Progressive rock

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For the radio format, see Progressive rock (radio format). Progressive rock_sentence_0

Progressive rock_table_infobox_0

Progressive rockProgressive rock_header_cell_0_0_0
Other namesProgressive rock_header_cell_0_1_0 Progressive rock_cell_0_1_1
Stylistic originsProgressive rock_header_cell_0_2_0 Progressive rock_cell_0_2_1
Cultural originsProgressive rock_header_cell_0_3_0 Mid to late 1960s, United Kingdom, Germany and United StatesProgressive rock_cell_0_3_1
Derivative formsProgressive rock_header_cell_0_4_0 Progressive rock_cell_0_4_1
SubgenresProgressive rock_header_cell_0_5_0
Fusion genresProgressive rock_header_cell_0_6_0
Other topicsProgressive rock_header_cell_0_7_0

Progressive rock (often shortened to prog; sometimes called art rock, classical rock or symphonic rock) is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid- to late 1960s. Progressive rock_sentence_1

Initially termed "progressive pop", the style was an outgrowth of psychedelic bands who abandoned standard pop traditions in favour of instrumentation and compositional techniques more frequently associated with jazz, folk, or classical music. Progressive rock_sentence_2

Additional elements contributed to its "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic, technology was harnessed for new sounds, music approached the condition of "art", and the studio, rather than the stage, became the focus of musical activity, which often involved creating music for listening rather than dancing. Progressive rock_sentence_3

Prog is based on fusions of styles, approaches and genres, involving a continuous move between formalism and eclecticism. Progressive rock_sentence_4

Due to its historical reception, prog's scope is sometimes limited to a stereotype of long solos, long albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, and an obsessive dedication to technical skill. Progressive rock_sentence_5

While the genre is often cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, and only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music. Progressive rock_sentence_6

The genre coincided with the mid-1960s economic boom that allowed record labels to allocate more creative control to their artists, as well as the new journalistic division between "pop" and "rock" that lent generic significance to both terms. Progressive rock_sentence_7

Prog saw a high level of popularity in the early-to-mid-1970s, but faded soon after. Progressive rock_sentence_8

Conventional wisdom holds that the rise of punk rock caused this, but several more factors contributed to the decline. Progressive rock_sentence_9

Music critics, who often labelled the concepts as "pretentious" and the sounds as "pompous" and "overblown", tended to be hostile towards the genre or to completely ignore it. Progressive rock_sentence_10

After the late 1970s, progressive rock fragmented in numerous forms. Progressive rock_sentence_11

Some bands achieved commercial success well into the 1980s (albeit with changed lineups and more compact song structures) or crossed into symphonic pop, arena rock, or new wave. Progressive rock_sentence_12

Early groups who exhibited progressive features are retroactively described as "proto-prog". Progressive rock_sentence_13

The Canterbury scene, originating in the late 1960s, denotes a subset of prog bands who emphasised the use of wind instruments, complex chord changes and long improvisations. Progressive rock_sentence_14

Rock in Opposition, from the late 1970s, was more avant-garde, and when combined with the Canterbury style, created avant-prog. Progressive rock_sentence_15

In the 1980s, a new subgenre, neo-progressive rock, enjoyed some commercial success, although it was also accused of being derivative and lacking in innovation. Progressive rock_sentence_16

Post-progressive draws upon newer developments in popular music and the avant-garde since the mid 1970s. Progressive rock_sentence_17

Definition and characteristics Progressive rock_section_0

Further information: Progressive music Progressive rock_sentence_18

Scope and related terms Progressive rock_section_1

See also: Progressive pop and Art rock Progressive rock_sentence_19

The term "progressive rock" is synonymous with "art rock", "classical rock" (not to be confused with classic rock), and "symphonic rock". Progressive rock_sentence_20

Historically, "art rock" has been used to describe at least two related, but distinct, types of rock music. Progressive rock_sentence_21

The first is progressive rock as it is generally understood, while the second usage refers to groups who rejected psychedelia and the hippie counterculture in favour of a modernist, avant-garde approach. Progressive rock_sentence_22

Similarities between the two terms are that they both describe a mostly British attempt to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic credibility. Progressive rock_sentence_23

However, art rock is more likely to have experimental or avant-garde influences. Progressive rock_sentence_24

"Prog" was devised in the 1990s as a shorthand term, but later became a transferable adjective, also suggesting a wider palette than that drawn on by the most popular 1970s bands. Progressive rock_sentence_25

Progressive rock is varied and is based on fusions of styles, approaches and genres, tapping into broader cultural resonances that connect to avant-garde art, classical music and folk music, performance and the moving image. Progressive rock_sentence_26

Although a unidirectional English "progressive" style emerged in the late 1960s, by 1967, progressive rock had come to constitute a diversity of loosely associated style codes. Progressive rock_sentence_27

When the "progressive" label arrived, the music was dubbed "progressive pop" before it was called "progressive rock", with the term "progressive" referring to the wide range of attempts to break with standard pop music formula. Progressive rock_sentence_28

