Prague

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This article is about the capital of the Czech Republic. Prague_sentence_0

For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). Prague_sentence_1

"Praha" redirects here. Prague_sentence_2

For other uses, see Praha (disambiguation). Prague_sentence_3

Prague_table_infobox_0

Prague

PrahaPrague_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryPrague_header_cell_0_1_0 Czech RepublicPrague_cell_0_1_1
FoundedPrague_header_cell_0_2_0 7th centuryPrague_cell_0_2_1
GovernmentPrague_header_cell_0_3_0
MayorPrague_header_cell_0_4_0 Zdeněk Hřib (Pirates)Prague_cell_0_4_1
AreaPrague_header_cell_0_5_0
Capital cityPrague_header_cell_0_6_0 496 km (192 sq mi)Prague_cell_0_6_1
UrbanPrague_header_cell_0_7_0 298 km (115 sq mi)Prague_cell_0_7_1
Highest elevationPrague_header_cell_0_8_0 399 m (1,309 ft)Prague_cell_0_8_1
Lowest elevationPrague_header_cell_0_9_0 177 m (581 ft)Prague_cell_0_9_1
Population (2020-01-01)Prague_header_cell_0_10_0
Capital cityPrague_header_cell_0_11_0 1,324,277Prague_cell_0_11_1
DensityPrague_header_cell_0_12_0 2,700/km (6,900/sq mi)Prague_cell_0_12_1
MetroPrague_header_cell_0_13_0 2,677,964Prague_cell_0_13_1
NationalityPrague_header_cell_0_14_0 64.3% Czech

8.8% other nationalities 1.6% dual nationality 25.3% nationality not declaredPrague_cell_0_14_1

Demonym(s)Prague_header_cell_0_15_0 PraguerPrague_cell_0_15_1
Time zonePrague_header_cell_0_16_0 UTC+1 (CET)Prague_cell_0_16_1
Summer (DST)Prague_header_cell_0_17_0 UTC+2 (CEST)Prague_cell_0_17_1
Postal codePrague_header_cell_0_18_0 100 00 – 199 00Prague_cell_0_18_1
ISO 3166 codePrague_header_cell_0_19_0 CZ-10Prague_cell_0_19_1
Vehicle registrationPrague_header_cell_0_20_0 A, AA – AZPrague_cell_0_20_1
GRP (nominal)Prague_header_cell_0_21_0 2018Prague_cell_0_21_1
– TotalPrague_header_cell_0_22_0 €54 billion

($64B)Prague_cell_0_22_1

– Per capitaPrague_header_cell_0_23_0 €41,200

($48608)Prague_cell_0_23_1

HDI (2018)Prague_header_cell_0_24_0 0.961 – very high · 1stPrague_cell_0_24_1
WebsitePrague_header_cell_0_25_0 Prague_cell_0_25_1

Prague (/prɑːɡ/; Czech: Praha [ˈpraɦa (listen), German: Prag, Latin: Praga, Hebrew: פראג‎, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 13th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Prague_sentence_4

Situated on the Vltava river, Prague is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.7 million. Prague_sentence_5

The city has a temperate oceanic climate, with relatively warm summers and chilly winters. Prague_sentence_6

Prague is a political, cultural and economic centre of central Europe complete with a rich history. Prague_sentence_7

Founded during the Romanesque and flourishing by the Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque eras, Prague was the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the main residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably of Charles IV (r. 1346–1378). Prague_sentence_8

It was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire. Prague_sentence_9

The city played major roles in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia between the World Wars and the post-war Communist era. Prague_sentence_10

Prague is home to a number of well-known cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe. Prague_sentence_11

Main attractions include Prague Castle, Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, the Jewish Quarter, Petřín hill and Vyšehrad. Prague_sentence_12

Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. Prague_sentence_13

The city has more than ten major museums, along with numerous theatres, galleries, cinemas and other historical exhibits. Prague_sentence_14

An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city. Prague_sentence_15

It is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe. Prague_sentence_16

Prague is classified as an "Alpha-" global city according to GaWC studies and ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016. Prague_sentence_17

In 2019, the city was ranked as 69th most liveable city in the world by Mercer. Prague_sentence_18

In the same year, the PICSA Index ranked the city as 13th most liveable city in the world. Prague_sentence_19

Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination and as of 2017, the city receives more than 8.5 million international visitors annually. Prague_sentence_20

In 2017 Prague was listed as the fifth most visited European city after London, Paris, Rome and Istanbul. Prague_sentence_21

History Prague_section_0

Main articles: History of Prague and Timeline of Prague Prague_sentence_22

During the thousand years of its existence, Prague grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad in the south, to become the capital of a modern European country. Prague_sentence_23

Early history Prague_section_1

The region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. Prague_sentence_24

Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c. 1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. Prague_sentence_25

Around the fifth and fourth century BC, a Celtic tribe appeared in the area, later establishing settlements including an oppidum in Závist, a present-day suburb of Prague, and naming the region of Bohemia, which means "home of the Boii people". Prague_sentence_26

In the last century BC, the Celts were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes (Marcomanni, Quadi, Lombards and possibly the Suebi), leading some to place the seat of the Marcomanni king, Maroboduus, in southern Prague in the suburb now called Závist. Prague_sentence_27

Around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map drawn by Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. Prague_sentence_28

In the late 5th century AD, during the great Migration Period following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes living in Bohemia moved westwards and, probably in the 6th century, the Slavic tribes (Venedi) settled the Central Bohemian Region. Prague_sentence_29

In the following three centuries, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in the Šárka valley, Butovice and Levý Hradec. Prague_sentence_30

The construction of what came to be known as Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, expanding a fortified settlement that had existed on the site since the year 800. Prague_sentence_31

The first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. Prague_sentence_32

The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years later than Prague Castle. Prague_sentence_33

Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which began construction in 1344, but wasn't completed until the 20th century. Prague_sentence_34

The legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th-century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Prague_sentence_35

Legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied: "I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars." Prague_sentence_36

She ordered a castle and a town called Praha to be built on the site. Prague_sentence_37

The region became the seat of the dukes, and later kings of Bohemia. Prague_sentence_38

Under Holy Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973. Prague_sentence_39

Until Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Mainz. Prague_sentence_40

Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from across Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Abraham ben Jacob. Prague_sentence_41

The Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands in the city. Prague_sentence_42

Prague was also once home to an important slave market. Prague_sentence_43

At the site of the ford in the Vltava river, King Vladislaus I had the first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge (Juditin most), named in honour of his wife Judith of Thuringia. Prague_sentence_44

This bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342, but some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain in the river. Prague_sentence_45

It was rebuilt and named the Charles Bridge. Prague_sentence_46

In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Malá Strana ("Lesser Quarter") was founded in Prague on the site of an older village in what would become the Hradčany (Prague Castle) area. Prague_sentence_47

