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EtymologyPost-punk_header_cell_0_1_0 Refers to certain developments after punk, although some groups predate the movement.Post-punk_cell_0_1_1
Other namesPost-punk_header_cell_0_2_0 New musickPost-punk_cell_0_2_1
Stylistic originsPost-punk_header_cell_0_3_0 Post-punk_cell_0_3_1
Cultural originsPost-punk_header_cell_0_4_0 Late 1970s; United KingdomPost-punk_cell_0_4_1
Derivative formsPost-punk_header_cell_0_5_0 Post-punk_cell_0_5_1
Fusion genresPost-punk_header_cell_0_7_0
Regional scenesPost-punk_header_cell_0_8_0
Other topicsPost-punk_header_cell_0_9_0

Post-punk (originally called new musick) is a broad genre of rock music which emerged in the late 1970s as artists departed from the raw simplicity and traditionalism of punk rock, instead adopting a variety of avant-garde sensibilities and non-rock influences. Post-punk_sentence_0

Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches, artists experimented with styles like funk, electronic music, jazz, and dance music; the production techniques of dub and disco; and ideas from art and politics, including critical theory, modernist art, cinema and literature. Post-punk_sentence_1

These communities produced independent record labels, visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines. Post-punk_sentence_2

The early post-punk vanguard was represented by groups including Siouxsie and the Banshees, Wire, Public Image Ltd, the Pop Group, Cabaret Voltaire, Magazine, Pere Ubu, Joy Division, Talking Heads, Devo, Gang of Four, the Slits, the Cure, and the Fall. Post-punk_sentence_3

The movement was closely related to the development of ancillary genres such as gothic rock, neo-psychedelia, no wave, and industrial music. Post-punk_sentence_4

By the mid-1980s, post-punk had dissipated, but it provided a foundation for the New Pop movement and the later alternative and independent genres. Post-punk_sentence_5

Definition Post-punk_section_0

See also: Art punk and New wave music Post-punk_sentence_6

Post-punk is a diverse genre that emerged from the cultural milieu of punk rock in the late 1970s. Post-punk_sentence_7

Originally called "new musick", the terms were first used by various writers in the late 1970s to describe groups moving beyond punk's garage rock template and into disparate areas. Post-punk_sentence_8

Sounds writer Jon Savage already used "post-punk" in early 1978. Post-punk_sentence_9

NME writer Paul Morley also stated that he had "possibly" invented the term himself. Post-punk_sentence_10

At the time, there was a feeling of renewed excitement regarding what the word would entail, with Sounds publishing numerous preemptive editorials on new musick. Post-punk_sentence_11

Towards the end of the decade, some journalists used "art punk" as a pejorative for garage rock-derived acts deemed too sophisticated and out of step with punk's dogma. Post-punk_sentence_12

Before the early 1980s, many groups now categorized as "post-punk" were subsumed under the broad umbrella of "new wave", with the terms being deployed interchangeably. Post-punk_sentence_13

"Post-punk" became differentiated from "new wave" after their styles perceptibly narrowed. Post-punk_sentence_14

Nicholas Lezard described the term "post-punk" as "so multifarious that only the broadest use ... is possible". Post-punk_sentence_15

Subsequent discourse has failed to clarify whether contemporary music journals and fanzines conventionally understood "post-punk" the way that it was discussed in later years. Post-punk_sentence_16

Music historian Clinton Heylin places the "true starting-point for English post-punk" somewhere between August 1977 and May 1978, with the arrival of guitarist John McKay in Siouxsie and the Banshees in July 1977, Magazine's first album, Wire's new musical direction in 1978 and the formation of Public Image Ltd. Post-punk_sentence_17

Music historian Simon Goddard wrote that the debut albums of those bands layered the foundations of post-punk. Post-punk_sentence_18

Simon Reynolds' 2005 book Rip It Up and Start Again is widely referenced as post-punk doctrine, although he has stated that the book only covers aspects of post-punk that he had a personal inclination toward. Post-punk_sentence_19

Wilkinson characterized Reynolds' readings as "apparent revisionism and 'rebranding'". Post-punk_sentence_20

Author/musician Alex Ogg criticized: "The problem is not with what Reynolds left out of Rip It Up ..., but, paradoxically, that too much was left in". Post-punk_sentence_21

Ogg suggested that post-punk pertains to a set of artistic sensibilities and approaches rather than any unifying style, and disputed the accuracy of the term's chronological prefix "post", as various groups commonly labeled "post-punk" predate the punk rock movement. Post-punk_sentence_22

Reynolds defined the post-punk era as occurring roughly between 1978 and 1984. Post-punk_sentence_23

