President of the United States

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"POTUS" redirects here. President of the United States_sentence_0

For the political talk radio channel, see P.O.T.U.S. President of the United States_sentence_1 (Sirius XM). President of the United States_sentence_2

For a list, see List of presidents of the United States. President of the United States_sentence_3

For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). President of the United States_sentence_4

President of the United States_table_infobox_0

President of the

United States of AmericaPresident of the United States_header_cell_0_0_0

StylePresident of the United States_header_cell_0_1_0 President of the United States_cell_0_1_1
StatusPresident of the United States_header_cell_0_2_0 President of the United States_cell_0_2_1
AbbreviationPresident of the United States_header_cell_0_3_0 POTUSPresident of the United States_cell_0_3_1
Member ofPresident of the United States_header_cell_0_4_0 President of the United States_cell_0_4_1
ResidencePresident of the United States_header_cell_0_5_0 White HousePresident of the United States_cell_0_5_1
SeatPresident of the United States_header_cell_0_6_0 Washington, D.C.President of the United States_cell_0_6_1
AppointerPresident of the United States_header_cell_0_7_0 Electoral CollegePresident of the United States_cell_0_7_1
Term lengthPresident of the United States_header_cell_0_8_0 Four years, renewable oncePresident of the United States_cell_0_8_1
Constituting instrumentPresident of the United States_header_cell_0_9_0 Constitution of the United StatesPresident of the United States_cell_0_9_1
FormationPresident of the United States_header_cell_0_10_0 June 21, 1788

(232 years ago) (1788-06-21)President of the United States_cell_0_10_1

First holderPresident of the United States_header_cell_0_11_0 George WashingtonPresident of the United States_cell_0_11_1
SalaryPresident of the United States_header_cell_0_12_0 $400,000 annuallyPresident of the United States_cell_0_12_1
WebsitePresident of the United States_header_cell_0_13_0 President of the United States_cell_0_13_1

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. President of the United States_sentence_5

The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. President of the United States_sentence_6

The power of the presidency has grown substantially since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. President of the United States_sentence_7

While presidential power has ebbed and flowed over time, the presidency has played an increasingly strong role in American political life since the beginning of the 20th century, with a notable expansion during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. President of the United States_sentence_8

In contemporary times, the president is also looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower. President of the United States_sentence_9

As the leader of the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP, the president possesses significant domestic and international hard and soft power. President of the United States_sentence_10

Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government and vests the executive power in the president. President of the United States_sentence_11

The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law and the responsibility to appoint federal executive, diplomatic, regulatory, and judicial officers. President of the United States_sentence_12

Based on constitutional provisions empowering the president to appoint and receive ambassadors and conclude treaties with foreign powers, and on subsequent laws enacted by Congress, the modern presidency has primary responsibility for conducting U.S. foreign policy. President of the United States_sentence_13

The role includes responsibility for directing the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. President of the United States_sentence_14

The president also plays a leading role in federal legislation and domestic policymaking. President of the United States_sentence_15

As part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation. President of the United States_sentence_16

Since modern presidents are also typically viewed as the leaders of their political parties, major policymaking is significantly shaped by the outcome of presidential elections, with presidents taking an active role in promoting their policy priorities to members of Congress who are often electorally dependent on the president. President of the United States_sentence_17

In recent decades, presidents have also made increasing use of executive orders, agency regulations, and judicial appointments to shape domestic policy. President of the United States_sentence_18

The president is elected indirectly through the Electoral College to a four-year term, along with the vice president. President of the United States_sentence_19

Under the Twenty-second Amendment, ratified in 1951, no person who has been elected to two presidential terms may be elected to a third. President of the United States_sentence_20

In addition, nine vice presidents have become president by virtue of a president's intra-term death or resignation. President of the United States_sentence_21

In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. President of the United States_sentence_22

Donald Trump is the 45th and incumbent president of the United States, having assumed office on January 20, 2017. President of the United States_sentence_23

Joe Biden was elected president on November 3, 2020. President of the United States_sentence_24

He will assume office on January 20, 2021. President of the United States_sentence_25

History and development President of the United States_section_0

Origins President of the United States_section_1

In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. President of the United States_sentence_26

Recognizing the necessity of closely coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress simultaneously began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. President of the United States_sentence_27

There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, and the exact powers to be given the central government. President of the United States_sentence_28

Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification. President of the United States_sentence_29

Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. President of the United States_sentence_30

It could make its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens. President of the United States_sentence_31

This institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. President of the United States_sentence_32

The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some formerly royal prerogatives (e.g., making war, receiving ambassadors, etc.) to Congress; the remaining prerogatives were lodged within their own respective state governments. President of the United States_sentence_33

The members of Congress elected a president of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. President of the United States_sentence_34

Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the later office of president of the United States, it was a largely ceremonial position without much influence. President of the United States_sentence_35

In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies. President of the United States_sentence_36

With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. President of the United States_sentence_37

By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another. President of the United States_sentence_38

They witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, and their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. President of the United States_sentence_39

Civil and political unrest loomed. President of the United States_sentence_40

Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, Maryland, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms. President of the United States_sentence_41

When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia. President of the United States_sentence_42

Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. President of the United States_sentence_43

When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rhode Island did not send delegates) brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective state governments. President of the United States_sentence_44

Most states maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature. President of the United States_sentence_45

New York offered the greatest exception, having a strong, unitary governor with veto and appointment power elected to a three-year term, and eligible for reelection to an indefinite number of terms thereafter. President of the United States_sentence_46

It was through the closed-door negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U.S. President of the United States_sentence_47 Constitution emerged. President of the United States_sentence_48

Development President of the United States_section_2

As the nation's first president, George Washington established many norms that would come to define the office. President of the United States_sentence_49

His decision to retire after two terms helped address fears that the nation would devolve into monarchy, and established a precedent that would not be broken until 1940 and would eventually be made permanent by the Twenty-Second Amendment. President of the United States_sentence_50

By the end of his presidency, political parties had developed, with John Adams defeating Thomas Jefferson in 1796, the first truly contested presidential election. President of the United States_sentence_51