A number of additional factors contributed to the acquired "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic; technology was harnessed for new sounds; music approached the condition of "art"; some harmonic language was imported from jazz and 19th-century classical music; the album format overtook singles; and the studio, rather than the stage, became the focus of musical activity, which often involved creating music for listening, not dancing. Progressive rock_sentence_29

Critics of the genre often limit its scope to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, and an obsessive dedication to technical skill. Progressive rock_sentence_30

While progressive rock is often cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, and only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music. Progressive rock_sentence_31

Writer Emily Robinson says that the narrowed definition of "progressive rock" was a measure against the term's loose application in the late 1960s, when it was "applied to everyone from Bob Dylan to the Rolling Stones". Progressive rock_sentence_32

Debate over the genre's criterion continued to the 2010s, particularly on Internet forums dedicated to prog. Progressive rock_sentence_33

According to musicologists Paul Hegarty and Martin Halliwell, Bill Martin and Edward Macan authored major books about prog rock while "effectively accept[ing] the characterization of progressive rock offered by its critics. Progressive rock_sentence_34

... they each do so largely unconsciously." Progressive rock_sentence_35

Academic John S. Cotner contests Macan's view that progressive rock cannot exist without the continuous and overt assimilation of classical music into rock. Progressive rock_sentence_36

Author Kevin Holm-Hudson agrees that "progressive rock is a style far more diverse than what is heard from its mainstream groups and what is implied by unsympathetic critics." Progressive rock_sentence_37

Relation to art and social theories Progressive rock_section_2

See also: Formalism (music) and Eclecticism in music Progressive rock_sentence_38

In early references to the music, "progressive" was partly related to progressive politics, but those connotations were lost during the 1970s. Progressive rock_sentence_39

On "progressive music", Holm-Hudson writes that it "moves continuously between explicit and implicit references to genres and strategies derived not only from European art music, but other cultural domains (such as East Indian, Celtic, folk, and African) and hence involves a continuous aesthetic movement between formalism and eclecticism". Progressive rock_sentence_40

Cotner also says that progressive rock incorporates both formal and eclectic elements, "It consists of a combination of factors – some of them intramusical ("within"), others extramusical or social ("without")." Progressive rock_sentence_41

One way of conceptualising rock and roll in relation to "progressive music" is that progressive music pushed the genre into greater complexity while retracing the roots of romantic and classical music. Progressive rock_sentence_42

Sociologist Paul Willis believes: "We must never be in doubt that 'progressive' music followed rock 'n' roll, and that it could not have been any other way. Progressive rock_sentence_43

We can see rock 'n' roll as a deconstruction and 'progressive' music as a reconstruction." Progressive rock_sentence_44

Author Will Romano states that "rock itself can be interpreted as a progressive idea ... Ironically, and quite paradoxically, 'progressive rock', the classic era of the late 1960s through the mid- and late 1970s, introduces not only the explosive and exploratory sounds of technology ... but traditional music forms (classical and European folk) and (often) a pastiche compositional style and artificial constructs (concept albums) which suggests postmodernism." Progressive rock_sentence_45

History Progressive rock_section_3

Further information: Timeline of progressive rock Progressive rock_sentence_46

1966–70: Origins Progressive rock_section_4

Further information on the origins of progressive rock from the perspective of its early synonyms: Progressive pop § Origins, and Art rock § Origins Progressive rock_sentence_47

Background and roots Progressive rock_section_5

See also: Progressive jazz Progressive rock_sentence_48

In 1966, the level of social and artistic correspondence among British and American rock musicians dramatically accelerated for bands like the Beatles, the Beach Boys and the Byrds who fused elements of cultivated music with the vernacular traditions of rock. Progressive rock_sentence_49

Progressive rock was predicated on the "progressive" pop groups from the 1960s who combined rock and roll with various other music styles such as Indian ragas, oriental melodies and Gregorian chants, like the Beatles and the Yardbirds. Progressive rock_sentence_50

The Beatles' Paul McCartney said in 1967: "we [the band] got a bit bored with 12 bars all the time, so we tried to get into something else. Progressive rock_sentence_51

Then came Dylan, the Who, and the Beach Boys. Progressive rock_sentence_52

... We're all trying to do vaguely the same kind of thing." Progressive rock_sentence_53

Rock music started to take itself seriously, paralleling earlier attempts in jazz (as swing gave way to bop, a move which did not succeed with audiences). Progressive rock_sentence_54

In this period, the popular song began signalling a new possible means of expression that went beyond the three-minute love song, leading to an intersection between the "underground" and the "establishment" for listening publics. Progressive rock_sentence_55

Hegarty and Halliwell identify the Beatles, the Beach Boys, the Doors, the Pretty Things, the Zombies, the Byrds, the Grateful Dead and Pink Floyd "not merely as precursors of prog but as essential developments of progressiveness in its early days". Progressive rock_sentence_56