This was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights. Prague_sentence_48

The new district was on the bank opposite of the Staré Město ("Old Town"), which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications. Prague_sentence_49

The era of Charles IV Prague_section_2

Prague flourished during the 14th-century reign (1346–1378) of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Bohemia of the new Luxembourg dynasty. Prague_sentence_50

As King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, he transformed Prague into an imperial capital and it was at that time by the area the third-largest city in Europe (after Rome and Constantinople). Prague_sentence_51

Charles IV ordered the building of the New Town (Nové Město) adjacent to the Old Town and laid out the design himself. Prague_sentence_52

The Charles Bridge, replacing the Judith Bridge destroyed in the flood just prior to his reign, was erected to connect the east bank districts to the Malá Strana and castle area. Prague_sentence_53

On 9 July 1357 at 5:31 am, Charles IV personally laid the first foundation stone for the Charles Bridge. Prague_sentence_54

The exact time of laying the first foundation stone is known because the palindromic number 135797531 was carved into the Old Town bridge tower having been chosen by the royal astrologists and numerologists as the best time for starting the bridge construction. Prague_sentence_55

In 1347, he founded Charles University, which remains the oldest university in Central Europe. Prague_sentence_56

He began construction of the Gothic Saint Vitus Cathedral, within the largest of the Prague Castle courtyards, on the site of the Romanesque rotunda there. Prague_sentence_57

Prague was elevated to an archbishopric in 1344, the year the cathedral was begun. Prague_sentence_58

The city had a mint and was a centre of trade for German and Italian bankers and merchants. Prague_sentence_59

The social order, however, became more turbulent due to the rising power of the craftsmen's guilds (themselves often torn by internal fights), and the increasing number of poor. Prague_sentence_60

The Hunger Wall, a substantial fortification wall south of Malá Strana and the Castle area, was built during a famine in the 1360s. Prague_sentence_61

The work is reputed to have been ordered by Charles IV as a means of providing employment and food to the workers and their families. Prague_sentence_62

Charles IV died in 1378. Prague_sentence_63

During the reign of his son, King Wenceslaus IV (1378–1419), a period of intense turmoil ensued. Prague_sentence_64

During Easter 1389, members of the Prague clergy announced that Jews had desecrated the host (Eucharistic wafer) and the clergy encouraged mobs to pillage, ransack and burn the Jewish quarter. Prague_sentence_65

Nearly the entire Jewish population of Prague (3,000 people) was murdered. Prague_sentence_66

Jan Hus, a theologian and rector at the Charles University, preached in Prague. Prague_sentence_67

In 1402, he began giving sermons in the Bethlehem Chapel. Prague_sentence_68

Inspired by John Wycliffe, these sermons focused on what were seen as radical reforms of a corrupt Church. Prague_sentence_69

Having become too dangerous for the political and religious establishment, Hus was summoned to the Council of Constance, put on trial for heresy, and burned at the stake in Constanz in 1415. Prague_sentence_70

Four years later Prague experienced its first defenestration, when the people rebelled under the command of the Prague priest Jan Želivský. Prague_sentence_71

Hus' death, coupled with Czech proto-nationalism and proto-Protestantism, had spurred the Hussite Wars. Prague_sentence_72

Peasant rebels, led by the general Jan Žižka, along with Hussite troops from Prague, defeated Emperor Sigismund, in the Battle of Vítkov Hill in 1420. Prague_sentence_73

During the Hussite Wars when the City of Prague was attacked by "Crusader" and mercenary forces, the city militia fought bravely under the Prague Banner. Prague_sentence_74

This swallow-tailed banner is approximately 4 by 6 feet (1.2 by 1.8 metres), with a red field sprinkled with small white fleurs-de-lis, and a silver old Town Coat-of-Arms in the centre. Prague_sentence_75

The words "PÁN BŮH POMOC NAŠE" (The Lord is our Relief) appeared above the coat-of-arms, with a Hussite chalice centred on the top. Prague_sentence_76

Near the swallow-tails is a crescent-shaped golden sun with rays protruding. Prague_sentence_77

One of these banners was captured by Swedish troops in Battle of Prague (1648), when they captured the western bank of the Vltava river and were repulsed from the eastern bank, they placed it in the Royal Military Museum in Stockholm; although this flag still exists, it is in very poor condition. Prague_sentence_78

They also took the Codex Gigas and the Codex Argenteus. Prague_sentence_79

The earliest evidence indicates that a gonfalon with a municipal charge painted on it was used for Old Town as early as 1419. Prague_sentence_80

Since this city militia flag was in use before 1477 and during the Hussite Wars, it is the oldest still preserved municipal flag of Bohemia. Prague_sentence_81

In the following two centuries, Prague strengthened its role as a merchant city. Prague_sentence_82

Many noteworthy Gothic buildings were erected and Vladislav Hall of the Prague Castle was added. Prague_sentence_83

Habsburg era Prague_section_3

In 1526, the Bohemian estates elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg. Prague_sentence_84

The fervent Catholicism of its members brought them into conflict in Bohemia, and then in Prague, where Protestant ideas were gaining popularity. Prague_sentence_85

These problems were not pre-eminent under Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, elected King of Bohemia in 1576, who chose Prague as his home. Prague_sentence_86

He lived in the Prague Castle, where his court welcomed not only astrologers and magicians but also scientists, musicians, and artists. Prague_sentence_87

Rudolf was an art lover too, and Prague became the capital of European culture. Prague_sentence_88

This was a prosperous period for the city: famous people living there in that age include the astronomers Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, the painter Arcimboldo, the alchemists Edward Kelley and John Dee, the poet Elizabeth Jane Weston, and others. Prague_sentence_89

In 1618, the famous second defenestration of Prague provoked the Thirty Years' War, a particularly harsh period for Prague and Bohemia. Prague_sentence_90

Ferdinand II of Habsburg was deposed, and his place as King of Bohemia taken by Frederick V, Elector Palatine; however his army was crushed in the Battle of White Mountain (1620) not far from the city. Prague_sentence_91

Following this in 1621 was an execution of 27 Czech Protestant leaders (involved in the uprising) in Old Town Square and the exiling of many others. Prague_sentence_92

Prague was forcibly converted back to Roman Catholicism followed by the rest of Czech lands. Prague_sentence_93

The city suffered subsequently during the war under an attack by Electoral Saxony (1631) and during the Battle of Prague (1648). Prague_sentence_94

Prague began a steady decline which reduced the population from the 60,000 it had had in the years before the war to 20,000. Prague_sentence_95

In the second half of the 17th century, Prague's population began to grow again. Prague_sentence_96

Jews had been in Prague since the end of the 10th century and, by 1708, they accounted for about a quarter of Prague's population. Prague_sentence_97

In 1689, a great fire devastated Prague, but this spurred a renovation and a rebuilding of the city. Prague_sentence_98