After Jefferson defeated Adams in 1800, he and his fellow Virginians James Madison and James Monroe would each serve two terms, eventually dominating the nation's politics during the Era of Good Feelings until Adams' son John Quincy Adams won election in 1824 after the Democratic-Republican Party split. President of the United States_sentence_52

The election of Andrew Jackson in 1828 was a significant milestone, as Jackson was not part of the Virginia and Massachusetts elite that had held the presidency for its first 40 years. President of the United States_sentence_53

Jacksonian democracy sought to strengthen the presidency at the expense of Congress, while broadening public participation as the nation rapidly expanded westward. President of the United States_sentence_54

However, his successor, Martin Van Buren, became unpopular after the Panic of 1837, and the death of William Henry Harrison and subsequent poor relations between John Tyler and Congress led to further weakening of the office. President of the United States_sentence_55

Including Van Buren, in the 24 years between 1837 and 1861, six presidential terms would be filled by eight different men, with none winning re-election. President of the United States_sentence_56

The Senate played an important role during this period, with the Great Triumvirate of Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun playing key roles in shaping national policy in the 1830s and 1840s until debates over slavery began pulling the nation apart in the 1850s. President of the United States_sentence_57

Abraham Lincoln's leadership during the Civil War has led historians to regard him as one of the nation's greatest presidents. President of the United States_sentence_58

The circumstances of the war and Republican domination of Congress made the office very powerful, and Lincoln's re-election in 1864 was the first time a president had been re-elected since Jackson in 1832. President of the United States_sentence_59

After Lincoln's assassination, his successor Andrew Johnson lost all political support and was nearly removed from office, with Congress remaining powerful during the two-term presidency of Civil War general Ulysses S. Grant. President of the United States_sentence_60

After the end of Reconstruction, Grover Cleveland would eventually become the first Democratic president elected since before the war, running in three consecutive elections (1884, 1888, 1892) and winning twice. President of the United States_sentence_61

In 1900, William McKinley became the first incumbent to win re-election since Grant in 1872. President of the United States_sentence_62

After McKinley's assassination, Theodore Roosevelt became a dominant figure in American politics. President of the United States_sentence_63

Historians believe Roosevelt permanently changed the political system by strengthening the presidency, with some key accomplishments including breaking up trusts, conservationism, labor reforms, making personal character as important as the issues, and hand-picking his successor, William Howard Taft. President of the United States_sentence_64

The following decade, Woodrow Wilson led the nation to victory during World War I, although Wilson's proposal for the League of Nations was rejected by the Senate. President of the United States_sentence_65

Warren Harding, while popular in office, would see his legacy tarnished by scandals, especially Teapot Dome, and Herbert Hoover quickly became very unpopular after failing to successfully combat the Great Depression. President of the United States_sentence_66

Imperial Presidency President of the United States_section_3

Main article: Imperial Presidency President of the United States_sentence_67

The ascendancy of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the election of 1932 led further toward what historians now describe as the Imperial Presidency. President of the United States_sentence_68

Backed by enormous Democratic majorities in Congress and public support for major change, Roosevelt's New Deal dramatically increased the size and scope of the federal government, including more executive agencies. President of the United States_sentence_69

The traditionally small presidential staff was greatly expanded, with the Executive Office of the President being created in 1939, none of whom require Senate confirmation. President of the United States_sentence_70

Roosevelt's unprecedented re-election to a third and fourth term, the victory of the United States in World War II, and the nation's growing economy all helped established the office as a position of global leadership. President of the United States_sentence_71

His successors, Harry Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower, were each re-elected as the Cold War led the presidency to be viewed as the "leader of the free world," while John F. Kennedy was a youthful and popular leader who benefitted from the rise of television in the 1960s. President of the United States_sentence_72

After Lyndon B. Johnson lost popular support due to the Vietnam War and Richard Nixon's presidency collapsed in the Watergate scandal, Congress enacted a series of reforms intended to reassert itself. President of the United States_sentence_73

These included the War Powers Resolution, enacted over Nixon's veto in 1973, and the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 that sought to strengthen congressional fiscal powers. President of the United States_sentence_74

By 1976, Gerald Ford conceded that "the historic pendulum" had swung toward Congress, raising the possibility of a "disruptive" erosion of his ability to govern. President of the United States_sentence_75

Both Ford and his successor, Jimmy Carter, failed to win re-election. President of the United States_sentence_76

Ronald Reagan, who had been an actor before beginning his political career, used his talent as a communicator to help re-shape the American agenda away from New Deal policies toward more conservative ideology. President of the United States_sentence_77

His vice president, George H. W. Bush, would become the first vice president since 1836 to be directly elected to the presidency. President of the United States_sentence_78

With the Cold War ending and the United States becoming the world's undisputed leading power, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama each served two terms as president. President of the United States_sentence_79

Meanwhile, Congress and the nation gradually became more politically polarized, especially following the 1994 mid-term elections that saw Republicans control the House for the first time in 40 years, and the rise of routine filibusters in the Senate in recent decades. President of the United States_sentence_80

Recent presidents have thus increasingly focused on executive orders, agency regulations, and judicial appointments to implement major policies, at the expense of legislation and congressional power. President of the United States_sentence_81

Presidential elections in the 21st century have reflected this continuing polarization, with no candidate except Obama in 2008 winning by more than five percent of the popular vote and two — George W. Bush and Donald Trump — winning in the Electoral College while losing the popular vote. President of the United States_sentence_82

Both Clinton and Trump were impeached by a House controlled by the opposition party, but the impeachments did not appear to have long-term effects on their political standing. President of the United States_sentence_83

Critics of presidency's evolution President of the United States_section_4

The nation's Founding Fathers expected the Congress—which was the first branch of government described in the Constitution—to be the dominant branch of government; they did not expect a strong executive department. President of the United States_sentence_84

However, presidential power has shifted over time, which has resulted in claims that the modern presidency has become too powerful, unchecked, unbalanced, and "monarchist" in nature. President of the United States_sentence_85

Professor Dana D. Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies". President of the United States_sentence_86

