Princeton University

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"Princeton" redirects here. Princeton University_sentence_0

For the city in New Jersey, see Princeton, New Jersey. Princeton University_sentence_1

For other uses, see Princeton (disambiguation). Princeton University_sentence_2

Princeton University_table_infobox_0

Princeton UniversityPrinceton University_table_caption_0
Former namesPrinceton University_header_cell_0_0_0 College of New Jersey

(1746–1896)Princeton University_cell_0_0_1

MottoPrinceton University_header_cell_0_1_0 Dei Sub Numine Viget (Latin)Princeton University_cell_0_1_1
Motto in EnglishPrinceton University_header_cell_0_2_0 Under God's Power She FlourishesPrinceton University_cell_0_2_1
TypePrinceton University_header_cell_0_3_0 Private research universityPrinceton University_cell_0_3_1
EstablishedPrinceton University_header_cell_0_4_0 January 18, 1746; 274 years ago (1746-01-18)Princeton University_cell_0_4_1
Academic affiliationsPrinceton University_header_cell_0_5_0 AAU

URA NAICU Sea-grant Space-grantPrinceton University_cell_0_5_1

EndowmentPrinceton University_header_cell_0_6_0 $26.1 billion (2019)Princeton University_cell_0_6_1
PresidentPrinceton University_header_cell_0_7_0 Christopher L. EisgruberPrinceton University_cell_0_7_1
ProvostPrinceton University_header_cell_0_8_0 Deborah PrenticePrinceton University_cell_0_8_1
Academic staffPrinceton University_header_cell_0_9_0 1,289Princeton University_cell_0_9_1
Administrative staffPrinceton University_header_cell_0_10_0 1,103Princeton University_cell_0_10_1
StudentsPrinceton University_header_cell_0_11_0 8,374 (Fall 2018)Princeton University_cell_0_11_1
UndergraduatesPrinceton University_header_cell_0_12_0 5,428 (Fall 2018)Princeton University_cell_0_12_1
PostgraduatesPrinceton University_header_cell_0_13_0 2,946 (Fall 2018)Princeton University_cell_0_13_1
LocationPrinceton University_header_cell_0_14_0 Princeton, New Jersey, United StatesPrinceton University_cell_0_14_1
CampusPrinceton University_header_cell_0_15_0 Suburban, college town 500 acres (2.0 km)

(Princeton)Princeton University_cell_0_15_1

ColorsPrinceton University_header_cell_0_16_0 Orange and BlackPrinceton University_cell_0_16_1
NicknamePrinceton University_header_cell_0_17_0 TigersPrinceton University_cell_0_17_1
Sporting affiliationsPrinceton University_header_cell_0_18_0 NCAA Division I

Ivy League, ECAC Hockey, EARC, EIVA MAISAPrinceton University_cell_0_18_1

WebsitePrinceton University_header_cell_0_19_0 Princeton University_cell_0_19_1

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Princeton University_sentence_3

Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Princeton University_sentence_4

The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later. Princeton University_sentence_5

It was renamed Princeton University in 1896. Princeton University_sentence_6

Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. Princeton University_sentence_7

It offers professional degrees through the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. Princeton University_sentence_8

The university also manages the Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Princeton University_sentence_9

Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. Princeton University_sentence_10

As of October 2020, 69 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 14 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. Princeton University_sentence_11

In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 215 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 137 Marshall Scholars. Princeton University_sentence_12

Two U.S. Princeton University_sentence_13 Presidents, twelve U.S. Princeton University_sentence_14 Supreme Court Justices (three of whom currently serve on the court) and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton University_sentence_15

Princeton has also graduated many prominent members of the U.S. Princeton University_sentence_16 Congress and the U.S. Princeton University_sentence_17 Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and the current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Princeton University_sentence_18

History Princeton University_section_0

Main article: History of Princeton University Princeton University_sentence_19

New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Princeton University_sentence_20

Its purpose was to train ministers. Princeton University_sentence_21

The college was the educational and religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. Princeton University_sentence_22

In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College. Princeton University_sentence_23

Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" Princeton University_sentence_24

In 1756, the college moved its campus to Princeton, New Jersey. Princeton University_sentence_25

Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Princeton University_sentence_26

Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that post until his death in 1794. Princeton University_sentence_27

During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. Princeton University_sentence_28

To this end, he tightened academic standards and solicited investment in the college. Princeton University_sentence_29

Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and particularly the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers briefly occupied Nassau Hall; American forces, led by George Washington, fired cannon on the building to rout them from it. Princeton University_sentence_30

In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green (1812–23), helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door. Princeton University_sentence_31

The plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey." Princeton University_sentence_32

Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Princeton University_sentence_33

Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building. Princeton University_sentence_34

The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. Princeton University_sentence_35

During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Princeton University_sentence_36

Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires (1802 and 1855), Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory, library, and classroom space; to classroom space exclusively; to its present role as the administrative center of the University. Princeton University_sentence_37

The class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Princeton University_sentence_38

Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; however, the fire of 1802 melted it. Princeton University_sentence_39

The bell was then recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. Princeton University_sentence_40

James McCosh became the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the American Civil War. Princeton University_sentence_41

During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, and supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. Princeton University_sentence_42

McCosh Hall is named in his honor. Princeton University_sentence_43

In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. Princeton University_sentence_44

In 1896, the college officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. Princeton University_sentence_45

During this year, the college also underwent large expansion and officially became a university. Princeton University_sentence_46

In 1900, the Graduate School was established. Princeton University_sentence_47

In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Princeton University_sentence_48

Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the United States that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest. Princeton University_sentence_49

In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. Princeton University_sentence_50

A collection of historical photographs of the building of the lake is housed at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library on Princeton's campus. Princeton University_sentence_51

On October 2, 1913, the Princeton University Graduate College was dedicated. Princeton University_sentence_52

In 1919 the School of Architecture was established. Princeton University_sentence_53

In 1933, Albert Einstein became a lifetime member of the Institute for Advanced Study with an office on the Princeton campus. Princeton University_sentence_54

While always independent of the university, the Institute for Advanced Study occupied offices in Jones Hall for 6 years, from its opening in 1933, until its own campus was finished and opened in 1939. Princeton University_sentence_55

This helped start an incorrect impression that it was part of the university, one that has never been completely eradicated. Princeton University_sentence_56

Coeducation Princeton University_section_1

Main article: Coeducation at Princeton University Princeton University_sentence_57

In 1969, Princeton University first admitted women as undergraduates. Princeton University_sentence_58

In 1887, the university actually maintained and staffed a sister college, Evelyn College for Women, in the town of Princeton on Evelyn and Nassau streets. Princeton University_sentence_59

It was closed after roughly a decade of operation. Princeton University_sentence_60

After abortive discussions with Sarah Lawrence College to relocate the women's college to Princeton and merge it with the University in 1967, the administration decided to admit women and turned to the issue of transforming the school's operations and facilities into a female-friendly campus. Princeton University_sentence_61

The administration had barely finished these plans in April 1969 when the admissions office began mailing out its acceptance letters. Princeton University_sentence_62

Its five-year coeducation plan provided $7.8 million for the development of new facilities that would eventually house and educate 650 women students at Princeton by 1974. Princeton University_sentence_63

Ultimately, 148 women, consisting of 100 freshmen and transfer students of other years, entered Princeton on September 6, 1969 amidst much media attention. Princeton University_sentence_64

Princeton enrolled its first female graduate student, Sabra Follett Meservey, as a PhD candidate in Turkish history in 1961. Princeton University_sentence_65

