Prostitution

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Several terms redirect here. Prostitution_sentence_0

For other uses, see Prostitute (disambiguation), Whore (disambiguation), Harlot (disambiguation), Strumpet (film) and Hookers (song). Prostitution_sentence_1

Prostitution_table_infobox_0

ProstitutionProstitution_table_caption_0
OccupationProstitution_header_cell_0_0_0
Activity sectorsProstitution_header_cell_0_1_0 Sex industryProstitution_cell_0_1_1
DescriptionProstitution_header_cell_0_2_0
Related jobsProstitution_header_cell_0_3_0 Stripper, porn actorProstitution_cell_0_3_1

Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment. Prostitution_sentence_2

Prostitution is sometimes described as sexual services, commercial sex or, colloquially, hooking. Prostitution_sentence_3

It is sometimes referred to euphemistically as "the world's oldest profession" in the English-speaking world. Prostitution_sentence_4

A person who works in this field is called a prostitute and is a type of sex worker. Prostitution_sentence_5

Prostitution occurs in a variety of forms, and its legal status varies from country to country (sometimes from region to region within a given country), ranging from being an enforced or unenforced crime, to unregulated, to a regulated profession. Prostitution_sentence_6

It is one branch of the sex industry, along with pornography, stripping, and erotic dancing. Prostitution_sentence_7

Brothels are establishments specifically dedicated to prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_8

In escort prostitution, the act may take place at the client's residence or hotel room (referred to as out-call), or at the escort's residence or a hotel room rented for the occasion by the escort (in-call). Prostitution_sentence_9

Another form is street prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_10

There are about 42 million prostitutes in the world, living all over the world (though most of Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa lacks data, studied countries in that large region rank as top sex tourism destinations). Prostitution_sentence_11

Estimates place the annual revenue generated by prostitution worldwide to be over $100 billion. Prostitution_sentence_12

The majority of prostitutes are female and have male clients. Prostitution_sentence_13

The position of prostitution and the law varies widely worldwide, reflecting differing opinions. Prostitution_sentence_14

Some view prostitution as a form of exploitation of or violence against women, and children, that helps to create a supply of victims for human trafficking. Prostitution_sentence_15

Some critics of prostitution as an institution are supporters of the "Nordic model", which decriminalizes the act of selling sex, but makes the purchase of sex illegal. Prostitution_sentence_16

This approach has also been adopted by Canada, Iceland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Norway, France and Sweden. Prostitution_sentence_17

Others view sex work as a legitimate occupation, whereby a person trades or exchanges sexual acts for money. Prostitution_sentence_18

Amnesty International is one of the notable groups calling for the decriminalization of prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_19

Etymology and terminology Prostitution_section_0

General Prostitution_section_1

Prostitute is derived from the Latin prostituta. Prostitution_sentence_20

Some sources cite the verb as a composition of "pro" meaning "up front" or "forward" and "stituere", defined as "to offer up for sale". Prostitution_sentence_21

Another explanation is that prostituta is a composition of pro and statuere (to cause to stand, to station, place erect). Prostitution_sentence_22

A literal translation therefore is: "to put up front for sale" or "to place forward". Prostitution_sentence_23

The Online Etymology Dictionary states, "The notion of 'sex for hire' is not inherent in the etymology, which rather suggests one 'exposed to lust' or sex 'indiscriminately offered.'" Prostitution_sentence_24

The word prostitute was then carried down through various languages to the present-day Western society. Prostitution_sentence_25

Most sex worker activists groups reject the word prostitute and since the late 1970s have used the term sex worker instead. Prostitution_sentence_26

However, sex worker can also mean anyone who works within the sex industry or whose work is of a sexual nature and is not limited solely to prostitutes. Prostitution_sentence_27

A variety of terms are used for those who engage in prostitution, some of which distinguish between different types of prostitution or imply a value judgment about them. Prostitution_sentence_28

Common alternatives for prostitute include escort and whore; however, not all professional escorts are prostitutes. Prostitution_sentence_29

The English word whore derives from the Old English word hōra, from the Proto-Germanic *hōrōn (prostitute), which derives from the Proto-Indo-European root *keh₂- meaning "desire", a root which has also given us Latin cārus (dear), whence the French cher (dear, expensive) and the Latin cāritās (love, charity). Prostitution_sentence_30

Use of the word whore is widely considered pejorative, especially in its modern slang form of ho. Prostitution_sentence_31

In Germany, however, most prostitutes' organizations deliberately use the word Hure (whore) since they feel that prostitute is a bureaucratic term. Prostitution_sentence_32

Those seeking to remove the social stigma associated with prostitution often promote terminology such as sex worker, commercial sex worker (CSW) or sex trade worker. Prostitution_sentence_33

Another commonly used word for a prostitute is hooker. Prostitution_sentence_34

Although a popular etymology connects "hooker" with Joseph Hooker, a Union general in the American Civil War, the word more likely comes from the concentration of prostitutes around the shipyards and ferry terminal of the Corlear's Hook area of Manhattan in the 1820s, who came to be referred to as "hookers". Prostitution_sentence_35

A streetwalker solicits customers on the streets or in public places, while a call girl makes appointments by phone, or in recent years, through email or the internet. Prostitution_sentence_36

Correctly or not, use of the word prostitute without specifying a sex may commonly be assumed to be female; compound terms such as male prostitution or male escort are therefore often used to identify males. Prostitution_sentence_37

Those offering services to female customers are commonly known as gigolos; those offering services to male customers are hustlers or rent boys. Prostitution_sentence_38

Procuring Prostitution_section_2

Main article: Procuring (prostitution) Prostitution_sentence_39

Organizers of prostitution, may be known colloquially as pimps if male or madams if female. Prostitution_sentence_40

More formally, one who is said to practice procuring is a procurer, or procuress. Prostitution_sentence_41

They may also be called panderers or brothel keepers. Prostitution_sentence_42

Examples of procuring include: Prostitution_sentence_43

Prostitution_unordered_list_0

  • trafficking a person into a country for the purpose of soliciting sexProstitution_item_0_0
  • operating a prostitution businessProstitution_item_0_1
  • transporting a prostitute to the location of their arrangementProstitution_item_0_2
  • deriving financial gain from the prostitution of another.Prostitution_item_0_3