She criticizes proponents of the unitary executive for expanding "the many existing uncheckable executive powers—such as executive orders, decrees, memorandums, proclamations, national security directives and legislative signing statements—that already allow presidents to enact a good deal of foreign and domestic policy without aid, interference or consent from Congress". President of the United States_sentence_87

Bill Wilson, board member of Americans for Limited Government, opined that the expanded presidency was "the greatest threat ever to individual freedom and democratic rule". President of the United States_sentence_88

Legislative powers President of the United States_section_5

Article I, Section 1 of the Constitution vests all lawmaking power in Congress's hands, and Article 1, Section 6, Clause 2 prevents the president (and all other executive branch officers) from simultaneously being a member of Congress. President of the United States_sentence_89

Nevertheless, the modern presidency exerts significant power over legislation, both due to constitutional provisions and historical developments over time. President of the United States_sentence_90

Signing and vetoing bills President of the United States_section_6

The president's most significant legislative power derives from the Presentment Clause, which gives the President the power to veto any bill passed by Congress. President of the United States_sentence_91

While Congress can override a presidential veto, it requires a two-thirds vote of both houses, which is usually very difficult to achieve except for widely supported bipartisan legislation. President of the United States_sentence_92

The framers of the Constitution feared that Congress would seek to increase its power and enable a "tyranny of the majority," so giving the indirectly-elected president a veto was viewed as an important check on the legislative power. President of the United States_sentence_93

While George Washington believed the veto should only be used in cases where a bill was unconstitutional, it is now routinely used in cases where presidents have policy disagreements with a bill. President of the United States_sentence_94

The veto – or threat of a veto – has thus evolved to make the modern presidency a central part of the American legislative process. President of the United States_sentence_95

Specifically, under the Presentment Clause, once a bill has been presented by Congress, the president has three options: President of the United States_sentence_96

President of the United States_ordered_list_0

  1. Sign the legislation within ten days, excluding Sundays—the bill becomes law.President of the United States_item_0_0
  2. Veto the legislation within the above timeframe and return it to the house of Congress from which it originated, expressing any objections—the bill does not become law, unless both houses of Congress vote to override the veto by a two-thirds vote.President of the United States_item_0_1
  3. Take no action on the legislation within the above timeframe—the bill becomes law, as if the president had signed it, unless Congress is adjourned at the time, in which case it does not become law (a pocket veto).President of the United States_item_0_2

In 1996, Congress attempted to enhance the president's veto power with the Line Item Veto Act. President of the United States_sentence_97

The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit. President of the United States_sentence_98

Congress could then repass that particular item. President of the United States_sentence_99

If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses. President of the United States_sentence_100

In Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. President of the United States_sentence_101

(1998), the U.S. President of the United States_sentence_102 Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional. President of the United States_sentence_103

Setting the agenda President of the United States_section_7

For most of American history, candidates for president have sought election on the basis of a promised legislative agenda. President of the United States_sentence_104

Formally, Article II, Section 3, Clause 2 requires the president to recommend such measures to Congress which the president deems "necessary and expedient." President of the United States_sentence_105

This is done through the constitutionally-based State of the Union address, which usually outlines the president's legislative proposals for the coming year, and through other formal and informal communications with Congress. President of the United States_sentence_106

The president can be involved in crafting legislation by suggesting, requesting, or even insisting that Congress enact laws he believes are needed. President of the United States_sentence_107

Additionally, he can attempt to shape legislation during the legislative process by exerting influence on individual members of Congress. President of the United States_sentence_108

Presidents possess this power because the Constitution is silent about who can write legislation, but the power is limited because only members of Congress can introduce legislation. President of the United States_sentence_109

The president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress. President of the United States_sentence_110

Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made. President of the United States_sentence_111

Promulgating regulations President of the United States_section_8

Many laws enacted by Congress do not address every possible detail, and either explicitly or implicitly delegate powers of implementation to an appropriate federal agency. President of the United States_sentence_112

As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress. President of the United States_sentence_113

In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents. President of the United States_sentence_114

One critic charged that presidents could appoint a "virtual army of 'czars'—each wholly unaccountable to Congress yet tasked with spearheading major policy efforts for the White House". President of the United States_sentence_115

Presidents have been criticized for making signing statements when signing congressional legislation about how they understand a bill or plan to execute it. President of the United States_sentence_116

This practice has been criticized by the American Bar Association as unconstitutional. President of the United States_sentence_117

Conservative commentator George Will wrote of an "increasingly swollen executive branch" and "the eclipse of Congress". President of the United States_sentence_118

Convening and adjourning Congress President of the United States_section_9

To allow the government to act quickly in case of a major domestic or international crisis arising when Congress is not in session, the president is empowered by Article II, Section 3 of the Constitution to call a special session of one or both houses of Congress. President of the United States_sentence_119

Since John Adams first did so in 1797, the president has called the full Congress to convene for a special session on 27 occasions. President of the United States_sentence_120

Harry S. Truman was the most recent to do so in July 1948 (the so-called "Turnip Day Session"). President of the United States_sentence_121

In addition, prior to ratification of the Twentieth Amendment in 1933, which brought forward the date on which Congress convenes from December to January, newly inaugurated presidents would routinely call the Senate to meet to confirm nominations or ratify treaties. President of the United States_sentence_122

In practice, the power has fallen into disuse in the modern era as Congress now formally remains in session year-round, convening pro forma sessions every three days even when ostensibly in recess. President of the United States_sentence_123

Correspondingly, the president is authorized to adjourn Congress if the House and Senate cannot agree on the time of adjournment; no president has ever had to exercise this power. President of the United States_sentence_124

Executive powers President of the United States_section_10

Main article: Powers of the president of the United States President of the United States_sentence_125

The president is head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed". President of the United States_sentence_126

The executive branch has over four million employees, including the military. President of the United States_sentence_127

Administrative powers President of the United States_section_11

Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: an incoming president may make up to 6,000 before taking office and 8,000 more while serving. President of the United States_sentence_128

Ambassadors, members of the Cabinet, and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the "advice and consent" of a majority of the Senate. President of the United States_sentence_129

When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. President of the United States_sentence_130