A handful of undergraduate women had studied at Princeton from 1963 on, spending their junior year there to study "critical languages" in which Princeton's offerings surpassed those of their home institutions. Princeton University_sentence_66

They were considered regular students for their year on campus, but were not candidates for a Princeton degree. Princeton University_sentence_67

As a result of a 1979 lawsuit by Sally Frank, Princeton's eating clubs were required to go coeducational in 1991, after Tiger Inn's appeal to the U.S. Princeton University_sentence_68 Supreme Court was denied. Princeton University_sentence_69

In 1987, the university changed the gendered lyrics of "Old Nassau" to reflect the school's co-educational student body. Princeton University_sentence_70

From 2009 to 2011, Princeton professor Nannerl O. Keohane chaired a committee on undergraduate women's leadership at the university, appointed by President Shirley M. Tilghman. Princeton University_sentence_71

Princeton and slavery Princeton University_section_2

In 2017, Princeton University unveiled a large-scale public history and digital humanities investigation into its historical involvement with slavery, following slavery studies produced by other institutions of higher education such as Brown University and Georgetown University. Princeton University_sentence_72

The began in 2013, when history professor Martha A. Sandweiss and a team of undergraduate and graduate students started researching topics such as the slaveholding practices of Princeton's early presidents and trustees, the southern origins of a large proportion of Princeton students during the 18th and 19th centuries, and racial violence in Princeton during the antebellum period. Princeton University_sentence_73

The Princeton & Slavery Project published its findings online in November 2017, on a website that included more than 80 scholarly essays and a digital archive of hundreds of primary sources. Princeton University_sentence_74

The website launched in conjunction with a scholarly conference, the premiere of seven short plays based on project findings and commissioned by the McCarter Theatre, and a public art installation by American artist Titus Kaphar commemorating a slave sale that took place at the historic President's House in 1766. Princeton University_sentence_75

In April 2018, university trustees announced that they would name two public spaces for James Collins Johnson and Betsey Stockton, enslaved people who lived and worked on Princeton's campus and whose stories were publicized by the Princeton & Slavery Project. Princeton University_sentence_76

The project has also served as a model for institutional slavery studies at the Princeton Theological Seminary and Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Princeton University_sentence_77

Campus Princeton University_section_3

The main campus sits on about 500 acres (2.0 km) in Princeton. Princeton University_sentence_78

In 2011, the main campus was named by Travel+Leisure as one of the most beautiful in the United States. Princeton University_sentence_79

The James Forrestal Campus is split between nearby Plainsboro and South Brunswick. Princeton University_sentence_80

The University also owns some property in West Windsor Township. Princeton University_sentence_81

The campuses are situated about one hour from both New York City and Philadelphia. Princeton University_sentence_82

The first building on campus was Nassau Hall, completed in 1756 and situated on the northern edge of campus facing Nassau Street. Princeton University_sentence_83

The campus expanded steadily around Nassau Hall during the early and middle 19th century. Princeton University_sentence_84

The McCosh presidency (1868–88) saw the construction of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic and Romanesque Revival styles; many of them are now gone, leaving the remaining few to appear out of place. Princeton University_sentence_85

At the end of the 19th century much of Princeton's architecture was designed by the Cope and Stewardson firm (same architects who designed a large part of Washington University in St. Louis and University of Pennsylvania) resulting in the Collegiate Gothic style for which it is known today. Princeton University_sentence_86

Implemented initially by William Appleton Potter and later enforced by the University's supervising architect, Ralph Adams Cram, the Collegiate Gothic style remained the standard for all new building on the Princeton campus through 1960. Princeton University_sentence_87

A flurry of construction in the 1960s produced a number of new buildings on the south side of the main campus, many of which have been poorly received. Princeton University_sentence_88

Several prominent architects have contributed some more recent additions, including Frank Gehry (Lewis Library), I. Princeton University_sentence_89 M. Pei (Spelman Halls), Demetri Porphyrios (Whitman College, a Collegiate Gothic project), Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown (Frist Campus Center, among several others), and Rafael Viñoly (Carl Icahn Laboratory). Princeton University_sentence_90

A group of 20th-century sculptures scattered throughout the campus forms the Putnam Collection of Sculpture. Princeton University_sentence_91

It includes works by Alexander Calder (Five Disks: One Empty), Jacob Epstein (Albert Einstein), Henry Moore (Oval with Points), Isamu Noguchi (White Sun), and Pablo Picasso (Head of a Woman). Princeton University_sentence_92

Richard Serra's The Hedgehog and The Fox is located between Peyton and Fine halls next to Princeton Stadium and the Lewis Library. Princeton University_sentence_93

At the southern edge of the campus is Lake Carnegie, an artificial lake named for Andrew Carnegie. Princeton University_sentence_94

Carnegie financed the lake's construction in 1906 at the behest of a friend who was a Princeton alumnus. Princeton University_sentence_95

Carnegie hoped the opportunity to take up rowing would inspire Princeton students to forsake football, which he considered "not gentlemanly." Princeton University_sentence_96

The Shea Rowing Center on the lake's shore continues to serve as the headquarters for Princeton rowing. Princeton University_sentence_97

Cannon Green Princeton University_section_4

Buried in the ground at the center of the lawn south of Nassau Hall is the "Big Cannon," which was left in Princeton by British troops as they fled following the Battle of Princeton. Princeton University_sentence_98

It remained in Princeton until the War of 1812, when it was taken to New Brunswick. Princeton University_sentence_99

In 1836 the cannon was returned to Princeton and placed at the eastern end of town. Princeton University_sentence_100

It was removed to the campus under cover of night by Princeton students in 1838 and buried in its current location in 1840. Princeton University_sentence_101

A second "Little Cannon" is buried in the lawn in front of nearby Whig Hall. Princeton University_sentence_102

This cannon, which may also have been captured in the Battle of Princeton, was stolen by students of Rutgers University in 1875. Princeton University_sentence_103

The theft ignited the Rutgers-Princeton Cannon War. Princeton University_sentence_104

A compromise between the presidents of Princeton and Rutgers ended the war and forced the return of the Little Cannon to Princeton. Princeton University_sentence_105

The protruding cannons are occasionally painted scarlet by Rutgers students who continue the traditional dispute. Princeton University_sentence_106

In years when the Princeton football team beats the teams of both Harvard University and Yale University in the same season, Princeton celebrates with a bonfire on Cannon Green. Princeton University_sentence_107

This occurred in 2012, ending a five-year drought. Princeton University_sentence_108

The next bonfire happened on November 24, 2013, and was broadcast live over the Internet. Princeton University_sentence_109

Landscape Princeton University_section_5

Princeton's grounds were designed by Beatrix Farrand between 1912 and 1943. Princeton University_sentence_110

Her contributions were most recently recognized with the naming of a courtyard for her. Princeton University_sentence_111

Subsequent changes to the landscape were introduced by Quennell Rothschild & Partners in 2000. Princeton University_sentence_112

In 2005, Michael Van Valkenburgh was hired as the new consulting landscape architect for the campus. Princeton University_sentence_113

Lynden B. Miller was invited to work with him as Princeton's consulting gardening architect, focusing on the 17 gardens that are distributed throughout the campus. Princeton University_sentence_114

Buildings Princeton University_section_6

Nassau Hall Princeton University_section_7

Main article: Nassau Hall Princeton University_sentence_115

Nassau Hall is the oldest building on campus. Princeton University_sentence_116

Begun in 1754 and completed in 1756, it was the first seat of the New Jersey Legislature in 1776, was involved in the battle of Princeton in 1777, and was the seat of the Congress of the Confederation (and thus capitol of the United States) from June 30, 1783, to November 4, 1783. Princeton University_sentence_117