In 1713–14, a major outbreak of plague hit Prague one last time, killing 12,000 to 13,000 people. Prague_sentence_99

In 1744, Frederick the Great of Prussia invaded Bohemia. Prague_sentence_100

He took Prague after a severe and prolonged siege in the course of which a large part of the town was destroyed. Prague_sentence_101

In 1757 the Prussian bombardment destroyed more than one quarter of the city and heavily damaged St. Vitus Cathedral. Prague_sentence_102

However a month later, Frederick the Great was defeated and forced to retreat from Bohemia. Prague_sentence_103

The economy of Prague continued to improve during the 18th century. Prague_sentence_104

The population increased to 80,000 inhabitants by 1771. Prague_sentence_105

Many rich merchants and nobles enhanced the city with a host of palaces, churches and gardens full of art and music, creating a Baroque city renowned throughout the world to this day. Prague_sentence_106

In 1784, under Joseph II, the four municipalities of Malá Strana, Nové Město, Staré Město, and Hradčany were merged into a single entity. Prague_sentence_107

The Jewish district, called Josefov, was included only in 1850. Prague_sentence_108

The Industrial Revolution had a strong effect in Prague, as factories could take advantage of the coal mines and ironworks of the nearby region. Prague_sentence_109

A first suburb, Karlín, was created in 1817, and twenty years later the population exceeded 100,000. Prague_sentence_110

The revolutions in Europe in 1848 also touched Prague, but they were fiercely suppressed. Prague_sentence_111

In the following years, the Czech National Revival began its rise, until it gained the majority in the town council in 1861. Prague_sentence_112

Prague had a German-speaking majority in 1848, but by 1880 the number of German speakers had decreased to 14% (42,000), and by 1910 to 6.7% (37,000), due to a massive increase of the city's overall population caused by the influx of Czechs from the rest of Bohemia and Moravia and also due to return of social status importance of the Czech language. Prague_sentence_113

20th century Prague_section_4

First Czechoslovak Republic Prague_section_5

Main article: First Czechoslovak Republic Prague_sentence_114

World War I ended with the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the creation of Czechoslovakia. Prague_sentence_115

Prague was chosen as its capital and Prague Castle as the seat of president Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. Prague_sentence_116

At this time Prague was a true European capital with highly developed industry. Prague_sentence_117

By 1930, the population had risen to 850,000. Prague_sentence_118

Second World War Prague_section_6

Further information: German occupation of Czechoslovakia Prague_sentence_119

Hitler ordered the German Army to enter Prague on 15 March 1939, and from Prague Castle proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate. Prague_sentence_120

For most of its history, Prague had been a multi-ethnic city with important Czech, German and (mostly native German-speaking) Jewish populations. Prague_sentence_121

From 1939, when the country was occupied by Nazi Germany, Hitler took over the Prague Castle. Prague_sentence_122

During the Second World War, most Jews were deported and killed by the Germans. Prague_sentence_123

In 1942, Prague was witness to the assassination of one of the most powerful men in Nazi GermanyReinhard Heydrich—during Operation Anthropoid, accomplished by Czechoslovak national heroes Jozef Gabčík and Jan Kubiš. Prague_sentence_124

Hitler ordered bloody reprisals. Prague_sentence_125

In February 1945, Prague suffered several bombing raids by the US Army Air Forces. Prague_sentence_126

701 people were killed, more than 1,000 people were injured and some buildings, factories and historical landmarks (Emmaus Monastery, Faust House, Vinohrady Synagogue) were destroyed. Prague_sentence_127

Many historic structures in Prague, however, escaped the destruction of the war and the damage was small compared to the total destruction of many other cities in that time. Prague_sentence_128

According to American pilots, it was the result of a navigational mistake. Prague_sentence_129

In March, a deliberate raid targeted military factories in Prague, killing about 370 people. Prague_sentence_130

On 5 May 1945, two days before Germany capitulated, an uprising against Germany occurred. Prague_sentence_131

Several thousand Czechs were killed in four days of bloody street fighting, with many atrocities committed by both sides. Prague_sentence_132

At daybreak on 9 May, the 3rd Shock Army of the Red Army took the city almost unopposed. Prague_sentence_133

The majority (about 50,000 people) of the German population of Prague either fled or were expelled by the Beneš decrees in the aftermath of the war. Prague_sentence_134

Cold War Prague_section_7

Main article: History of Czechoslovakia (1948–89) Prague_sentence_135

Prague was a city in the territory of military and political control of the Soviet Union (see Iron Curtain). Prague_sentence_136

The largest Stalin Monument was unveiled on Letná hill in 1955 and destroyed in 1962. Prague_sentence_137

The 4th Czechoslovak Writers' Congress held in the city in June 1967 took a strong position against the regime. Prague_sentence_138

On 31 October 1967 students demonstrated at Strahov. Prague_sentence_139

This spurred the new secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, Alexander Dubček, to proclaim a new deal in his city's and country's life, starting the short-lived season of the "socialism with a human face". Prague_sentence_140

It was the Prague Spring, which aimed at the renovation of institutions in a democratic way. Prague_sentence_141

The other Warsaw Pact member countries, except Romania and Albania, reacted with the invasion of Czechoslovakia and the capital on 21 August 1968 by tanks, suppressing any attempt at reform. Prague_sentence_142

Jan Palach and Jan Zajíc committed suicide by self-immolation in January and February 1969 to protest against the "normalization" of the country. Prague_sentence_143

After the Velvet Revolution Prague_section_8

In 1989, after the riot police beat back a peaceful student demonstration, the Velvet Revolution crowded the streets of Prague, and the capital of Czechoslovakia benefited greatly from the new mood. Prague_sentence_144

In 1993, after the Velvet Divorce, Prague became the capital city of the new Czech Republic. Prague_sentence_145

From 1995 high-rise buildings began to be built in Prague in large quantities. Prague_sentence_146

In the late 1990s, Prague again became an important cultural centre of Europe and was notably influenced by globalisation. Prague_sentence_147

In 2000, IMF and World Bank summit took place in Prague and anti-globalization riots took place here. Prague_sentence_148

In 2002, Prague suffered from widespread floods that damaged buildings and its underground transport system. Prague_sentence_149

Prague launched a bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but failed to make the candidate city shortlist. Prague_sentence_150

In June 2009, as the result of financial pressures from the global recession, Prague's officials also chose to cancel the city's planned bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics. Prague_sentence_151

Name Prague_section_9

See also: Names in different languages Prague_sentence_152

The Czech name Praha is derived from an old Slavic word, práh, which means "ford" or "rapid", referring to the city's origin at a crossing point of the Vltava river. Prague_sentence_153

The same etymology is associated with the Praga district of Warsaw. Prague_sentence_154