He advocated that post-punk be conceived as "less a genre of music than a space of possibility", suggesting that "what unites all this activity is a set of open-ended imperatives: innovation; willful oddness; the willful jettisoning of all things precedented or 'rock'n'roll'". Post-punk_sentence_24

AllMusic employs "post-punk" to denote "a more adventurous and arty form of punk". Post-punk_sentence_25

Characteristics Post-punk_section_1

Many post-punk artists were initially inspired by punk's DIY ethic and energy, but ultimately became disillusioned with the style and movement, feeling that it had fallen into a commercial formula, rock convention, and self-parody. Post-punk_sentence_26

They repudiated its populist claims to accessibility and raw simplicity, instead of seeing an opportunity to break with musical tradition, subvert commonplaces and challenge audiences. Post-punk_sentence_27

Artists moved beyond punk's focus on the concerns of a largely white, male, working-class population and abandoned its continued reliance on established rock and roll tropes, such as three-chord progressions and Chuck Berry-based guitar riffs. Post-punk_sentence_28

These artists instead defined punk as "an imperative to constant change", believing that "radical content demands radical form". Post-punk_sentence_29

Though the music varied widely between regions and artists, the post-punk movement has been characterized by its "conceptual assault" on rock conventions and rejection of aesthetics perceived of as traditionalist, hegemonic or rockist in favor of experimentation with production techniques and non-rock musical styles such as dub, funk, electronic music, disco, noise, world music, and the avant-garde. Post-punk_sentence_30

Some previous musical styles also served as touchstones for the movement, including particular brands of krautrock, glam, art rock, art pop and other music from the 1960s. Post-punk_sentence_31

Artists once again approached the studio as an instrument, using new recording methods and pursuing novel sonic territories. Post-punk_sentence_32

Author Matthew Bannister wrote that post-punk artists rejected the high cultural references of 1960s rock artists like the Beatles and Bob Dylan as well as paradigms that defined "rock as progressive, as art, as 'sterile' studio perfectionism ... by adopting an avant-garde aesthetic". Post-punk_sentence_33

According to musicologist Pete Dale, while groups wanted to "rip up history and start again", the music was still "inevitably tied to traces they could never fully escape". Post-punk_sentence_34

Nicholas Lezard described post-punk as "a fusion of art and music". Post-punk_sentence_35

The era saw the robust appropriation of ideas from literature, art, cinema, philosophy, politics and critical theory into musical and pop cultural contexts. Post-punk_sentence_36

Artists sought to refuse the common distinction between high and low culture and returned to the art school tradition found in the work of artists such as Roxy Music and David Bowie. Post-punk_sentence_37

Reynolds noted a preoccupation among some post-punk artists with issues such as alienation, repression, and technocracy of Western modernity. Post-punk_sentence_38

Among major influences on a variety of post-punk artists were writers such as William S. Burroughs and J.G. Post-punk_sentence_39 Ballard, avant-garde political scenes such as Situationism and Dada, and intellectual movements such as postmodernism. Post-punk_sentence_40

Many artists viewed their work in explicitly political terms. Post-punk_sentence_41

Additionally, in some locations, the creation of post-punk music was closely linked to the development of efficacious subcultures, which played important roles in the production of art, multimedia performances, fanzines and independent labels related to the music. Post-punk_sentence_42

Many post-punk artists maintained an anti-corporatist approach to recording and instead seized on alternate means of producing and releasing music. Post-punk_sentence_43

Journalists also became an important element of the culture, and popular music magazines and critics became immersed in the movement. Post-punk_sentence_44

1977–79: Early years Post-punk_section_2

Background Post-punk_section_3

Further information: Punk rock § Schism and diversification Post-punk_sentence_45

During the punk era, a variety of entrepreneurs interested in local punk-influenced music scenes began founding independent record labels, including Rough Trade (founded by record shop owner Geoff Travis), Factory (founded by Manchester-based television personality Tony Wilson), and Fast Product (co-founded by Bob Last and Hilary Morrison). Post-punk_sentence_46

By 1977, groups began pointedly pursuing methods of releasing music independently, an idea disseminated in particular by Buzzcocks' release of their Spiral Scratch EP on their own label as well as the self-released 1977 singles of Desperate Bicycles. Post-punk_sentence_47

These DIY imperatives would help form the production and distribution infrastructure of post-punk and the indie music scene that later blossomed in the mid-1980s. Post-punk_sentence_48

As the initial punk movement dwindled, vibrant new scenes began to coalesce out of a variety of bands pursuing experimental sounds and wider conceptual territory in their work. Post-punk_sentence_49