It now houses the office of the university president and other administrative offices, and remains the symbolic center of the campus. Princeton University_sentence_118

The front entrance is flanked by two bronze tigers, a gift of the Princeton Class of 1879. Princeton University_sentence_119

Commencement is held on the front lawn of Nassau Hall in good weather. Princeton University_sentence_120

In 1966, Nassau Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Princeton University_sentence_121

Residential colleges Princeton University_section_8

Princeton has six undergraduate residential colleges, each housing approximately 500 freshmen, sophomores, some juniors and seniors, and a handful of junior and senior resident advisers. Princeton University_sentence_122

Each college consists of a set of dormitories, a dining hall, a variety of other amenities—such as study spaces, libraries, performance spaces, and darkrooms—and a collection of administrators and associated faculty. Princeton University_sentence_123

Two colleges, First College and Forbes College (formerly Woodrow Wilson College and Princeton Inn College, respectively), date to the 1970s; three others, Rockefeller, Mathey, and Butler Colleges, were created in 1983 following the Committee on Undergraduate Residential Life (CURL) report, which suggested the institution of residential colleges as a solution to an allegedly fragmented campus social life. Princeton University_sentence_124

The construction of Whitman College, the university's sixth residential college, was completed in 2007. Princeton University_sentence_125

Rockefeller and Mathey are located in the northwest corner of the campus; Princeton brochures often feature their Collegiate Gothic architecture. Princeton University_sentence_126

Like most of Princeton's Gothic buildings, they predate the residential college system and were fashioned into colleges from individual dormitories. Princeton University_sentence_127

Wilson and Butler, located south of the center of the campus, were built in the 1960s. Princeton University_sentence_128

Wilson served as an early experiment in the establishment of the residential college system. Princeton University_sentence_129

Butler, like Rockefeller and Mathey, consisted of a collection of ordinary dorms (called the "New New Quad") before the addition of a dining hall made it a residential college. Princeton University_sentence_130

Widely disliked for their edgy modernist design, including "waffle ceilings," the dormitories on the Butler Quad were demolished in 2007. Princeton University_sentence_131

Butler is now reopened as a four-year residential college, housing both under- and upperclassmen. Princeton University_sentence_132

Forbes is located on the site of the historic Princeton Inn, a gracious hotel overlooking the Princeton golf course. Princeton University_sentence_133

The Princeton Inn, originally constructed in 1924, played regular host to important symposia and gatherings of renowned scholars from both the university and the nearby Institute for Advanced Study for many years. Princeton University_sentence_134

Forbes currently houses nearly 500 undergraduates in its residential halls. Princeton University_sentence_135

In 2003, Princeton broke ground for a sixth college named Whitman College after its principal sponsor, Meg Whitman, who graduated from Princeton in 1977. Princeton University_sentence_136

The new dormitories were constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architectural style and were designed by architect Demetri Porphyrios. Princeton University_sentence_137

Construction finished in 2007, and Whitman College was inaugurated as Princeton's sixth residential college that same year. Princeton University_sentence_138

The precursor of the present college system in America was originally proposed by university president Woodrow Wilson in the early 20th century. Princeton University_sentence_139

For over 800 years, however, the collegiate system had already existed in Britain at Cambridge and Oxford Universities. Princeton University_sentence_140

Wilson's model was much closer to Yale's present system, which features four-year colleges. Princeton University_sentence_141

Lacking the support of the trustees, the plan languished until 1968. Princeton University_sentence_142

That year, Wilson College was established to cap a series of alternatives to the eating clubs. Princeton University_sentence_143

Fierce debates raged before the present residential college system emerged. Princeton University_sentence_144

The plan was first attempted at Yale, but the administration was initially uninterested; an exasperated alumnus, Edward Harkness, finally paid to have the college system implemented at Harvard in the 1920s, leading to the oft-quoted aphorism that the college system is a Princeton idea that was executed at Harvard with funding from Yale. Princeton University_sentence_145

Princeton has one graduate residential college, known simply as the Graduate College, located beyond Forbes College at the outskirts of campus. Princeton University_sentence_146

The far-flung location of the GC was the spoil of a squabble between Woodrow Wilson and then-Graduate School Dean Andrew Fleming West. Princeton University_sentence_147

Wilson preferred a central location for the college; West wanted the graduate students as far as possible from the campus. Princeton University_sentence_148

Ultimately, West prevailed. Princeton University_sentence_149

The Graduate College is composed of a large Collegiate Gothic section crowned by Cleveland Tower, a local landmark that also houses a world-class carillon. Princeton University_sentence_150

The attached New Graduate College provides a modern contrast in architectural style. Princeton University_sentence_151

McCarter Theatre Princeton University_section_9

Main article: McCarter Theatre Princeton University_sentence_152

The Tony-award-winning McCarter Theatre was built by the Princeton Triangle Club, a student performance group, using club profits and a gift from Princeton University alumnus Thomas McCarter. Princeton University_sentence_153

Today, the Triangle Club performs its annual freshmen revue, fall show, and Reunions performances in McCarter. Princeton University_sentence_154

McCarter is also recognized as one of the leading regional theaters in the United States. Princeton University_sentence_155

Art Museum Princeton University_section_10

Main article: Princeton University Art Museum Princeton University_sentence_156

The Princeton University Art Museum was established in 1882 to give students direct, intimate, and sustained access to original works of art that complement and enrich instruction and research at the university. Princeton University_sentence_157

This continues to be a primary function, along with serving as a community resource and a destination for national and international visitors. Princeton University_sentence_158

Numbering over 92,000 objects, the collections range from ancient to contemporary art and concentrate geographically on the Mediterranean regions, Western Europe, China, the United States, and Latin America. Princeton University_sentence_159

There is a collection of Greek and Roman antiquities, including ceramics, marbles, bronzes, and Roman mosaics from faculty excavations in Antioch. Princeton University_sentence_160

Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture, metalwork, and stained glass. Princeton University_sentence_161

The collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the 19th century, with masterpieces by Monet, Cézanne, and Van Gogh, and features a growing collection of 20th-century and contemporary art, including iconic paintings such as Andy Warhol's Blue Marilyn. Princeton University_sentence_162

One of the best features of the museums is its collection of Chinese art, with important holdings in bronzes, tomb figurines, painting, and calligraphy. Princeton University_sentence_163

Its collection of pre-Columbian art includes examples of Mayan art, and is commonly considered to be the most important collection of pre-Columbian art outside of Latin America. Princeton University_sentence_164

The museum has collections of old master prints and drawings and a comprehensive collection of over 27,000 original photographs. Princeton University_sentence_165

African art and Northwest Coast Indian art are also represented. Princeton University_sentence_166

The Museum also oversees the outdoor Putnam Collection of Sculpture. Princeton University_sentence_167

University Chapel Princeton University_section_11

Main article: Princeton University Chapel Princeton University_sentence_168

The Princeton University Chapel is located on the north side of campus, near Nassau Street. Princeton University_sentence_169

It was built between 1924 and 1928, at a cost of $2.3 million, approximately $34.2 million in 2019 dollars. Princeton University_sentence_170

Ralph Adams Cram, the University's supervising architect, designed the chapel, which he viewed as the crown jewel for the Collegiate Gothic motif he had championed for the campus. Princeton University_sentence_171

At the time of its construction, it was the second largest university chapel in the world, after King's College Chapel, Cambridge. Princeton University_sentence_172