According to musicologist Walter Everett, the Beatles' "experimental timbres, rhythms, tonal structures, and poetic texts" on their albums Rubber Soul (1965) and Revolver (1966) "encouraged a legion of young bands that were to create progressive rock in the early 1970s". Progressive rock_sentence_57

Dylan's poetry, the Mothers of Invention's album Freak Out! Progressive rock_sentence_58

(1966) and the Beatles' Sgt. Progressive rock_sentence_59 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967) were all important in progressive rock's development. Progressive rock_sentence_60

The productions of Phil Spector were key influences, as they introduced the possibility of using the recording studio to create music that otherwise could never be achieved. Progressive rock_sentence_61

The same is said for the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds (1966), which Brian Wilson intended as an answer to Rubber Soul and which in turn influenced the Beatles when they made Sgt. Pepper. Progressive rock_sentence_62

Dylan introduced a literary element to rock through his fascination with the Surrealists and the French Symbolists, and his immersion in the New York City art scene of the early 1960s. Progressive rock_sentence_63

The trend of bands with names drawn from literature, such as the Doors, Steppenwolf and the Ides of March, were a further sign of rock music aligning itself with high culture. Progressive rock_sentence_64

Dylan also led the way in blending rock with folk music styles. Progressive rock_sentence_65

This was followed by folk rock groups such as the Byrds, who based their initial sound on that of the Beatles. Progressive rock_sentence_66

In turn, the Byrds' vocal harmonies inspired those of Yes, and British folk rock bands like Fairport Convention, who emphasised instrumental virtuosity. Progressive rock_sentence_67

Some of these artists, such as the Incredible String Band and Shirley and Dolly Collins, would prove influential through their use of instruments borrowed from world music and early music. Progressive rock_sentence_68

Pet Sounds and Sgt. Pepper Progressive rock_section_6

Main articles: Pet Sounds and Sgt. Progressive rock_sentence_69 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band Progressive rock_sentence_70

Pet Sounds and Sgt. Pepper, with their lyrical unity, extended structure, complexity, eclecticism, experimentalism, and influences derived from classical music forms, are largely viewed as beginnings in the progressive rock genre and as turning points wherein rock, which previously had been considered dance music, became music that was made for listening to. Progressive rock_sentence_71

Between Pet Sounds and Sgt. Pepper, the Beach Boys released the single "Good Vibrations" (1966), dubbed a "pocket symphony" by Derek Taylor, the band's publicist. Progressive rock_sentence_72

The song contained an eclectic array of exotic instruments and several disjunctive key and modal shifts. Progressive rock_sentence_73

Scott Interrante of Popmatters wrote that its influence on progressive rock and the psychedelic movement "can't be overstated". Progressive rock_sentence_74

Martin likened the song to the Beatles' "A Day in the Life" from Sgt. Pepper, in that they showcase "the same reasons why much progressive rock is difficult to dance to". Progressive rock_sentence_75

Although Sgt. Pepper was preceded by several albums that had begun to bridge the line between "disposable" pop and "serious" rock, it successfully gave an established "commercial" voice to an alternative youth culture and marked the point at which the LP record emerged as a creative format whose importance was equal to or greater than that of the single. Progressive rock_sentence_76

Bill Bruford, a veteran of several progressive rock bands, said that Sgt. Pepper transformed both musicians' ideas of what was possible and audiences' ideas of what was acceptable in music. Progressive rock_sentence_77

He believed that: "Without the Beatles, or someone else who had done what the Beatles did, it is fair to assume that there would have been no progressive rock." Progressive rock_sentence_78

In the aftermath of Sgt. Pepper, magazines such as Melody Maker drew a sharp line between "pop" and "rock', thus eliminating the "roll" from "rock and roll" (which now refers to the 1950s style). Progressive rock_sentence_79

The only artists who remained "rock" would be those who were considered at the vanguard of compositional forms, far from "radio friendly" standards, as Americans increasingly used the adjective "progressive" for groups like Jethro Tull, Family, East of Eden, Van der Graaf Generator and King Crimson. Progressive rock_sentence_80

Proto-prog and psychedelia Progressive rock_section_7

Main articles: Proto-prog, Psychedelic rock, and Acid rock Progressive rock_sentence_81

See also: Rock opera and Canterbury scene Progressive rock_sentence_82

According to AllMusic: "Prog-rock began to emerge out of the British psychedelic scene in 1967, specifically a strain of classical/symphonic rock led by the Nice, Procol Harum, and the Moody Blues (Days of Future Passed)." Progressive rock_sentence_83

The availability of newly affordable recording equipment coincided with the rise of a London underground scene at which the psychedelic drug LSD was commonly used. Progressive rock_sentence_84

Pink Floyd and Soft Machine functioned as house bands at all-night events at locations such as Middle Earth and the UFO Club, where they experimented with sound textures and long-form songs. Progressive rock_sentence_85

