscapes, which include the Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês, the Parque Natural da Serra da Estrela and the Paul d'Arzila.
These natural environments are shaped by diverse flora, and include widespread species of pine (especially the Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea species), the English oak (Quercus robur), the Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica) the chestnut (Castanea sativa), the cork-oak (Quercus suber), the holm oak (Quercus ilex) or the Portuguese oak (Quercus faginea).
Due to their economic value, some species of the genus Eucalyptus were introduced and are now common, despite their environmental impact.
Laurisilva is a unique type of subtropical rainforest, which nowadays, in Europe, is only restricted to the Iberian Peninsula: in the Azores, and in particular on the island of Madeira, there are large forests of endemic Laurisilva (the latter protected as a natural heritage preserve).
There are several species of diverse mammalian fauna, including the fox, badger, iberian lynx, iberian wolf, wild goat (Capra pyrenaica), wild cat (Felis silvestris), hare, weasel, polecat, chameleon, mongoose, civet, the occasional brown bear and many others.
Portugal is an important stopover for migratory birds, in places such as Cape St. Vincent or the Monchique mountains, where thousands of birds cross from Europe to Africa during the autumn or in the spring (return migration).
Most of the avian species congregate along the Iberian Peninsula since it is the closest stopover between Northern Europe and Africa.
Six hundred bird species occur in Portugal (either for nesting or during the course of migration), and annually there are new registries of nesting species.
The archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are transient stopover for American, European, and African birds, while continental Portugal mostly encounters European and African bird species.
There are more than 100 freshwater fish species, varying from the giant European catfish (in the Tagus International Natural Park) to some small and endemic species that live only in small lakes (along the western portion of country, for example).
Some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss, pollution and drought.
Up-welling along the west coast of Portugal makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and diverse species of marine fish; the Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in the world.
Bioluminescent species are also well represented (including species in different colour spectrum and forms), like the glowing plankton that are possible to observe on some beaches.
The Macaronesian islands (Azores and Madeira) have many endemic species (like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs) that evolved independently from other regions of Portugal.
In Madeira, for example, it is possible to observe more than 250 species of land gastropods.
Government and politics
The Constitution grants the division or separation of powers among four bodies referred as "organs of Sovereignty": the President of the Republic, the Government, the Assembly of the Republic and the Courts.
The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has an executive role: the current President is Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa.
The Assembly of the Republic is a single chamber parliament composed of a maximum of 230 deputies elected for a four-year term.
The Courts are organized into several levels, among the judicial, administrative and fiscal branches.
The Supreme Courts are institutions of last resort/appeal.
A thirteen-member Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws.
Portugal operates a multi-party system of competitive legislatures/local administrative governments at the national, regional and local levels.
The Assembly of the Republic, Regional Assemblies and local municipalities and parishes, are dominated by two political parties, the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party, in addition to the Unitary Democratic Coalition (Portuguese Communist Party and Ecologist Party "The Greens"), the Left Bloc and the Democratic and Social Centre – People's Party, which garner between 5 and 15% of the vote regularly.
Presidency of the Republic
He or she has also supervision and reserve powers.
Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government (where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections); dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic (to call early elections); vetoing legislation (which may be overridden by the Assembly); and declaring a state of war or siege.
The President is also the ex officio Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State, which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the 1976 Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president.
The Government is headed by the presidentially appointed Prime Minister, also including one or more Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers, Secretaries of State and Under-Secretaries of State.
The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration.
It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited legislative powers.
The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly.
The Council of Ministers – under the presidency of the Prime Minister (or the President of Portugal at the latter's request) and the Ministers (may also include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers) – acts as the cabinet.
Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate.
The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office.
It is the main legislative body, although the Government also has limited legislative powers.
The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to 230 deputies.
Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation, deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections.
Law and drug policy
The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system.
Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code (1888, as amended) and the Civil Procedure Code (1961, as amended).
The Public Ministry, headed by the Attorney General of the Republic, constitutes the independent body of public prosecutors.
Portuguese laws were applied in the former colonies and territories and continue to be major influences for those countries.
Maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years.
Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all common drugs in 2001, the first country in the world to do so.
While possession is legal, trafficking and possession of more than "10 days worth of personal use" are still punishable by jail time and fines.
People caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may refuse treatment without consequences.
Despite criticism from other European nations, who stated Portugal's drug consumption would tremendously increase, overall drug use has declined along with the number of HIV infection cases, which had dropped 50 percent by 2009.
Drug use among 16- to 18-year-olds also declined, however the use of marijuana rose only slightly among that age group.
Main article: LGBT rights in Portugal
LGBTI rights have increased substantially in the past years.
On 27 August 2003, Portugal added the anti-discrimination employment law on the basis of sexual orientation.
At 24 July 2004, sexual orientation was added to the Constitution as part of the protected from discrimination characteristics.
On 31 May 2010, Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriage at the national level.
The law came into force on 5 June 2010.
Same-sex adoption has been allowed since 1 March 2016 as is female same-sex couple access to medically assisted reproduction since 13 May 2016.
This bill was adopted by the Parliament and signed by President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa.
As of January 2017 the New Law of Gender Identity, simplified the legal process of gender and name change for transgender people, making it easier for minors to change their sex marker in legal documents.