It underwent a two-year, $10 million restoration campaign between 2000 and 2002. Princeton University_sentence_173

Measured on the exterior, the chapel is 277 feet (84 m) long, 76 feet (23 m) wide at its transepts, and 121 feet (37 m) high. Princeton University_sentence_174

The exterior is Pennsylvania sandstone, with Indiana limestone used for the trim. Princeton University_sentence_175

The interior is mostly limestone and Aquia Creek sandstone. Princeton University_sentence_176

The design evokes an English church of the Middle Ages. Princeton University_sentence_177

The extensive iconography, in stained glass, stonework, and wood carvings, has the common theme of connecting religion and scholarship. Princeton University_sentence_178

The Chapel seats almost 2,000. Princeton University_sentence_179

It hosts weekly ecumenical Christian services, daily Roman Catholic mass, and several annual special events. Princeton University_sentence_180

Murray-Dodge Hall Princeton University_section_12

Murray-Dodge Hall houses the Office of Religious Life (ORL), the Murray Dodge Theater, the Murray-Dodge Café, the Muslim Prayer Room and the Interfaith Prayer Room. Princeton University_sentence_181

The ORL houses the office of the Dean of Religious Life, Alison Boden, and a number of university chaplains, including the country's first Hindu chaplain, Vineet Chander; and one of the country's first Muslim chaplains, Sohaib Sultan. Princeton University_sentence_182

Apartment facilities Princeton University_section_13

Princeton university has several apartment facilities for graduate students and their dependents. Princeton University_sentence_183

They are Lakeside Apartments, Lawrence Apartments, and Stanworth Apartments. Princeton University_sentence_184

Sustainability Princeton University_section_14

Published in 2008, Princeton's Sustainability Plan highlights three priority areas for the University's Office of Sustainability: reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; conservation of resources; and research, education, and civic engagement. Princeton University_sentence_185

Princeton has committed to reducing its carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, without the purchase of offsets. Princeton University_sentence_186

The University published its first Sustainability Progress Report in November 2009. Princeton University_sentence_187

The University has adopted a green purchasing policy and recycling program that focuses on paper products, construction materials, lightbulbs, furniture, and electronics. Princeton University_sentence_188

Its dining halls have set a goal to purchase 75% sustainable food products by 2015. Princeton University_sentence_189

The student organization "Greening Princeton" seeks to encourage the University administration to adopt environmentally friendly policies on campus. Princeton University_sentence_190

Organization Princeton University_section_15

The Trustees of Princeton University, a 40-member board, is responsible for the overall direction of the University. Princeton University_sentence_191

It approves the operating and capital budgets, supervises the investment of the University's endowment and oversees campus real estate and long-range physical planning. Princeton University_sentence_192

The trustees also exercise prior review and approval concerning changes in major policies, such as those in instructional programs and admission, as well as tuition and fees and the hiring of faculty members. Princeton University_sentence_193

With an endowment of $26.1 billion, Princeton University is among the wealthiest universities in the world. Princeton University_sentence_194

Ranked in 2010 as the third largest endowment in the United States, the university had the greatest per-student endowment in the world (over $2 million for undergraduates) in 2011. Princeton University_sentence_195

Such a significant endowment is sustained through the continued donations of its alumni and is maintained by investment advisers. Princeton University_sentence_196

Some of Princeton's wealth is invested in its art museum, which features works by Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, Jackson Pollock, and Andy Warhol among other prominent artists. Princeton University_sentence_197

Academics Princeton University_section_16

Undergraduates fulfill general education requirements, choose among a wide variety of elective courses, and pursue departmental concentrations and interdisciplinary certificate programs. Princeton University_sentence_198

Required independent work is a hallmark of undergraduate education at Princeton. Princeton University_sentence_199

Students graduate with either the Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) Princeton University_sentence_200

or the Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E. Princeton University_sentence_201

). Princeton University_sentence_202

The graduate school offers advanced degrees spanning the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. Princeton University_sentence_203

Doctoral education is available in most disciplines. Princeton University_sentence_204

It emphasizes original and independent scholarship whereas master's degree programs in architecture, engineering, finance, and public affairs and public policy prepare candidates for careers in public life and professional practice. Princeton University_sentence_205

The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton University_sentence_206

Undergraduate Princeton University_section_17

Undergraduate courses in the humanities are traditionally either seminars or lectures held 2 or 3 times a week with an additional discussion seminar that is called a "precept." Princeton University_sentence_207

To graduate, all A.B. Princeton University_sentence_208

candidates must complete a senior thesis and, in most departments, one or two extensive pieces of independent research that are known as "junior papers." Princeton University_sentence_209

Juniors in some departments, including architecture and the creative arts, complete independent projects that differ from written research papers. Princeton University_sentence_210

A.B. Princeton University_sentence_211

candidates must also fulfill a three or four semester foreign language requirement and distribution requirements (which include, for example, classes in ethics, literature and the arts, and historical analysis) with a total of 31 classes. Princeton University_sentence_212

B.S.E. Princeton University_sentence_213

candidates follow a parallel track with an emphasis on a rigorous science and math curriculum, a computer science requirement, and at least two semesters of independent research including an optional senior thesis. Princeton University_sentence_214

All B.S.E. Princeton University_sentence_215

students must complete at least 36 classes. Princeton University_sentence_216

A.B. Princeton University_sentence_217

candidates typically have more freedom in course selection than B.S.E. Princeton University_sentence_218

candidates because of the fewer number of required classes. Princeton University_sentence_219

Nonetheless, in the spirit of a liberal arts education, both enjoy a comparatively high degree of latitude in creating a self-structured curriculum. Princeton University_sentence_220

Undergraduates agree to adhere to an academic integrity policy called the Honor Code, established in 1893. Princeton University_sentence_221

Under the Honor Code, faculty do not proctor examinations; instead, the students proctor one another and must report any suspected violation to an Honor Committee made up of undergraduates. Princeton University_sentence_222

The Committee investigates reported violations and holds a hearing if it is warranted. Princeton University_sentence_223

An acquittal at such a hearing results in the destruction of all records of the hearing; a conviction results in the student's suspension or expulsion. Princeton University_sentence_224

The signed pledge required by the Honor Code is so integral to students' academic experience that the Princeton Triangle Club performs a song about it each fall. Princeton University_sentence_225

Out-of-class exercises fall under the jurisdiction of the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline. Princeton University_sentence_226

Undergraduates are expected to sign a pledge on their written work affirming that they have not plagiarized the work. Princeton University_sentence_227