By late 1977, British acts like Siouxsie and the Banshees and Wire were experimenting with sounds, lyrics, and aesthetics that differed significantly from their punk contemporaries. Post-punk_sentence_50

Savage described some of these early developments as exploring "harsh urban scrapings", "controlled white noise" and "massively accented drumming". Post-punk_sentence_51

Mojo editor Pat Gilbert said, "The first truly post-punk bands were Siouxsie and the Banshees", noting the influence of the band's use of repetition on Joy Division. Post-punk_sentence_52

John Robb similarly argued that the very first Banshees gig was "proto post-punk" due to the hypnotic rhythm section. Post-punk_sentence_53

In January 1978, singer John Lydon (then known as Johnny Rotten) announced the break-up of his pioneering punk band the Sex Pistols, citing his disillusionment with punk's musical predictability and cooption by commercial interests, as well as his desire to explore more diverse territory. Post-punk_sentence_54

In May, Lydon formed the group Public Image Ltd with guitarist Keith Levene and bassist Jah Wobble, the latter who declared "rock is obsolete" after citing reggae as a "natural influence". Post-punk_sentence_55

However, Lydon described his new sound as "total pop with deep meanings. Post-punk_sentence_56

But I don't want to be categorised in any other term but punk! Post-punk_sentence_57

That's where I come from and that's where I'm staying." Post-punk_sentence_58

United Kingdom Post-punk_section_4

See also: Gothic rock and Neo-psychedelia Post-punk_sentence_59

Around this time, acts such as Public Image Ltd, the Pop Group and the Slits had begun experimenting with dance music, dub production techniques and the avant-garde, while punk-indebted Manchester acts such as Joy Division, the Fall, the Durutti Column and A Certain Ratio developed unique styles which drew on a similarly disparate range of influences across music and modernist art. Post-punk_sentence_60

Bands such as Scritti Politti, Gang of Four, Essential Logic and This Heat incorporated Leftist political philosophy and their own art school studies in their work. Post-punk_sentence_61

The unorthodox studio production techniques devised by producers such as Steve Lillywhite, Martin Hannett, and Dennis Bovell became important element of the emerging music. Post-punk_sentence_62

Labels such as Rough Trade and Factory would become important hubs for these groups and help facilitate releases, artwork, performances, and promotion. Post-punk_sentence_63

Credit for the first post-punk record is disputed, but strong contenders include the debuts of Magazine ("Shot by Both Sides", January 1978), Siouxsie and the Banshees ("Hong Kong Garden", August 1978), Public Image Ltd ("Public Image", September 1978), Cabaret Voltaire (Extended Play, November 1978) and Gang of Four ("Damaged Goods", December 1978). Post-punk_sentence_64

A variety of groups that predated punk, such as Cabaret Voltaire and Throbbing Gristle, experimented with tape machines and electronic instruments in tandem with performance art methods and influence from transgressive literature, ultimately helping to pioneer industrial music. Post-punk_sentence_65

Throbbing Gristle's independent label Industrial Records would become a hub for this scene and provide it with its namesake. Post-punk_sentence_66

A pioneering punk scene in Australia during the mid-1970s also fostered influential post-punk acts like the Birthday Party, who eventually relocated to the UK to join its burgeoning music scene. Post-punk_sentence_67

As these scenes began to develop, British music publications such as NME and Sounds developed an influential part in the nascent post-punk culture, with writers like Savage, Paul Morley and Ian Penman developing a dense (and often playful) style of criticism that drew on philosophy, radical politics and an eclectic variety of other sources. Post-punk_sentence_68

In 1978, UK magazine Sounds celebrated albums such as Siouxsie and the Banshees' The Scream, Wire's Chairs Missing and American band Pere Ubu's Dub Housing. Post-punk_sentence_69

In 1979, NME championed records such as PiL's Metal Box, Joy Division's Unknown Pleasures, Gang of Four's Entertainment! Post-punk_sentence_70 , Wire's 154, the Raincoats' self-titled debut and American group Talking Heads' album Fear of Music. Post-punk_sentence_71

Siouxsie and the Banshees, Joy Division, Bauhaus and the Cure were the main post-punk bands who shifted to dark overtones in their music, which would later spawn the gothic rock scene in the early 80s. Post-punk_sentence_72

Members of Siouxsie and the Banshees and the Cure worked on records and toured together regularly until 1984. Post-punk_sentence_73

Neo-psychedelia grew out of the British post-punk scene in the late 1970s. Post-punk_sentence_74

The genre later flourished into a more widespread and international movement of artists who applied the spirit of psychedelic rock to new sounds and techniques. Post-punk_sentence_75