At August 2018, the right to gender identity and gender expression self-determination became protected, intersex minors became protected by law from unnecessary medical procedures "until the minor gender identity manifests" and the right of protection from discrimination on the basis of sex characteristics also became protected by the same law.
Main article: Law enforcement in Portugal
Portugal's main police organizations are the Guarda Nacional Republicana – GNR (National Republican Guard), a gendarmerie; the Polícia de Segurança Pública – PSP (Public Security Police), a civilian police force who work in urban areas; and the Polícia Judiciária – PJ (Judicial Police), a highly specialized criminal investigation police that is overseen by the Public Ministry.
Portugal has 49 correctional facilities in total run by the Ministry of Justice.
They include 17 central prisons, 4 special prisons, 27 regional prisons, and 1 'Cadeia de Apoio'(Support Detention Centre).
Their current prison population is about 12,806 inmates, which comes to about 0.12% of their entire population.
Their incarceration rate has been on the rise since 2010, with a 15% increase over the past eight years.
Main article: Administrative divisions of Portugal
Operationally, the municipality and civil parish, along with the national government, are the only legally local administrative units identified by the government of Portugal (for example, cities, towns or villages have no standing in law, although may be used as catchment for the defining services).
For statistical purposes the Portuguese government also identifies Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), inter-municipal communities and informally, the district system, used until European integration (and being phased-out by the national government).
Continental Portugal is agglomerated into 18 districts, while the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are governed as autonomous regions; the largest units, established since 1976, are either mainland Portugal (Portuguese: Portugal Continental) and the autonomous regions of Portugal (Azores and Madeira).
The 18 districts of mainland Portugal are: Aveiro, Beja, Braga, Bragança, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Évora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisbon, Portalegre, Porto, Santarém, Setúbal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real and Viseu – each district takes the name of the district capital.
Within the European Union NUTS system, Portugal is divided into seven regions: the Azores, Alentejo, Algarve, Centro, Lisboa, Madeira and Norte, and with the exception of the Azores and Madeira, NUTS areas are subdivided into 28 subregions.
Main article: Foreign relations of Portugal
A member state of the United Nations since 1955, Portugal is also a founding member of NATO (1949), OECD (1961) and EFTA (1960); it left the last in 1986 to join the European Economic Community, which became the European Union in 1993.
In 1996, Portugal co-founded the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.
António Guterres, who has served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1995 to 2002 and UN High Commissioner for Refugees from 2005 to 2015, assumed the post of UN Secretary-General on 1 January 2017; making him the first Secretary-General from Western Europe since Kurt Waldheim of Austria (1972–1981), the first former head of government to become Secretary-General and the first Secretary-General born after the establishment of the United Nations on 26 June 1945.
It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazil.
There are two international territorial disputes, both with Spain:
- Olivenza. Under Portuguese sovereignty since 1297, the municipality of Olivenza was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Badajoz in 1801, after the War of the Oranges. Portugal claimed it back in 1815 under the Treaty of Vienna. However, since the 19th century, it has been continuously ruled by Spain which considers the territory theirs not only de facto but also de jure.
- The Ilhas Selvagens (Savage Islands). The archipelago is under Portuguese domination but is geographically closer to the Canary Islands (165 km) than to Madeira (280 km). Found in 1364 by Italian navigators, the islands belonged to private owners until 1971, when the Portuguese government bought them and established a natural reserve area covering the whole archipelago. The islands have been claimed by Spain since 1911 and the dispute has caused some periods of political tension between the two countries. The main problem is not so much their intrinsic value but the fact that they expand the Exclusive Economic Zone of Portugal considerably to the south.
Main article: Portuguese Armed Forces
They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and provide humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad.
As of 2008, the three branches numbered 39,200 active personnel including 7,500 women.
Portuguese military expenditure in 2009 was 5 billion US$, representing 2.1 per cent of GDP.
Military conscription was abolished in 2004.
The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years.
The Army (21,000 personnel) comprises three brigades and other small units.
An infantry brigade (mainly equipped with Pandur II APC), a mechanized brigade (mainly equipped with Leopard 2 A6 tanks and M113 APC) and a Rapid Reaction Brigade (consisting of paratroopers, commandos and rangers).
The Navy (10,700 personnel, of which 1,580 are marines), the world's oldest surviving naval force, has five frigates, seven corvettes, two submarines, and 28 patrol and auxiliary vessels.
The Air Force (7,500 personnel) has the Lockheed F-16 Fighting Falcon as the main combat aircraft.
This force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior Ministry.
It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor.
After the end of the Portuguese Empire in 1975, the Portuguese Armed Forces have participated in peacekeeping missions in East Timor, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Somalia, Iraq (Nasiriyah), Lebanon, Mali and Central African Republic.
Portugal also conducted several independent unilateral military operations abroad, as were the cases of the interventions of the Portuguese Armed Forces in Angola in 1992 and in Guinea-Bissau in 1998 with the main objectives of protecting and withdrawing of Portuguese and foreign citizens threatened by local civil conflicts.
Further information: 2010–2014 Portuguese financial crisis
The ratio of Portugal's debt to its overall economy, was 107 per cent when it received the bailout.
As part of the deal, the country agreed to cut its budget deficit from 9.8 per cent of GDP in 2010 to 5.9 per cent in 2011, 4.5 per cent in 2012 and 3 per cent in 2013.