Admissions and financial aid Princeton University_section_18

Princeton University_table_general_1

Fall first-year statisticsPrinceton University_table_caption_1
Princeton University_header_cell_1_0_0 2017Princeton University_header_cell_1_0_1 2016Princeton University_header_cell_1_0_2 2015Princeton University_header_cell_1_0_3 2014Princeton University_header_cell_1_0_4 2013Princeton University_header_cell_1_0_5
ApplicantsPrinceton University_header_cell_1_1_0 31,056Princeton University_cell_1_1_1 29,303Princeton University_cell_1_1_2 27,290Princeton University_cell_1_1_3 26,641Princeton University_cell_1_1_4 26,498Princeton University_cell_1_1_5
AdmitsPrinceton University_header_cell_1_2_0 1,990Princeton University_cell_1_2_1 1,911Princeton University_cell_1_2_2 1,948Princeton University_cell_1_2_3 1,983Princeton University_cell_1_2_4 1,963Princeton University_cell_1_2_5
Admit ratePrinceton University_header_cell_1_3_0 6.4%Princeton University_cell_1_3_1 6.5%Princeton University_cell_1_3_2 7.1%Princeton University_cell_1_3_3 7.4%Princeton University_cell_1_3_4 7.4%Princeton University_cell_1_3_5
EnrolledPrinceton University_header_cell_1_4_0 1,306Princeton University_cell_1_4_1 1,306Princeton University_cell_1_4_2 1,319Princeton University_cell_1_4_3 1,312Princeton University_cell_1_4_4 1,285Princeton University_cell_1_4_5
SAT rangePrinceton University_header_cell_1_5_0 1430–1570Princeton University_cell_1_5_1 2100–2380Princeton University_cell_1_5_2 2100–2380Princeton University_cell_1_5_3 2100–2400Princeton University_cell_1_5_4 2120–2390Princeton University_cell_1_5_5
ACT rangePrinceton University_header_cell_1_6_0 31–35Princeton University_cell_1_6_1 32–35Princeton University_cell_1_6_2 32–35Princeton University_cell_1_6_3 31–35Princeton University_cell_1_6_4 31–35Princeton University_cell_1_6_5

Princeton's undergraduate program is highly selective, admitting 6.4% of undergraduate applicants in the 2016–2017 admissions cycle (for the Class of 2021). Princeton University_sentence_228

The middle 50% range of SAT scores was 1430–1570 and the middle 50% range of the ACT composite score was 31–35. Princeton University_sentence_229

In September 2006, the university announced that all applicants for the Class of 2012 would be considered in a single pool, effectively ending the school's early decision program. Princeton University_sentence_230

In February 2011, following decisions by the University of Virginia and Harvard University to reinstate their early admissions programs, Princeton announced it would institute an early action program, starting with applicants for the Class of 2016. Princeton University_sentence_231

In 2011, The Business Journal rated Princeton as the most selective college in the Eastern United States. Princeton University_sentence_232

In 2001, expanding on earlier reforms, Princeton became the first university to eliminate the use of loans in financial aid, replacing them with grants. Princeton University_sentence_233

In addition, all admissions are need-blind. Princeton University_sentence_234

Kiplinger magazine in 2016 ranked Princeton as the best value among private universities, noting that the average graduating debt is $8,557. Princeton University_sentence_235

Grade deflation policy Princeton University_section_19

In 2004, Nancy Weiss Malkiel, the Dean of the college, implemented a grade deflation policy to curb the number of A-range grades undergraduates received. Princeton University_sentence_236

Malkiel's argument was that an A was beginning to lose its meaning as a larger percentage of the student body received them. Princeton University_sentence_237

While the number of A's has indeed decreased under the policy, many argue that this is hurting Princeton students when they apply to jobs or graduate school. Princeton University_sentence_238

Malkiel has said that she sent pamphlets to inform institutions about the policy so that they consider Princeton students equally, but students argue that Princeton graduates can apply to other institutions that know nothing about it. Princeton University_sentence_239

They argue further that as other schools purposefully inflate their grades, Princeton students' GPAs will look low by comparison. Princeton University_sentence_240

Further, studies have shown that employers prefer high grades even when they are inflated. Princeton University_sentence_241

The policy remained in place even after Malkiel stepped down at the end of the 2010–2011 academic term. Princeton University_sentence_242

The policy deflates grades only relative to their previous levels; indeed, as of 2009, or five years after the policy was instituted, the average graduating GPA saw a marginal decrease, from 3.46 to 3.39. Princeton University_sentence_243

In August 2014, a faculty committee tasked by Dean of the College Valerie Smith to review the effectiveness of grade deflation found not only that the 35% target was both often misinterpreted as a hard quota and applied inconsistently across departments, but also that grades had begun to decline in 2003, the year before the policy was implemented. Princeton University_sentence_244

The committee concluded that the observed lower grades since 2003 were the result of discussions and increased awareness during and since the implementation of the deflation policy, and not the deflation targets themselves, so recommended removing the numerical targets while charging individual departments with developing consistent standards for grading. Princeton University_sentence_245

In October 2014, following a faculty vote, the numerical targets were removed as recommended by the committee. Princeton University_sentence_246

Graduate Princeton University_section_20

The Graduate School has about 2,600 students in 42 academic departments and programs in social sciences, engineering, natural sciences, and humanities. Princeton University_sentence_247

These departments include the Department of Psychology, Department of History, and Department of Economics. Princeton University_sentence_248

In 2017–2018, it received nearly 11,000 applications for admission and accepted around 1,000 applicants. Princeton University_sentence_249

The University also awarded 319 Ph.D. degrees and 170 final master's degrees. Princeton University_sentence_250

Princeton has no medical school, law school, business school, or school of education. Princeton University_sentence_251

(A short-lived Princeton Law School folded in 1852.) Princeton University_sentence_252

It offers professional graduate degrees in architecture, engineering, finance, and public policy, the last through the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, founded in 1930 as the School of Public and International Affairs, renamed in 1948 after university president (and U.S. president) Woodrow Wilson, and most recently renamed in 2020. Princeton University_sentence_253

Libraries Princeton University_section_21

The Princeton University Library system houses over eleven million holdings including seven million bound volumes. Princeton University_sentence_254

The main university library, Firestone Library, which houses almost four million volumes, is one of the largest university libraries in the world. Princeton University_sentence_255

Additionally, it is among the largest "open stack" libraries in existence. Princeton University_sentence_256

Its collections include the autographed manuscript of F. Princeton University_sentence_257 Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby and George F. Kennan's Long Telegram. Princeton University_sentence_258

In addition to Firestone library, specialized libraries exist for architecture, art and archaeology, East Asian studies, engineering, music, public and international affairs, public policy and university archives, and the sciences. Princeton University_sentence_259

In an effort to expand access, these libraries also subscribe to thousands of electronic resources. Princeton University_sentence_260

In February 2007, Princeton became the 12th major library system to join Google's ambitious project to scan the world's great literary works and make them searchable over the Web. Princeton University_sentence_261

Rankings Princeton University_section_22

Princeton University_table_infobox_2

University rankingsPrinceton University_header_cell_2_0_0
NationalPrinceton University_header_cell_2_1_0
ARWUPrinceton University_header_cell_2_2_0 5Princeton University_cell_2_2_1
ForbesPrinceton University_header_cell_2_3_0 5Princeton University_cell_2_3_1
THE/WSJPrinceton University_header_cell_2_4_0 5Princeton University_cell_2_4_1
U.S. News & World ReportPrinceton University_header_cell_2_5_0 1Princeton University_cell_2_5_1
Washington MonthlyPrinceton University_header_cell_2_6_0 8Princeton University_cell_2_6_1
GlobalPrinceton University_header_cell_2_7_0
ARWUPrinceton University_header_cell_2_8_0 6Princeton University_cell_2_8_1
QSPrinceton University_header_cell_2_9_0 12Princeton University_cell_2_9_1
THEPrinceton University_header_cell_2_10_0 9Princeton University_cell_2_10_1
U.S. News & World ReportPrinceton University_header_cell_2_11_0 8Princeton University_cell_2_11_1

Princeton University_table_infobox_3

USNWR graduate school rankingsPrinceton University_header_cell_3_0_0
EngineeringPrinceton University_cell_3_1_0 17Princeton University_cell_3_1_1