Clients Prostitution_section_3

Main article: Client (prostitution) Prostitution_sentence_44

Clients of prostitutes, most often men by prevalence, are sometimes known as johns or tricks in North America and punters in Britain and Ireland. Prostitution_sentence_45

These slang terms are used among both prostitutes and law enforcement for persons who solicit prostitutes. Prostitution_sentence_46

The term john may have originated from the frequent customer practice of giving one's name as "John", a common name in English-speaking countries, in an effort to maintain anonymity. Prostitution_sentence_47

In some places, men who drive around red-light districts for the purpose of soliciting prostitutes are also known as kerb crawlers. Prostitution_sentence_48

Female clients of prostitutes are sometimes referred to as janes or sugar mamas. Prostitution_sentence_49

Other meanings Prostitution_section_4

The word "prostitution" can also be used metaphorically to mean debasing oneself or working towards an unworthy cause or "selling out". Prostitution_sentence_50

In this sense, "prostituting oneself" or "whoring oneself" the services or acts performed are typically not sexual. Prostitution_sentence_51

For instance, in the book The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield says of his brother ("D.B. Prostitution_sentence_52

"): "Now he's out in Hollywood, D.B., being a prostitute. Prostitution_sentence_53

If there's one thing I hate, it's the movies. Prostitution_sentence_54

Don't even mention them to me." Prostitution_sentence_55

D.B. Prostitution_sentence_56

is not literally a prostitute; Holden feels that his job writing B-movie screenplays is morally debasing. Prostitution_sentence_57

The prostitution metaphor, "traditionally used to signify political inconstancy, unreliability, fickleness, a lack of firm values and integrity, and venality, has long been a staple of Russian political rhetoric." Prostitution_sentence_58

One of the famous insults of Leon Trotsky made by Vladimir Lenin was calling him a "political prostitute". Prostitution_sentence_59

Leon Trotsky used this epithet himself, calling German Social Democracy, at that time "corrupted by Kautskianism", a "political prostitution disguised by theories". Prostitution_sentence_60

In 1938, he used the same description for the Comintern, saying that the chief aim of the Bonapartist clique of Stalin during the preceding several years "has consisted in proving to the imperialist 'democracies' its wise conservatism and love for order. Prostitution_sentence_61

For the sake of the longed alliance with imperialist democracies [Stalin] has brought the Comintern to the last stages of political prostitution." Prostitution_sentence_62

Besides targeting political figures, the term is used in relation to organizations and even small countries, which "have no choice but to sell themselves", because their voice in world affairs is insignificant. Prostitution_sentence_63

In 2007, a Russian caricature depicted the Baltic states as three "ladies of the night", "vying for the attentions of Uncle Sam, since the Russian client has run out of money". Prostitution_sentence_64

Usage of the "political prostitute" moniker is by no means unique to Russian political lexicon, such as when a Huffington Post contributor expressed the opinion that Donald Trump was "prostituting himself to feed his ego and gain power" when he ran for President of the United States. Prostitution_sentence_65

Sex work researcher and writer Gail Pheterson writes that these metaphorical usages exist because "the term "prostitute" gradually took on a Christian moralist tradition, as being synonymous with debasement of oneself or of others for the purpose of ill-gotten gains". Prostitution_sentence_66

History Prostitution_section_5

Main article: History of prostitution Prostitution_sentence_67

Ancient Near East Prostitution_section_6

In the Ancient Near East along the Tigris–Euphrates river system there were many shrines and temples or "houses of heaven" dedicated to various deities documented by the Ancient Greek historian Herodotus in The Histories where sacred prostitution was a common practice. Prostitution_sentence_68

It came to an end when the emperor Constantine in the fourth century AD destroyed the goddess temples and replaced them with Christianity. Prostitution_sentence_69

As early as the 18th century BC, ancient Mesopotamia recognized the need to protect women's property rights. Prostitution_sentence_70

In the Code of Hammurabi, provisions were found that addressed inheritance rights of women, including female prostitutes. Prostitution_sentence_71

Ancient Hebrew culture Prostitution_section_7

According to Zohar and the Alphabet of Ben Sira, there were four angels of sacred prostitution, who mated with archangel Samael. Prostitution_sentence_72

They were the queens of the demons Lilith, Naamah, Agrat Bat Mahlat and Eisheth Zenunim. Prostitution_sentence_73

Ancient Greece Prostitution_section_8

Both women and boys engaged in prostitution in ancient Greece. Prostitution_sentence_74

Female prostitutes could be independent and sometimes influential women. Prostitution_sentence_75

They were required to wear distinctive dresses and had to pay taxes. Prostitution_sentence_76

Some similarities have been found between the Greek hetaera, the Japanese oiran, and also the Indian tawaif. Prostitution_sentence_77

Some prostitutes in ancient Greece, such as Lais were as famous for their company as their beauty, and some of these women charged extraordinary sums for their services. Prostitution_sentence_78

Ancient Rome Prostitution_section_9

Prostitution in ancient Rome was legal, public, and widespread. Prostitution_sentence_79

A registered prostitute was called a meretrix while the unregistered one fell under the broad category prostibulae. Prostitution_sentence_80

There were some commonalities with the Greek system, but as the Empire grew, prostitutes were often foreign slaves, captured, purchased, or raised for that purpose, sometimes by large-scale "prostitute farmers" who took abandoned children. Prostitution_sentence_81

Indeed, abandoned children were almost always raised as prostitutes. Prostitution_sentence_82

Enslavement into prostitution was sometimes used as a legal punishment against criminal free women. Prostitution_sentence_83

Buyers were allowed to inspect naked men and women for sale in private and there was no stigma attached to the purchase of males by a male aristocrat. Prostitution_sentence_84

Asia Prostitution_section_10

According to Shia Muslims, Muhammad sanctioned fixed-term marriage—muta'a in Iraq and sigheh in Iran—which has instead been used as a legitimizing cover for sex workers, in a culture where prostitution is otherwise forbidden. Prostitution_sentence_85

Sunni Muslims, who make up the majority of Muslims worldwide, believe the practice of fixed-term marriage was abrogated and ultimately forbidden by either Muhammad, or one of his successors, Umar. Prostitution_sentence_86