After the bailout was announced, the Portuguese government headed by Pedro Passos Coelho managed to implement measures with the intention of improving the state's financial situation, including tax hikes, a freeze of civil service-related lower-wages and cuts of higher-wages by 14.3%, on top of the government's spending cuts.
In 2012, all public servants had already seen an average wage cut of 20% relative to their 2010 baseline, with cuts reaching 25% for those earning more than 1,500 euro per month.
The IMF previously said in July 2012 that Portugal's debt would peak at about 118.5 per cent of GDP in 2013.
In September 2013, the Portuguese Government reviewed again the public debt of Portugal for 2013 to 127.8 per cent, after a peak of 130.9 per cent in that month.
A report released in January 2011 by the Diário de Notícias and published in Portugal by Gradiva, had demonstrated that in the period between the Carnation Revolution in 1974 and 2010, the democratic Portuguese Republic governments encouraged over-expenditure and investment bubbles through unclear Public–private partnerships and funding of numerous ineffective and unnecessary external consultancy and advisory of committees and firms.
Persistent and lasting recruitment policies boosted the number of redundant public servants.
The case of BPN was particularly serious because of its size, market share, and the political implications – Portugal's then President, Cavaco Silva and some of his political allies, maintained personal and business relationships with the bank and its CEO, who was eventually charged and arrested for fraud and other crimes.
On grounds of avoiding a potentially serious financial crisis in the Portuguese economy, the Portuguese government decided to give them a bailout, eventually at a future loss to taxpayers and to the Portuguese people in general.
By the end of 2018, Portugal's GDP (PPP) was $32,554 per capita, according to OECD's report.
Most industries, businesses and financial institutions are concentrated in the Lisbon and Porto metropolitan areas – the Setúbal, Aveiro, Braga, Coimbra and Leiria districts are the biggest economic centres outside these two main areas.
According to World Travel Awards, Portugal was Europe's Leading Golf Destination in 2012 and 2013.
Since the Carnation Revolution of 1974, which culminated in the end of one of Portugal's most notable phases of economic expansion (that started in the 1960s), a significant change has occurred in the nation's annual economic growth.
Since the 1990s, Portugal's public consumption-based economic development model has been slowly changing to a system that is focused on exports, private investment and the development of the high-tech sector.
Consequently, business services have overtaken more traditional industries such as textiles, clothing, footwear and cork (Portugal is the world's leading cork producer), wood products and beverages.
In the second decade of the 21st century, the Portuguese economy suffered its most severe recession since the 1970s, resulting in the country having to be bailed out by the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF).
The bailout, agreed to in 2011, required Portugal to enter into a range of austerity measures in exchange for funding support of €78,000,000,000.
In May 2014, the country exited the bailout but reaffirmed its commitment to maintaining its reformist momentum.
At the time of exiting the bailout, the economy had contracted by 0.7% in the first quarter of 2014; however, unemployment, while still high, had fallen to 15.3%.
The average salary in Portugal is €910 per month, excluding self-employed individuals and the minimum wage, which is regulated by law, is €635 per month (paid 14 times per annum) as of 2020.
The Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life index placed Portugal as the country with the 19th-best quality of life in the world for 2005, ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries like France, Germany, the United Kingdom and South Korea, but 9 places behind its sole neighbour, Spain.
This is despite the fact that Portugal remains as one of the countries with the lowest per capita GDP in Western Europe.
Companies listed on Euronext Lisbon stock exchange like EDP, Galp, Jerónimo Martins, Mota-Engil, Novabase, Semapa, Portucel Soporcel, Portugal Telecom and Sonae, are amongst the largest corporations of Portugal by number of employees, net income or international market share.
The Euronext Lisbon is the major stock exchange of Portugal and is part of the NYSE Euronext, the first global stock exchange.
The International Monetary Fund issued an update report on the economy of Portugal in late-June 2017 with a strong near-term outlook and an increase in investments and exports over previous years.
Because of a surplus in 2016, the country was no longer bound by the Excessive Deficit Procedure which had been implemented during an earlier financial crisis.
The banking system was more stable, although there were still non-performing loans and corporate debt.
The IMF recommended working on solving these problems for Portugal to be able to attract more private investment.
"Sustained strong growth, together with continued public debt reduction, would reduce vulnerabilities arising from high indebtedness, particularly when monetary accommodation is reduced."
The OECD economic reports since 2018 show recovery, albeit slow; and Portugal's growth prospects continue positive for 2020.
Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units.
However, the sector also includes larger scale intensive farming export-oriented agrobusinesses backed by companies (like Grupo RAR's Vitacress, Sovena, Lactogal, Vale da Rosa, Companhia das Lezírias and Valouro).
The country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock products, including: tomatoes, citrus, green vegetables, rice, wheat, barley, maize, olives, oilseeds, nuts, cherries, bilberry, table grapes, edible mushrooms, dairy products, poultry and beef.
Forestry has also played an important economic role among the rural communities and industry (namely paper industry that includes Portucel Soporcel Group, engineered wood that includes Sonae Indústria, and furniture that includes several manufacturing plants in and around Paços de Ferreira, the core of Portugal's major industrial operations of IKEA).
In 2001, the gross agricultural product accounted for 4% of the national GDP.
Traditionally a sea power, Portugal has had a strong tradition in the Portuguese fishing sector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita.