Many psychedelic, folk rock and early progressive bands were aided by exposure from BBC Radio 1 DJ John Peel. Progressive rock_sentence_86

Jimi Hendrix, who rose to prominence in the London scene and recorded with a band of English musicians, initiated the trend towards guitar virtuosity and eccentricity in rock music. Progressive rock_sentence_87

The Scottish band 1-2-3, later renamed Clouds, were formed in 1966 and began performing at London clubs a year later. Progressive rock_sentence_88

According to Mojo's George Knemeyer: "some claim [that they] had a vital influence on prog-rockers such as Yes, The Nice and Family." Progressive rock_sentence_89

Symphonic rock artists in the late 1960s had some chart success, including the singles "Nights in White Satin" (the Moody Blues, 1967) and "A Whiter Shade of Pale" (Procol Harum, 1967). Progressive rock_sentence_90

The Moody Blues established the popularity of symphonic rock when they recorded Days of Future Passed together with the London Festival Orchestra, and Procol Harum began to use a greater variety of acoustic instruments, particularly on their 1969 album A Salty Dog. Progressive rock_sentence_91

Classical influences sometimes took the form of pieces adapted from or inspired by classical works, such as Jeff Beck's "Beck's Bolero" and parts of the Nice's Ars Longa Vita Brevis. Progressive rock_sentence_92

The latter, along with such Nice tracks as "Rondo" and "America", reflect a greater interest in music that is entirely instrumental. Progressive rock_sentence_93

Sgt. Pepper's and Days both represent a growing tendency towards song cycles and suites made up of multiple movements. Progressive rock_sentence_94

Focus incorporated and articulated jazz-style chords, and irregular off-beat drumming into their later Rock based Riffs, and, several bands that included jazz-style horn sections appeared, including Blood, Sweat & Tears and Chicago. Progressive rock_sentence_95

Of these, Martin highlights Chicago in particular for their experimentation with suites and extended compositions, such as the "Ballet for a Girl in Buchannon" on Chicago II. Progressive rock_sentence_96

Jazz influences appeared in the music of British bands such as Traffic, Colosseum and If, together with Canterbury scene bands such as Soft Machine and Caravan. Progressive rock_sentence_97

Canterbury scene bands emphasised the use of wind instruments, complex chord changes and long improvisations. Progressive rock_sentence_98

Martin writes that in 1968, "full-blown progressive rock" was not yet in existence, but three bands released albums who would later come to the forefront of the music: Jethro Tull, Caravan and Soft Machine. Progressive rock_sentence_99

The term "progressive rock", which appeared in the liner notes of Caravan's 1968 self-titled debut LP, came to be applied to bands that used classical music techniques to expand the styles and concepts available to rock music. Progressive rock_sentence_100

The Nice, the Moody Blues, Procol Harum and Pink Floyd all contained elements of what is now called progressive rock, but none represented as complete an example of the genre as several bands that formed soon after. Progressive rock_sentence_101

Almost all of the genre's major bands, including Jethro Tull, King Crimson, Yes, Genesis, Van der Graaf Generator, ELP, Gentle Giant and Renaissance, released their debut albums during the years 1968–1970. Progressive rock_sentence_102

Most of these were folk-rock albums that gave little indication of what the band's mature sound would become, but King Crimson's In the Court of the Crimson King (1969) was a fully formed example of the genre. Progressive rock_sentence_103

Critics assumed the album to be the logical extension and development of late 1960s work exemplified by the Moody Blues, Procol Harum, Pink Floyd and the Beatles. Progressive rock_sentence_104

According to Macan, the album may be the most influential to progressive rock for crystallising the music of earlier bands "into a distinctive, immediately recognizable style". Progressive rock_sentence_105

1970s–80s Progressive rock_section_8

Peak years (1971–76) Progressive rock_section_9

See also: Krautrock Progressive rock_sentence_106

Most of the genre's major bands released their most critically acclaimed albums during the years 1971–1976. Progressive rock_sentence_107

The genre experienced a high degree of commercial success during the early 1970s. Progressive rock_sentence_108

Jethro Tull, ELP,Rush,Yes and Pink Floyd combined for four albums that reached number one in the US charts, and sixteen of their albums reached the top ten. Progressive rock_sentence_109

Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells (1973), an excerpt of which was used as the theme for the film The Exorcist, sold 16 million copies. Progressive rock_sentence_110

Progressive rock came to be appreciated overseas, but it mostly remained a European, and especially British, phenomenon. Progressive rock_sentence_111

Few American bands engaged in it, and the purest representatives of the genre, such as Starcastle and Happy the Man, remained limited to their own geographic regions. Progressive rock_sentence_112

This is at least in part due to music industry differences between the US and Great Britain. Progressive rock_sentence_113

Cultural factors were also involved, as US musicians tended to come from a blues background, while Europeans tended to have a foundation in classical music. Progressive rock_sentence_114