Sunnis regard prostitution as sinful and forbidden. Prostitution_sentence_87

Some Western writers have argued that mut'ah approximates prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_88

and Nikah misyar Julie Parshall writes that mut'ah is legalised prostitution which has been sanctioned by the Twelver Shia authorities. Prostitution_sentence_89

She quotes the Oxford encyclopedia of modern Islamic world to differentiate between marriage (nikah) and mut'ah, and states that while nikah is for procreation, mut'ah is just for sexual gratification. Prostitution_sentence_90

According to Zeyno Baran, this kind of temporary marriage provides Shi'ite men with a religiously sanctioned equivalent to prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_91

According to Elena Andreeva's observation published in 2007, Russian travellers to Iran consider mut'ah to be "legalized profligacy" which is indistinguishable from prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_92

Religious supporters of mut'ah argue that temporary marriage is different from prostitution for a couple of reasons, including the necessity of iddah in case the couple have sexual intercourse. Prostitution_sentence_93

It means that if a woman marries a man in this way and has sex, she has to wait for a number of months before marrying again and therefore, a woman cannot marry more than 3 or 4 times in a year. Prostitution_sentence_94

In the early 17th century, there was widespread male and female prostitution throughout the cities of Kyoto, Edo, and Osaka, Japan. Prostitution_sentence_95

Oiran were courtesans in Japan during the Edo period. Prostitution_sentence_96

The oiran were considered a type of yūjo (遊女) "woman of pleasure" or prostitute. Prostitution_sentence_97

Among the oiran, the tayū (太夫) was considered the highest rank of courtesan available only to the wealthiest and highest ranking men. Prostitution_sentence_98

To entertain their clients, oiran practiced the arts of dance, music, poetry, and calligraphy as well as sexual services, and an educated wit was considered essential for sophisticated conversation. Prostitution_sentence_99

Many became celebrities of their times outside the pleasure districts. Prostitution_sentence_100

Their art and fashions often set trends among wealthy women. Prostitution_sentence_101

The last recorded oiran was in 1761. Prostitution_sentence_102

Although illegal in modern Japan, the definition of prostitution does not extend to a "private agreement" reached between a woman and a man in a brothel. Prostitution_sentence_103

Yoshiwara has a large number of soaplands that began when explicit prostitution in Japan became illegal, where women washed men's bodies. Prostitution_sentence_104

They were originally known as toruko-buro, meaning Turkish bath. Prostitution_sentence_105

A tawaif was a courtesan who catered to the nobility of the Indian subcontinent, particularly during the era of the Mughal Empire. Prostitution_sentence_106

These courtesans danced, sang, recited poetry and entertained their suitors at mehfils. Prostitution_sentence_107

Like the geisha tradition in Japan, their main purpose was to professionally entertain their guests, and while sex was often incidental, it was not assured contractually. Prostitution_sentence_108

High-class or the most popular tawaifs could often pick and choose between the best of their suitors. Prostitution_sentence_109

They contributed to music, dance, theatre, film, and the Urdu literary tradition. Prostitution_sentence_110

Middle Ages Prostitution_section_11

Main article: Courtesan Prostitution_sentence_111

Throughout the Middle Ages the definition of a prostitute has been ambiguous, with various secular and canonical organizations defining prostitution in constantly evolving terms. Prostitution_sentence_112

Even though medieval secular authorities created legislation to deal with the phenomenon of prostitution, they rarely attempted to define what a prostitute was because it was deemed unnecessary "to specify exactly who fell into that [specific] category" of a prostitute. Prostitution_sentence_113

The first known definition of prostitution was found in Marseille's thirteenth-century statutes, which included a chapter entitled De meretricibus ("regarding prostitutes"). Prostitution_sentence_114

The Marseillais designated prostitutes as "public girls" who, day and night, received two or more men in their house, and as a woman who "did business trading [their bodies], within the confine[s] of a brothel." Prostitution_sentence_115

A fourteenth-century English tract, Fasciculus Morum, states that the term prostitute (termed 'meretrix' in this document), "must be applied only to those women who give themselves to anyone and will refuse none, and that for monetary gain". Prostitution_sentence_116

In general prostitution was not typically a life-time career choice for women. Prostitution_sentence_117

Women usually alternated their career of prostitution with "petty retailing, and victualing," or only occasionally turning to prostitution in times of great financial need. Prostitution_sentence_118

Women who became prostitutes often did not have the familial ties or means to protect themselves from the lure of prostitution, and it has been recorded on several occasions that mothers would be charged with prostituting their own daughters in exchange for extra money. Prostitution_sentence_119

Medieval civilians accepted without question the fact of prostitution, it was necessary part of medieval life. Prostitution_sentence_120

Prostitutes subverted the sexual tendencies of male youth, just by existing. Prostitution_sentence_121

With the establishment of prostitution men were less likely to collectively rape honest women of marriageable and re-marriageable age. Prostitution_sentence_122

This is most clearly demonstrated in St. Prostitution_sentence_123 Augustine's claim that "the removal of the institution would bring lust into all aspects of the world." Prostitution_sentence_124

Meaning that without prostitutes to subvert male tendencies, men would go after innocent women instead, thus the prostitutes were actually doing society a favor. Prostitution_sentence_125

In urban societies there was an erroneous view that prostitution was flourishing more in rural regions rather than in cities, however it has been proven that prostitution was more rampant in cities and large towns. Prostitution_sentence_126

Although there were wandering prostitutes in rural areas who worked according to the calendar of fairs, similar to riding a circuit, in which prostitutes stopped by various towns based on what event was going on at the time, most prostitutes remained in cities. Prostitution_sentence_127

Cities tended to draw more prostitutes due to the sheer size of the population and the institutionalization of prostitution in urban areas which made it more rampant in metropolitan regions. Prostitution_sentence_128

Furthermore, in both urban and rural areas of society, women who did not live under the rule of male authority were more likely to be suspected of prostitution than their oppressed counterparts because of the fear of women who did not fit into a stereotypical category outside of marriage or religious life. Prostitution_sentence_129

Secular law, like most other aspects of prostitution in the Middle Ages, is difficult to generalize due to the regional variations in attitudes towards prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_130

The global trend of the thirteenth century was toward the development of positive policy on prostitution as laws exiling prostitutes changed towards sumptuary laws and the confinement of prostitutes to red light districts. Prostitution_sentence_131