The main landing sites in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira), according to total landings in weight by year, are the harbours of Matosinhos, Peniche, Olhão, Sesimbra, Figueira da Foz, Sines, Portimão and Madeira.
Portuguese-processed fish products are exported through several companies, under a number of different brands and registered trademarks, such as Ramirez, the world's oldest active canned fish producer.
Although the country has vast iron and coal reserves – mainly in the north – after the 1974 revolution and the consequent economic globalization, low competitiveness forced a decrease in the extraction activity for these minerals.
Portugal is rich in its lithium subsoil, which is especially concentrated in the districts of Guarda, Viseu, Vila Real and Viana do Castelo, while most of the country's lithium comes from the Gonçalo aplite-pegmatite field.
The largest lithium mine in Europe is operated by Grupo Mota, Felmica, in the Guarda region, which is estimated to have reserves for 30 years of production.
It has 5 more deposits in its possession.
Savannah Resources in May 2018 announced a 52% increase in the estimated lithium resources at the Mina do Barroso Lithium Project in northern Portugal, saying the country could become the first European supplier of spodumene, a lithium-bearing mineral.
The company said the estimated mineral resources at the mine now stood at 14 million tonnes.
Lithium prices have risen in expectation of growing demand for the mineral, which is used in batteries for electric vehicles and for storing electricity from the power grid.
Europe consumes more than 20 per cent of the global supply of battery-grade lithium but currently has to import all its supplies of the mineral.
W Resources stated in 2018 that it had started a new drilling campaign at its São Martinho gold project in Portugal.
The so-called reverse circulation drilling program included 15 holes with around 2,000 metres of total drilling.
The objective is to extend resources by integrating the data from 2016 drilling results with the expansion expected with the ongoing campaign.
Following the turn of the 21st century, many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded, and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon, Porto, Braga, Coimbra and Aveiro.
Main article: Tourism in Portugal
The banking and insurance sectors performed well until the financial crisis of 2007–2008, and this partly reflected a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal.
While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks, it has been estimated that overall both the life and non-life sectors will be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely.
Travel and tourism continue to be extremely important for Portugal.
It has been necessary for the country to focus upon its niche attractions, such as health, nature and rural tourism, to stay ahead of its competitors.
Portugal is among the top 20 most-visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 20,000,000 foreign tourists each year.
In 2014, Portugal was elected The Best European Country by USA Today.
In 2017, Portugal was elected both Europe's Leading Destination and in 2018 and 2019, World's Leading Destination
Lisbon attracts the sixteenth-most tourists among European cities (with seven million tourists occupying the city's hotels in 2006).
Also, between 5–6 million religious pilgrims visit Fatima each year, where apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary to three shepherd children reportedly took place in 1917.
The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fatima is one of the largest Roman Catholic shrines in the world.
The legend of the Rooster of Barcelos tells the story of a dead rooster's miraculous intervention in proving the innocence of a man who had been falsely accused and sentenced to death.
The story is associated with the 17th-century calvary that is part of the collection of the Archaeological Museum located in Paço dos Condes, a gothic-style palace in Barcelos, a city in northwest Portugal.
On 30 November 2016, the United Nations added the Portuguese Bisalhães tradition of making black pottery to the UNESCO Heritage Protection List.
Main article: Science and technology in Portugal
Scientific and technological research activities in Portugal are mainly conducted within a network of R&D units belonging to public universities and state-managed autonomous research institutions like the INETI – Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovação and the INRB – Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos.
The funding and management of this research system is mainly conducted under the authority of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (MCTES) and the MCTES's Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT).
The largest R&D units of the public universities by volume of research grants and peer-reviewed publications, include biosciences research institutions like the Instituto de Medicina Molecular, the Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, the IPATIMUP, the Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular and the Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute.
Among the largest non-state-run research institutions in Portugal are the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência and the Champalimaud Foundation, a neuroscience and oncology research centre which awards every year one of the highest monetary prizes of any science prize in the world.
A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects.
One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon, founded in 1779.
Iberian bilateral state-supported research efforts include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory and the Ibercivis distributed computing platform, which are joint research programmes of both Portugal and Spain.
Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations.
Portugal has the largest aquarium in Europe, the Lisbon Oceanarium, and the Portuguese have several other notable organizations focused on science-related exhibits and divulgation, like the state agency Ciência Viva, a programme of the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology to the promotion of a scientific and technological culture among the Portuguese population, the Science Museum of the University of Coimbra, the National Museum of Natural History at the University of Lisbon, and the Visionarium.
With the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several science parks across the country.
These include the Taguspark (in Oeiras), the Coimbra iParque (in Coimbra), the biocant (in Cantanhede), the Madeira Tecnopolo (in Funchal), Sines Tecnopolo (in Sines), Tecmaia (in Maia) and Parkurbis (in Covilhã).
Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support.
Egas Moniz, a Portuguese physician who developed the cerebral angiography and leucotomy, received in 1949 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – he is the first Portuguese recipient of a Nobel Prize and the only in the sciences.
The European Innovation Scoreboard 2011, placed Portugal-based innovation in the 15th position, with an impressive increase in innovation expenditure and output.
Main article: Transport in Portugal
Again in the 1990s, after joining the European Economic Community, the country built many new motorways.
Today, the country has a 68,732 km (42,708 mi) road network, of which almost 3,000 km (1,864 mi) are part of system of 44 motorways.