North American progressive rock bands and artists often represented hybrid styles such as the complex arrangements of Rush, the hard rock of Captain Beyond, the Southern rock-tinged prog of Kansas, the jazz fusion of Frank Zappa and Return to Forever, and the eclectic fusion of the all-instrumental Dixie Dregs. Progressive rock_sentence_115

British progressive rock acts had their greatest US success in the same geographic areas in which British heavy metal bands experienced their greatest popularity. Progressive rock_sentence_116

The overlap in audiences led to the success of arena rock bands, such as Boston, Kansas, and Styx, who combined elements of the two styles. Progressive rock_sentence_117

Progressive rock achieved popularity in Continental Europe more quickly than it did in the US. Progressive rock_sentence_118

Italy remained generally uninterested in rock music until the strong Italian progressive rock scene developed in the early 1970s. Progressive rock_sentence_119

Few of the European groups were successful outside of their own countries, with the exceptions of Dutch bands like Focus and Golden Earring who wrote English-language lyrics, and the Italians Le Orme and PFM, whose English lyrics were written by Peter Hammill and Peter Sinfield, respectively. Progressive rock_sentence_120

Some European bands played in a style derivative of English bands. Progressive rock_sentence_121

The "Kosmische music" scene in Germany came to be labelled as "krautrock" internationally and is variously seen as part of the progressive rock genre or an entirely distinct phenomenon. Progressive rock_sentence_122

Krautrock bands such as Can, which included two members who had studied under Karlheinz Stockhausen, tended to be more strongly influenced by 20th-century classical music than the British prog bands, whose musical vocabulary leaned more towards the Romantic era. Progressive rock_sentence_123

Many of these groups were very influential even among bands that had little enthusiasm for the symphonic variety of progressive rock. Progressive rock_sentence_124

Decline and fragmentation Progressive rock_section_10

See also: Punk rock and Symphonic pop Progressive rock_sentence_125

Political and social trends of the late 1970s shifted away from the early 1970s hippie attitudes that had led to the genre's development and popularity. Progressive rock_sentence_126

The rise in punk cynicism made the utopian ideals expressed in progressive rock lyrics unfashionable. Progressive rock_sentence_127

Virtuosity was rejected, as the expense of purchasing quality instruments and the time investment of learning to play them were seen as barriers to rock's energy and immediacy. Progressive rock_sentence_128

There were also changes in the music industry, as record companies disappeared and merged into large media conglomerates. Progressive rock_sentence_129

Promoting and developing experimental music was not part of the marketing strategy for these large corporations, who focused their attention on identifying and targeting profitable market niches. Progressive rock_sentence_130

Four of progressive rock's most successful bands – King Crimson, Yes, ELP and Genesis – went on hiatus or experienced major personnel changes during the mid-1970s. Progressive rock_sentence_131

Macan notes the September 1974 breakup of King Crimson as particularly significant, calling it the point when "all English bands in the genre should have ceased to exist". Progressive rock_sentence_132

More of the major bands, including Van der Graaf Generator, Gentle Giant and U.K. Progressive rock_sentence_133 , dissolved between 1978 and 1980. Progressive rock_sentence_134

Many bands had by the mid-1970s reached the limit of how far they could experiment in a rock context, and fans had wearied of the extended, epic compositions. Progressive rock_sentence_135

The sounds of the Hammond, Minimoog and Mellotron had been thoroughly explored, and their use became clichéd. Progressive rock_sentence_136

Those bands who continued to record often simplified their sound, and the genre fragmented from the late 1970s onwards. Progressive rock_sentence_137

In Robert Fripp's opinion, once "progressive rock" ceased to cover new ground – becoming a set of conventions to be repeated and imitated – the genre's premise had ceased to be "progressive". Progressive rock_sentence_138

The era of record labels investing in their artists, giving them freedom to experiment and limited control over their content and marketing, ended with the late 1970s. Progressive rock_sentence_139

Corporate artists and repertoire staff exerted an increasing amount of control over the creative process that had previously belonged to the artists, and established acts were pressured to create music with simpler harmony and song structures and fewer changes in meter. Progressive rock_sentence_140

A number of symphonic pop bands, such as Supertramp, 10cc, the Alan Parsons Project and the Electric Light Orchestra, brought the orchestral-style arrangements into a context that emphasised pop singles while allowing for occasional instances of exploration. Progressive rock_sentence_141

Jethro Tull, Gentle Giant and Pink Floyd opted for a harder sound in the style of arena rock. Progressive rock_sentence_142

Few new progressive rock bands formed during this era, and those who did found that record labels were not interested in signing them. Progressive rock_sentence_143

The short-lived supergroup U.K. was a notable exception since its members had established reputations; they produced two albums that were stylistically similar to previous artists and did little to advance the genre. Progressive rock_sentence_144

Part of the genre's legacy in this period was its influence on other styles, as several European guitarists brought a progressive rock approach to heavy metal and laid the groundwork for progressive metal. Progressive rock_sentence_145