Princeton University_table_infobox_4

USNWR departmental rankingsPrinceton University_header_cell_4_0_0
Biological SciencesPrinceton University_cell_4_1_0 6Princeton University_cell_4_1_1
ChemistryPrinceton University_cell_4_2_0 9Princeton University_cell_4_2_1
Computer SciencePrinceton University_cell_4_3_0 8Princeton University_cell_4_3_1
Earth SciencesPrinceton University_cell_4_4_0 10Princeton University_cell_4_4_1
EconomicsPrinceton University_cell_4_5_0 1Princeton University_cell_4_5_1
EnglishPrinceton University_cell_4_6_0 8Princeton University_cell_4_6_1
HistoryPrinceton University_cell_4_7_0 1Princeton University_cell_4_7_1
MathematicsPrinceton University_cell_4_8_0 1Princeton University_cell_4_8_1
PhysicsPrinceton University_cell_4_9_0 3Princeton University_cell_4_9_1
Political SciencePrinceton University_cell_4_10_0 3Princeton University_cell_4_10_1
PsychologyPrinceton University_cell_4_11_0 8Princeton University_cell_4_11_1
Public AffairsPrinceton University_cell_4_12_0 10Princeton University_cell_4_12_1
SociologyPrinceton University_cell_4_13_0 1Princeton University_cell_4_13_1

From 2001 through 2019, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.S. Princeton University_sentence_262 News & World Report, holding the top spot for 17 of those 19 years (sole #1 twelve times, tied with Harvard for #1 five times). Princeton University_sentence_263

Princeton was ranked first in the 2019 U.S. News rankings. Princeton University_sentence_264

Princeton also was ranked #1 in the 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019 rankings for "best undergraduate teaching." Princeton University_sentence_265

In the 2021 Times Higher Education assessment of the world's greatest universities, Princeton was ranked 9th. Princeton University_sentence_266

In the 2020 QS World University Rankings, it was ranked 13th overall in the world. Princeton University_sentence_267

In the 2015 U.S. News & World Report "Graduate School Rankings," all thirteen of Princeton's doctoral programs evaluated were ranked in their respective top 20, 8 of them in the top 5, and 4 of them in the top spot (Economics, History, Mathematics, Sociology). Princeton University_sentence_268

Princeton University has an IBM BlueGeneL supercomputer, called Orangena, which was ranked as the 89th fastest computer in the world in 2005 (LINPACK performance of 4713 compared to 12250 for other U.S. universities and 280600 for the top-ranked supercomputer, belonging to the U.S. Princeton University_sentence_269 Department of Energy). Princeton University_sentence_270

Institutes Princeton University_section_23

Princeton University_description_list_0

The High Meadows Environmental Institute is an "interdisciplinary center of environmental research, education, and outreach" at the university. Princeton University_sentence_271

The institute was started in 1994. Princeton University_sentence_272

About 90 faculty members at Princeton University are affiliated with it. Princeton University_sentence_273

The High Meadows Environmental Institute has the following research centers: Princeton University_sentence_274

Princeton University_unordered_list_1

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton University_section_24

The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PPPL, was founded in 1951 as Project Matterhorn, a top secret cold war project aimed at achieving controlled nuclear fusion. Princeton University_sentence_275

Princeton astrophysics professor Lyman Spitzer became the first director of the project and remained director until the lab's declassification in 1961 when it received its current name. Princeton University_sentence_276

PPPL currently houses approximately half of the graduate astrophysics department, the Princeton Program in Plasma Physics. Princeton University_sentence_277

The lab is also home to the Harold P. Furth Plasma Physics Library. Princeton University_sentence_278

The library contains all declassified Project Matterhorn documents, included the first design sketch of a stellarator by Lyman Spitzer. Princeton University_sentence_279

For the 2018–19 academic year, the university allocated approximately 30% of its research expenditures or 5% of its total budget, over 100 million dollars, to PPPL. Princeton University_sentence_280

Princeton is one of five US universities to operate a Department of Energy national laboratory. Princeton University_sentence_281

Student life and culture Princeton University_section_25

University housing is guaranteed to all undergraduates for all four years. Princeton University_sentence_282

More than 98% of students live on campus in dormitories. Princeton University_sentence_283

Freshmen and sophomores must live in residential colleges, while juniors and seniors typically live in designated upperclassman dormitories. Princeton University_sentence_284

The actual dormitories are comparable, but only residential colleges have dining halls. Princeton University_sentence_285

Nonetheless, any undergraduate may purchase a meal plan and eat in a residential college dining hall. Princeton University_sentence_286

Recently, upperclassmen have been given the option of remaining in their college for all four years. Princeton University_sentence_287

Juniors and seniors also have the option of living off-campus, but high rent in the Princeton area encourages almost all students to live in university housing. Princeton University_sentence_288

Undergraduate social life revolves around the residential colleges and a number of coeducational eating clubs, which students may choose to join in the spring of their sophomore year. Princeton University_sentence_289

Eating clubs, which are not officially affiliated with the university, serve as dining halls and communal spaces for their members and also host social events throughout the academic year. Princeton University_sentence_290

Princeton's six residential colleges host a variety of social events and activities, guest speakers, and trips. Princeton University_sentence_291

The residential colleges also sponsor trips to New York for undergraduates to see ballets, operas, Broadway shows, sports events, and other activities. Princeton University_sentence_292

The eating clubs, located on Prospect Avenue, are co-ed organizations for upperclassmen. Princeton University_sentence_293

Most upperclassmen eat their meals at one of the eleven eating clubs. Princeton University_sentence_294

Additionally, the clubs serve as evening and weekend social venues for members and guests. Princeton University_sentence_295

The eleven clubs are Cannon, Cap and Gown, Charter, Cloister, Colonial, Cottage, Ivy, Quadrangle, Terrace, Tiger, and Tower. Princeton University_sentence_296

Princeton hosts two Model United Nations conferences, PMUNC in the fall for high school students and PDI in the spring for college students. Princeton University_sentence_297

It also hosts the Princeton Invitational Speech and Debate tournament each year at the end of November. Princeton University_sentence_298

Princeton also runs Princeton Model Congress, an event that is held once a year in mid-November. Princeton University_sentence_299

The four-day conference has high school students from around the country as participants. Princeton University_sentence_300

Although the school's admissions policy is need-blind, Princeton, based on the proportion of students who receive Pell Grants, was ranked as a school with little economic diversity among all national universities ranked by U.S. News & World Report. Princeton University_sentence_301

While Pell figures are widely used as a gauge of the number of low-income undergraduates on a given campus, the rankings article cautions "the proportion of students on Pell Grants isn't a perfect measure of an institution's efforts to achieve economic diversity," but goes on to say that "still, many experts say that Pell figures are the best available gauge of how many low-income undergrads there are on a given campus." Princeton University_sentence_302

TigerTrends is a university-based student run fashion, arts, and lifestyle magazine. Princeton University_sentence_303

Demographics Princeton University_section_26

Princeton has made significant progress in expanding the diversity of its student body in recent years. Princeton University_sentence_304

The 2016 freshman class was the most diverse in the school's history, with over 43% of students identifying as students of color. Princeton University_sentence_305

Undergraduate and master's students were 51% male and 49% female for the 2018–19 academic year. Princeton University_sentence_306

The median family income of Princeton students is $186,100, with 57% of students coming from the top 10% highest-earning families and 14% from the bottom 60%. Princeton University_sentence_307

In 1999, 10% of the student body was Jewish, a percentage lower than those at other Ivy League schools. Princeton University_sentence_308

Sixteen percent of the student body was Jewish in 1985; the number decreased by 40% from 1985 to 1999. Princeton University_sentence_309

This decline prompted The Daily Princetonian to write a series of articles on the decline and its reasons. Princeton University_sentence_310