Opened in 1944, the first motorway (which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium) was an innovative project that made Portugal one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway (this roadway eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5).
Although a few other tracts were created (around 1960 and 1970), it was only after the beginning of the 1980s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented.
In 1972, Brisa, the highway concessionaire, was founded to handle the management of many of the region's motorways.
On many highways, a toll needs to be paid (see Via Verde).
Vasco da Gama bridge is the longest bridge in Europe at 12.345 km.
Lisbon's geographical position makes it a stopover for many foreign airlines at several airports within the country.
One other important airport is the Aeroporto Internacional das Lajes on the island of Terceira in the Azores.
This airport serves as one of two international airports serving countries outside the European Union for all nine islands of the Azores.
It also serves as a military air base for the United States Air Force.
The base remains in use to the present day.
A national railway system that extends throughout the country and into Spain, is supported and administered by Comboios de Portugal (CP).
Rail transport of passengers and goods is derived using the 2,791 km (1,734 mi) of railway lines currently in service, of which 1,430 km (889 mi) are electrified and about 900 km (559 mi) allow train speeds greater than 120 km/h (75 mph).
The railway network is managed by Infraestruturas de Portugal while the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of CP, both public companies.
The two largest metropolitan areas have subway systems: Lisbon Metro and Metro Sul do Tejo in the Lisbon metropolitan area and Porto Metro in the Porto Metropolitan Area, each with more than 35 km (22 mi) of lines.
All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services.
Main article: Energy in Portugal
Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most cost-effective renewable energy sources.
Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuels.
In 2006, the world's largest solar power plant at that date, the Moura Photovoltaic Power Station, began operating near Moura, in the south, while the world's first commercial wave power farm, the Aguçadoura Wave Farm, opened in the Norte region (2008).
In 2008, renewable energy resources were producing 43% of the nation's consumption of electricity, even as hydroelectric production decreased with severe droughts.
As of June 2010, electricity exports had outnumbered imports.
In the period between January and May 2010, 70% of the national production of energy came from renewable sources.
Portugal's national energy transmission company, Redes Energéticas Nacionais (REN), uses sophisticated modelling to predict weather, especially wind patterns, and computer programs to calculate energy from the various renewable-energy plants.
Before the solar/wind revolution, Portugal had generated electricity from hydropower plants on its rivers for decades.
New programmes combine wind and water: wind-driven turbines pump water uphill at night, the most blustery period; then the water flows downhill by day, generating electricity, when consumer demand is highest.
Portugal's distribution system is also now a two-way street.
Instead of just delivering electricity, it draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop solar panels.
The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity.
Main article: Demographics of Portugal
In 2019 and according to more up-to-date figures, the population decreased to 10,295,909, although it was an increase compared with 2018.
This population has been relatively homogeneous for most of its history: a single religion (Roman Catholicism) and a single language have contributed to this ethnic and national unity.
The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in Paleolithic peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45,000 years ago.
All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic.
Genetic studies show Portuguese populations not to be significantly different from other European populations.
Also expectable but not so common are South European (Sardinian, Italian and Balkans), Broadly Northwestern (West Germanic) and to a lesser extent British/Irish (Brythonic/Gaelic) and French (Alpine).
With a low confidence range there are Scandinavian and East European genetical markers.
Other sources would point out a small presence of Berber and Jewish that would be also part of a low confidence region.
Native Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group and they form 95% of the whole population, whose ancestry is very similar to Spaniards and have strong ties with fellow Atlantic Arc countries like Ireland, British Isles, France and Belgium due to maritime trade dated as far back as the Bronze Age.
These maritime contacts and the prevalence of R1b haplogroup as the main genetical marker of these countries suggest a common ancestry and cultural proximity.
Other maritime contacts with the Mediterranean especially with Greeks, Phoenicians, Romans and Moors add some particular phenotypes in Southern Portugal and particularly Southern Spain (Tartessos culture) making Portugal and Northwestern Spain a bridge between North Western Europe and the Mediterranean but maintaining the Atlantic character.
Despite the good economic development in the past three decades the Portuguese were the shortest in Europe since 1890.
This emerging height gap took place in the 1840s and has increased since.
One of the driving factors was the modest real wage development, given the late industrialization and economic growth in Portugal compared to the European core.
Another determinant was the delayed human capital formation.
The total fertility rate (TFR) as of 2015 was estimated at 1.52 children born/woman, one of the lowest in the world, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 5.02 children born per woman in 1911.
In 2016, 52.8% of births were to unmarried women.
Like most Western countries, Portugal has to deal with low fertility levels: the country has experienced a sub-replacement fertility rate since the 1980s.
Portugal subsequently has the 17th oldest population in the world, with the average age of 43.7 years.
The structure of Portuguese society is characterized by a significant inequality which in 2016 placed the country in the lowest seventh of the Social Justice Index for the European Union.
Portugal's parliament in 2018 approved a budget plan for 2019 that includes tax breaks for returning emigrants in a bid to lure back those who left during the financial crisis of 2007–2008.
The expansionary 2019 budget, backed by a left-wing majority in parliament, also aims to boost the purchasing power of households while cutting the already low deficit even further.
Returning emigrants will be allowed to declare only half their taxable income for five years if they return, provided they lived abroad for at least three years.
The "Return Programme" is to run for two years.