Recess appointments are temporary and expire at the end of the next session of the Senate. President of the United States_sentence_131

The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue. President of the United States_sentence_132

Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. President of the United States_sentence_133

However, Congress can curtail and constrain a president's authority to fire commissioners of independent regulatory agencies and certain inferior executive officers by statute. President of the United States_sentence_134

To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States. President of the United States_sentence_135

Within the Executive Office, the president's innermost layer of aides (and their assistants) are located in the White House Office. President of the United States_sentence_136

The president also possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders. President of the United States_sentence_137

When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad. President of the United States_sentence_138

Even so, these directives are subject to judicial review by U.S. federal courts, which can find them to be unconstitutional. President of the United States_sentence_139

Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order through legislation (e.g., Congressional Review Act). President of the United States_sentence_140

Foreign affairs President of the United States_section_12

Article II, Section 3, Clause 4 requires the president to "receive Ambassadors." President of the United States_sentence_141

This clause, known as the Reception Clause, has been interpreted to imply that the president possesses broad power over matters of foreign policy, and to provide support for the president's exclusive authority to grant recognition to a foreign government. President of the United States_sentence_142

The Constitution also empowers the president to appoint United States ambassadors, and to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries. President of the United States_sentence_143

Such agreements, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate (by a two-thirds majority vote), become binding with the force of federal law. President of the United States_sentence_144

While foreign affairs has always been a significant element of presidential responsibilities, advances in technology since the Constitution's adoption have increased presidential power. President of the United States_sentence_145

Where formerly ambassadors were vested with significant power to independently negotiate on behalf of the United States, presidents now routinely meet directly with leaders of foreign countries. President of the United States_sentence_146

Commander-in-chief President of the United States_section_13

One of the most important of executive powers is the president's role as commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. President of the United States_sentence_147

The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military. President of the United States_sentence_148

The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the president as commander-in-chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the president wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority. President of the United States_sentence_149

The framers of the Constitution took care to limit the president's powers regarding the military; Alexander Hamilton explained this in Federalist No. President of the United States_sentence_150 69: President of the United States_sentence_151

In the modern era, pursuant to the War Powers Resolution, Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual. President of the United States_sentence_152

Additionally, Congress provides a check to presidential military power through its control over military spending and regulation. President of the United States_sentence_153

Presidents have historically initiated the process for going to war, but critics have charged that there have been several conflicts in which presidents did not get official declarations, including Theodore Roosevelt's military move into Panama in 1903, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the invasions of Grenada in 1983 and Panama in 1989. President of the United States_sentence_154

The amount of military detail handled personally by the president in wartime has varied greatly. President of the United States_sentence_155

George Washington, the first U.S. president, firmly established military subordination under civilian authority. President of the United States_sentence_156

In 1794, Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12,000 militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion—a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay an excise tax on spirits. President of the United States_sentence_157

According to historian Joseph Ellis, this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington, D.C., during the War of 1812. President of the United States_sentence_158

Abraham Lincoln was deeply involved in overall strategy and in day-to-day operations during the American Civil War, 1861–1865; historians have given Lincoln high praise for his strategic sense and his ability to select and encourage commanders such as Ulysses S. Grant. President of the United States_sentence_159

The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the secretary of defense. President of the United States_sentence_160

The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combatant Commands assist with the operation as outlined in the presidentially approved Unified Command Plan (UCP). President of the United States_sentence_161

Juridical powers and privileges President of the United States_section_14

For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the president of the United States. President of the United States_sentence_162

The president has the power to nominate federal judges, including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States. President of the United States_sentence_163

However, these nominations require Senate confirmation before they may take office. President of the United States_sentence_164

Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance. President of the United States_sentence_165

When nominating judges to U.S. President of the United States_sentence_166 district courts, presidents often respect the long-standing tradition of senatorial courtesy. President of the United States_sentence_167

Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. President of the United States_sentence_168

Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office. President of the United States_sentence_169

Presidents often grant pardons shortly before leaving office, like when Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office; this is often controversial. President of the United States_sentence_170

Two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy. President of the United States_sentence_171

The first is executive privilege, which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties. President of the United States_sentence_172

George Washington first claimed the privilege when Congress requested to see Chief Justice John Jay's notes from an unpopular treaty negotiation with Great Britain. President of the United States_sentence_173

While not enshrined in the Constitution or any other law, Washington's action created the precedent for the privilege. President of the United States_sentence_174

When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal, the Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. President of the United States_sentence_175

(1974), that executive privilege did not apply in cases where a president was attempting to avoid criminal prosecution. President of the United States_sentence_176

When Bill Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal, the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v. Jones, 520 U.S. President of the United States_sentence_177

(1997), that the privilege also could not be used in civil suits. President of the United States_sentence_178

These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined. President of the United States_sentence_179

Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president. President of the United States_sentence_180

The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security. President of the United States_sentence_181

Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v. United States 92 U.S. President of the United States_sentence_182

(1876), when the Supreme Court dismissed a case brought by a former Union spy. President of the United States_sentence_183

However, the privilege was not formally recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court until United States v. Reynolds 345 U.S. President of the United States_sentence_184

(1953), where it was held to be a common law evidentiary privilege. President of the United States_sentence_185

Before the September 11 attacks, use of the privilege had been rare, but increasing in frequency. President of the United States_sentence_186

Since 2001, the government has asserted the privilege in more cases and at earlier stages of the litigation, thus in some instances causing dismissal of the suits before reaching the merits of the claims, as in the Ninth Circuit's ruling in Mohamed v. Jeppesen Dataplan, Inc. Critics of the privilege claim its use has become a tool for the government to cover up illegal or embarrassing government actions. President of the United States_sentence_187

The degree to which the president personally has absolute immunity from court cases is contested and has been the subject of several Supreme Court decisions. President of the United States_sentence_188

Nixon v. Fitzgerald (1982) dismissed a civil lawsuit against by-then former president Richard Nixon based on his official actions. President of the United States_sentence_189

Clinton v. Jones (1997) decided that a president has no immunity against civil suits for actions taken before becoming president, and ruled that a sexual harassment suit could proceed without delay, even against a sitting president. President of the United States_sentence_190