Another view to the origin of name is also related to the Czech word práh (in the mean of a threshold) and a legendary etymology connects the name of the city with princess Libuše, prophetess and a wife of mythical founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Prague_sentence_155

She is said to have ordered the city "to be built where a man hews a threshold of his house". Prague_sentence_156

The Czech práh might thus be understood to refer to rapids or fords in the river, the edge of which could have acted as a means of fording the river – thus providing a "threshold" to the castle. Prague_sentence_157

Another derivation of the name Praha is suggested from na prazě, the original term for the shale hillside rock upon which the original castle was built. Prague_sentence_158

At that time, the castle was surrounded by forests, covering the nine hills of the future city – the Old Town on the opposite side of the river, as well as the Lesser Town beneath the existing castle, appeared only later. Prague_sentence_159

The English spelling of the city's name is borrowed from French. Prague_sentence_160

In the 19th and early 20th centuries it was pronounced in English to rhyme with "vague": it was so pronounced by Lady Diana Cooper (born 1892) on Desert Island Discs in 1969, and it is written to rhyme with "vague" in a verse of by Longfellow (1839) and also in the limerick by Edward Lear (1846). Prague_sentence_161

Prague is also called the "City of a Hundred Spires", based on a count by 19th century mathematician Bernard Bolzano; today's count is estimated by the Prague Information Service at 500. Prague_sentence_162

Nicknames for Prague have also included: the Golden City, the Mother of Cities and the Heart of Europe. Prague_sentence_163

Geography Prague_section_10

Prague is situated on the Vltava river, at . Prague_sentence_164

in the centre of the Bohemian Basin. Prague_sentence_165

Prague is approximately at the same latitude as Frankfurt, Germany; Paris, France; and Vancouver, Canada. Prague_sentence_166

Climate Prague_section_11

Prague has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) with humid continental (Dfb) influences, defined as such by the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm. Prague_sentence_167

The winters are relatively cold with average temperatures at about freezing point, and with very little sunshine. Prague_sentence_168

Snow cover can be common between mid-November and late March although snow accumulations of more than 20 cm (8 in) are infrequent. Prague_sentence_169

There are also a few periods of mild temperatures in winter. Prague_sentence_170

Summers usually bring plenty of sunshine and the average high temperature of 24 °C (75 °F). Prague_sentence_171

Nights can be quite cool even in summer, though. Prague_sentence_172

Precipitation in Prague (and most of the Bohemian lowland) is rather low (just over 500 mm [20 in] per year) since it is located in the rain shadow of the Sudetes and other mountain ranges. Prague_sentence_173

The driest season is usually winter while late spring and summer can bring quite heavy rain, especially in form of thundershowers. Prague_sentence_174

Temperature inversions are relatively common between mid-October and mid-March bringing foggy, cold days and sometimes moderate air pollution. Prague_sentence_175

Prague is also a windy city with common sustained western winds and an average wind speed of 16 km/h (10 mph) that often help break temperature inversions and clear the air in cold months. Prague_sentence_176

Administration Prague_section_12

Administrative division Prague_section_13

Main article: Districts of Prague Prague_sentence_177

Prague is the capital of the Czech Republic and as such is the regular seat of its central authorities. Prague_sentence_178

Since 24 November 1990, it is de facto again a statutory town, but has a specific status of the municipality and the region at the same time. Prague_sentence_179

Prague also houses the administrative institutions of the Central Bohemian Region. Prague_sentence_180

Until 1949, all administrative districts of Prague were formed by the whole one or more cadastral unit, municipality or town. Prague_sentence_181

Since 1949, there has been a fundamental change in the administrative division. Prague_sentence_182

Since then, the boundaries of many urban districts, administrative districts and city districts are independent of the boundaries of cadastral territories and some cadastral territories are thus divided into administrative and self-governing parts of the city. Prague_sentence_183

Cadastral area (for example, Vinohrady, Smíchov) are still relevant especially for the registration of land and real estate and house numbering. Prague_sentence_184

Prague is divided into 10 municipal districts (1–10), 22 administrative districts (1–22), 57 municipal parts, or 112 cadastral areas. Prague_sentence_185

City government Prague_section_14

Prague is automously administered by the Prague City Assembly, which is elected through municipal elections and consists of 55 to 70 members. Prague_sentence_186

Executive body of Prague, elected by the Assembly is a Prague City Council. Prague_sentence_187

The municipal office of Prague is called Prague City Hall. Prague_sentence_188

It has 11 members including the mayor and it prepares proposals for the Assembly meetings and ensures that adopted resolutions are fulfilled. Prague_sentence_189

The Mayor of Prague is Czech Pirate Party member Zdeněk Hřib. Prague_sentence_190

Population Prague_section_15

According to the 2011 census, about 14% of the city inhabitants were born outside the Czech Republic. Prague_sentence_191

That is the highest proportion in the country. Prague_sentence_192

However, in 2011, 64.8 per cent of the city's population self-identified themselves as Czechs, which is higher than the national average. Prague_sentence_193

Even though official population of Prague hovers around 1.3–1.4 million, the real population is much higher due to only 65% of its residents being marked as permanently living in the city, these data were taken from mobile phone movements around the city, and bring total population of Prague to about 1.9–2 million, and with additional 300,000 to 400,000 people coming to the city for work, education or shopping, on weekdays there are more than 2 million people in the city. Prague_sentence_194

Development of the Prague population since 1378: Prague_sentence_195

Prague_table_general_1

YearPrague_header_cell_1_0_0 1378Prague_header_cell_1_0_1 1500Prague_header_cell_1_0_2 1610Prague_header_cell_1_0_3 1798Prague_header_cell_1_0_4 1880Prague_header_cell_1_0_5 1930Prague_header_cell_1_0_6 1961Prague_header_cell_1_0_7 1980Prague_header_cell_1_0_8 1995Prague_header_cell_1_0_9 2005Prague_header_cell_1_0_10 2019Prague_header_cell_1_0_11
PopulationPrague_header_cell_1_1_0 40,000Prague_cell_1_1_1 30,000Prague_cell_1_1_2 60,000Prague_cell_1_1_3 79,000Prague_cell_1_1_4 350,000Prague_cell_1_1_5 950,000Prague_cell_1_1_6 1,130,000Prague_cell_1_1_7 1,190,000Prague_cell_1_1_8 1,210,000Prague_cell_1_1_9 1,180,000Prague_cell_1_1_10 1,309,182Prague_cell_1_1_11

Prague_table_infobox_2

NationalityPrague_header_cell_2_0_0 Population (incl. Praha-east and Praha-west)Prague_header_cell_2_0_1
UkrainePrague_cell_2_1_0 56,984Prague_cell_2_1_1
SlovakiaPrague_cell_2_2_0 37,549Prague_cell_2_2_1
RussiaPrague_cell_2_3_0 26,005Prague_cell_2_3_1
VietnamPrague_cell_2_4_0 14,154Prague_cell_2_4_1
USAPrague_cell_2_5_0 6,648Prague_cell_2_5_1
Other countries/territories


 Bulgaria 5,571


China

5,460


 UK 4,559


 Germany 4,472


 Romania 4,460


 Kazakhstan 4,082


 Poland 3,909


 Italy 3,036


 France 3,098


 Hungary 2,771


 Belarus 2,710


 India 2,358


 Moldova 1,856


 Serbia 1,844


 Uzbekistan 1,773


 Turkey 1,466


 Korea 1,357


 Bosnia 1,146


 Japan 1,094


 North Macedonia 1,021Prague_cell_2_6_0

Other countries/territoriesPrague_header_cell_2_7_0
BulgariaPrague_cell_2_8_0 5,571Prague_cell_2_8_1
ChinaPrague_cell_2_9_0 5,460Prague_cell_2_9_1
UKPrague_cell_2_10_0 4,559Prague_cell_2_10_1
GermanyPrague_cell_2_11_0 4,472Prague_cell_2_11_1
RomaniaPrague_cell_2_12_0 4,460Prague_cell_2_12_1
KazakhstanPrague_cell_2_13_0 4,082Prague_cell_2_13_1
PolandPrague_cell_2_14_0 3,909Prague_cell_2_14_1
ItalyPrague_cell_2_15_0 3,036Prague_cell_2_15_1
FrancePrague_cell_2_16_0 3,098Prague_cell_2_16_1
HungaryPrague_cell_2_17_0 2,771Prague_cell_2_17_1
BelarusPrague_cell_2_18_0 2,710Prague_cell_2_18_1
IndiaPrague_cell_2_19_0 2,358Prague_cell_2_19_1
MoldovaPrague_cell_2_20_0 1,856Prague_cell_2_20_1
SerbiaPrague_cell_2_21_0 1,844Prague_cell_2_21_1
UzbekistanPrague_cell_2_22_0 1,773Prague_cell_2_22_1
TurkeyPrague_cell_2_23_0 1,466Prague_cell_2_23_1
KoreaPrague_cell_2_24_0 1,357Prague_cell_2_24_1
BosniaPrague_cell_2_25_0 1,146Prague_cell_2_25_1
JapanPrague_cell_2_26_0 1,094Prague_cell_2_26_1
North MacedoniaPrague_cell_2_27_0 1,021Prague_cell_2_27_1

Culture Prague_section_16

Prague_table_infobox_3

Historic Centre of PraguePrague_table_caption_3
UNESCO World Heritage SitePrague_header_cell_3_0_0
IncludesPrague_header_cell_3_1_0 Historic Centre of Prague and Průhonice ParkPrague_cell_3_1_1
CriteriaPrague_header_cell_3_2_0 Cultural: ii, iv, viPrague_cell_3_2_1
ReferencePrague_header_cell_3_3_0 Prague_cell_3_3_1
InscriptionPrague_header_cell_3_4_0 1992 (16th session)Prague_cell_3_4_1
AreaPrague_header_cell_3_5_0 1,106.36 haPrague_cell_3_5_1
Buffer zonePrague_header_cell_3_6_0 9,887.09 haPrague_cell_3_6_1

See also: Prague underground (culture) Prague_sentence_196

The city is traditionally one of the cultural centres of Europe, hosting many cultural events. Prague_sentence_197

Some of the significant cultural institutions include the National Theatre (Národní Divadlo) and the Estates Theatre (Stavovské or Tylovo or Nosticovo divadlo), where the premières of Mozart's Don Giovanni and La clemenza di Tito were held. Prague_sentence_198

Other major cultural institutions are the Rudolfinum which is home to the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra and the Municipal House which is home to the Prague Symphony Orchestra. Prague_sentence_199

The Prague State Opera (Státní opera) performs at the Smetana Theatre. Prague_sentence_200

The city has many world-class museums, including the National Museum (Národní muzeum), the Museum of the Capital City of Prague, the Jewish Museum in Prague, the Alfons Mucha Museum, the African-Prague Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, the Náprstek Museum (Náprstkovo Muzeum), the Josef Sudek Gallery and The Josef Sudek Studio, the National Library and the National Gallery, which manages the largest collection of art in the Czech Republic. Prague_sentence_201

There are hundreds of concert halls, galleries, cinemas and music clubs in the city. Prague_sentence_202

It hosts music festivals including the Prague Spring International Music Festival, the Prague Autumn International Music Festival, the Prague International Organ Festival, the Dvořák Prague International Music Festival, and the Prague International Jazz Festival. Prague_sentence_203

Film festivals include the Febiofest, the One World Film Festival and Echoes of the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival. Prague_sentence_204

The city also hosts the Prague Writers' Festival, the Prague Folklore Days, Prague Advent Choral Meeting the Summer Shakespeare Festival, the Prague Fringe Festival, the World Roma Festival, as well as the hundreds of Vernissages and fashion shows. Prague_sentence_205

Many films have been made at Barrandov Studios and at Prague Studios. Prague_sentence_206

Hollywood films set in Prague include Mission Impossible, xXx, Blade II, Children of Dune, Alien vs. Prague_sentence_207 Predator, Doom, Chronicles of Narnia, Hellboy, EuroTrip, Van Helsing, Red Tails, and Spider-Man: Far From Home. Prague_sentence_208

Other Czech films shot in Prague include Empties, Amadeus and The Fifth Horseman is Fear. Prague_sentence_209

Also, the romantic music video "Never Tear Us Apart" by INXS, "Diamonds from Sierra Leone" by Kanye West was shot in the city, and features shots of the Charles Bridge and the Astronomical Clock, among other landmarks. Prague_sentence_210

Rihanna's "Don't Stop the Music" video was filmed at Prague's Radost FX Club. Prague_sentence_211

The city was also the setting for the film Dungeons and Dragons in 2000. Prague_sentence_212

The music video "Silver and Cold" by AFI, an American rock band, was also filmed in Prague. Prague_sentence_213

Many Indian films have also been filmed in the city including Yuvraaj, Drona and Rockstar. Prague_sentence_214

Early 2000s europop hit "Something" by "Lasgo" was filmed at the central train station in Prague. Prague_sentence_215

Video games set in Prague include Tomb Raider: The Angel of Darkness, Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb, Vampire: The Masquerade – Redemption, Soldier of Fortune II: Double Helix, Broken Sword: The Sleeping Dragon, Still Life, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3 and Deus Ex: Mankind Divided. Prague_sentence_216

With the growth of low-cost airlines in Europe, Prague has become a weekend city destination allowing tourists to visit its museums and cultural sites as well as try its Czech beers and cuisine. Prague_sentence_217

The city has many buildings by renowned architects, including Adolf Loos (Villa Müller), Frank O. Gehry (Dancing House) and Jean Nouvel (Golden Angel). Prague_sentence_218

Recent major events held in Prague: Prague_sentence_219

Cuisine Prague_section_17

In 2008 the Allegro restaurant received the first Michelin star in the whole of the post-Communist part of Central Europe. Prague_sentence_220

It retained its star until 2011. Prague_sentence_221

As of 2018 there are two Michelin-starred restaurants in Prague: La Degustation Bohême Bourgeoise and Field. Prague_sentence_222

Another six have been awarded Michelin's Bib Gourmand: Bistrøt 104, Divinis, Eska, Maso a Kobliha, Na Kopci and Sansho. Prague_sentence_223

In Malá Strana, Staré Město, Žižkov and Nusle there are hundreds of restaurants, bars and pubs, especially with Czech beer. Prague_sentence_224

Prague also hosts the Czech Beer Festival (Český pivní festival), which is the largest beer festival in the Czech Republic held for 17 days every year in May. Prague_sentence_225

At the festival, more than 70 brands of Czech beer can be tasted. Prague_sentence_226

There are several microbrewery festivals throughout the year as well. Prague_sentence_227

Czech beer has a long history, with brewing taking place in Břevnov Monastery in 993. Prague_sentence_228

Prague is home to historical breweries Staropramen (Praha 5), U Fleků, U Medvídků, U Tří růží, Strahov Monastery Brewery (Praha 1) and Břevnov Monastery Brewery (Praha 6). Prague_sentence_229

Among many microbreweries are: Novoměstský, Pražský most u Valšů, Národní, Boršov, Loď pivovar, U Dobřenských, U Dvou koček, U Supa (Praha 1), Pivovarský dům (Praha 2), Sousedský pivovar Bašta (Praha 4), Suchdolský Jeník, Libocký pivovar (Praha 6), Marina (Praha 7), U Bulovky (Praha 8), Beznoska, Kolčavka (Praha 9), Vinohradský pivovar, Zubatý pes, Malešický mikropivovar (Praha 10), Jihoměstský pivovar (Praha 11), Lužiny (Praha 13), Počernický pivovar (Praha 14) and Hostivar (Praha 15). Prague_sentence_230

Economy Prague_section_18

Prague's economy accounts for 25% of the Czech GDP making it the highest performing regional economy of the country. Prague_sentence_231

As of 2017 its GDP per capita in purchasing power standard is €56,200, making it the sixth best performing region in the EU at 182.4 per cent of the EU-28 average in 2016. Prague_sentence_232

Prague employs almost a fifth of the entire Czech workforce, and its wages are significantly above average (≈+25%). Prague_sentence_233

In 2Q/2019, average salaries available in Prague reached CZK 42.297 (≈1,650) per month, an annual increase of 6.3%, which was nevertheless lower than national increase of 7.2% both in nominal and real terms. Prague_sentence_234

(Inflation in Prague was 2.8% in 2Q/2019 as well as with 2.8% nationally.) Prague_sentence_235

Since 1990, the city's economic structure has shifted from industrial to service-oriented. Prague_sentence_236

Industry is present in sectors such as pharmaceuticals, printing, food processing, manufacture of transport equipment, computer technology and electrical engineering. Prague_sentence_237

In the service sector, financial and commercial services, trade, restaurants, hospitality and public administration are the most significant. Prague_sentence_238

Services account for around 80 per cent of employment. Prague_sentence_239

There are 800,000 employees in Prague, including 120,000 commuters. Prague_sentence_240

The number of (legally registered) foreign residents in Prague has been increasing in spite of the country's economic downturn. Prague_sentence_241

As of March 2010, 148,035 foreign workers were reported to be living in the city making up about 18 per cent of the workforce, up from 131,132 in 2008. Prague_sentence_242

Approximately one-fifth of all investment in the Czech Republic takes place in the city. Prague_sentence_243

Almost one-half of the national income from tourism is spent in Prague. Prague_sentence_244

The city offers approximately 73,000 beds in accommodation facilities, most of which were built after 1990, including almost 51,000 beds in hotels and boarding houses. Prague_sentence_245

From the late 1990s to late 2000s, the city was a common filming location for international productions such as Hollywood and Bollywood motion pictures. Prague_sentence_246

A combination of architecture, low costs and the existing motion picture infrastructure have proven attractive to international film production companies. Prague_sentence_247

The modern economy of Prague is largely service and export-based and, in a 2010 survey, the city was named the best city in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) for business. Prague_sentence_248

In 2005, Prague was deemed among the three best cities in Central and Eastern Europe according to The Economist's livability rankings. Prague_sentence_249

The city was named as a top-tier nexus city for innovation across multiple sectors of the global innovation economy, placing 29th globally out of 289 cities, ahead of Brussels and Helsinki for innovation in 2010 in 2thinknow annual analysts Innovation Cities Index. Prague_sentence_250

Na příkopě is the most expensive street among all the states of the V4. Prague_sentence_251

In 2017, with the amount of rent €2,640 (CZK 67,480) per square meter per year, ranked on 22nd place among the most expensive streets in the world. Prague_sentence_252

The second most expensive is Pařížská street. Prague_sentence_253

In the Eurostat research, Prague ranked fifth among Europe's 271 regions in terms of gross domestic product per inhabitant, achieving 172 per cent of the EU average. Prague_sentence_254

It ranked just above Paris and well above the country as a whole, which achieved 80 per cent of the EU average. Prague_sentence_255

Companies with highest turnover in the region in 2014: Prague_sentence_256

Prague_table_general_4

NamePrague_header_cell_4_0_0 Turnover, mld. KčPrague_header_cell_4_0_1
ČEZPrague_cell_4_1_0 200.8Prague_cell_4_1_1
AgrofertPrague_cell_4_2_0 166.8Prague_cell_4_2_1
RWE Supply & Trading CZPrague_cell_4_3_0 146.1Prague_cell_4_3_1

Prague is also the site of some of the most important offices and institutions of the Czech Republic Prague_sentence_257

Prague_unordered_list_0

Tourism Prague_section_19

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, Prague has become one of the world's most popular tourist destinations. Prague_sentence_258

Prague suffered considerably less damage during World War II than some other major cities in the region, allowing most of its historic architecture to stay true to form. Prague_sentence_259

It contains one of the world's most pristine and varied collections of architecture, from Romanesque, to Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-Renaissance, Neo-Gothic, Art Nouveau, Cubist, Neo-Classical and ultra-modern. Prague_sentence_260

Prague is classified as an "Alpha-" global city according to GaWC studies, comparable to Vienna, Manila and Washington, D.C. Prague ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016. Prague_sentence_261

Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city receives more than 8.4 million international visitors annually, as of 2017. Prague_sentence_262

Main attractions Prague_section_20

Hradčany and Lesser Town (Malá Strana) Prague_section_21

Old Town (Staré Město) and Josefov Prague_section_22

New Town (Nové Město) Prague_section_23

Vinohrady and Žižkov Prague_section_24

Other places Prague_section_25

Prague_unordered_list_1

  • Prague_item_1_8
  • Prague_item_1_9
  • Prague_item_1_10
  • Prague_item_1_11
  • Prague_item_1_12
  • Prague_item_1_13
  • Prague_item_1_14
  • Prague_item_1_15
  • Prague_item_1_16
  • Prague_item_1_17
  • Prague_item_1_18
  • Prague_item_1_19

Tourism statistics Prague_section_26

Prague_table_general_5

Top 10 tourism source countries in 2018Prague_table_caption_5
CountryPrague_header_cell_5_0_0 NumberPrague_header_cell_5_0_1 CountryPrague_header_cell_5_0_2 NumberPrague_header_cell_5_0_3
1.  GermanyPrague_cell_5_1_0 2,087,048Prague_cell_5_1_1 6.  SpainPrague_cell_5_1_2 641,011Prague_cell_5_1_3
2.  RussiaPrague_cell_5_2_0 1,395,958Prague_cell_5_2_1 7.  FrancePrague_cell_5_2_2 590,835Prague_cell_5_2_3
3.  United StatesPrague_cell_5_3_0 1,185,298Prague_cell_5_3_1 8.  ChinaPrague_cell_5_3_2 568,049Prague_cell_5_3_3
4.  United KingdomPrague_cell_5_4_0 1,091,314Prague_cell_5_4_1 9.  SlovakiaPrague_cell_5_4_2 551,864Prague_cell_5_4_3
5.  ItalyPrague_cell_5_5_0 926,576Prague_cell_5_5_1 10.  South KoreaPrague_cell_5_5_2 488,078Prague_cell_5_5_3

Education Prague_section_27

Nine public universities and thirty six private universities are located in the city, including: Prague_sentence_263

Public universities Prague_section_28

Public arts academies Prague_section_29

Some private colleges Prague_section_30

International institutions Prague_section_31

Science, research and hi-tech centres Prague_section_32

The region city of Prague is an important centre of research. Prague_sentence_264

It is the seat of 39 out of 54 institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences, including the largest ones, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Microbiology and the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry. Prague_sentence_265

It is also a seat of 10 public research institutes, four business incubators and large hospitals performing research and development activities such as the Motol University Hospital or Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, which was the largest transplant center in Europe as of 2019. Prague_sentence_266

Universities seated in Prague (see section Colleges and Universities) also represent important centres of science and research activities. Prague_sentence_267

As of 2008, there were 13,000 researchers (out of 30,000 in the country, counted in full-time equivalents), representing a 3% share of Prague's economically active population. Prague_sentence_268

Gross expenditure on research and development accounted for €901.3 million (41.5% of country's total). Prague_sentence_269

Some well-known multinational companies have established research and development facilities in Prague, among them Siemens, Honeywell, Oracle, Microsoft and Broadcom. Prague_sentence_270

Prague was selected to host administration of the EU satellite navigation system Galileo. Prague_sentence_271

It started to provide its first services in December 2016 and full completion is expected by 2020. Prague_sentence_272

Transport Prague_section_33

As of 2017, Prague had transport modal share: 52% of all trips are done in public transport, 24,5% in car, 22,4% on foot, 0,4% on bike and 0,5% by airplane. Prague_sentence_273

Public transportation Prague_section_34

The public transport infrastructure consists of a heavily used Prague Integrated Transport (PID, Pražská integrovaná doprava) of Prague Metro (lines A, B, and C – its length is 65 km (40 mi) with 61 stations in total), Prague tram system, Prague buses, commuter S-trains, funiculars, and six ferries. Prague_sentence_274

Prague has one of the highest rates of public transport usage in the world, with 1.2 billion passenger journeys per year. Prague_sentence_275

Prague has about 300 bus lines (numbers 100–960) and 34 tram lines (numbers 1–26 without 19 and 91–99 ). Prague_sentence_276

There are also three funiculars, one on Petřín Hill, one on Mrázovka Hill and a third at the Zoo in Troja. Prague_sentence_277

The Prague tram system now operates various types of trams, including the Tatra T3, newer Tatra KT8D5, T6A5, Škoda 14 T (designed by Porsche), newer modern Škoda 15 T and nostalgic tram lines 23 and 41. Prague_sentence_278

Around 400 vehicles are the modernized T3 class, which are typically operated coupled together in pairs. Prague_sentence_279

The Prague tram system is the twelfth longest in the world (142 km) and its rolling stock consists of 857 individual cars, which is the third largest in the world behind Moscow and Budapest. Prague_sentence_280

The system carries more than 360 million passengers annually, the highest tram patronage in the world after Budapest, on a per capita basis, Prague has the second highest tram patronage after Zürich. Prague_sentence_281

All services (metro, tramways, city buses, funiculars and ferries) have a common ticketing system that operates on a proof-of-payment system. Prague_sentence_282

Basic transfer ticket can be bought for a 30/90-minute ride, short-term tourist passes are available for periods of 24 hours or 3 days, longer-term tickets can be bought on the smart ticketing system Lítačka card, for periods of one month, three months or one year. Prague_sentence_283

Services are run by the Prague Public Transport Company (Dopravní podnik hl. Prague_sentence_284

m. Prahy, a. s.) and several other companies. Prague_sentence_285

Recently, the Regional Organiser of Prague Integrated Transport (ROPID) has franchised operation of ferries on the Vltava river, which are also a part of the public transport system with common fares. Prague_sentence_286

Taxi services make pick-ups on the streets or operate from regulated taxi stands. Prague_sentence_287

Prague Metro Prague_section_35

Main article: Prague Metro Prague_sentence_288

The Metro has three major lines extending throughout the city: A (green), B (yellow) and C (red). Prague_sentence_289

A fourth Metro line D is planned, which would connect the city centre to southern parts of the city. Prague_sentence_290

The Prague Metro system served 589.2 million passengers in 2012, making it the fifth busiest metro system in Europe and the most-patronised in the world on a per capita basis. Prague_sentence_291

The first section of the Prague metro was put into operation in 1974. Prague_sentence_292

It was the stretch between stations Kačerov and Florenc on the current line C. Prague_sentence_293

The first part of Line A was opened in 1978 (DejvickáNáměstí Míru), the first part of line B in 1985 (AndělFlorenc). Prague_sentence_294

In April 2015, construction finished to extend the green line A further into the northwest corner of Prague closer to the airport. Prague_sentence_295

A new interchange station for the bus in the direction of the airport is the station Nádraží Veleslavín. Prague_sentence_296

The final station of the green line is Nemocnice Motol (Motol Hospital), giving people direct public transportation access to the largest medical facility in the Czech Republic and one of the largest in Europe. Prague_sentence_297

A railway connection to the airport is planned. Prague_sentence_298

In operation there are two kinds of units: "81-71M" which is modernized variant of the Soviet Metrovagonmash 81-71 (completely modernized between 1995 and 2003) and new "Metro M1" trains (since 2000), manufactured by consortium consisting of Siemens, ČKD Praha and ADtranz. Prague_sentence_299

The minimum interval between two trains is 90 seconds. Prague_sentence_300

The original Soviet vehicles "Ečs" were excluded in 1997, but one vehicle is placed in public transport museum in depot Střešovice. Prague_sentence_301

The Náměstí Míru metro station is the deepest station and is equipped with the longest escalator in European Union. Prague_sentence_302

The Prague metro is generally considered very safe. Prague_sentence_303

Roads Prague_section_36

The main flow of traffic leads through the centre of the city and through inner and outer ring roads (partially in operation). Prague_sentence_304

Prague_unordered_list_2

  • Inner Ring Road (The City Ring "MO"): Once completed it will surround the wider central part of the city. The longest city tunnel in Europe with a length of 5.5 kilometres (3.4 miles) and five interchanges has been completed to relieve congestion in the north-western part of Prague. Called Blanka tunnel complex and part of the City Ring Road, it was estimated to eventually cost – after several increases – CZK 43 billion. Construction started in 2007 and, after repeated delays, the tunnel was officially opened in September 2015. This tunnel complex completes a major part of the inner ring road. It is expected that the whole city ring will not be completed before 2020.Prague_item_2_20
  • Outer Ring Road (The Prague Ring "D0"): This ring road will connect all major motorways and speedways that meet each other in Prague region and provide faster transit without a necessity to drive through the city. So far 39 km (24 mi), out of a total planned 83 km (52 mi), is in operation. The year of full completion is unknown due to incompetent, constantly changing, leadership of Czech Road and Motorway Directorate, lack of administrative preparations, and insufficient funding of road constructions. Most recently, the southern part of this road (with a length of more than 20 km (12 mi)) was opened on 22 September 2010.Prague_item_2_21

Rail Prague_section_37

The city forms the hub of the Czech railway system, with services to all parts of the country and abroad. Prague_sentence_305

The railway system links Prague with major European cities (which can be reached without transfers), including Berlin, Munich, Hamburg, Nurenberg and Dresden (Germany); Vienna, Graz and Linz (Austria); Warsaw and Cracow (Poland); Bratislava and Košice (Slovakia); Budapest (Hungary); Zürich (Switzerland); Split and Rijeka (Croatia, seasonal); Belgrade (Serbia, seasonal) and Moscow (Russia). Prague_sentence_306

Travel times range between 2 hours to Dresden and 28 hours to Moscow. Prague_sentence_307

Prague's main international railway station is Hlavní nádraží, rail services are also available from other main stations: Masarykovo nádraží, Holešovice and Smíchov, in addition to suburban stations. Prague_sentence_308

Commuter rail services operate under the name Esko Praha, which is part of PID (Prague Integrated Transport). Prague_sentence_309

Air Prague_section_38

Prague is served by Václav Havel Airport Prague, the largest airport in the Czech Republic and one of the largest and busiest airports in central and eastern Europe. Prague_sentence_310

The airport is the hub of carriers Smartwings and Czech Airlines operating throughout Europe. Prague_sentence_311

Other airports in Prague include the city's original airport in the north-eastern district of Kbely, which is serviced by the Czech Air Force, also internationally. Prague_sentence_312

It also houses the Prague Aviation Museum. Prague_sentence_313

The nearby Letňany Airport is mainly used for private aviation and aeroclub aviation. Prague_sentence_314

Another airport in the proximity is Aero Vodochody aircraft factory to the north, used for testing purposes, as well as for aeroclub aviation. Prague_sentence_315

There are a few aeroclubs around Prague, such as the Točná airfield. Prague_sentence_316

Cycling Prague_section_39

Main article: Cycling in Prague Prague_sentence_317

In 2018, 2% of people commute by bike in Prague, cycling is very common as a sport or recreation. Prague_sentence_318

As of 2017, there were 178 km (111 mi) of protected cycle paths and routes. Prague_sentence_319

Also, there were 48 km (30 mi) of bike lanes and 24 km (15 mi) of specially marked bus lanes that are free to be used by cyclists. Prague_sentence_320

Bike sharing is offered by four different companies, three of them are Czech. Prague_sentence_321

The first one is Rekola operating in Prague since 2013, which has 900 free flowing bikes around Prague as of 2019. Prague_sentence_322

The second one is called Freebike and it is operated by Homeport, it is operating 450 electric bikes in Prague as of 2019. Prague_sentence_323

The third one is Velonet, operating less than 50 bikes in Prague 4. Prague_sentence_324

Since 2018, scooter sharing is offered by American transportation company Lime which operates more than 1000 electric scooters in Prague as of 2019. Prague_sentence_325

Sport Prague_section_40

See also: Football in Prague Prague_sentence_326

Prague is the site of many sports events, national stadiums and teams. Prague_sentence_327

International relations Prague_section_41

The city of Prague maintains its own EU delegation in Brussels called Prague House. Prague_sentence_328

Prague was the location of U.S. Prague_sentence_329 President Barack Obama's speech on 5 April 2009, which led to the New START treaty with Russia, signed in Prague on 8 April 2010. Prague_sentence_330

The annual conference Forum 2000, which was founded by former Czech President Václav Havel, Japanese philanthropist Yōhei Sasakawa, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Elie Wiesel in 1996, is held in Prague. Prague_sentence_331

Its main objective is "to identify the key issues facing civilization and to explore ways to prevent the escalation of conflicts that have religion, culture or ethnicity as their primary components", and also intends to promote democracy in non-democratic countries and to support civil society. Prague_sentence_332

Conferences have attracted a number of prominent thinkers, Nobel laureates, former and acting politicians, business leaders and other individuals like: Frederik Willem de Klerk, Bill Clinton, Nicholas Winton, Oscar Arias Sánchez, Dalai Lama, Hans Küng, Shimon Peres and Madeleine Albright. Prague_sentence_333

Twin towns – sister cities Prague_section_42

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the Czech Republic Prague_sentence_334

Prague is twinned with: Prague_sentence_335

Namesakes Prague_section_43

A number of other settlements are derived or similar to the name of Prague. Prague_sentence_336

In many of these cases, Czech emigration has left a number of namesake cities scattered over the globe, with a notable concentration in the New World. Prague_sentence_337

Prague_table_general_6

Additionally, Kłodzko is sometimes referred to as "Little Prague" (German: Klein-Prag). Prague_sentence_338

Although now in Poland, it had been traditionally a part of Bohemia until 1763 when it became part of Silesia. Prague_sentence_339

See also Prague_section_44

Prague_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prague.