Sumptuary laws became the regulatory norm for prostitutes and included making courtesans "wear a shoulder-knot of a particular color as a badge of their calling" to be able to easily distinguish the prostitute from a respectable woman in society. Prostitution_sentence_132

The color that designated them as prostitutes could vary from different earth tones to yellow, as was usually designated as a color of shame in the Hebrew communities. Prostitution_sentence_133

These laws, however, proved no impediment to wealthier prostitutes because their glamorous appearances were almost indistinguishable from noble women. Prostitution_sentence_134

In the 14th century, London prostitutes were only tolerated when they wore yellow hoods. Prostitution_sentence_135

Although brothels were still present in most cities and urban centers, and could range from private bordelages run by a procuress from her home to public baths and centers established by municipal legislation, the only centers for prostitution legally allowed were the institutionalized and publicly funded brothels. Prostitution_sentence_136

However this did not prevent illegal brothels from thriving. Prostitution_sentence_137

Furthermore, brothels theoretically banned the patronage of married men and clergy also, but it was sporadically enforced and there is evidence of clergymen present in brawls that were documented in brothels. Prostitution_sentence_138

Thus the clergy were at least present in brothels at some point or another. Prostitution_sentence_139

Brothels also settled the "obsessive fear of the sharing of women" and solved the issue of "collective security." Prostitution_sentence_140

The lives of prostitutes in brothels were not cloistered like that of nuns and "only some lived permanently in the streets assigned to them." Prostitution_sentence_141

Prostitutes were only allowed to practice their trade in the brothel in which they worked. Prostitution_sentence_142

Brothels were also used to protect prostitutes and their clients through various regulations. Prostitution_sentence_143

For example, the law that "forbid brothel keepers [from] beat[ing] them." Prostitution_sentence_144

However, brothel regulations also hindered prostitutes' lives by forbidding them from having "lovers other than their customers" or from having a favored customer. Prostitution_sentence_145

Courts showed the conflicting views on the role of prostitutes in secular law as prostitutes could not inherit property, defend themselves in court, or make accusations in court. Prostitution_sentence_146

However, prostitutes were sometimes called upon as witnesses during trial. Prostitution_sentence_147

16th–17th centuries Prostitution_section_12

By the end of the 15th century attitudes seemed to have begun to harden against prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_148

An outbreak of syphilis in Naples 1494 which later swept across Europe, and which may have originated from the Columbian Exchange, and the prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases from the earlier 13th century, may have been causes of this change in attitude. Prostitution_sentence_149

By the early 16th century the association between prostitutes, plague, and contagion emerged, causing brothels and prostitution to be outlawed by secular authority. Prostitution_sentence_150

Furthermore, outlawing brothel-keeping and prostitution was also used to "strengthen the criminal law" system of the sixteenth-century secular rulers. Prostitution_sentence_151

Canon law defined a prostitute as "a promiscuous woman, regardless of financial elements." Prostitution_sentence_152

The prostitute was considered a "whore … who [was] available for the lust of many men," and was most closely associated with promiscuity. Prostitution_sentence_153

The Church's stance on prostitution was three-fold: “acceptance of prostitution as an inevitable social fact, condemnation of those profiting from this commerce, and encouragement for the prostitute to repent." Prostitution_sentence_154

The Church was forced to recognize its inability to remove prostitution from the worldly society, and in the fourteenth century "began to tolerate prostitution as a lesser evil." Prostitution_sentence_155

However, prostitutes were to be excluded from the Church as long as they practiced. Prostitution_sentence_156

Around the twelfth century, the idea of prostitute saints took hold, with Mary Magdalene being one of the most popular saints of the era. Prostitution_sentence_157

The Church used Mary Magdalene's biblical history of being a reformed harlot to encourage prostitutes to repent and mend their ways. Prostitution_sentence_158

Simultaneously, religious houses were established with the purpose of providing asylum and encouraging the reformation of prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_159

'Magdalene Homes' were particularly popular and peaked especially in the early fourteenth century. Prostitution_sentence_160

Over the course of the Middle Ages, popes and religious communities made various attempts to remove prostitution or reform prostitutes, with varying success. Prostitution_sentence_161

With the advent of the Protestant Reformation, numbers of Southern German towns closed their brothels in an attempt to eradicate prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_162

In some periods prostitutes had to distinguish themselves by particular signs, sometimes wearing very short hair or no hair at all, or wearing veils in societies where other women did not wear them. Prostitution_sentence_163

Ancient codes regulated in this case the crime of a prostitute that dissimulated her profession. Prostitution_sentence_164

In some cultures, prostitutes were the sole women allowed to sing in public or act in theatrical performances. Prostitution_sentence_165

18th century Prostitution_section_13

According to Dervish Ismail Agha, in the Dellâkname-i Dilküşâ, the Ottoman archives, in the Turkish baths, the masseurs were traditionally young men, who helped wash clients by soaping and scrubbing their bodies. Prostitution_sentence_166

They also worked as sex workers. Prostitution_sentence_167

The Ottoman texts describe who they were, their prices, how many times they could bring their customers to orgasm, and the details of their sexual practices. Prostitution_sentence_168

During the British East India Company's rule in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it was initially fairly common for British soldiers to engage in inter-ethnic prostitution in India, where they frequently visited local Indian nautch dancers. Prostitution_sentence_169

As British females began arriving in British India in large numbers from the early to mid-19th century, it became increasingly uncommon for British soldiers to visit Indian prostitutes, and miscegenation was despised altogether after the events of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Prostitution_sentence_170

19th century Prostitution_section_14

In the 19th century, legalized prostitution became a public controversy as France and then the United Kingdom passed the Contagious Diseases Acts, legislation mandating pelvic examinations for suspected prostitutes. Prostitution_sentence_171

This legislation applied not only to the United Kingdom and France, but also to their overseas colonies. Prostitution_sentence_172

France, instead of trying to outlaw prostitution began to view prostitution as an evil necessary for society to function. Prostitution_sentence_173

France chose to regulate prostitution, introducing a Morals Brigade onto the streets of Paris. Prostitution_sentence_174