Caroline C. Pam of The New York Observer wrote that Princeton was "long dogged by a reputation for anti-Semitism" and that this history as well as Princeton's elite status caused the university and its community to feel sensitivity towards the decrease of Jewish students. Princeton University_sentence_311

At the time many Jewish students at Princeton dated Jewish students at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia because they perceived Princeton as an environment where it was difficult to find romantic prospects; Pam stated that there was a theory that the dating issues were a cause of the decline in Jewish students. Princeton University_sentence_312

In 1981, the population of African Americans at Princeton University made up less than 10%. Princeton University_sentence_313

Bruce M. Wright was admitted into the university in 1936 as the first African American, however, his admission was a mistake and when he got to campus he was asked to leave. Princeton University_sentence_314

Three years later Wright asked the dean for an explanation on his dismissal and the dean suggested to him that "a member of your race might feel very much alone" at Princeton University. Princeton University_sentence_315

Traditions Princeton University_section_27

Princeton enjoys a wide variety of campus traditions, some of which, like the Clapper Theft and Nude Olympics, have faded into history: Princeton University_sentence_316

Princeton University_unordered_list_2

  • Arch Sings – Late-night concerts that feature one or several of Princeton's undergraduate a cappella groups, such as the Princeton Nassoons, Princeton Tigertones, , Princeton Roaring 20, and The Princeton Wildcats. The free concerts take place in one of the larger arches on campus. Most are held in Blair Arch or Class of 1879 Arch.Princeton University_item_2_5
  • Bonfire – Ceremonial bonfire that takes place in Cannon Green behind Nassau Hall. It is held only if Princeton beats both Harvard University and Yale University at football in the same season. The most recent bonfire was lighted on November 18, 2018.Princeton University_item_2_6
  • Bicker – Selection process for new members that is employed by selective eating clubs. Prospective members, or bickerees, are required to perform a variety of activities at the request of current members.Princeton University_item_2_7
  • Cane Spree – An athletic competition between freshmen and sophomores that is held in the fall. The event centers on cane wrestling, where a freshman and a sophomore will grapple for control of a cane. This commemorates a time in the 1870s when sophomores, angry with the freshmen who strutted around with fancy canes, stole all of the canes from the freshmen, hitting them with their own canes in the process.Princeton University_item_2_8
  • The Clapper or Clapper Theft – The act of climbing to the top of Nassau Hall to steal the bell clapper, which rings to signal the start of classes on the first day of the school year. For safety reasons, the clapper has been removed permanently.Princeton University_item_2_9
  • Class Jackets (Beer Jackets) – Each graduating class designs a Class Jacket that features its class year. The artwork is almost invariably dominated by the school colors and tiger motifs.Princeton University_item_2_10
  • Communiversity – An annual street fair with performances, arts and crafts, and other activities that attempts to foster interaction between the university community and the residents of Princeton.Princeton University_item_2_11
  • Dean's Date – The Tuesday at the end of each semester when all written work is due. This day signals the end of reading period and the beginning of final examinations. Traditionally, undergraduates gather outside McCosh Hall before the 5:00 PM deadline to cheer on fellow students who have left their work to the very last minute.Princeton University_item_2_12
  • FitzRandolph Gates – At the end of Princeton's graduation ceremony, the new graduates process out through the main gate of the university as a symbol of the fact that they are leaving college. According to tradition, anyone who exits campus through the FitzRandolph Gates before his or her own graduation date will not graduate.Princeton University_item_2_13
  • Holder Howl – The midnight before Dean's Date, students from Holder Hall and elsewhere gather in the Holder courtyard and take part in a minute-long, communal primal scream to vent frustration from studying with impromptu, late night noise making.Princeton University_item_2_14
  • Houseparties – Formal parties that are held simultaneously by all of the eating clubs at the end of the spring term.Princeton University_item_2_15
  • Ivy stones - Class memorial stones placed on the exterior walls of academic buildings around the campus.Princeton University_item_2_16
  • Lawnparties – Parties that feature live bands that are held simultaneously by all of the eating clubs at the start of classes and at the conclusion of the academic year.Princeton University_item_2_17
  • Princeton Locomotive – Traditional cheer in use since the 1890s. It is commonly heard at Opening Exercises in the fall as alumni and current students welcome the freshman class, as well as the P-rade in the spring at Princeton Reunions. The cheer starts slowly and picks up speed, and includes the sounds heard at a fireworks show:Princeton University_item_2_18

Princeton University_description_list_3

  • Princeton University_item_3_19
    • Hip! Hip!Princeton University_item_3_20
    • Rah, Rah, Rah,Princeton University_item_3_21
    • Tiger, Tiger, Tiger,Princeton University_item_3_22
    • Sis, Sis, Sis,Princeton University_item_3_23
    • Boom, Boom, Boom, Ah!Princeton University_item_3_24
    • Princeton! Princeton! Princeton!Princeton University_item_3_25
  • Or if a class is being celebrated, the last line consists of the class year repeated three times, e.g. "Eighty-eight! Eighty-eight! Eighty-eight!"Princeton University_item_3_26

Princeton University_unordered_list_4

  • Newman's Day – Students attempt to drink 24 beers in the 24 hours of April 24. According to The New York Times, "the day got its name from an apocryphal quote attributed to Paul Newman: '24 beers in a case, 24 hours in a day. Coincidence? I think not.'" Newman had spoken out against the tradition, however.Princeton University_item_4_27
  • Nude Olympics – Annual nude and partially nude frolic in Holder Courtyard that takes place during the first snow of the winter. Started in the early 1970s, the Nude Olympics went co-educational in 1979 and gained much notoriety with the American press. For safety reasons, the administration banned the Olympics in 2000 to the chagrin of students.Princeton University_item_4_28
  • Prospect 11 – The act of drinking a beer at all 11 eating clubs in a single night.Princeton University_item_4_29
  • P-rade – Traditional parade of alumni and their families. They process through campus by class year during Reunions.Princeton University_item_4_30
  • Reunions – Massive annual gathering of alumni held the weekend before graduation.Princeton University_item_4_31

Athletics Princeton University_section_28

Princeton supports organized athletics at three levels: varsity intercollegiate, club intercollegiate, and intramural. Princeton University_sentence_317

It also provides "a variety of physical education and recreational programs" for members of the Princeton community. Princeton University_sentence_318

According to the athletics program's mission statement, Princeton aims for its students who participate in athletics to be "'student athletes' in the fullest sense of the phrase." Princeton University_sentence_319

Most undergraduates participate in athletics at some level. Princeton University_sentence_320

Princeton's colors are orange and black. Princeton University_sentence_321

The school's athletes are known as Tigers, and the mascot is a tiger. Princeton University_sentence_322

The Princeton administration considered naming the mascot in 2007, but the effort was dropped in the face of alumni opposition. Princeton University_sentence_323

Varsity Princeton University_section_29

Main article: Princeton Tigers Princeton University_sentence_324

Princeton is an NCAA Division I school. Princeton University_sentence_325

Its athletic conference is the Ivy League. Princeton University_sentence_326

Princeton hosts 38 men's and women's varsity sports. Princeton University_sentence_327

The largest varsity sport is rowing, with almost 150 athletes. Princeton University_sentence_328

Princeton's football team has a long and storied history. Princeton University_sentence_329

Princeton played against Rutgers University in the first intercollegiate football game in the U.S. on Nov 6, 1869. Princeton University_sentence_330

By a score of 6–4, Rutgers won the game, which was played by rules similar to modern rugby. Princeton University_sentence_331