Michael Schenker, of UFO; and Uli Jon Roth, who replaced Schenker in Scorpions, expanded the modal vocabulary available to guitarists. Progressive rock_sentence_146

Roth studied classical music with the intent of using the guitar in the way that classical composers used the violin. Progressive rock_sentence_147

Finally, the Dutch-born and classically trained Alex and Eddie Van Halen formed Van Halen, featuring ground-breaking whammy-bar, tapping and cross-picking guitar performances that influenced "shred" music in the 1980s. Progressive rock_sentence_148

Commercialisation Progressive rock_section_11

Some established artists moved towards music that was simpler and more commercially viable. Progressive rock_sentence_149

Arena rock bands like Journey, Kansas, Styx, GTR, ELO and Foreigner either had begun as progressive rock bands or included members with strong ties to the genre. Progressive rock_sentence_150

These groups retained some of the song complexity and orchestral-style arrangements, but they moved away from lyrical mysticism in favour of more conventional themes such as relationships. Progressive rock_sentence_151

Genesis transformed into a successful pop act, and a re-formed Yes released the relatively mainstream 90125 (1983), which yielded their only US number-one single, "Owner of a Lonely Heart". Progressive rock_sentence_152

These radio-friendly groups have been called "prog lite". Progressive rock_sentence_153

One band who remained successful into the 1980s while maintaining a progressive approach was Pink Floyd, who released The Wall late in 1979. Progressive rock_sentence_154

The album, which brought punk anger into progressive rock, was a huge success and was later filmed as Pink Floyd – The Wall. Progressive rock_sentence_155

Post-punk and post-progressive Progressive rock_section_12

Main articles: Post-punk and Post-progressive Progressive rock_sentence_156

See also: New wave music Progressive rock_sentence_157

Punk and prog were not necessarily as opposed as is commonly believed. Progressive rock_sentence_158

Both genres reject commercialism, and punk bands did see a need for musical advancement. Progressive rock_sentence_159

Author Doyle Green noted that post-punk emerged as "a kind of 'progressive punk'". Progressive rock_sentence_160

Post-punk artists rejected the high cultural references of 1960s rock artists like the Beatles and Bob Dylan as well as paradigms that defined rock as "progressive", "art", or "studio perfectionism". Progressive rock_sentence_161

In contrast to punk rock, it balances punk's energy and skepticism with art school consciousness, Dadaist experimentalism, and atmospheric, ambient soundscapes. Progressive rock_sentence_162

World music, especially African and Asian traditions, was also a major influence. Progressive rock_sentence_163

Progressive rock's impact was felt in the work of some post-punk artists, although they tended not to emulate classical rock or Canterbury groups but rather Roxy Music, King Crimson, and krautrock bands, particularly Can. Progressive rock_sentence_164

Punishment of Luxury's music borrowed from both progressive and punk rock, whilst Alternative TV, who were fronted by the founder of the influential punk fanzine Sniffin' Glue Mark Perry, toured and released a split live album with Gong offshoot Here & Now. Progressive rock_sentence_165

The term "post-progressive" identifies progressive rock that returns to its original principles while dissociating from 1970s prog styles, and may be located after 1978. Progressive rock_sentence_166

Martin credits Roxy Music's Brian Eno as the sub-genre's most important catalyst, explaining that his 1973–77 output merged aspects of progressive rock with a prescient notion of new wave and punk. Progressive rock_sentence_167

New wave, which surfaced around 1978–79 with some of the same attitudes and aesthetic as punk, was characterised by Martin as "progressive" multiplied by "punk". Progressive rock_sentence_168

Bands in the genre tended to be less hostile towards progressive rock than the punks, and there were crossovers, such as Fripp and Eno's involvement with Talking Heads, and Yes' replacement of Rick Wakeman and Jon Anderson with the pop duo the Buggles. Progressive rock_sentence_169

When King Crimson reformed in 1981, they released an album, Discipline, which Macan says "inaugurated" the new post-progressive style. Progressive rock_sentence_170

The new King Crimson line-up featured guitarist and vocalist Adrian Belew, who also collaborated with Talking Heads, playing live with the band and featuring on their 1980 album Remain in Light. Progressive rock_sentence_171

According to Martin, Talking Heads also created "a kind of new-wave music that was the perfect synthesis of punk urgency and attitude and progressive-rock sophistication and creativity. Progressive rock_sentence_172

A good deal of the more interesting rock since that time is clearly 'post-Talking Heads' music, but this means that it is post-progressive rock as well." Progressive rock_sentence_173

Neo-progressive rock Progressive rock_section_13

Main article: Neo-progressive rock Progressive rock_sentence_174

A second wave of progressive rock bands appeared in the early 1980s and have since been categorised as a separate "neo-progressive rock" subgenre. Progressive rock_sentence_175

These largely keyboard-based bands played extended compositions with complex musical and lyrical structures. Progressive rock_sentence_176

Several of these bands were signed by major record labels, including Marillion, IQ, Pendragon and Pallas. Progressive rock_sentence_177