A similar situation did in fact exist in the Russian Empire; prostitutes operating out of government-sanctioned brothels were given yellow internal passports signifying their status and were subjected to weekly physical exams. Prostitution_sentence_175

A major work, Prostitution, Considered in Its Moral, Social, and Sanitary Aspects, was published by William Acton in 1857, which estimated that the County of London had 80,000 prostitutes and that 1 house in 60 was serving as a brothel. Prostitution_sentence_176

Leo Tolstoy's novel Resurrection describes legal prostitution in 19th-century Russia. Prostitution_sentence_177

During this period, prostitution was also very prominent in the Barbary Coast, San Francisco as the population was mainly men, due to the influx from the Gold Rush. Prostitution_sentence_178

One of the more successful madams was Belle Cora, who inadvertently got involved in a scandal involving her husband, Charles Cora, shooting US Marshal William H. Richardson. Prostitution_sentence_179

This led to the rise of new statutes against prostitution, gambling and other activities seen as "immoral". Prostitution_sentence_180

20th century Prostitution_section_15

The leading theorists of Communism opposed prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_181

Communist governments often attempted to repress the practice immediately after obtaining power, although it always persisted. Prostitution_sentence_182

In contemporary Communist countries, it remains illegal but is nonetheless common. Prostitution_sentence_183

The economic decline brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union led to increased prostitution in many current or former Communist countries. Prostitution_sentence_184

Originally, prostitution was widely legal in the United States. Prostitution_sentence_185

Prostitution was made illegal in almost all states between 1910 and 1915 largely due to the influence of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Prostitution_sentence_186

On the other hand, prostitution generated much national revenue in South Korea, hence the military government encouraged prostitution for the U.S. military. Prostitution_sentence_187

In 1956, the United Kingdom introduced the Sexual Offences Act 1956. Prostitution_sentence_188

While this law did not criminalise the act of prostitution in the United Kingdom itself, it prohibited such activities as running a brothel. Prostitution_sentence_189

Soliciting was made illegal by the Street Offences Act 1959. Prostitution_sentence_190

These laws were partly repealed, and altered, by the Sexual Offences Act 2003 and the Policing and Crime Act 2009. Prostitution_sentence_191

Beginning in the late 1980s, many states in the US increased the penalties for prostitution in cases where the prostitute is knowingly HIV-positive. Prostitution_sentence_192

Penalties for felony prostitution vary, with maximum sentences of typically 10 to 15 years in prison. Prostitution_sentence_193

Sex tourism emerged in the late 20th century as a controversial aspect of Western tourism and globalization. Prostitution_sentence_194

21st century Prostitution_section_16

In the 21st century, Afghans revived a method of prostituting young boys which is referred to as "bacha bazi". Prostitution_sentence_195

Since the break up of the Soviet Union, thousands of eastern European women end up as prostitutes in China, Western Europe, Israel, and Turkey every year; some enter the profession willingly, but many are tricked, coerced, or kidnapped, and often experience captivity and violence. Prostitution_sentence_196

There are tens of thousands of women from eastern Europe and Asia working as prostitutes in Dubai. Prostitution_sentence_197

Men from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates form a large proportion of the customers. Prostitution_sentence_198

India's devadasi girls are forced by their poor families to dedicate themselves to the Hindu goddess Renuka. Prostitution_sentence_199

The BBC wrote in 2007 that devadasis are "sanctified prostitutes". Prostitution_sentence_200

Historically, and currently, church prostitutes exist, and the practice may be legal or illegal, depending on the country, state or province. Prostitution_sentence_201

Economics Prostitution_section_17

Prostitutes' salaries and payments fluctuate according to the economic conditions of their respective countries. Prostitution_sentence_202

Prostitutes who usually have foreign clients, such as business travelers, depend on good foreign economic conditions. Prostitution_sentence_203

Payment may vary according to regulations made by pimps, brothel keepers, madams, and procurers, who usually take a slice out of a prostitute's income. Prostitution_sentence_204

Prices may further depend on demand; popular, high-end prostitutes can earn significant amounts of money (upwards of $5,000 per client), and virgins may receive even higher payments. Prostitution_sentence_205

Laws Prostitution_section_18

Socio-economic issues Prostitution_section_19

Illegal immigration Prostitution_section_20

Main article: Illegal immigration Prostitution_sentence_206

A difficulty facing migrant prostitutes in many developed countries is the illegal residence status of some of these women. Prostitution_sentence_207

They face potential deportation, and so do not have recourse to the law. Prostitution_sentence_208

Hence there are brothels that may not adhere to the usual legal standards intended to safeguard public health and the safety of the workers. Prostitution_sentence_209

The immigration status of the persons who sell sexual services is – particularly in Western Europe – a controversial and highly debated political issue. Prostitution_sentence_210

Currently, in most of these countries most prostitutes are immigrants, mainly from Eastern and Central Europe; in Spain and Italy 90% of prostitutes are estimated to be migrants, in Austria 78%, in Switzerland 75%, in Greece 73%, in Norway 70% (according to a 2009 TAMPEP report, Sex Work in Europe-A mapping of the prostitution scene in 25 European countries). Prostitution_sentence_211

An article in Le Monde diplomatique in 1997 stated that 80% of prostitutes in Amsterdam were foreigners and 70% had no immigration papers. Prostitution_sentence_212

Survival sex Prostitution_section_21

Main article: Survival sex Prostitution_sentence_213

Survival sex is when the prostitute is driven to prostitution by a need for basic necessities such as food or shelter. Prostitution_sentence_214

This type of prostitution is common among the homeless and in refugee camps. Prostitution_sentence_215

The term is used in the sex trade and by aid workers, although some practitioners do not regard the act as exploitative. Prostitution_sentence_216

Use of children Prostitution_section_22

Main article: Prostitution of children Prostitution_sentence_217

Regarding the prostitution of children the laws on prostitution as well as those on sex with a child apply. Prostitution_sentence_218

If prostitution in general is legal there is usually a minimum age requirement for legal prostitution that is higher than the general age of consent (see above for some examples). Prostitution_sentence_219

Although some countries do not single out patronage of child prostitution as a separate crime, the same act is punishable as sex with an underage person. Prostitution_sentence_220

In India, the federal police say that around 1.2 million children are believed to be involved in prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_221