Around 500,000 residents left Portugal between 2010 and 2015 after the Great Recession.
Although some 350,000 have since returned, Lisbon wants to tempt the rest to come home – in a similar scheme to the Irish one.
Portugal has approved a credit line for Portuguese emigrants aiming to invest in the country on their return.
Furthermore, Emigrants returning in 2019 and 2020 will see their taxes halved as part of the stimulus to bring native Portuguese back and revitalize the population and promote continued economic growth – as Portugal struggles with a low birth rate and an ageing population.
According to projections by the national statistics office, Portugal's population will fall to 7.7 million by 2080 from 10.3 million now and the population will continue to age.
Main article: Metropolitan areas of Portugal
The following is a list of those with mainland Functional Urban Areas (FUA).
|9||Vila Franca de Xira||120,000|
Regions by HDI
Main article: Immigration to Portugal
In 2007, Portugal had 10,617,575 inhabitants of whom about 332,137 were legal immigrants.
In 2015, Portugal had 10,341,330 inhabitants of whom about 383,759 were legal migrants, making up 3.7% of the population.
In 2017, Portugal had 416,682 legal residents of foreign origin, of which 203,753 identified as male, and 212,929 as female.
In 2019, 21,099 residents of foreign origin acquired the Portuguese nationality, of which 11.179 were female and 9.920 were male.
Portugal's colonial history has long since been a cornerstone of its national identity, as has its geographic position at the south-western corner of Europe, looking out into the Atlantic Ocean.
It was one of the last western colonial European powers to give up its overseas territories (among them Angola and Mozambique in 1975), turning over the administration of Macau to the People's Republic of China at the end of 1999.
Consequently, it has both influenced and been influenced by cultures from former colonies or dependencies, resulting in immigration from these former territories for both economic and personal reasons.
Portugal, long a country of emigration (the vast majority of Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry), has now become a country of net immigration, and not just from the last Indian (Portuguese until 1961), African (Portuguese until 1975), and Far East Asian (Portuguese until 1999) overseas territories.
An estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country's African possessions gained independence in 1975.
Portugal's Romani population is estimated to be at about 40,000.
The workers sometimes get paid less than half the minimum pay established by law.
These migrants who often arrive without due documentation or work-contracts, make make over 90% of agricultural workers in the south of Portugal.
In the interior of the Alentejo there are many African workers.
Significant numbers also come from Eastern Europe, Moldova, Ukraine, Romania and Brazil.
In addition, a number of EU citizens, mostly from the United Kingdom or other northern European countries, have become permanent residents in the country (with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners who live in the Algarve and Madeira).
Main article: Religion in Portugal
According to the 2011 Census, 81.0% of the Portuguese population was Roman Catholic Christian.
Influences from African Traditional Religion and Chinese Traditional Religion are also felt among many people, particularly in fields related with Traditional Chinese Medicine and Traditional African Herbal Medicine.
Some 6.8% of the population declared themselves to be non-religious, and 8.3% did not give any answer about their religion.
Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation.
Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated.
In the 13th and 14th centuries, the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest, its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including its first university.
The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization, with important roles in the education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited continents.
Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal are the 1940 Concordata (later amended in 1971) between Portugal and the Holy See and the 2001 Religious Freedom Act.
Portuguese is the official language of Portugal.
Galicia is a consultative observer of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, the language spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire between 1415 and 1999.
Portuguese is spoken as a native language in five different continents, with Brazil accounting for the largest number of native Portuguese speakers of any country.
In 2013 the Portuguese language is the official language spoken in Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, and East Timor.
These countries, plus Macau Special Administrative Region (People's Republic of China) where Portuguese is co-official with Cantonese, make up the Lusosphere, a term derived from the ancient Roman province of "Lusitania", which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the Douro river.
Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of North-Eastern Portugal.
It is part of the Astur-Leonese group of languages.
An estimate of between 6,000 and 7,000 Mirandese speakers has been documented for Portugal.
Main article: Education in Portugal
The educational system is divided into preschool (for those under age 6), basic education (9 years, in three stages, compulsory), secondary education (3 years, compulsory since 2010), and higher education (subdivided in university and polytechnic education).
Universities are usually organized into faculties.
Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions.
The total adult literacy rate is 99.4 per cent.
Portuguese primary school enrolments are 100 per cent.
According to the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, the average Portuguese 15-year-old student, when rated in terms of reading literacy, mathematics and science knowledge, is placed significantly above the OECD's average, at a similar level as those students from Norway, Denmark and Belgium, with 501 points (493 is the average).
The PISA results of the Portuguese students have been continuously improving, overcoming a number of other highly developed western countries like the US, Austria, France and Sweden.
About 46,9% of college-age citizens (20 years old) attend one of Portugal's higher education institutions (compared with 50% in the United States and 35% in the OECD countries).
In addition to being a destination for international students, Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students.
All higher education students, both domestic and international, totalled 380,937 in 2005.
Portuguese universities have existed since 1290.
Historically, within the scope of the Portuguese Empire, the Portuguese founded the oldest engineering school of the Americas (the Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho of Rio de Janeiro) in 1792, as well as the oldest medical college in Asia (the Escola Médico-Cirúrgica of Goa) in 1842.
Presently, the largest university in Portugal is the University of Lisbon.
The Bologna process has been adopted by Portuguese universities and poly-technical institutes in 2006.
Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of numerus clausus is enforced through a national database on student admissions.
However, every higher education institution offers also a number of additional vacant places through other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen, mature applicants (over 23 years old), international students, foreign students from the Lusosphere, degree owners from other institutions, students from other institutions (academic transfer), former students (readmission), and course change, which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each institution or course department.
Most student costs are supported with public money.
However, with the increasing tuition fees a student has to pay to attend a Portuguese state-run higher education institution and the attraction of new types of students (many as part-time students or in evening classes) like employees, businessmen, parents, and pensioners, many departments make a substantial profit from every additional student enrolled in courses, with benefits for the college or university's gross tuition revenue and without loss of educational quality (teacher per student, computer per student, classroom size per student, etc.).
Portugal has entered into cooperation agreements with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other US institutions to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research.
Main article: Health in Portugal
As projected by the United Nations, the life expectancy of the Portuguese population will be over 90 years when we reach 2100.
The trajectory of the Portuguese life expectancy is visualized with historical data from 1950 and future projections up to 2100, as can be seen in the graph on the left.
The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems: the National Health Service (Serviço Nacional de Saúde, SNS), special social health insurance schemes for certain professions (health subsystems) and voluntary private health insurance.
The SNS provides universal coverage.
In addition, about 25% of the population is covered by the health subsystems, 10% by private insurance schemes and another 7% by mutual funds.
The Ministry of Health is responsible for developing health policy as well as managing the SNS.
Five regional health administrations are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives, developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care delivery.
Decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial and management responsibility to the regional level.
In practice, however, the autonomy of regional health administrations over budget setting and spending has been limited to primary care.
The SNS is predominantly funded through general taxation.
Employer (including the state) and employee contributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems.
In addition, direct payments by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding.
Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die from noncommunicable diseases.
Mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is higher than in the eurozone, but its two main components, ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, display inverse trends compared with the Eur-A, with cerebrovascular disease being the single biggest killer in Portugal (17%).
Portuguese people die 12% less often from cancer than in the Eur-A, but mortality is not declining as rapidly as in the Eur-A.
Cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger than 44 years.
Although lung cancer (slowly increasing among women) and breast cancer (decreasing rapidly) are scarcer, cervical cancer and prostate cancer are more frequent.
Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the 1980s.
Portugal's infant mortality rate is around 2 deaths per 1000 newborns, with 2.4 deaths per 1000 live births.
People are usually well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of their behaviour on their health, and their use of health care services.
Yet their perceptions of their health, can differ from what administrative and examination-based data show about levels of illness within populations.
Thus, survey results based on self-reporting at household level, complement other data on health status and the use of services.
Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal (Kasmel et al., 2004).
This is the lowest of the Eur-A countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity.
Hospital de Santa Maria is the largest university hospital in Portugal.
Main article: Culture of Portugal
Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role during the Age of Discovery.
In the 1990s and 2000s (decade), Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities, in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in 1956 in Lisbon.
These include the Belém Cultural Centre in Lisbon, Serralves Foundation and the Casa da Música, both in Porto, as well as new public cultural facilities like municipal libraries and concert halls that were built or renovated in many municipalities across the country.
Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the Manueline, also known as Portuguese late Gothic a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, followed by Pombaline style of the 18th century.
A 20th-century interpretation of traditional architecture, Soft Portuguese style, appears extensively in major cities, especially Lisbon.
In Portugal Tomás Taveira is also noteworthy, particularly for stadium design.
Main article: Cinema of Portugal
Portuguese cinema has a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century.
António Lopes Ribeiro, António Reis, Pedro Costa, Manoel de Oliveira, João César Monteiro, Edgar Pêra, António-Pedro Vasconcelos, Fernando Lopes, João Botelho and Leonel Vieira, are among those that gained notability.
Main article: Portuguese literature
Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text as well as song.
Gil Vicente (c. 1465–c.
1536) was one of the founders of Portuguese dramatic traditions.
Modern Portuguese literature is represented by authors such as Almeida Garrett, Camilo Castelo Branco, Eça de Queirós, Fernando Pessoa, Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen, António Lobo Antunes and Miguel Torga.
Portuguese cuisine is very diverse.
There are more than enough bacalhau dishes; over one for each day of the year.
Two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardines and caldeirada, a tomato-based stew that can be made from several types of fish with a mix of onion, garlic, peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, parsley or coriander.
Typical Portuguese meat recipes made out of beef, pork, lamb, goat or chicken include cozido à portuguesa, feijoada, frango de churrasco, leitão (roast suckling pig), chanfana and carne de porco à alentejana.
A very popular northern dish is dobrada, a tripe with white beans and carrots stew, often served with steamed white rice.
Typical fast food dishes include the Francesinha (Frenchie) from Porto, "Tripas à moda do Porto" which is also a traditional plate from Porto, and bifanas (grilled pork) or prego (grilled beef) sandwiches, which are well known around the country.
These monasteries, using very few ingredients (mostly almonds, vanilla, cinnamon, flour, eggs and some liquor), managed to create a spectacular wide range of different pastries, of which pastéis de Belém (or pastéis de nata) originally from Lisbon, and ovos moles from Aveiro are examples.
Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes.
The Portuguese have a culture of good food, and throughout the country there are myriads of good restaurants and typical small tasquinhas.
Portuguese wines have enjoyed international recognition since the times of the Romans, who associated Portugal with their god Bacchus.
Today, the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes.
Some of the best Portuguese wines are Vinho Verde, Vinho Alvarinho, Vinho do Douro, Vinho do Alentejo, Vinho do Dão, Vinho da Bairrada and the sweet Port Wine, Madeira Wine, and the Moscatel from Setúbal and Favaios.
Port and Madeira are particularly appreciated in a wide range of places around the world.
Main article: Music of Portugal
Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres.
Within Portuguese folk music is the renowned genre of Fado, a melancholic urban music originated in Lisbon in the 19th century, probably inside bohemian environments, usually associated with the Portuguese guitar and saudade, or longing.
In the classical music domain, Portugal is represented by names as the pianists Artur Pizarro, Maria João Pires, Sequeira Costa, the violinists Carlos Damas, Gerardo Ribeiro and in the past by the great cellist Guilhermina Suggia.
Notable composers include José Vianna da Motta, Carlos Seixas, João Domingos Bomtempo, João de Sousa Carvalho, Luís de Freitas Branco and his student Joly Braga Santos, Fernando Lopes-Graça, Emmanuel Nunes and Sérgio Azevedo.
Similarly, contemporary composers such as Nuno Malo and Miguel d'Oliveira have achieved some international success writing.
In addition to Folk, Fado and Classical music, other genres are present at Portugal like pop and other types of modern music, particularly from North America and the United Kingdom, as well as a wide range of Portuguese, Caribbean, Lusophone African and Brazilian artists and bands.
Artists with international recognition include Dulce Pontes, Moonspell, Buraka Som Sistema, Blasted Mechanism, David Carreira and The Gift, with the three latter being nominees for a MTV Europe Music Award.
Portugal has several summer music festivals, such as Festival Sudoeste in Zambujeira do Mar, Festival de Paredes de Coura in Paredes de Coura, Festival Vilar de Mouros near Caminha, Boom Festival in Idanha-a-Nova Municipality, NOS Alive, Sumol Summer Fest in Ericeira, Rock in Rio Lisboa and Super Bock Super Rock in Greater Lisbon.
Out of the summer season, Portugal has a large number of festivals, designed more to an urban audience, like Flowfest or Hip Hop Porto.
Furthermore, one of the largest international Goa trance festivals takes place in central Portugal every two years, the Boom Festival, that is also the only festival in Portugal to win international awards: European Festival Award 2010 – Green'n'Clean Festival of the Year and the Greener Festival Award Outstanding 2008 and 2010.
There is also the student festivals of Queima das Fitas are major events in a number of cities across Portugal.
Furthermore, Portugal won the Eurovision Song Contest 2017 in Kyiv with the song "Amar pelos dois" presented by Salvador Sobral, and subsequently hosted the 2018 contest at the Altice Arena in Lisbon.
Main article: Portuguese art
Portugal has a rich history in painting.
During the renaissance Portuguese painting was highly influenced by north European painting.
The 20th century saw the arrival of Modernism, and along with it came the most prominent Portuguese painters: Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, who was heavily influenced by French painters, particularly the Delaunays (Robert and Sonia).
Among his best-known works is Canção Popular a Russa e o Fígaro.
Main article: Sport in Portugal
Football is the most popular sport in Portugal.
There are several football competitions ranging from local amateur to world-class professional level.
Portuguese football managers are also noteworthy, with José Mourinho being among the most renowned.
In addition, Portugal finished first in the 2018–19 UEFA Nations League with a 1–0 win over the Netherlands in the final (held in Portugal), second in the Euro 2004 (also held in Portugal), third in the 1966 FIFA World Cup and 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup, and fourth in the 2006 FIFA World Cup.
They have won eight titles in the European UEFA club competitions, were present in 21 finals and have been regular contenders in the last stages almost every season.
Other than football, many Portuguese sports clubs, including the "big three", compete in several other sports events with a varying level of success and popularity, these may include roller hockey, basketball, futsal, handball, and volleyball.
The Portuguese Football Federation (FPF) – Federação Portuguesa de Futebol – annually hosts the Algarve Cup, a prestigious women's football tournament that has been celebrated in the Algarvian part of Portugal.
In athletics, the Portuguese have won a number of gold, silver and bronze medals in the European, World and Olympic Games competitions.
Cycling, with Volta a Portugal being the most important race, is also a popular sports event and includes professional cycling teams such as Sporting CP, Boavista, Clube de Ciclismo de Tavira and União Ciclista da Maia.
At international level, Portuguese cyclists have already achieved good results.
The country has also achieved notable performances in sports like fencing, judo, kitesurf, rowing, sailing, surfing, shooting, taekwondo, triathlon and windsurf, owning several European and world titles.
In motorsport, Portugal is internationally noted for the Rally of Portugal, and the Estoril, Algarve Circuits and the revived Porto Street Circuit which holds a stage of the WTCC every two years, as well as for a number of internationally noted pilots in varied motorsports.
In equestrian sports, Portugal won the only Horseball-Pato World Championship in 2006 achieved the third position in the First Horseball World Cup and has achieved several victories in the European Working Equitation Championship.
Most recently, Portugal had success in canoeing with several world and European champions, such as olympic medalists.
Portugal is one of the world's best golf destinations.
It has received several awards by the World Golf Awards.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portugal.