Most of the genre's major acts released debut albums between 1983 and 1985 and shared the same manager, Keith Goodwin, a publicist who had been instrumental in promoting progressive rock during the 1970s. Progressive rock_sentence_178

The previous decade's bands had the advantage of appearing during a prominent countercultural movement that provided them with a large potential audience, but the neo-progressive bands were limited to a relatively niche demographic and found it difficult to attract a following. Progressive rock_sentence_179

Only Marillion and Saga experienced international success. Progressive rock_sentence_180

Neo-progressive bands tended to use Peter Gabriel-era Genesis as their "principal model". Progressive rock_sentence_181

They were also influenced by funk, hard rock and punk rock. Progressive rock_sentence_182

The genre's most successful band, Marillion, suffered particularly from accusations of similarity to Genesis, although they used a different vocal style, incorporated more hard rock elements, and were very influenced by bands including Camel and Pink Floyd. Progressive rock_sentence_183

Authors Paul Hegarty and Martin Halliwell have pointed out that the neo-progressive bands were not so much plagiarising progressive rock as they were creating a new style from progressive rock elements, just as the bands of a decade before had created a new style from jazz and classical elements. Progressive rock_sentence_184

Author Edward Macan counters by pointing out that these bands were at least partially motivated by a nostalgic desire to preserve a past style rather than a drive to innovate. Progressive rock_sentence_185

1990s–2000s Progressive rock_section_14

Third wave Progressive rock_section_15

A third wave of progressive rock bands, who can also be described as a second generation of neo-progressive bands, emerged in the 1990s. Progressive rock_sentence_186

The use of the term "progressive" to describe groups that follow in the style of bands from ten to twenty years earlier is somewhat controversial, as it has been seen as a contradiction of the spirit of experimentation and progress. Progressive rock_sentence_187

These new bands were aided in part by the availability of personal computer-based recording studios, which reduced album production expenses, and the Internet, which made it easier for bands outside of the mainstream to reach widespread audiences. Progressive rock_sentence_188

Record stores specialising in progressive rock appeared in large cities. Progressive rock_sentence_189

The shred music of the 1980s was a major influence on the progressive rock groups of the 1990s. Progressive rock_sentence_190

Some of the newer bands, such as the Flower Kings, Spock's Beard and Glass Hammer, played a 1970s-style symphonic prog but with an updated sound. Progressive rock_sentence_191

A number of them began to explore the limits of the CD in the way that earlier groups had stretched the limits of the vinyl LP. Progressive rock_sentence_192

Progressive metal Progressive rock_section_16

Main article: Progressive metal Progressive rock_sentence_193

Progressive rock and heavy metal have similar timelines. Progressive rock_sentence_194

Both emerged from late-1960s psychedelia to achieve great early-1970s success despite a lack of radio airplay and support from critics, then faded in the mid-to-late 1970s and experienced revivals in the early 1980s. Progressive rock_sentence_195

Each genre experienced a fragmentation of styles at this time, and many metal bands from the new wave of British heavy metal onwards displayed progressive rock influences. Progressive rock_sentence_196

Progressive metal reached a point of maturity with Queensrÿche's 1988 concept album Operation: Mindcrime and Voivod's 1989 Nothingface, which featured abstract lyrics and a King Crimson-like texture. Progressive rock_sentence_197

Progressive rock elements appear in other metal subgenres. Progressive rock_sentence_198

Black metal is conceptual by definition, due to its prominent theme of questioning the values of Christianity. Progressive rock_sentence_199

Its guttural vocals are sometimes used by bands who can be classified as progressive, such as Mastodon, Mudvayne and Opeth. Progressive rock_sentence_200

Symphonic metal is an extension of the tendency towards orchestral passages in early progressive rock. Progressive rock_sentence_201

Progressive rock has also served as a key inspiration for genres such as post-rock, post-metal and avant-garde metal, math rock, power metal and neo-classical metal. Progressive rock_sentence_202

New prog Progressive rock_section_17

Not to be confused with Neo-progressive rock. Progressive rock_sentence_203

New prog describes the wave of progressive rock bands in the 2000s who revived the genre. Progressive rock_sentence_204

According to Entertainment Weekly's Evan Serpick: "Along with recent success stories like System of a Down and up-and-comers like the Dillinger Escape Plan, Lightning Bolt, Coheed and Cambria, and the Mars Volta create incredibly complex and inventive music that sounds like a heavier, more aggressive version of '70s behemoths such as Led Zeppelin and King Crimson." Progressive rock_sentence_205

2010s Progressive rock_section_18

The Progressive Music Awards were launched in 2012 by the British magazine Prog to honour the genre's established acts and to promote its newer bands. Progressive rock_sentence_206

Honorees, however, are not invited to perform at the awards ceremony, as the promoters want an event "that doesn't last three weeks". Progressive rock_sentence_207

Festivals Progressive rock_section_19

Many prominent progressive rock bands got their initial exposure at large rock festivals that were held in Britain during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Progressive rock_sentence_208