A CBI statement said that studies and surveys sponsored by the ministry of women and child development estimated that about 40% of all India's prostitutes are children. Prostitution_sentence_222

In Bangladesh, child prostitutes are known to take the drug Oradexon, also known as dexamethasone. Prostitution_sentence_223

This over-the-counter steroid, usually used by farmers to fatten cattle, makes child prostitutes look larger and older. Prostitution_sentence_224

Charities say that 90% of prostitutes in the country's legalized brothels use the drug. Prostitution_sentence_225

According to social activists, the steroid can cause diabetes, high blood pressure and is highly addictive. Prostitution_sentence_226

Thailand's Health System Research Institute reported that children in prostitution make up 40% of prostitutes in Thailand. Prostitution_sentence_227

Some adults travel to other countries to have access to sex with children, which is unavailable in their home country. Prostitution_sentence_228

Cambodia has become a notorious destination for sex with children. Prostitution_sentence_229

Thailand is also a destination for child sex tourism. Prostitution_sentence_230

Several western countries have recently enacted laws with extraterritorial reach, punishing citizens who engage in sex with minors in other countries. Prostitution_sentence_231

As the crime usually goes undiscovered, these laws are rarely enforced. Prostitution_sentence_232

Among the elderly Prostitution_section_23

Prostitution among the elderly is a phenomenon reported in South Korea where elderly women, called Bacchus Ladies, turn to prostitution out of necessity. Prostitution_sentence_233

They are called that because many also sell the popular Bacchus energy drink to make ends meet. Prostitution_sentence_234

State pensions of about 200,000 (US$168) provide a basic income but are often not enough to cover the rising medical bills of old age. Prostitution_sentence_235

It first arose after the 1997 Asian financial crisis when it became more difficult for children and grandchildren to support their elders. Prostitution_sentence_236

Clients tend to be more senior. Prostitution_sentence_237

The use of erection inducing injections with reused needles has contributed to the spread of sexually transmitted disease. Prostitution_sentence_238

Violence Prostitution_section_24

Main article: Violence against prostitutes Prostitution_sentence_239

Street prostitutes are at higher risk of violent crime than brothel prostitutes and bar prostitutes. Prostitution_sentence_240

In the United States, the homicide rate for female prostitutes was estimated to be 204 per 100,000. Prostitution_sentence_241

There are substantial differences in rates of victimization between street prostitutes and indoor prostitutes who work as escorts, call girls, or in brothels and massage parlors. Prostitution_sentence_242

Violence against male prostitutes is less common. Prostitution_sentence_243

Prostitution may sometimes be associated with illegal, abusive, and dangerous activities. Prostitution_sentence_244

One view maintains that this results from prostitution being stigmatized or illegal, or both. Prostitution_sentence_245

Another, however, believes that legalizing and regulating prostitution does not improve the situation, but instead makes it worse, creating a parallel illegal prostitution industry, and failing to dissociate the legal part of the sex trade from crime. Prostitution_sentence_246

Sex trafficking Prostitution_section_25

Main article: Sex trafficking Prostitution_sentence_247

Sex trafficking is defined as using coercion or force to transport an unwilling person into prostitution or other sexual exploitation. Prostitution_sentence_248

The United Nations stated in 2009 that sex trafficking is the most commonly identified form of human trafficking and estimates that about 79% of human trafficking reported is for prostitution (although the study notes that this may be the result of statistical bias and that sex trafficking tends to receive the most attention and be the most visible). Prostitution_sentence_249

Sex trafficking has been described by Kul Gautum, Deputy Executive Director of UNICEF, as "the largest slave trade in history." Prostitution_sentence_250

It is also the fastest growing criminal industry, predicted to outgrow drug trafficking. Prostitution_sentence_251

While there may be a higher number of people involved in slavery today than at any time in history, the proportion of the population is probably the smallest in history. Prostitution_sentence_252

“Annually, according to U.S. Prostitution_sentence_253

Government-sponsored research completed in 2006, approximately 800,000 people are trafficked across national borders, which does not include millions trafficked within their own countries. Prostitution_sentence_254

Approximately 80 percent of transnational victims are women and girls and up to 50 percent are minors," estimated the US Department of State in a 2008 study, in reference to the number of people estimated to be victims of all forms of human trafficking. Prostitution_sentence_255

Due in part to the illegal and underground nature of sex trafficking, the actual extent of women and children forced into prostitution is unknown. Prostitution_sentence_256

A statistical analysis of various measures of trafficking found that the legal status of prostitution did not have a significant impact on trafficking. Prostitution_sentence_257

Children are sold into the global sex trade every year. Prostitution_sentence_258

Often they are kidnapped or orphaned, and sometimes they are sold by their own families. Prostitution_sentence_259

According to the International Labour Organization, the occurrence is especially common in places such as Thailand, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal and India. Prostitution_sentence_260

Globally, forced labour generates an estimated $31 billion, about half of it in the industrialised world and around one tenth in transitional countries, according to the International Labour Organization in a report on forced labour ("A global alliance against forced labour", ILO, 11 May 2005). Prostitution_sentence_261

Trafficking in people has been facilitated by factors such as porous borders and advanced communication technologies, and has become increasingly transnational in scope and highly financially lucrative. Prostitution_sentence_262

The most common destinations for victims of human trafficking are Thailand, Japan, Israel, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Turkey and the US, according to a report by the UNODC (UN Office on Drugs and Crime). Prostitution_sentence_263

Major sources of trafficked persons include Thailand, China, Nigeria, Albania, Bulgaria, Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine. Prostitution_sentence_264

Illicit uses Prostitution_section_26

See also: Extortion and Blackmail Prostitution_sentence_265

Prostitution, often when it is illegal, is used in extortion and blackmail, which always involves extortion, where the extortionist threatens to reveal information about a victim or their family members that is potentially embarrassing, socially damaging, or incriminating unless a demand for money, property, or services is met. Prostitution_sentence_266

The subject of the extortion may be manipulated into or voluntarily solicit the use of prostitution which is then later used to extort money or for profit otherwise. Prostitution_sentence_267

The film The Godfather Part II famously depicts the role of Senator Geary who is implicated in the use of prostitution in order to gain his compliance on political issues. Prostitution_sentence_268