The 2019 Mueller Report on Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election detailed evidence of possible obstruction of justice, but investigators declined to refer Donald Trump for prosecution based on a United States Department of Justice policy against indicting an incumbent president. President of the United States_sentence_191

The report noted that impeachment by Congress was available as a remedy. President of the United States_sentence_192

As of October 2019, a case was pending in the federal courts regarding access to personal tax returns in a criminal case brought against Donald Trump by the New York County District Attorney alleging violations of New York state law. President of the United States_sentence_193

Leadership roles President of the United States_section_15

Head of state President of the United States_section_16

As head of state, the president represents the United States government to its own people, and represents the nation to the rest of the world. President of the United States_sentence_194

For example, during a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn, a custom was begun by John F. Kennedy in 1961. President of the United States_sentence_195

This is followed by a state dinner given by the president which is held in the State Dining Room later in the evening. President of the United States_sentence_196

As a national leader, the president also fulfills many less formal ceremonial duties. President of the United States_sentence_197

For example, William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in 1910 at Griffith Stadium, Washington, D.C., on the Washington Senators's Opening Day. President of the United States_sentence_198

Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter, threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game, or the World Series, usually with much fanfare. President of the United States_sentence_199

Every president since Theodore Roosevelt has served as honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America. President of the United States_sentence_200

Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays. President of the United States_sentence_201

Rutherford B. Hayes began in 1878 the first White House egg rolling for local children. President of the United States_sentence_202

Beginning in 1947, during the Harry S. Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House. President of the United States_sentence_203

Since 1989, when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. W. Bush, the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life. President of the United States_sentence_204

Presidential traditions also involve the president's role as head of government. President of the United States_sentence_205

Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition. President of the United States_sentence_206

Ronald Reagan and his successors have also left a private message on the desk of the Oval Office on Inauguration Day for the incoming president. President of the United States_sentence_207

The modern presidency holds the president as one of the nation's premier celebrities. President of the United States_sentence_208

Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves. President of the United States_sentence_209

One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office". President of the United States_sentence_210

Administration public relations managers staged carefully crafted photo-ops of smiling presidents with smiling crowds for television cameras. President of the United States_sentence_211

One critic wrote the image of John F. Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT 109 and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions. President of the United States_sentence_212

As a result, some political commentators have opined that American voters have unrealistic expectations of presidents: voters expect a president to "drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees". President of the United States_sentence_213

Head of party President of the United States_section_17

The president is typically considered to be the head of his or her political party. President of the United States_sentence_214

Since the entire House of Representatives and at least one-third of the Senate is elected simultaneously with the president, candidates from a political party inevitably have their electoral success intertwined with the performance of the party's presidential candidate. President of the United States_sentence_215

The coattail effect, or lack thereof, will also often impact a party's candidates at state and local levels of government as well. President of the United States_sentence_216

However, there are often tensions between a president and others in the party, with presidents who lose significant support from their party's caucus in Congress generally viewed to be weaker and less effective. President of the United States_sentence_217

Global leader President of the United States_section_18

With the rise of the United States as a superpower in the 20th century, and the United States having the world's largest economy into the 21st century, the president is typically viewed as a global leader, and at times the world's most powerful political figure. President of the United States_sentence_218

The position of the United States as the leading member of NATO, and the country's strong relationships with other wealthy or democratic nations like those comprising the European Union, have led to the moniker that the president is the "leader of the free world." President of the United States_sentence_219

Selection process President of the United States_section_19

Eligibility President of the United States_section_20

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency. President of the United States_sentence_220

To serve as president, one must: President of the United States_sentence_221

President of the United States_unordered_list_1

  • be a natural-born citizen of the United States;President of the United States_item_1_3
  • be at least 35 years old;President of the United States_item_1_4
  • be a resident in the United States for at least 14 years.President of the United States_item_1_5

A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions: President of the United States_sentence_222

President of the United States_unordered_list_2

  • The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits the election of a person to a third term as president. The amendment also specifies that if any eligible person serves as president or acting president for more than two years of a term for which some other eligible person was elected president, that person can be elected president only once.President of the United States_item_2_6
  • Under Article I, Section 3, Clause 7, upon conviction in impeachment cases, the Senate has the option of disqualifying convicted individuals from holding federal office, including that of president.President of the United States_item_2_7
  • Section 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment prohibits the election of any person as president who swore an oath to support the Constitution and later rebelled against the United States. However, this disqualification can be lifted by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress.President of the United States_item_2_8

Campaigns and nomination President of the United States_section_21

Main articles: United States presidential primary and United States presidential nominating convention President of the United States_sentence_223

See also: United States presidential debates President of the United States_sentence_224

The modern presidential campaign begins before the primary elections, which the two major political parties use to clear the field of candidates before their national nominating conventions, where the most successful candidate is made the party's presidential nominee. President of the United States_sentence_225

Typically, the party's presidential candidate chooses a vice presidential nominee, and this choice is rubber-stamped by the convention. President of the United States_sentence_226

The most common previous profession of presidents is lawyer. President of the United States_sentence_227

Nominees participate in nationally televised debates, and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the 1992 debates. President of the United States_sentence_228

Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. President of the United States_sentence_229

Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives. President of the United States_sentence_230

Election President of the United States_section_22

Main article: United States presidential election President of the United States_sentence_231

See also: United States Electoral College President of the United States_sentence_232

The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms. President of the United States_sentence_233

As prescribed by Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress. President of the United States_sentence_234

Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state. President of the United States_sentence_235

Currently, all states and the District of Columbia select their electors based on a popular election. President of the United States_sentence_236

In all but two states, the party whose presidential–vice presidential ticket receives a plurality of popular votes in the state has its entire slate of elector nominees chosen as the state's electors. President of the United States_sentence_237

Maine and Nebraska deviate from this winner-take-all practice, awarding two electors to the statewide winner and one to the winner in each congressional district. President of the United States_sentence_238

On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals (and in Washington, D.C.) to vote for president and, on a separate ballot, for vice president. President of the United States_sentence_239