Other styles such as avant-funk and industrial dub also emerged around 1979. Post-punk_sentence_76

United States Post-punk_section_5

See also: No wave Post-punk_sentence_77

In the mid-1970s, various American groups (some with ties to Downtown Manhattan's punk scene, including Television and Suicide) had begun expanding on the vocabulary of punk music. Post-punk_sentence_78

Midwestern groups such as Pere Ubu and Devo drew inspiration from the region's derelict industrial environments, employing conceptual art techniques, musique concrète and unconventional verbal styles that would presage the post-punk movement by several years. Post-punk_sentence_79

A variety of subsequent groups, including the Boston-based Mission of Burma and the New York-based Talking Heads, combined elements of punk with art school sensibilities. Post-punk_sentence_80

In 1978, the latter band began a series of collaborations with British ambient pioneer and ex-Roxy Music member Brian Eno, experimenting with Dadaist lyrical techniques, electronic sounds, and African polyrhythms. Post-punk_sentence_81

San Francisco's vibrant post-punk scene was centered on such groups as Chrome, the Residents, Tuxedomoon and MX-80, whose influences extended to multimedia experimentation, cabaret and the dramatic theory of Antonin Artaud's Theater of Cruelty. Post-punk_sentence_82

Also emerging during this period was downtown New York's no wave movement, a short-lived art, and music scene that began in part as a reaction against punk's recycling of traditionalist rock tropes and often reflected an abrasive, confrontational and nihilistic worldview. Post-punk_sentence_83

No wave musicians such as the Contortions, Teenage Jesus and the Jerks, Mars, DNA, Theoretical Girls, and Rhys Chatham instead experimented with noise, dissonance and atonality in addition to non-rock styles. Post-punk_sentence_84

The former four groups were included on the Eno-produced No New York compilation (1978), often considered the quintessential testament to the scene. Post-punk_sentence_85

The decadent parties and art installations of venues such as Club 57 and the Mudd Club would become cultural hubs for musicians and visual artists alike, with figures such as Jean-Michel Basquiat, Keith Haring and Michael Holman frequenting the scene. Post-punk_sentence_86

According to Village Voice writer Steve Anderson, the scene pursued an abrasive reductionism which "undermined the power and mystique of a rock vanguard by depriving it of a tradition to react against". Post-punk_sentence_87

Anderson claimed that the no wave scene represented "New York's last stylistically cohesive avant-rock movement". Post-punk_sentence_88

1980–84: Further developments Post-punk_section_6

UK scene and commercial ambitions Post-punk_section_7

See also: New Pop Post-punk_sentence_89

British post-punk entered the 1980s with support from members of the critical community—American critic Greil Marcus characterised "Britain's postpunk pop avant-garde" in a 1980 Rolling Stone article as "sparked by a tension, humour and sense of paradox plainly unique in present-day pop music"—as well as media figures such as BBC DJ John Peel, while several groups, such as PiL and Joy Division, achieved some success in the popular charts. Post-punk_sentence_90

The network of supportive record labels that included Industrial, Fast, E.G. Post-punk_sentence_91 , Mute, Axis/4AD, and Glass continued to facilitate a large output of music. Post-punk_sentence_92

By 1980, many British acts, including Magazine, Essential Logic, Killing Joke, the Sound, 23 Skidoo, Alternative TV, the Teardrop Explodes, the Psychedelic Furs, Echo & the Bunnymen and the Membranes also became part of these fledgling post-punk scenes, which centered on cities such as London and Manchester. Post-punk_sentence_93

However, during this period, major figures and artists in the scene began leaning away from underground aesthetics. Post-punk_sentence_94

In the music press, the increasingly esoteric writing of post-punk publications soon began to alienate their readerships; it is estimated that within several years, NME suffered the loss of half its circulation. Post-punk_sentence_95

Writers like Morley began advocating "overground brightness" instead of the experimental sensibilities promoted in the early years. Post-punk_sentence_96

Morley's own musical collaboration with engineer Gary Langan and programmer J. Post-punk_sentence_97 J. Jeczalik, the Art of Noise, would attempt to bring sampled and electronic sounds to the pop mainstream. Post-punk_sentence_98

Post-punk artists such as Scritti Politti's Green Gartside and Josef K's Paul Haig, previously engaged in avant-garde practices, turned away from these approaches and pursued mainstream styles and commercial success. Post-punk_sentence_99

These new developments, in which post-punk artists attempted to bring subversive ideas into the pop mainstream, began to be categorized under the marketing term New Pop. Post-punk_sentence_100

Several more pop-oriented groups, including ABC, the Associates, Adam and the Ants and Bow Wow Wow (the latter two managed by former Sex Pistols manager Malcolm McLaren) emerged in tandem with the development of the New Romantic subcultural scene. Post-punk_sentence_101

Emphasizing glamour, fashion and escapism in distinction to the experimental seriousness of earlier post-punk groups, the club-oriented scene drew some suspicion from denizens of the movement but also achieved commercial success. Post-punk_sentence_102

Artists such as Gary Numan, Depeche Mode, the Human League, Soft Cell, John Foxx and Visage helped pioneer a new synthpop style that drew more heavily from electronic and synthesizer music and benefited from the rise of MTV. Post-punk_sentence_103

Downtown Manhattan and elsewhere Post-punk_section_8

In the early 1980s, Downtown Manhattan's no wave scene transitioned from its abrasive origins into a more dance-oriented sound, with compilations such as ZE Records' Mutant Disco (1981) highlighting a newly playful sensibility borne out of the city's clash of hip hop, disco and punk styles, as well as dub reggae and world music influences. Post-punk_sentence_104

Artists such as ESG, Liquid Liquid, the B-52s, Cristina, Arthur Russell, James White and the Blacks and Lizzy Mercier Descloux pursued a formula described by Luc Sante as "anything at all + disco bottom". Post-punk_sentence_105

Other no wave-indebted artists such as Swans, Glenn Branca, Lydia Lunch, the Lounge Lizards, Bush Tetras, and Sonic Youth instead continued exploring the early scene's forays into noise and more abrasive territory. Post-punk_sentence_106

In Germany, groups such as Einstürzende Neubauten developed a unique style of industrial music, utilizing avant-garde noise, homemade instruments and found objects. Post-punk_sentence_107

Members of that group would later go on to collaborate with members of the Birthday Party. Post-punk_sentence_108

Mid-1980s: Decline Post-punk_section_9

The original post-punk movement ended as the bands associated with the movement turned away from its aesthetics, often in favor of more commercial sounds (such as new wave). Post-punk_sentence_109

Many of these groups would continue recording as part of the new pop movement, with entryism becoming a popular concept. Post-punk_sentence_110

In the United States, driven by MTV and modern rock radio stations, a number of post-punk acts had an influence on or became part of the Second British Invasion of "New Music" there. Post-punk_sentence_111

Some shifted to a more commercial new wave sound (such as Gang of Four), while others were fixtures on American college radio and became early examples of alternative rock, such as Athens, Georgia band R.E.M.. Post-punk_sentence_112

One band to emerge from post-punk was U2, which infused elements of religious imagery and political commentary into its often anthemic music. Post-punk_sentence_113

1990s–2000s: Revival Post-punk_section_10

Main article: Post-punk revival Post-punk_sentence_114

According to AllMusic post-punk revival, the movement was really more analogous to a continuum, one that could be traced back as early as the mid-'80s; scattered bands like Big Flame, World Domination Enterprises, and Minimal Compact, all of whom seemed like natural extensions of post-punk. Post-punk_sentence_115

Some of the more notable bands that recalled the original era during the early and mid-'90s included Six Finger Satellite, Brainiac, and Elastica. Post-punk_sentence_116

At the turn of the century, the term "post-punk" began to appear in the music press again, with a number of critics reviving the label to describe a new set of bands that shared some of the aesthetics of the original post-punk era. Post-punk_sentence_117

During this time several post-punk and new wave inspired bands emerged, including Interpol, Franz Ferdinand, the Strokes, and the Rapture, establishing the post-punk revival movement. Post-punk_sentence_118

As with the post-punk and new wave bands of the late '70s and early '80s, there was a lot of diversity in the approaches of the post-punk/new wave revivalists, ranging from atonal scrap heaps (Liars) to hyper-melodic pop songs (the Sounds). Post-punk_sentence_119

Critical recognition Post-punk_section_11

In the early 2000s, Reynolds asserted that the post-punk period produced significant innovations and music on its own. Post-punk_sentence_120

Reynolds described the period as "a fair match for the sixties in terms of the sheer amount of great music created, the spirit of adventure and idealism that infused it, and the way that the music seemed inextricably connected to the political and social turbulence of its era". Post-punk_sentence_121

Nicholas Lezard wrote that the music of the period "was avant-garde, open to any musical possibilities that suggested themselves, united only in the sense that it was very often cerebral, concocted by brainy young men and women interested as much in disturbing the audience, or making them think, as in making a pop song". Post-punk_sentence_122

List of bands Post-punk_section_12

Main article: List of post-punk bands Post-punk_sentence_123

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