King Crimson made their first major appearance at the 1969 Hyde Park free concert, before a crowd estimated to be as large as 650,000, in support of the Rolling Stones. Progressive rock_sentence_209

Emerson, Lake & Palmer debuted at the 1970 Isle of Wight Festival, at which Supertramp, Family and Jethro Tull also appeared. Progressive rock_sentence_210

Jethro Tull were also present at the 1969 Newport Jazz Festival, the first year in which that festival invited rock bands to perform. Progressive rock_sentence_211

Hawkwind appeared at many British festivals throughout the 1970s, although they sometimes showed up uninvited, set up a stage on the periphery of the event, and played for free. Progressive rock_sentence_212

Renewed interest in the genre in the 1990s led to the development of progressive rock festivals. Progressive rock_sentence_213

ProgFest, organised by Greg Walker and David Overstreet in 1993, was first held in UCLA's Royce Hall, and featured Sweden's Änglagård, the UK's IQ, Quill and Citadel. Progressive rock_sentence_214

CalProg was held annually in Whittier, California during the 2000s. Progressive rock_sentence_215

The North East Art Rock Festival, or NEARfest, held its first event in 1999 in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania and held annual sold-out concerts until 2012's NEARfest Apocalypse, which featured headliners UK and Renaissance. Progressive rock_sentence_216

Other festivals include the annual ProgDay (the longest-running and only outdoor prog festival) in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the annual Rites of Spring Festival (RoSfest) in Sarasota, Florida, The Rogue Independent Music Festival in Atlanta, Georgia, Baja Prog in Mexicali, Mexico, ProgPower USA in Atlanta, Georgia, ProgPower Europe in Baarlo, Netherlands, and ProgStock in Rahway, NJ, which held its first event in 2017. Progressive rock_sentence_217

Progressive Nation tours were held in 2008 and 2009 with Dream Theater as the headline act. Progressive rock_sentence_218

"Night of the Prog" in St Goarshausen (Germany) is an established European progressive rock festival held every July during 2–3 days for 12 years. Progressive rock_sentence_219

Reception Progressive rock_section_20

The genre has received both critical acclaim and criticism throughout the years. Progressive rock_sentence_220

Progressive rock has been described as parallel to the classical music of Igor Stravinsky and Béla Bartók. Progressive rock_sentence_221

This desire to expand the boundaries of rock, combined with some musicians' dismissiveness toward mainstream rock and pop, dismayed critics and led to accusations of elitism. Progressive rock_sentence_222

Its intellectual, fantastic and apolitical lyrics, and shunning of rock's blues roots, were abandonments of the very things that many critics valued in rock music. Progressive rock_sentence_223

Progressive rock also represented the maturation of rock as a genre, but there was an opinion among critics that rock was and should remain fundamentally tied to adolescence, so rock and maturity were mutually exclusive. Progressive rock_sentence_224

Criticisms over the complexity of their music provoked some bands to create music that was even more complex. Progressive rock_sentence_225

The genre's greatest appeal is to white males. Progressive rock_sentence_226

Most of the musicians involved were male, as was the case for most rock of the time, Female singers were better represented in progressive folk bands, who displayed a broader range of vocal styles than the progressive rock bands with whom they frequently toured and shared band members. Progressive rock_sentence_227

British and European audiences typically followed concert hall behaviour protocols associated with classical music performances, and were more reserved in their behaviour than audiences for other forms of rock. Progressive rock_sentence_228

This confused musicians during US tours, as they found American audiences less attentive and more prone to outbursts during quiet passages. Progressive rock_sentence_229

These aspirations towards high culture reflect progressive rock's origins as a music created largely by upper- and middle-class, white-collar, college-educated males from Southern England. Progressive rock_sentence_230

The music never reflected the concerns of or was embraced by working-class listeners, except in the US, where listeners appreciated the musicians' virtuosity. Progressive rock_sentence_231

Progressive rock's exotic, literary topics were considered particularly irrelevant to British youth during the late 1970s, when the nation suffered from a poor economy and frequent strikes and shortages. Progressive rock_sentence_232

Even King Crimson leader Robert Fripp dismissed progressive rock lyrics as "the philosophical meanderings of some English half-wit who is circumnavigating some inessential point of experience in his life". Progressive rock_sentence_233

Bands whose darker lyrics avoided utopianism, such as King Crimson, Pink Floyd and Van der Graaf Generator, experienced less critical disfavour. Progressive rock_sentence_234

"I wasn't a big fan of most of what you'd call progressive rock", remarked Floyd guitarist David Gilmour. Progressive rock_sentence_235

"I'm like Groucho Marx: I don't want to belong to any club that would have me for a member." Progressive rock_sentence_236

List of progressive rock bands Progressive rock_section_21

Main article: List of progressive rock artists Progressive rock_sentence_237

See also Progressive rock_section_22

Progressive rock_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: rock.