Today Princeton is a member of the Football Championship Subdivision of NCAA Division I. Princeton University_sentence_332

As of the end of the 2010 season, Princeton had won 26 national football championships, more than any other school. Princeton University_sentence_333

The men's basketball program is noted for its success under Pete Carril, the head coach from 1967 to 1996. Princeton University_sentence_334

During this time, Princeton won 13 Ivy League titles and made 11 NCAA tournament appearances. Princeton University_sentence_335

Carril introduced the Princeton offense, an offensive strategy that has since been adopted by a number of college and professional basketball teams. Princeton University_sentence_336

Carril's final victory at Princeton came when the Tigers beat UCLA, the defending national champion, in the opening round of the 1996 NCAA tournament, in what is considered one of the greatest upsets in the history of the tournament. Princeton University_sentence_337

Recently Princeton tied the record for the fewest points in a Division I game since the institution of the three-point line in 1986–87, when the Tigers scored 21 points in a loss against Monmouth University on Dec 14, 2005. Princeton University_sentence_338

Princeton women's soccer team advanced to the NCAA Division I Women's Soccer Championship semi-finals in 2004, the only Ivy League team to do so in a 64-team tournament. Princeton University_sentence_339

The season was led by former U.S. National Team member, Esmeralda Negron, Olympic medalist Canadian National Team member Diana Matheson, and coach Julie Shackford. Princeton University_sentence_340

The Tigers men's soccer team was coached for many years by Princeton alumnus and future United States men's national team manager Bob Bradley. Princeton University_sentence_341

The men's water polo team is currently a dominant force in the Collegiate Water Polo Association, having reached the Final Four in two of the last three years. Princeton University_sentence_342

Similarly, the men's lacrosse program enjoyed a period of dominance 1992–2001, during which time it won six national championships. Princeton University_sentence_343

Club and intramural Princeton University_section_30

In addition to varsity sports, Princeton hosts about 35 club sports teams. Princeton University_sentence_344

Princeton's rugby team is organized as a club sport. Princeton University_sentence_345

Each year, nearly 300 teams participate in intramural sports at Princeton. Princeton University_sentence_346

Intramurals are open to members of Princeton's faculty, staff, and students, though a team representing a residential college or eating club must consist only of members of that college or club. Princeton University_sentence_347

Several leagues with differing levels of competitiveness are available. Princeton University_sentence_348

Songs Princeton University_section_31

Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement, convocation, and athletic games is Princeton Cannon Song, the Princeton University fight song. Princeton University_sentence_349

Bob Dylan wrote "Day of The Locusts" (for his 1970 album New Morning) about his experience of receiving an honorary doctorate from the University. Princeton University_sentence_350

It is a reference to the negative experience he had and it mentions the Brood X cicada infestation Princeton experienced that June 1970. Princeton University_sentence_351

"Old Nassau" Princeton University_section_32

Main article: Old Nassau Princeton University_sentence_352

"" has been Princeton University's anthem since 1859. Princeton University_sentence_353

Its words were written that year by a freshman, Harlan Page Peck, and published in the March issue of the Nassau Literary Review (the oldest student publication at Princeton and also the second oldest undergraduate literary magazine in the country). Princeton University_sentence_354

The words and music appeared together for the first time in Songs of Old Nassau, published in April 1859. Princeton University_sentence_355

Before the Langlotz tune was written, the song was sung to Auld Lang Syne's melody, which also fits. Princeton University_sentence_356

However, Old Nassau does not only refer to the university's anthem. Princeton University_sentence_357

It can also refer to Nassau Hall, the building that was built in 1756 and named after William III of the House of Orange-Nassau. Princeton University_sentence_358

When built, it was the largest college building in North America. Princeton University_sentence_359

It served briefly as the capitol of the United States when the Continental Congress convened there in the summer of 1783. Princeton University_sentence_360

By metonymy, the term can refer to the university as a whole. Princeton University_sentence_361

Finally, it can also refer to a chemical reaction that is dubbed "Old Nassau reaction" because the solution turns orange and then black. Princeton University_sentence_362

Notable people Princeton University_section_33

Main article: List of Princeton University people Princeton University_sentence_363

Alumni Princeton University_section_34

U.S. Princeton University_sentence_364 Presidents James Madison and Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Aaron Burr graduated from Princeton, as did Michelle Obama, the former First Lady of the United States. Princeton University_sentence_365

Former Chief Justice of the United States Oliver Ellsworth was an alumnus, as are current U.S. Princeton University_sentence_366 Supreme Court Associate Justices Samuel Alito, Elena Kagan, and Sonia Sotomayor. Princeton University_sentence_367

Alumnus Jerome Powell was appointed as Chair of the U.S. Federal Reserve Board in 2018. Princeton University_sentence_368

Princeton graduates played a major role in the American Revolution, including the first and last Colonels on the Patriot side Philip Johnston and Nathaniel Scudder, as well as the highest ranking civilian leader on the British side David Mathews. Princeton University_sentence_369

Notable graduates of Princeton's School of Engineering and Applied Science include Apollo astronaut and commander of Apollo 12 Pete Conrad, Amazon CEO and founder Jeff Bezos, former Chairman of Alphabet Inc. Eric Schmidt, and Lisa P. Jackson, former Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. Princeton University_sentence_370

Actors Jimmy Stewart, Wentworth Miller, José Ferrer, David Duchovny, Brooke Shields, and Graham Phillips graduated from Princeton as did composer and pianist Richard Aaker Trythall. Princeton University_sentence_371

Soccer-player alumna, Diana Matheson, scored the game-winning goal that earned Canada their Olympic bronze medal in 2012. Princeton University_sentence_372

Writers Booth Tarkington, F. Princeton University_sentence_373 Scott Fitzgerald, and Eugene O'Neill attended but did not graduate. Princeton University_sentence_374

Selden Edwards and Will Stanton graduated with English degrees. Princeton University_sentence_375

American novelist Jodi Picoult graduated in 1987. Princeton University_sentence_376

Mario Vargas Llosa, Nobel Prize in Literature, received an honorary degree in 2015 and has been a visiting lecturer at the Spanish Department. Princeton University_sentence_377

William P. Ross, Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation and founding editor of the Cherokee Advocate, graduated in 1844. Princeton University_sentence_378

Notable graduate alumni include Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, Richard Feynman, Lee Iacocca, John Nash, Alonzo Church, Alan Turing, Terence Tao, Edward Witten, John Milnor, John Bardeen, Steven Weinberg, John Tate, and David Petraeus. Princeton University_sentence_379

Royals such as Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad, Prince Moulay Hicham of Morocco, Prince Turki bin Faisal Al Saud, and Queen Noor of Jordan also have attended Princeton. Princeton University_sentence_380

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Faculty Princeton University_section_35

Notable faculty members include P. Princeton University_sentence_381 Adams Sitney, Angus Deaton, Daniel Kahneman, Joyce Carol Oates, Cornel West, Robert Keohane, Anthony Grafton, Peter Singer, Jhumpa Lahiri, Michael Mullen, Robert P. George, and Andrew Wiles. Princeton University_sentence_382

Notable former faculty members include John Witherspoon, Walter Kaufmann, John von Neumann, Ben Bernanke, Paul Krugman, Joseph Henry, Toni Morrison, John P. Lewis, and alumnus Woodrow Wilson, who also served as president of the University 1902–1910. Princeton University_sentence_383

Albert Einstein, though on the faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study rather than at Princeton, came to be associated with the university through frequent lectures and visits on the campus. Princeton University_sentence_384

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See also Princeton University_section_36

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princeton University.