Types Prostitution_section_27

Street Prostitution_section_28

Main article: Street prostitution Prostitution_sentence_269

In street prostitution, the prostitute solicits customers while waiting at street corners, sometimes called "the track" by pimps and prostitutes alike. Prostitution_sentence_270

They usually dress in skimpy, provocative clothing, regardless of the weather. Prostitution_sentence_271

In American usage, street prostitutes are often called "streetwalkers" while their customers are referred to as "tricks" or "johns." Prostitution_sentence_272

Servicing the customers is described as "turning tricks." Prostitution_sentence_273

The sex is usually performed in the customer's car, in a nearby alley, or in a rented room. Prostitution_sentence_274

Motels and hotels that accommodate prostitutes commonly rent rooms by the half or full hour. Prostitution_sentence_275

In Russia and other countries of the former USSR, prostitution takes the form of an open-air market. Prostitution_sentence_276

One prostitute stands by a roadside, and directs cars to a so-called "tochka" (usually located in alleyways or carparks), where lines of women are paraded for customers in front of their car headlights. Prostitution_sentence_277

The client selects a prostitute, whom he takes away in his car. Prostitution_sentence_278

Prevalent in the late 1990s, this type of service has been steadily declining in recent years. Prostitution_sentence_279

A "lot lizard" is a commonly encountered special case of street prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_280

Lot lizards mainly serve those in the trucking industry at truck stops and stopping centers. Prostitution_sentence_281

Prostitutes will often proposition truckers using a CB radio from a vehicle parked in the non-commercial section of a truck stop parking lot, communicating through codes based on commercial driving slang, then join the driver in his truck. Prostitution_sentence_282

Window prostitution Prostitution_section_29

Main article: Window prostitution Prostitution_sentence_283

Window prostitution is a form of prostitution that is fairly common in the Netherlands and surrounding countries. Prostitution_sentence_284

The prostitute rents a window plus workspace off a window operator for a certain period of time, often per day or part of a day. Prostitution_sentence_285

The prostitute is also independent and recruits her own customers and also negotiates the price and the services to be provided. Prostitution_sentence_286

Brothels Prostitution_section_30

Main articles: Brothel and Red-light district Prostitution_sentence_287

Brothels are establishments specifically dedicated to prostitution, often confined to special red-light districts in big cities. Prostitution_sentence_288

Other names for brothels include bordello, whorehouse, cathouse, knocking shop, and general houses. Prostitution_sentence_289

Prostitution also occurs in some massage parlours, and in Asian countries in some barber shops where sexual services may be offered as a secondary function of the premises. Prostitution_sentence_290

Escorts Prostitution_section_31

Main articles: Call girl and Escort agency Prostitution_sentence_291

Escort services may be distinguished from prostitution or other forms of prostitution in that sexual activities are often not explicitly advertised as necessarily included in these services; rather, payment is often noted as being for an escort's time and companionship only, although there is often an implicit assumption that sexual activities are expected. Prostitution_sentence_292

In escort prostitution, the act takes place at the customer's residence or hotel room (referred to as out-call), or at the escort's residence or in a hotel room rented for the occasion by the escort (called in-call). Prostitution_sentence_293

The prostitute may be independent or working under the auspices of an escort agency. Prostitution_sentence_294

Services may be advertised over the Internet, in regional publications, or in local telephone listings. Prostitution_sentence_295

Use of the Internet by prostitutes and customers is common. Prostitution_sentence_296

A prostitute may use adult boards or create a website of their own with contact details, such as email addresses. Prostitution_sentence_297

Adult contact sites, chats and on-line communities are also used. Prostitution_sentence_298

This, in turn, has brought increased scrutiny from law enforcement, public officials, and activist groups toward online prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_299

In 2009, Craigslist came under fire for its role in facilitating online prostitution, and was sued by some 40 US state attorneys general, local prosecutors, and law enforcement officials. Prostitution_sentence_300

Reviews of the services of individual prostitutes can often be found at various escort review boards worldwide. Prostitution_sentence_301

These online forums are used to trade information between potential clients, and also by prostitutes to advertise the various services available. Prostitution_sentence_302

Sex workers, in turn, often use online forums of their own to exchange information on clients, particularly to warn others about dangerous clients. Prostitution_sentence_303

Sex tourism Prostitution_section_32

Main articles: Sex tourism and Child sex tourism Prostitution_sentence_304

Sex tourism is travel for sexual intercourse with prostitutes or to engage in other sexual activity. Prostitution_sentence_305

The World Tourism Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations defines sex tourism as "trips organized from within the tourism sector, or from outside this sector but using its structures and networks, with the primary purpose of effecting a commercial sexual relationship by the tourist with residents at the destination". Prostitution_sentence_306

As opposed to regular sex tourism, which is often legal, a tourist who has sex with a child prostitute will usually be committing a crime in the host country, under the laws of his own country (notwithstanding him being outside of it) and against international law. Prostitution_sentence_307

Child sex tourism (CST) is defined as a travel to a foreign country for the purpose of engaging in commercially facilitated child sexual abuse. Prostitution_sentence_308

Thailand, Cambodia, India, Brazil, and Mexico have been identified as leading hotspots of child sexual exploitation. Prostitution_sentence_309

Virtual sex Prostitution_section_33

Virtual sex, that is, sexual acts conveyed by messages rather than physically, is also the subject of commercial transactions. Prostitution_sentence_310

Commercial phone sex services have been available for decades. Prostitution_sentence_311

The advent of the Internet has made other forms of virtual sex available for money, including computer-mediated cybersex, in which sexual services are provided in text form by way of chat rooms or instant messaging, or audiovisually through a webcam (see camgirl). Prostitution_sentence_312

Prevalence Prostitution_section_34

According to the paper "Estimating the prevalence and career longevity of prostitute women", the number of full-time equivalent prostitutes in a typical area in the United States (Colorado Springs, CO, during 1970–1988) is estimated at 23 per 100,000 population (0.023%), of which some 4% were under 18. Prostitution_sentence_313

The length of these prostitutes' working careers was estimated at a mean of 5 years. Prostitution_sentence_314

According to a 2012 report by Fondation Scelles there are between 40 and 42 million prostitutes in the world. Prostitution_sentence_315