They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. President of the United States_sentence_240

While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 32 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged. President of the United States_sentence_241

The constitutionality of these laws was upheld in Chiafalo v. Washington (2020). President of the United States_sentence_242

Following the vote, each state then sends a certified record of their electoral votes to Congress. President of the United States_sentence_243

The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January. President of the United States_sentence_244

If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president (currently 270 of 538), that person is declared the winner. President of the United States_sentence_245

Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top three electoral vote-getters for president. President of the United States_sentence_246

For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states (currently 26 of 50). President of the United States_sentence_247

There have been two contingent presidential elections in the nation's history. President of the United States_sentence_248

A 73–73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of 1800 necessitated the first. President of the United States_sentence_249

Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner-up would become vice president. President of the United States_sentence_250

On February 17, 1801, Jefferson was elected president on the 36th ballot, and Burr elected vice president. President of the United States_sentence_251

Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the 1804 election. President of the United States_sentence_252

A quarter-century later, the choice for president again devolved to the House when no candidate won an absolute majority of electoral votes (131 of 261) in the election of 1824. President of the United States_sentence_253

Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and William H. Crawford. President of the United States_sentence_254

Held February 9, 1825, this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot. President of the United States_sentence_255

Inauguration President of the United States_section_23

Main article: United States presidential inauguration President of the United States_sentence_256

Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment, the four-year term of office for both the president and the vice president begins at noon on January 20. President of the United States_sentence_257

The first presidential and vice presidential terms to begin on this date, known as Inauguration Day, were the second terms of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Vice President John Nance Garner in 1937. President of the United States_sentence_258

Previously, Inauguration Day was on March 4. President of the United States_sentence_259

As a result of the date change, the first term (1933–37) of both men had been shortened by 43 days. President of the United States_sentence_260

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential Oath of Office, found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8 of the Constitution. President of the United States_sentence_261

This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution: President of the United States_sentence_262

Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath. President of the United States_sentence_263

Although the oath may be administered by any person authorized by law to administer oaths, presidents are traditionally sworn in by the chief justice of the United States. President of the United States_sentence_264

Incumbency President of the United States_section_24

Term limit President of the United States_section_25

When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent. President of the United States_sentence_265

Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe. President of the United States_sentence_266

In spite of the strong two-term tradition, Ulysses S. Grant unsuccessfully sought a non-consecutive third term in 1880. President of the United States_sentence_267

In 1940, after leading the nation through the Great Depression, Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the long-standing precedent. President of the United States_sentence_268

Four years later, with the U.S. engaged in World War II, he was re-elected again despite his declining physical health; he died 82 days into his fourth term on April 12, 1945. President of the United States_sentence_269

In response to the unprecedented length of Roosevelt's presidency, the Twenty-second Amendment was adopted in 1951. President of the United States_sentence_270

The amendment bars anyone from being elected president more than twice, or once if that person served more than two years (24 months) of another president's four-year term. President of the United States_sentence_271

Harry S. Truman, president when this term limit came into force, was exempted from its limitations, and briefly sought a second full term—to which he would have otherwise been ineligible for election, as he had been president for more than two years of Roosevelt's fourth term—before he withdrew from the 1952 election. President of the United States_sentence_272

Since the amendment's adoption, five presidents have served two full terms: Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama. President of the United States_sentence_273

Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush and Donald Trump each sought a second term but were defeated. President of the United States_sentence_274

Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. President of the United States_sentence_275

Lyndon B. Johnson, having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F. Kennedy's unexpired term, was eligible for a second full term in 1968, but he withdrew from the Democratic primary. President of the United States_sentence_276

Additionally, Gerald Ford, who served out the last two years and five months of Nixon's second term, sought a full term but was defeated by Jimmy Carter in the 1976 election. President of the United States_sentence_277

Vacancies and succession President of the United States_section_26

Under Section 1 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, the vice president becomes president upon the removal from office, death, or resignation of the president. President of the United States_sentence_278

Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred. President of the United States_sentence_279

The original Constitution, in Article II, Section 1, Clause 6, stated only that the vice president assumes the "powers and duties" of the presidency in the event of a president's removal, death, resignation, or inability. President of the United States_sentence_280

Under this clause, there was ambiguity about whether the vice president would actually become president in the event of a vacancy, or simply act as president, potentially resulting in a special election. President of the United States_sentence_281

Upon the death of William Henry Harrison in 1841, Vice President John Tyler declared that he had succeeded to the office itself, refusing to accept any papers addressed to the "Acting President," and Congress ultimately accepted it. President of the United States_sentence_282

This established a precedent for future successions, although it was not formally clarified until the Twenty-fifth Amendment was ratified. President of the United States_sentence_283

In the event of a double vacancy, Article II, Section 1, Clause 6 also authorizes Congress to declare who shall become acting president in the "Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the president and vice president". President of the United States_sentence_284

The Presidential Succession Act of 1947 (codified as 3 U.S.C. ) provides that if both the president and vice president have left office or are both otherwise unavailable to serve during their terms of office, the presidential line of succession follows the order of: speaker of the House, then, if necessary, the president pro tempore of the Senate, and then if necessary, the eligible heads of federal executive departments who form the president's cabinet. President of the United States_sentence_285

The cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the secretary of state is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department (or the department of which their department is the successor) was created. President of the United States_sentence_286

Those individuals who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession. President of the United States_sentence_287

No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. President of the United States_sentence_288

Disability President of the United States_section_27

Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president, by transmitting a statement to the speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer. President of the United States_sentence_289

The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption. President of the United States_sentence_290

Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. W. Bush once, on July 13, 1985, and George W. Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, 2002, and on July 21, 2007. President of the United States_sentence_291

Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet, may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated—unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties. President of the United States_sentence_292

If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties. President of the United States_sentence_293

If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim. President of the United States_sentence_294

Removal President of the United States_section_28

Main article: United States presidential impeachment President of the United States_sentence_295

See also: Impeachment in the United States President of the United States_sentence_296

Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors". President of the United States_sentence_297

Article I, Section 2, Clause 5 authorizes the House of Representatives to serve as a "grand jury" with the power to impeach said officials by a majority vote. President of the United States_sentence_298

Article I, Section 3, Clause 6 authorizes the Senate to serve as a court with the power to remove impeached officials from office, by a two-thirds vote to convict. President of the United States_sentence_299

Three presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in 1868, Bill Clinton in 1998, and Donald Trump in 2019; all three were acquitted by the Senate. President of the United States_sentence_300

Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee conducted an impeachment inquiry against Richard Nixon in 1973–74; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment. President of the United States_sentence_301

Compensation President of the United States_section_29

President of the United States_table_general_1

Presidential pay historyPresident of the United States_header_cell_1_0_0

establishedPresident of the United States_header_cell_1_1_0

SalaryPresident of the United States_header_cell_1_1_1 Salary in

2020 USDPresident of the United States_header_cell_1_1_2

1789President of the United States_cell_1_2_0 $25,000President of the United States_cell_1_2_1 $736,000President of the United States_cell_1_2_2
1873President of the United States_cell_1_3_0 $50,000President of the United States_cell_1_3_1 $1,080,000President of the United States_cell_1_3_2
1909President of the United States_cell_1_4_0 $75,000President of the United States_cell_1_4_1 $2,135,000President of the United States_cell_1_4_2
1949President of the United States_cell_1_5_0 $100,000President of the United States_cell_1_5_1 $1,089,000President of the United States_cell_1_5_2
1969President of the United States_cell_1_6_0 $200,000President of the United States_cell_1_6_1 $1,412,000President of the United States_cell_1_6_2
2001President of the United States_cell_1_7_0 $400,000President of the United States_cell_1_7_1 $585,000President of the United States_cell_1_7_2
CurrentPresident of the United States_cell_1_8_0 $400,000President of the United States_cell_1_8_1 $400,000President of the United States_cell_1_8_2
Sources:President of the United States_header_cell_1_9_0

Since 2001, the president's annual salary has been $400,000, along with a: $50,000 expense allowance; $100,000 nontaxable travel account, and $19,000 entertainment account. President of the United States_sentence_302

The president's salary is set by Congress, and under Article II, Section 1, Clause 7 of the Constitution, any increase or reduction in presidential salary cannot take effect before the next presidential term of office. President of the United States_sentence_303

Residence President of the United States_section_30

For the official residences in which President Washington resided, see Presidency of George Washington § Residences. President of the United States_sentence_304

For the private residences of the various U.S. presidents, see List of residences of presidents of the United States. President of the United States_sentence_305

The White House in Washington, D.C. is the official residence of the president. President of the United States_sentence_306

The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in 1792. President of the United States_sentence_307

Every president since John Adams (in 1800) has lived there. President of the United States_sentence_308

At various times in U.S. history, it has been known as the "President's Palace", the "President's House", and the "Executive Mansion". President of the United States_sentence_309

Theodore Roosevelt officially gave the White House its current name in 1901. President of the United States_sentence_310

Facilities that are available to the president include access to the White House staff, medical care, recreation, housekeeping, and security services. President of the United States_sentence_311

The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food. President of the United States_sentence_312

Camp David, officially titled Naval Support Facility Thurmont, a mountain-based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland, is the president's country residence. President of the United States_sentence_313

A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the 1940s. President of the United States_sentence_314

President's Guest House, located next to the Eisenhower Executive Office Building at the White House Complex and Lafayette Park, serves as the president's official guest house and as a secondary residence for the president if needed. President of the United States_sentence_315

Four interconnected, 19th-century houses—Blair House, Lee House, and 700 and 704 Jackson Place—with a combined floor space exceeding 70,000 square feet (6,500 m) comprise the property. President of the United States_sentence_316

President of the United States_unordered_list_3

  • Presidential residencesPresident of the United States_item_3_9
  • President of the United States_item_3_10
  • President of the United States_item_3_11
  • President of the United States_item_3_12

Travel President of the United States_section_31

Main article: Transportation of the president of the United States President of the United States_sentence_317

The primary means of long-distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC-25 aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing 747 airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board (although any U.S. Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight). President of the United States_sentence_318

In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup. President of the United States_sentence_319

The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C-32, which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet. President of the United States_sentence_320

Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. President of the United States_sentence_321

For short-distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.S. President of the United States_sentence_322 Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet. President of the United States_sentence_323

Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats. President of the United States_sentence_324

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car, which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis. President of the United States_sentence_325

The U.S. President of the United States_sentence_326 Secret Service operates and maintains the fleet of several limousines. President of the United States_sentence_327

The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches, which are primarily used for touring trips. President of the United States_sentence_328

President of the United States_unordered_list_4

  • Presidential transportationPresident of the United States_item_4_13
  • President of the United States_item_4_14
  • President of the United States_item_4_15
  • President of the United States_item_4_16

Protection President of the United States_section_32

The U.S. President of the United States_sentence_329 Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family. President of the United States_sentence_330

As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies, their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames. President of the United States_sentence_331

The use of such names was originally for security purposes and dates to a time when sensitive electronic communications were not routinely encrypted; today, the names simply serve for purposes of brevity, clarity, and tradition. President of the United States_sentence_332

Post-presidency President of the United States_section_33

Activities President of the United States_section_34

Some former presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. President of the United States_sentence_333

Prominent examples include William Howard Taft's tenure as chief justice of the United States and Herbert Hoover's work on government reorganization after World War II. President of the United States_sentence_334

Grover Cleveland, whose bid for reelection failed in 1888, was elected president again 4 years later in 1892. President of the United States_sentence_335

Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for 17 years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in 1875, though he died soon after. President of the United States_sentence_336

Some ex-presidents were very active, especially in international affairs, most notably Theodore Roosevelt; Herbert Hoover; Richard Nixon; and Jimmy Carter. President of the United States_sentence_337

Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events. President of the United States_sentence_338

Richard Nixon made multiple foreign trips to countries including China and Russia and was lauded as an elder statesman. President of the United States_sentence_339

Jimmy Carter has become a global human rights campaigner, international arbiter, and election monitor, as well as a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. President of the United States_sentence_340

Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists, Laura Ling and Euna Lee, from North Korea. President of the United States_sentence_341

During his presidency, George W. Bush called on former Presidents Bush and Clinton to assist with humanitarian efforts after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. President of the United States_sentence_342

President Obama followed suit by asking Presidents Clinton and Bush to lead efforts to aid Haiti after an earthquake devastated that country in 2010. President of the United States_sentence_343

Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her 2008 and 2016 presidential bids and President Obama on his 2012 reelection campaign. President of the United States_sentence_344

Pension, office, and staff President of the United States_section_35

Until 1958, former presidents had no governmental aid to maintain themselves. President of the United States_sentence_345

Gradually, a small pension was increased, but with the public disaffection with Presidents Johnson and Nixon, some began to question the propriety and the amounts involved. President of the United States_sentence_346

Under the Former Presidents Act, all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. President of the United States_sentence_347

The pension has increased numerous times with congressional approval. President of the United States_sentence_348

Retired presidents now receive a pension based on the salary of the current administration's cabinet secretaries, which was $199,700 each year in 2012. President of the United States_sentence_349

Former presidents who served in Congress may also collect congressional pensions. President of the United States_sentence_350

The act also provides former presidents with travel funds and franking privileges. President of the United States_sentence_351

Prior to 1997, all former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 were protected by the Secret Service until the president's death. President of the United States_sentence_352

In 1997, Congress passed legislation limiting Secret Service protection to no more than 10 years from the date a president leaves office. President of the United States_sentence_353

On January 10, 2013, President Obama signed legislation reinstating lifetime Secret Service protection for him, George W. Bush, and all subsequent presidents. President of the United States_sentence_354

A first spouse who remarries is no longer eligible for Secret Service protection. President of the United States_sentence_355

As of December 2020, there are four living former U.S. presidents. President of the United States_sentence_356

The most recent former president to die was George H. W. Bush (1989–1993), on November 30, 2018. President of the United States_sentence_357

The living former presidents, in order of service, are: President of the United States_sentence_358

President of the United States_unordered_list_5

  • President of the United States_item_5_17
  • President of the United States_item_5_18
  • President of the United States_item_5_19
  • President of the United States_item_5_20

Presidential libraries President of the United States_section_36

Main article: Presidential library President of the United States_sentence_359

Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials. President of the United States_sentence_360

Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources. President of the United States_sentence_361

There are currently thirteen presidential libraries in the NARA system. President of the United States_sentence_362

There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, which is run by the State of Illinois; the George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum, which is run by Southern Methodist University; the George H. W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum, which is run by Texas A&M University; and the Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library and Museum, which is run by the University of Texas at Austin. President of the United States_sentence_363

A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries. President of the United States_sentence_364

Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. President of the United States_sentence_365

Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum and Boyhood Home in Abilene, Kansas, Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum in Yorba Linda, California, and the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California. President of the United States_sentence_366

These gravesites are open to the general public. President of the United States_sentence_367

Timeline of presidents President of the United States_section_37

Political affiliation President of the United States_section_38

Political parties have dominated American politics for most of the nation's history. President of the United States_sentence_368

Though the Founding Fathers generally spurned political parties as divisive and disruptive, and their rise had not been anticipated when the U.S. Constitution was drafted in 1787, organized political parties developed in the U.S. in the mid-1790s nonetheless. President of the United States_sentence_369

They evolved from political factions, which began to appear almost immediately after the Federal government came into existence. President of the United States_sentence_370

Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party, while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party. President of the United States_sentence_371

Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. President of the United States_sentence_372

He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never to be affiliated with a political party. President of the United States_sentence_373

Since Washington, every U.S. president has been affiliated with a political party at the time of assuming office. President of the United States_sentence_374

The number of presidents per political party (at the time of entry into office) are: President of the United States_sentence_375

President of the United States_table_general_2

PartyPresident of the United States_header_cell_2_0_0 #President of the United States_header_cell_2_0_2 Name(s)President of the United States_header_cell_2_0_3
President of the United States_cell_2_1_0 RepublicanPresident of the United States_cell_2_1_1 19President of the United States_cell_2_1_2 Chester A. Arthur, George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, Calvin Coolidge, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Gerald Ford, James A. Garfield, Ulysses S. Grant, Warren G. Harding, Benjamin Harrison, Rutherford B. Hayes, Herbert Hoover, Abraham Lincoln, William McKinley, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Donald TrumpPresident of the United States_cell_2_1_3
President of the United States_cell_2_2_0 DemocraticPresident of the United States_cell_2_2_1 14President of the United States_cell_2_2_2 James Buchanan, Jimmy Carter, Grover Cleveland, Bill Clinton, Andrew Jackson, Lyndon B. Johnson, John F. Kennedy, Barack Obama, Franklin Pierce, James K. Polk, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, Martin Van Buren, and Woodrow WilsonPresident of the United States_cell_2_2_3
President of the United States_cell_2_3_0 Democratic-RepublicanPresident of the United States_cell_2_3_1 4President of the United States_cell_2_3_2 John Quincy Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James MonroePresident of the United States_cell_2_3_3
President of the United States_cell_2_4_0 WhigPresident of the United States_cell_2_4_1 4President of the United States_cell_2_4_2 Millard Fillmore, William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, and John TylerPresident of the United States_cell_2_4_3
President of the United States_cell_2_5_0 FederalistPresident of the United States_cell_2_5_1 1President of the United States_cell_2_5_2 John AdamsPresident of the United States_cell_2_5_3
President of the United States_cell_2_6_0 National UnionPresident of the United States_cell_2_6_1 1President of the United States_cell_2_6_2 Andrew JohnsonPresident of the United States_cell_2_6_3
President of the United States_cell_2_7_0 NonePresident of the United States_cell_2_7_1 1President of the United States_cell_2_7_2 George WashingtonPresident of the United States_cell_2_7_3

Timeline President of the United States_section_39

The following graphical timeline depicts the progression of the presidents and their political affiliation at the time of assuming office. President of the United States_sentence_376

See also President of the United States_section_40

President of the United States_unordered_list_6

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of the United States.