In 2003, it was estimated that in Amsterdam, one woman in 35 was working as a prostitute, compared to one in 300 in London. Prostitution_sentence_316

The number of men who have used a prostitute at least once varies widely from country to country, from an estimated low of between 7% and 8.8% in the United Kingdom, to a high of between 59% and 80% in Cambodia. Prostitution_sentence_317

A study conducted by ProCon – a nonpartisan nonprofit organization – estimated the percentage of men who had paid for sex at least once in their lives, and found the highest rates in Cambodia (between 59 and 80% of men had paid for sex at least once) and Thailand (an estimated 75%), followed by Italy (16.7–45%), Spain (27–39%), Japan (37%), the Netherlands (13.5–21.6%), the United States (15.0–20.0%), and China (6.4-20%). Prostitution_sentence_318

Nations with higher rates of prostitution clients display much more positive attitudes towards commercial sex. Prostitution_sentence_319

In some countries, such as Cambodia and Thailand, sex with prostitutes is considered commonplace and men who do not engage in commercial sex may be considered unusual by their peers. Prostitution_sentence_320

In Thailand, it has been reported that about 75% of men have visited a prostitute at least once in their lifetimes. Prostitution_sentence_321

In Cambodia, that figure is 59% to 80%. Prostitution_sentence_322

In the United States, a 2004 TNS poll reported 15% of all men admitted to having paid for sex at least once in their life. Prostitution_sentence_323

However, a paper entitled "Prostitution and the sex discrepancy in reported number of sexual partners" concluded that men's self-reporting of prostitutes as sexual partners provides a serious underestimate. Prostitution_sentence_324

In Australia, a survey conducted in the early 2000s showed that 15.6% of men aged 16–59 reported paying for sex at least once in their life, and 1.9% had done so in the past year. Prostitution_sentence_325

Reports disagree on whether prostitution levels are growing or declining in developed countries. Prostitution_sentence_326

Some studies indicate that the percentage of men engaging in commercial sex in the United States has declined significantly in recent decades: in 1964, an estimated 69–80% of men had paid for sex at least once. Prostitution_sentence_327

Some have suggested that prostitution levels have fallen in sexually liberal countries, most likely because of the increased availability of non-commercial, non-marital sex or, for example in Sweden, because of stricter legal penalties. Prostitution_sentence_328

Other reports suggest a growth in prostitution levels, for example in the US, where again, sexual liberalisation is suggested as the cause. Prostitution_sentence_329

As Norma Ramos, Executive Director of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women says "The more the commercial sex industry normalizes this behavior, the more of this behavior you get". Prostitution_sentence_330

Prostitutes have long plied their trades to the military in many cultures. Prostitution_sentence_331

For example, the British naval port of Portsmouth had a flourishing local sex industry in the 19th century, and until the early 1990s there were large red-light districts near American military bases in the Philippines. Prostitution_sentence_332

The notorious Patpong entertainment district in Bangkok, Thailand, started as an R&R location for US troops serving in the Vietnam War in the early 1970s. Prostitution_sentence_333

Washington D.C. itself had Murder Bay which attracted the military of the Civil War. Prostitution_sentence_334

The village of Vadia, India is known locally as the village of prostitutes, where unmarried women are involved in prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_335

Mass weddings for children of prostitutes in the village are held to protect them from being pushed into prostitution. Prostitution_sentence_336

Medical situation Prostitution_section_35

In some places, prostitution may be associated with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Prostitution_sentence_337

Lack of condom use among prostitutes and their clients has been cited as a factor in the spread of HIV in Asia: "One of the main reasons for the rapid spread of HIV in Asian countries is the massive transmission among sex workers and clients". Prostitution_sentence_338

As a result, prevention campaigns aimed at increasing condom use by sex workers have been attributed to play a major role in restricting the spread of HIV. Prostitution_sentence_339

One of the sources for the spread of HIV in Africa is prostitution, with one study finding that encounters with prostitutes produced 84% of new HIV infections in adult males in Accra, Ghana. Prostitution_sentence_340

The spread of HIV from urban settings to rural areas in Africa has been attributed to the mobility of farmers who visit sex workers in cities, for example in Ethiopia. Prostitution_sentence_341

Some studies of prostitution in urban settings in developing countries, such as Kenya, have stated that prostitution acts as a reservoir of STDs within the general population. Prostitution_sentence_342

Typical responses to the problem are: Prostitution_sentence_343

Prostitution_unordered_list_1

  • banning prostitution completelyProstitution_item_1_4
  • introducing a system of registration for prostitutes that mandates health checks and other public health measuresProstitution_item_1_5
  • educating prostitutes and their clients to encourage the use of barrier contraception and greater interaction with health careProstitution_item_1_6

Some think that the first two measures are counter-productive. Prostitution_sentence_344

Banning prostitution tends to drive it underground, making safe sex promotion, treatment and monitoring more difficult. Prostitution_sentence_345

Registering prostitutes makes the state complicit in prostitution and does not address the health risks of unregistered prostitutes. Prostitution_sentence_346

Both of the last two measures can be viewed as harm reduction policies. Prostitution_sentence_347

In countries and areas where safer sex precautions are either unavailable or not practiced for cultural reasons, prostitution is an active disease vector for all STDs, including HIV/AIDS, but the encouragement of safer sex practices, combined with regular testing for sexually transmitted diseases, has been very successful when applied consistently. Prostitution_sentence_348

As an example, Thailand's condom program has been largely responsible for the country's progress against the HIV epidemic. Prostitution_sentence_349

It has been estimated that successful implementation of safe sex practices in India "would drive the [HIV] epidemic to extinction" while similar measures could achieve a 50% reduction in Botswana. Prostitution_sentence_350

In 2009, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urged all countries to remove bans on prostitution and homosexual sex, because "such laws constitute major barriers to reaching key populations with HIV services". Prostitution_sentence_351

In 2012, the Global Commission on HIV and the Law, which was convened by Ban Ki-moon, and which is an independent body, established at the request of the UNAIDS, and supported by a Secretariat based at the UNDP, reached the same conclusions, also recommending decriminalization of brothels and procuring. Prostitution_sentence_352

Nevertheless, the report states that:"The content, analysis, opinions and policy recommendations contained in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Development Programme." Prostitution_sentence_353

See also Prostitution_section_36

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostitution.