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Protestantism is a denomination of Christianity. Protestantism_sentence_0

It is the second-largest denomination of Christianity (after Catholicism) with a total of 800 million to 1 billion adherents worldwide or about 37% of all Christians. Protestantism_sentence_1

It originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church. Protestantism_sentence_2

Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist and matters of church polity and apostolic succession. Protestantism_sentence_3

They emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than by good works, the Bible as being the sole highest authority (sola scriptura) (scripture alone) - rather than also with sacred tradition, and morals specific to Christians. Protestantism_sentence_4

The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Catholic Church. Protestantism_sentence_5

Protestantism began in Germany in 1517, when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Catholic Church, which purported to offer the remission of the temporal punishment of sins to their purchasers. Protestantism_sentence_6

The term, however, derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Protestantism_sentence_7

Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe and Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider, lasting and modern movement. Protestantism_sentence_8

In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Estonia and Iceland. Protestantism_sentence_9

Reformed denominations spread in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, Switzerland and France by Protestant Reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and John Knox. Protestantism_sentence_10

The political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestantism_sentence_11

Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts and many other fields. Protestantism_sentence_12

Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church or Oriental Orthodoxy. Protestantism_sentence_13

Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Catholic, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Assyrian Church of the East and the Ancient Church of the East, which all understand themselves as the one and only original church—the "one true church"—founded by Jesus Christ. Protestantism_sentence_14

Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. Protestantism_sentence_15

A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anabaptists, Baptists, Calvinist/Reformed, Lutherans, Methodists, and Pentecostals. Protestantism_sentence_16

Nondenominational, Charismatic, Evangelical, Independent, and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestantism. Protestantism_sentence_17

Terminology Protestantism_section_0

Protestant Protestantism_section_1

Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest (or dissent) against the edict of the Diet of Speyer (1529), were the first individuals to be called Protestants. Protestantism_sentence_18

The edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier. Protestantism_sentence_19

The term protestant, though initially purely political in nature, later acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. Protestantism_sentence_20

Any Western Christian who is not an adherent of the Catholic Church or Eastern Orthodox Church is a Protestant. Protestantism_sentence_21

A Protestant is an adherent of any of those Christian bodies that separated from the Church of Rome during the Reformation, or of any group descended from them. Protestantism_sentence_22

During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. Protestantism_sentence_23

People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical (German: evangelisch). Protestantism_sentence_24

For further details, see the section below. Protestantism_sentence_25

Gradually, protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area. Protestantism_sentence_26

It was ultimately somewhat taken up by Lutherans, even though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. Protestantism_sentence_27

French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed (French: réformé), which became a popular, neutral, and alternative name for Calvinists. Protestantism_sentence_28

Evangelical Protestantism_section_2

The word evangelical (German: evangelisch), which refers to the gospel, was widely used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Protestantism_sentence_29

Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran, Calvinist, and United Protestant (Lutheran & Reformed) traditions in Europe, and those with strong ties to them (e.g. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod). Protestantism_sentence_30

Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. Protestantism_sentence_31

In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Lutheran, a Calvinist, or a United Protestant (Lutheran & Reformed). Protestantism_sentence_32

The German word evangelisch means Protestant, and is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. Protestantism_sentence_33

The English word evangelical usually refers to evangelical Protestant churches, and therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole. Protestantism_sentence_34

The English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, and then was brought to the United States. Protestantism_sentence_35

Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel". Protestantism_sentence_36

The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition also began to use that term. Protestantism_sentence_37

To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed. Protestantism_sentence_38

Nowadays, the word also pertains in the same way to some other mainline groups, for example Evangelical Methodist. Protestantism_sentence_39

As time passed by, the word evangelical was dropped. Protestantism_sentence_40

Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. Protestantism_sentence_41

Reformational Protestantism_section_3

The German word reformatorisch, which roughly translates to English as "reformational" or "reforming", is used as an alternative for evangelisch in German, and is different from English reformed (German: reformiert), which refers to churches shaped by ideas of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other Reformed theologians. Protestantism_sentence_42

Being derived from the word "Reformation", the term emerged around the same time as evangelical (1517) and protestant (1529). Protestantism_sentence_43

Theology Protestantism_section_4

Main principles Protestantism_section_5

Various experts on the subject tried to determine what makes a Christian denomination a part of Protestantism. Protestantism_sentence_44

A common consensus approved by most of them is that if a Christian denomination is to be considered Protestant, it must acknowledge the following three fundamental principles of Protestantism. Protestantism_sentence_45


Main article: Sola Scriptura Protestantism_sentence_46

The belief, emphasized by Luther, in the Bible as the highest source of authority for the church. Protestantism_sentence_47

The early churches of the Reformation believed in a critical, yet serious, reading of scripture and holding the Bible as a source of authority higher than that of church tradition. Protestantism_sentence_48

The many abuses that had occurred in the Western Church before the Protestant Reformation led the Reformers to reject much of its tradition, though some would maintain tradition has been maintained and reorganized in the liturgy and in the confessions of the Protestant churches of the Reformation. Protestantism_sentence_49

In the early 20th century, a less critical reading of the Bible developed in the United States, leading to a "fundamentalist" reading of Scripture. Protestantism_sentence_50

Christian fundamentalists read the Bible as the "inerrant, infallible" Word of God, as do the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican and Lutheran churches, but interpret it in a literalist fashion without using the historical critical method. Protestantism_sentence_51

"Biblical Christianity" focused on a deep study of the Bible is characteristic of most Protestants as opposed to "Church Christianity", focused on performing rituals and good works, represented by Catholic and Orthodox traditions. Protestantism_sentence_52

However Quakers and Pentecostalists, emphasize the Holy Spirit and personal closeness to God. Protestantism_sentence_53


Main article: Sola Fide Protestantism_sentence_54

The belief that believers are justified, or pardoned for sin, solely on condition of faith in Christ rather than a combination of faith and good works. Protestantism_sentence_55

For Protestants, good works are a necessary consequence rather than cause of justification. Protestantism_sentence_56

However, while justification is by faith alone, there is the position that faith is not nuda fides. Protestantism_sentence_57

John Calvin explained that "it is therefore faith alone which justifies, and yet the faith which justifies is not alone: just as it is the heat alone of the sun which warms the earth, and yet in the sun it is not alone." Protestantism_sentence_58


The universal priesthood of believers implies the right and duty of the Christian laity not only to read the Bible in the vernacular, but also to take part in the government and all the public affairs of the Church. Protestantism_sentence_59

It is opposed to the hierarchical system which puts the essence and authority of the Church in an exclusive priesthood, and which makes ordained priests the necessary mediators between God and the people. Protestantism_sentence_60

It is distinguished from the concept of the priesthood of all believers, which did not grant individuals the right to interpret the Bible apart from the Christian community at large because universal priesthood opened the door to such a possibility. Protestantism_sentence_61

There are scholars who cite that this doctrine tends to subsume all distinctions in the church under a single spiritual entity. Protestantism_sentence_62

Calvin referred to the universal priesthood as an expression of the relation between the believer and his God, including the freedom of a Christian to come to God through Christ without human mediation. Protestantism_sentence_63

He also maintained that this principle recognizes Christ as prophet, priest, and king and that his priesthood is shared with his people. Protestantism_sentence_64

Trinity Protestantism_section_6

See also: Trinity and Nontrinitarianism Protestantism_sentence_65

Protestants who adhere to the Nicene Creed believe in three persons (God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit) as one God. Protestantism_sentence_66

Movements emerging around the time of the Protestant Reformation, but not a part of Protestantism, e.g. Unitarianism also reject the Trinity. Protestantism_sentence_67

This often serves as a reason for exclusion of the Unitarian Universalism, Oneness Pentecostalism and other movements from Protestantism by various observers. Protestantism_sentence_68

Unitarianism continues to have a presence mainly in Transylvania, England and the United States, as well as elsewhere. Protestantism_sentence_69

Five solae Protestantism_section_7

Main article: Five solae Protestantism_sentence_70

The Five solae are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the reformers' basic differences in theological beliefs in opposition to the teaching of the Catholic Church of the day. Protestantism_sentence_71

The Latin word sola means "alone", "only", or "single". Protestantism_sentence_72

The use of the phrases as summaries of teaching emerged over time during the Reformation, based on the overarching principle of sola scriptura (by scripture alone). Protestantism_sentence_73

This idea contains the four main doctrines on the Bible: that its teaching is needed for salvation (necessity); that all the doctrine necessary for salvation comes from the Bible alone (sufficiency); that everything taught in the Bible is correct (inerrancy); and that, by the Holy Spirit overcoming sin, believers may read and understand truth from the Bible itself, though understanding is difficult, so the means used to guide individual believers to the true teaching is often mutual discussion within the church (clarity). Protestantism_sentence_74

The necessity and inerrancy were well-established ideas, garnering little criticism, though they later came under debate from outside during the Enlightenment. Protestantism_sentence_75

The most contentious idea at the time though was the notion that anyone could simply pick up the Bible and learn enough to gain salvation. Protestantism_sentence_76

Though the reformers were concerned with ecclesiology (the doctrine of how the church as a body works), they had a different understanding of the process in which truths in scripture were applied to life of believers, compared to the Catholics' idea that certain people within the church, or ideas that were old enough, had a special status in giving understanding of the text. Protestantism_sentence_77

The second main principle, sola fide (by faith alone), states that faith in Christ is sufficient alone for eternal salvation and justification. Protestantism_sentence_78

Though argued from scripture, and hence logically consequent to sola scriptura, this is the guiding principle of the work of Luther and the later reformers. Protestantism_sentence_79

Because sola scriptura placed the Bible as the only source of teaching, sola fide epitomises the main thrust of the teaching the reformers wanted to get back to, namely the direct, close, personal connection between Christ and the believer, hence the reformers' contention that their work was Christocentric. Protestantism_sentence_80

The other solas, as statements, emerged later, but the thinking they represent was also part of the early Reformation. Protestantism_sentence_81



  • The Protestants characterize the dogma concerning the Pope as Christ's representative head of the Church on earth, the concept of works made meritorious by Christ, and the Catholic idea of a treasury of the merits of Christ and his saints, as a denial that Christ is the only mediator between God and man. Catholics, on the other hand, maintained the traditional understanding of Judaism on these questions, and appealed to the universal consensus of Christian tradition.Protestantism_item_4_1



  • Protestants perceived Catholic salvation to be dependent upon the grace of God and the merits of one's own works. The reformers posited that salvation is a gift of God (i.e., God's act of free grace), dispensed by the Holy Spirit owing to the redemptive work of Jesus Christ alone. Consequently, they argued that a sinner is not accepted by God on account of the change wrought in the believer by God's grace, and that the believer is accepted without regard for the merit of his works, for no one deserves salvation.Protestantism_item_6_3



  • All glory is due to God alone since salvation is accomplished solely through his will and action—not only the gift of the all-sufficient atonement of Jesus on the cross but also the gift of faith in that atonement, created in the heart of the believer by the Holy Spirit. The reformers believed that human beings—even saints canonized by the Catholic Church, the popes, and the ecclesiastical hierarchy—are not worthy of the glory.Protestantism_item_8_5

Christ's presence in the Eucharist Protestantism_section_8

Main article: Eucharistic theology Protestantism_sentence_82

The Protestant movement began to diverge into several distinct branches in the mid-to-late 16th century. Protestantism_sentence_83

One of the central points of divergence was controversy over the Eucharist. Protestantism_sentence_84

Early Protestants rejected the Catholic dogma of transubstantiation, which teaches that the bread and wine used in the sacrificial rite of the Mass lose their natural substance by being transformed into the body, blood, soul, and divinity of Christ. Protestantism_sentence_85

They disagreed with one another concerning the presence of Christ and his body and blood in Holy Communion. Protestantism_sentence_86


  • Lutherans hold that within the Lord's Supper the consecrated elements of bread and wine are the true body and blood of Christ "in, with, and under the form" of bread and wine for all those who eat and drink it, a doctrine that the Formula of Concord calls the Sacramental union. God earnestly offers to all who receive the sacrament, forgiveness of sins, and eternal salvation.Protestantism_item_9_6
  • The Reformed churches emphasize the real spiritual presence, or sacramental presence, of Christ, saying that the sacrament is a sanctifying grace through which the elect believer does not actually partake of Christ, but merely with the bread and wine rather than in the elements. Calvinists deny the Lutheran assertion that all communicants, both believers and unbelievers, orally receive Christ's body and blood in the elements of the sacrament but instead affirm that Christ is united to the believer through faith—toward which the supper is an outward and visible aid. This is often referred to as dynamic presence.Protestantism_item_9_7
  • Anglicans and Methodists refuse to define the Presence, preferring to leave it a mystery. The Prayer Books describe the bread and wine as outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace which is the Body and Blood of Christ. However, the words of their liturgies suggest that one can hold to a belief in the Real Presence and Spiritual and Sacramental Present at the same time. For example, "... and you have fed us with the spiritual food in the Sacrament of his body and Blood;" "...the spiritual food of the most precious Body and Blood of your Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, and for assuring us in these holy mysteries..." American Book of Common Prayer, 1977, pp. 365–366. Perhaps the best way to see it is that the Anglican view incorporates all three of the above positions and the Catholic and Orthodox. The classic Anglican and Methodist view is that the bread and wine are instruments of God's Grace. Perhaps the closest that one can get to pinning down an Anglican view (they are notorious for refusing to so) are the words of St. John of Damascus, "the bread and wine are visible symbols of a spiritual reality." The symbol is not empty but the visible to another reality present.Protestantism_item_9_8
  • Anabaptists hold a popular simplification of the Zwinglian view, without concern for theological intricacies as hinted at above, may see the Lord's Supper merely as a symbol of the shared faith of the participants, a commemoration of the facts of the crucifixion, and a reminder of their standing together as the body of Christ (a view referred to as memorialism).Protestantism_item_9_9

History Protestantism_section_9

Main article: History of Protestantism Protestantism_sentence_87

Pre-Reformation Protestantism_section_10

See also: Proto-Protestantism and Girolamo Savonarola Protestantism_sentence_88

In the late 1130s, Arnold of Brescia, an Italian canon regular became one of the first theologians to attempt to reform the Catholic Church. Protestantism_sentence_89

After his death, his teachings on apostolic poverty gained currency among Arnoldists, and later more widely among Waldensians and the Spiritual Franciscans, though no written word of his has survived the official condemnation. Protestantism_sentence_90

In the early 1170s, Peter Waldo founded the Waldensians. Protestantism_sentence_91

He advocated an interpretation of the Gospel that led to conflicts with the Catholic Church. Protestantism_sentence_92

By 1215, the Waldensians were declared heretical and subject to persecution. Protestantism_sentence_93

Despite that, the movement continues to exist to this day in Italy, as a part of the wider Reformed tradition. Protestantism_sentence_94

In the 1370s, John Wycliffe—later dubbed the "Morning Star of Reformation"—started his activity as an English reformer. Protestantism_sentence_95

He rejected papal authority over secular power, translated the Bible into vernacular English, and preached anticlerical and biblically-centred reforms. Protestantism_sentence_96

Beginning in the first decade of the 15th century, Jan Hus—a Catholic priest, Czech reformist and professor—influenced by John Wycliffe's writings, founded the Hussite movement. Protestantism_sentence_97

He strongly advocated his reformist Bohemian religious denomination. Protestantism_sentence_98

He was excommunicated and burned at the stake in Constance, Bishopric of Constance in 1415 by secular authorities for unrepentant and persistent heresy. Protestantism_sentence_99

After his execution, a revolt erupted. Protestantism_sentence_100

Hussites defeated five continuous crusades proclaimed against them by the Pope. Protestantism_sentence_101

Later on, theological disputes caused a split within the Hussite movement. Protestantism_sentence_102

Utraquists maintained that both the bread and the wine should be administered to the people during the Eucharist. Protestantism_sentence_103

Another major faction were the Taborites, who opposed the Utraquists in the Battle of Lipany during the Hussite Wars. Protestantism_sentence_104

There were two separate parties among the Hussites: moderate and radical movements. Protestantism_sentence_105

Other smaller regional Hussite branches in Bohemia included Adamites, Orebites, Orphans and Praguers. Protestantism_sentence_106

The Hussite Wars concluded with the victory of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, his Catholic allies and moderate Hussites and the defeat of the radical Hussites. Protestantism_sentence_107

Tensions arose as the Thirty Years' War reached Bohemia in 1620. Protestantism_sentence_108

Both moderate and radical Hussitism was increasingly persecuted by Catholics and Holy Roman Emperor's armies. Protestantism_sentence_109

Starting in 1475, an Italian Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola was calling for a Christian renewal. Protestantism_sentence_110

Later on, Martin Luther himself read some of the friar's writings and praised him as a martyr and forerunner whose ideas on faith and grace anticipated Luther's own doctrine of justification by faith alone. Protestantism_sentence_111

Some of Hus' followers founded the Unitas Fratrum—"Unity of the Brethren"—which was renewed under the leadership of Count Nicolaus von Zinzendorf in Herrnhut, Saxony in 1722 after its almost total destruction in the Thirty Years' War and the Counter-Reformation. Protestantism_sentence_112

Today, it is usually referred to in English as the Moravian Church and in German as the Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine. Protestantism_sentence_113

Reformation proper Protestantism_section_11

Main article: Protestant Reformation Protestantism_sentence_114

The Protestant Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church. Protestantism_sentence_115

On 31 October 1517 (All Hallows' Eve) Martin Luther allegedly nailed his Ninety-five Theses (Disputation on the Power of Indulgences) on the door of the All Saints' Church in Wittenberg, Germany, detailing doctrinal and practical abuses of the Catholic Church, especially the selling of indulgences. Protestantism_sentence_116

The theses debated and criticized many aspects of the Church and the papacy, including the practice of purgatory, particular judgment, and the authority of the pope. Protestantism_sentence_117

Luther would later write works against the Catholic devotion to Virgin Mary, the intercession of and devotion to the saints, mandatory clerical celibacy, monasticism, the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, good works, and the sacraments. Protestantism_sentence_118

The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg. Protestantism_sentence_119

Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy, and stimulated as well the printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. Protestantism_sentence_120

From 1517 onward, religious pamphlets flooded much of Europe. Protestantism_sentence_121

Following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere. Protestantism_sentence_122

After the expulsion of its Bishop in 1526, and the unsuccessful attempts of the Bern reformer William Farel, Calvin was asked to use the organisational skill he had gathered as a student of law to discipline the city of Geneva. Protestantism_sentence_123

His Ordinances of 1541 involved a collaboration of Church affairs with the City council and consistory to bring morality to all areas of life. Protestantism_sentence_124

After the establishment of the Geneva academy in 1559, Geneva became the unofficial capital of the Protestant movement, providing refuge for Protestant exiles from all over Europe and educating them as Calvinist missionaries. Protestantism_sentence_125

The faith continued to spread after Calvin's death in 1563. Protestantism_sentence_126

Protestantism also spread from the German lands into France, where the Protestants were nicknamed Huguenots. Protestantism_sentence_127

Calvin continued to take an interest in the French religious affairs from his base in Geneva. Protestantism_sentence_128

He regularly trained pastors to lead congregations there. Protestantism_sentence_129

Despite heavy persecution, the Reformed tradition made steady progress across large sections of the nation, appealing to people alienated by the obduracy and the complacency of the Catholic establishment. Protestantism_sentence_130

French Protestantism came to acquire a distinctly political character, made all the more obvious by the conversions of nobles during the 1550s. Protestantism_sentence_131

This established the preconditions for a series of conflicts, known as the French Wars of Religion. Protestantism_sentence_132

The civil wars gained impetus with the sudden death of Henry II of France in 1559. Protestantism_sentence_133

Atrocity and outrage became the defining characteristics of the time, illustrated at their most intense in the St. Protestantism_sentence_134

Bartholomew's Day massacre of August 1572, when the Catholic party annihilated between 30,000 and 100,000 Huguenots across France. Protestantism_sentence_135

The wars only concluded when Henry IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes, promising official toleration of the Protestant minority, but under highly restricted conditions. Protestantism_sentence_136

Catholicism remained the official state religion, and the fortunes of French Protestants gradually declined over the next century, culminating in Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau which revoked the Edict of Nantes and made Catholicism the sole legal religion once again. Protestantism_sentence_137

In response to the Edict of Fontainebleau, Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg declared the Edict of Potsdam, giving free passage to Huguenot refugees. Protestantism_sentence_138

In the late 17th century many Huguenots fled to England, the Netherlands, Prussia, Switzerland, and the English and Dutch overseas colonies. Protestantism_sentence_139

A significant community in France remained in the Cévennes region. Protestantism_sentence_140

Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. Protestantism_sentence_141

Zwingli was a scholar and preacher, who in 1518 moved to Zurich. Protestantism_sentence_142

Although the two movements agreed on many issues of theology, some unresolved differences kept them separate. Protestantism_sentence_143

A long-standing resentment between the German states and the Swiss Confederation led to heated debate over how much Zwingli owed his ideas to Lutheranism. Protestantism_sentence_144

The German Prince Philip of Hesse saw potential in creating an alliance between Zwingli and Luther. Protestantism_sentence_145

A meeting was held in his castle in 1529, now known as the Colloquy of Marburg, which has become infamous for its failure. Protestantism_sentence_146

The two men could not come to any agreement due to their disputation over one key doctrine. Protestantism_sentence_147

In 1534, King Henry VIII put an end to all papal jurisdiction in England, after the Pope failed to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon; this opened the door to reformational ideas. Protestantism_sentence_148

Reformers in the Church of England alternated between sympathies for ancient Catholic tradition and more Reformed principles, gradually developing into a tradition considered a middle way (via media) between the Catholic and Protestant traditions. Protestantism_sentence_149

The English Reformation followed a particular course. Protestantism_sentence_150

The different character of the English Reformation came primarily from the fact that it was driven initially by the political necessities of Henry VIII. Protestantism_sentence_151

King Henry decided to remove the Church of England from the authority of Rome. Protestantism_sentence_152

In 1534, the Act of Supremacy recognized Henry as the only Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England. Protestantism_sentence_153

Between 1535 and 1540, under Thomas Cromwell, the policy known as the Dissolution of the Monasteries was put into effect. Protestantism_sentence_154

Following a brief Catholic restoration during the reign of Mary I, a loose consensus developed during the reign of Elizabeth I. Protestantism_sentence_155

The Elizabethan Religious Settlement largely formed Anglicanism into a distinctive church tradition. Protestantism_sentence_156

The compromise was uneasy and was capable of veering between extreme Calvinism on the one hand and Catholicism on the other. Protestantism_sentence_157

It was relatively successful until the Puritan Revolution or English Civil War in the 17th century. Protestantism_sentence_158

The success of the Counter-Reformation on the Continent and the growth of a Puritan party dedicated to further Protestant reform polarised the Elizabethan Age. Protestantism_sentence_159

The early Puritan movement was a movement for reform in the Church of England. Protestantism_sentence_160

The desire was for the Church of England to resemble more closely the Protestant churches of Europe, especially Geneva. Protestantism_sentence_161

The later Puritan movement, often referred to as dissenters and nonconformists, eventually led to the formation of various Reformed denominations. Protestantism_sentence_162

The Scottish Reformation of 1560 decisively shaped the Church of Scotland. Protestantism_sentence_163

The Reformation in Scotland culminated ecclesiastically in the establishment of a church along Reformed lines, and politically in the triumph of English influence over that of France. Protestantism_sentence_164

John Knox is regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation. Protestantism_sentence_165

The Scottish Reformation Parliament of 1560 repudiated the pope's authority by the Papal Jurisdiction Act 1560, forbade the celebration of the Mass and approved a Protestant Confession of Faith. Protestantism_sentence_166

It was made possible by a revolution against French hegemony under the regime of the regent Mary of Guise, who had governed Scotland in the name of her absent daughter. Protestantism_sentence_167

Some of the most important activists of the Protestant Reformation included Jacobus Arminius, Theodore Beza, Martin Bucer, Andreas von Carlstadt, Heinrich Bullinger, Balthasar Hubmaier, Thomas Cranmer, William Farel, Thomas Müntzer, Laurentius Petri, Olaus Petri, Philipp Melanchthon, Menno Simons, Louis de Berquin, Primož Trubar and John Smyth. Protestantism_sentence_168

In the course of this religious upheaval, the German Peasants' War of 1524–25 swept through the Bavarian, Thuringian and Swabian principalities. Protestantism_sentence_169

After the Eighty Years' War in the Low Countries and the French Wars of Religion, the confessional division of the states of the Holy Roman Empire eventually erupted in the Thirty Years' War between 1618 and 1648. Protestantism_sentence_170

It devastated much of Germany, killing between 25% and 40% of its population. Protestantism_sentence_171

The main tenets of the Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, were: Protestantism_sentence_172


  • All parties would now recognise the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, by which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism. (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio)Protestantism_item_10_10
  • Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will.Protestantism_item_10_11
  • The treaty also effectively ended the papacy's pan-European political power. Pope Innocent X declared the treaty "null, void, invalid, iniquitous, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all times" in his bull Zelo Domus Dei. European sovereigns, Catholic and Protestant alike, ignored his verdict.Protestantism_item_10_12

Post-Reformation Protestantism_section_12

See also: Great Awakenings and Azusa Street Revival Protestantism_sentence_173

The Great Awakenings were periods of rapid and dramatic religious revival in Anglo-American religious history. Protestantism_sentence_174

The First Great Awakening was an evangelical and revitalization movement that swept through Protestant Europe and British America, especially the American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on American Protestantism. Protestantism_sentence_175

It resulted from powerful preaching that gave listeners a sense of deep personal revelation of their need of salvation by Jesus Christ. Protestantism_sentence_176

Pulling away from ritual, ceremony, sacramentalism and hierarchy, it made Christianity intensely personal to the average person by fostering a deep sense of spiritual conviction and redemption, and by encouraging introspection and a commitment to a new standard of personal morality. Protestantism_sentence_177

The Second Great Awakening began around 1790. Protestantism_sentence_178

It gained momentum by 1800. Protestantism_sentence_179

After 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose preachers led the movement. Protestantism_sentence_180

It was past its peak by the late 1840s. Protestantism_sentence_181

It has been described as a reaction against skepticism, deism, and rationalism, although why those forces became pressing enough at the time to spark revivals is not fully understood. Protestantism_sentence_182

It enrolled millions of new members in existing evangelical denominations and led to the formation of new denominations. Protestantism_sentence_183

The Third Great Awakening refers to a hypothetical historical period that was marked by religious activism in American history and spans the late 1850s to the early 20th century. Protestantism_sentence_184

It affected pietistic Protestant denominations and had a strong element of social activism. Protestantism_sentence_185

It gathered strength from the postmillennial belief that the Second Coming of Christ would occur after mankind had reformed the entire earth. Protestantism_sentence_186

It was affiliated with the Social Gospel Movement, which applied Christianity to social issues and gained its force from the Awakening, as did the worldwide missionary movement. Protestantism_sentence_187

New groupings emerged, such as the Holiness, Nazarene, and Christian Science movements. Protestantism_sentence_188

The Fourth Great Awakening was a Christian religious awakening that some scholars—most notably, Robert Fogel—say took place in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s, while others look at the era following World War II. Protestantism_sentence_189

The terminology is controversial. Protestantism_sentence_190

Thus, the idea of a Fourth Great Awakening itself has not been generally accepted. Protestantism_sentence_191

In 1814, Le Réveil swept through Calvinist regions in Switzerland and France. Protestantism_sentence_192

In 1904, a Protestant revival in Wales had tremendous impact on the local population. Protestantism_sentence_193

A part of British modernization, it drew many people to churches, especially Methodist and Baptist ones. Protestantism_sentence_194

A noteworthy development in 20th-century Protestant Christianity was the rise of the modern Pentecostal movement. Protestantism_sentence_195

Sprung from Methodist and Wesleyan roots, it arose out of meetings at an urban mission on Azusa Street in Los Angeles. Protestantism_sentence_196

From there it spread around the world, carried by those who experienced what they believed to be miraculous moves of God there. Protestantism_sentence_197

These Pentecost-like manifestations have steadily been in evidence throughout the history, such as seen in the two Great Awakenings. Protestantism_sentence_198

Pentecostalism, which in turn birthed the Charismatic movement within already established denominations, continues to be an important force in Western Christianity. Protestantism_sentence_199

In the United States and elsewhere in the world, there has been a marked rise in the evangelical wing of Protestant denominations, especially those that are more exclusively evangelical, and a corresponding decline in the mainstream liberal churches. Protestantism_sentence_200

In the post–World War I era, Liberal Christianity was on the rise, and a considerable number of seminaries held and taught from a liberal perspective as well. Protestantism_sentence_201

In the post–World War II era, the trend began to swing back towards the conservative camp in America's seminaries and church structures. Protestantism_sentence_202

In Europe, there has been a general move away from religious observance and belief in Christian teachings and a move towards secularism. Protestantism_sentence_203

The Enlightenment is largely responsible for the spread of secularism. Protestantism_sentence_204

Several scholars have argued for a link between the rise of secularism and Protestantism, attributing it to the wide-ranging freedom in the Protestant-majority countries. Protestantism_sentence_205

In North America, South America and Australia Christian religious observance is much higher than in Europe. Protestantism_sentence_206

United States remains particularly religious in comparison to other developed countries. Protestantism_sentence_207

South America, historically Catholic, has experienced a large Evangelical and Pentecostal infusion in the 20th and 21st centuries. Protestantism_sentence_208

Radical Reformation Protestantism_section_13

Main article: Radical Reformation Protestantism_sentence_209

Unlike mainstream Lutheran, Calvinist and Zwinglian movements, the Radical Reformation, which had no state sponsorship, generally abandoned the idea of the "Church visible" as distinct from the "Church invisible". Protestantism_sentence_210

It was a rational extension of the state-approved Protestant dissent, which took the value of independence from constituted authority a step further, arguing the same for the civic realm. Protestantism_sentence_211

The Radical Reformation was non-mainstream, though in parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, a majority would sympathize with the Radical Reformation despite the intense persecution it faced from both Catholics and Magisterial Protestants. Protestantism_sentence_212

The early Anabaptists believed that their reformation must purify not only theology but also the actual lives of Christians, especially their political and social relationships. Protestantism_sentence_213

Therefore, the church should not be supported by the state, neither by tithes and taxes, nor by the use of the sword; Christianity was a matter of individual conviction, which could not be forced on anyone, but rather required a personal decision for it. Protestantism_sentence_214

Protestant ecclesial leaders such as Hubmaier and Hofmann preached the invalidity of infant baptism, advocating baptism as following conversion ("believer's baptism") instead. Protestantism_sentence_215

This was not a doctrine new to the reformers, but was taught by earlier groups, such as the Albigenses in 1147. Protestantism_sentence_216

Though most of the Radical Reformers were Anabaptist, some did not identify themselves with the mainstream Anabaptist tradition. Protestantism_sentence_217

Thomas Müntzer was involved in the German Peasants' War. Protestantism_sentence_218

Andreas Karlstadt disagreed theologically with Huldrych Zwingli and Martin Luther, teaching nonviolence and refusing to baptize infants while not rebaptizing adult believers. Protestantism_sentence_219

Kaspar Schwenkfeld and Sebastian Franck were influenced by German mysticism and spiritualism. Protestantism_sentence_220

In the view of many associated with the Radical Reformation, the Magisterial Reformation had not gone far enough. Protestantism_sentence_221

Radical Reformer, Andreas von Bodenstein Karlstadt, for example, referred to the Lutheran theologians at Wittenberg as the "new papists". Protestantism_sentence_222

Since the term "magister" also means "teacher", the Magisterial Reformation is also characterized by an emphasis on the authority of a teacher. Protestantism_sentence_223

This is made evident in the prominence of Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli as leaders of the reform movements in their respective areas of ministry. Protestantism_sentence_224

Because of their authority, they were often criticized by Radical Reformers as being too much like the Roman Popes. Protestantism_sentence_225

A more political side of the Radical Reformation can be seen in the thought and practice of Hans Hut, although typically Anabaptism has been associated with pacifism. Protestantism_sentence_226

Anabaptism in shape of its various diversification such as the Amish, Mennonites and Hutterites came out of the Radical Reformation. Protestantism_sentence_227

Later in history, Schwarzenau Brethren, and the Apostolic Christian Church would emerge in Anabaptist circles. Protestantism_sentence_228

Denominations Protestantism_section_14

See also: List of Christian denominations § Protestant, and List of the largest Protestant churches Protestantism_sentence_229

Protestants refer to specific groupings of congregations or churches that share in common foundational doctrines and the name of their groups as denominations. Protestantism_sentence_230

The term denomination (national body) is to be distinguished from branch (denominational family; tradition), communion (international body) and congregation (church). Protestantism_sentence_231

An example (this is no universal way to classify Protestant churches, as these may sometimes vary broadly in their structures) to show the difference: Protestantism_sentence_232

Branch/denominational family/tradition: Methodism Communion/international body: World Methodist Council Denomination/national body: United Methodist Church Congregation/church: First United Methodist Church (Paintsville, Kentucky) Protestantism_sentence_233

Protestants reject the Catholic Church's doctrine that it is the one true church, believing in the invisible church, which consists of all who profess faith in Jesus Christ. Protestantism_sentence_234

Some Protestant denominations are less accepting of other denominations, and the basic orthodoxy of some is questioned by most of the others. Protestantism_sentence_235

Individual denominations also have formed over very subtle theological differences. Protestantism_sentence_236

Other denominations are simply regional or ethnic expressions of the same beliefs. Protestantism_sentence_237

Because the five solas are the main tenets of the Protestant faith, non-denominational groups and organizations are also considered Protestant. Protestantism_sentence_238

Various ecumenical movements have attempted cooperation or reorganization of the various divided Protestant denominations, according to various models of union, but divisions continue to outpace unions, as there is no overarching authority to which any of the churches owe allegiance, which can authoritatively define the faith. Protestantism_sentence_239

Most denominations share common beliefs in the major aspects of the Christian faith while differing in many secondary doctrines, although what is major and what is secondary is a matter of idiosyncratic belief. Protestantism_sentence_240

Several countries have established their national churches, linking the ecclesiastical structure with the state. Protestantism_sentence_241

Jurisdictions where a Protestant denomination has been established as a state religion include several Nordic countries; Denmark (including Greenland), the Faroe Islands (its church being independent since 2007), Iceland and Norway have established Evangelical Lutheran churches. Protestantism_sentence_242

Tuvalu has the only established church in Reformed tradition in the world, while Tongain the Methodist tradition. Protestantism_sentence_243

The Church of England is the officially established religious institution in England, and also the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. Protestantism_sentence_244

In 1869, Finland was the first Nordic country to disestablish its Evangelical Lutheran church by introducing the Church Act. Protestantism_sentence_245

Although the church still maintains a special relationship with the state, it is not described as a state religion in the Finnish Constitution or other laws passed by the Finnish Parliament. Protestantism_sentence_246

In 2000, Sweden was the second Nordic country to do so. Protestantism_sentence_247

United and uniting churches Protestantism_section_15

Main article: United and uniting churches Protestantism_sentence_248

See also: Continuing churches Protestantism_sentence_249

United and uniting churches are churches formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations. Protestantism_sentence_250

Historically, unions of Protestant churches were enforced by the state, usually in order to have a stricter control over the religious sphere of its people, but also other organizational reasons. Protestantism_sentence_251

As modern Christian ecumenism progresses, unions between various Protestant traditions are becoming more and more common, resulting in a growing number of united and uniting churches. Protestantism_sentence_252

Some of the recent major examples are the United Protestant Church of France (2013) and the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (2004). Protestantism_sentence_253

As mainline Protestantism shrinks in Europe and North America due to the rise of secularism, Reformed and Lutheran denominations merge, often creating large nationwide denominations. Protestantism_sentence_254

The phenomenon is much less common among evangelical, nondenominational and charismatic churches as new ones arise and plenty of them remain independent of each other. Protestantism_sentence_255

Perhaps the oldest official united church is found in Germany, where the Evangelical Church in Germany is a federation of Lutheran, United (Prussian Union) and Reformed churches, a union dating back to 1817. Protestantism_sentence_256

The first of the series of unions was at a synod in Idstein to form the Protestant Church in Hesse and Nassau in August 1817, commemorated in naming the church of Idstein Unionskirche one hundred years later. Protestantism_sentence_257

Around the world, each united or uniting church comprises a different mix of predecessor Protestant denominations. Protestantism_sentence_258

Trends are visible, however, as most united and uniting churches have one or more predecessors with heritage in the Reformed tradition and many are members of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches. Protestantism_sentence_259

Major branches Protestantism_section_16

Protestants can be differentiated according to how they have been influenced by important movements since the Reformation, today regarded as branches. Protestantism_sentence_260

Some of these movements have a common lineage, sometimes directly spawning individual denominations. Protestantism_sentence_261

Due to the earlier stated multitude of denominations, this section discusses only the largest denominational families, or branches, widely considered to be a part of Protestantism. Protestantism_sentence_262

These are, in alphabetical order: Adventist, Anglican, Baptist, Calvinist (Reformed), Lutheran, Methodist and Pentecostal. Protestantism_sentence_263

A small but historically significant Anabaptist branch is also discussed. Protestantism_sentence_264

The chart below shows the mutual relations and historical origins of the main Protestant denominational families, or their parts. Protestantism_sentence_265

Due to factors such as Counter-Reformation and the legal principle of Cuius regio, eius religio, many people lived as Nicodemites, where their professed religious affiliations were more or less at odds with the movement they sympathized with. Protestantism_sentence_266

As a result, the boundaries between the denominations do not separate as cleanly as this chart indicates. Protestantism_sentence_267

When a population was suppressed or persecuted into feigning an adherence to the dominant faith, over the generations they continued to influence the church they outwardly adhered to. Protestantism_sentence_268

Because Calvinism was not specifically recognized in the Holy Roman Empire until the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, many Calvinists lived as Crypto-Calvinists. Protestantism_sentence_269

Due to Counter-Reformation related suppressions in Catholic lands during the 16th through 19th centuries, many Protestants lived as Crypto-Protestants. Protestantism_sentence_270

Meanwhile, in Protestant areas, Catholics sometimes lived as crypto-papists, although in continental Europe emigration was more feasible so this was less common. Protestantism_sentence_271

Adventism Protestantism_section_17

Main article: Adventism Protestantism_sentence_272

Adventism began in the 19th century in the context of the Second Great Awakening revival in the United States. Protestantism_sentence_273

The name refers to belief in the imminent Second Coming (or "Second Advent") of Jesus Christ. Protestantism_sentence_274

William Miller started the Adventist movement in the 1830s. Protestantism_sentence_275

His followers became known as Millerites. Protestantism_sentence_276

Although the Adventist churches hold much in common, their theologies differ on whether the intermediate state is unconscious sleep or consciousness, whether the ultimate punishment of the wicked is annihilation or eternal torment, the nature of immortality, whether or not the wicked are resurrected after the millennium, and whether the sanctuary of refers to the one in heaven or one on earth. Protestantism_sentence_277

The movement has encouraged the examination of the whole Bible, leading Seventh-day Adventists and some smaller Adventist groups to observe the Sabbath. Protestantism_sentence_278

The General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists has compiled that church's core beliefs in the 28 Fundamental Beliefs (1980 and 2005), which use Biblical references as justification. Protestantism_sentence_279

In 2010, Adventism claimed some 22 million believers scattered in various independent churches. Protestantism_sentence_280

The largest church within the movement—the Seventh-day Adventist Church—has more than 18 million members. Protestantism_sentence_281


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Anabaptism Protestantism_section_18

Main article: Anabaptism Protestantism_sentence_282

Anabaptism traces its origins to the Radical Reformation. Protestantism_sentence_283

Anabaptists believe in delaying baptism until the candidate confesses his or her faith. Protestantism_sentence_284

Although some consider this movement to be an offshoot of Protestantism, others see it as a distinct one. Protestantism_sentence_285

The Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites are direct descendants of the movement. Protestantism_sentence_286

Schwarzenau Brethren, Bruderhof, and the Apostolic Christian Church are considered later developments among the Anabaptists. Protestantism_sentence_287

The name Anabaptist, meaning "one who baptizes again", was given them by their persecutors in reference to the practice of re-baptizing converts who already had been baptized as infants. Protestantism_sentence_288

Anabaptists required that baptismal candidates be able to make their own confessions of faith and so rejected baptism of infants. Protestantism_sentence_289

The early members of this movement did not accept the name Anabaptist, claiming that since infant baptism was unscriptural and null and void, the baptizing of believers was not a re-baptism but in fact their first real baptism. Protestantism_sentence_290

As a result of their views on the nature of baptism and other issues, Anabaptists were heavily persecuted during the 16th century and into the 17th by both Magisterial Protestants and Catholics. Protestantism_sentence_291

While most Anabaptists adhered to a literal interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount, which precluded taking oaths, participating in military actions, and participating in civil government, some who practiced re-baptism felt otherwise. Protestantism_sentence_292

They were thus technically Anabaptists, even though conservative Amish, Mennonites, and Hutterites and some historians tend to consider them as outside of true Anabaptism. Protestantism_sentence_293

Anabaptist reformers of the Radical Reformation are divided into Radical and the so-called Second Front. Protestantism_sentence_294

Some important Radical Reformation theologians were John of Leiden, Thomas Müntzer, Kaspar Schwenkfeld, Sebastian Franck, Menno Simons. Protestantism_sentence_295

Second Front Reformers included Hans Denck, Conrad Grebel, Balthasar Hubmaier and Felix Manz. Protestantism_sentence_296

Many Anabaptists today still use the Ausbund, which is the oldest hymnal still in continuous use. Protestantism_sentence_297


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Anglicanism Protestantism_section_19

Main article: Anglicanism Protestantism_sentence_298

Anglicanism comprises the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures. Protestantism_sentence_299

The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 that means the English Church. Protestantism_sentence_300

There is no single "Anglican Church" with universal juridical authority, since each national or regional church has full autonomy. Protestantism_sentence_301

As the name suggests, the communion is an association of churches in full communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury. Protestantism_sentence_302

The great majority of Anglicans are members of churches which are part of the international Anglican Communion, which has 85 million adherents. Protestantism_sentence_303

The Church of England declared its independence from the Catholic Church at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Protestantism_sentence_304

Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded closely to those of contemporary Reformed tradition. Protestantism_sentence_305

These reforms were understood by one of those most responsible for them, the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. Protestantism_sentence_306

By the end of the century, the retention in Anglicanism of many traditional liturgical forms and of the episcopate was already seen as unacceptable by those promoting the most developed Protestant principles. Protestantism_sentence_307

Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches used for centuries. Protestantism_sentence_308

While it has since undergone many revisions and Anglican churches in different countries have developed other service books, the Book of Common Prayer is still acknowledged as one of the ties that bind the Anglican Communion together. Protestantism_sentence_309


  • Protestantism_item_13_19
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Baptists Protestantism_section_20

Main article: Baptists Protestantism_sentence_310

Baptists subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Protestantism_sentence_311

Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Protestantism_sentence_312

Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors and deacons. Protestantism_sentence_313

Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity. Protestantism_sentence_314

Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ widely from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, and their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. Protestantism_sentence_315

Historians trace the earliest church labeled Baptist back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor. Protestantism_sentence_316

In accordance with his reading of the New Testament, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Protestantism_sentence_317

Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christ's atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to the elect. Protestantism_sentence_318

In 1638, Roger Williams established the first Baptist congregation in the North American colonies. Protestantism_sentence_319

In the mid-18th century, the First Great Awakening increased Baptist growth in both New England and the South. Protestantism_sentence_320

The Second Great Awakening in the South in the early 19th century increased church membership, as did the preachers' lessening of support for abolition and manumission of slavery, which had been part of the 18th-century teachings. Protestantism_sentence_321

Baptist missionaries have spread their church to every continent. Protestantism_sentence_322

The Baptist World Alliance reports more than 41 million members in more than 150,000 congregations. Protestantism_sentence_323

In 2002, there were over 100 million Baptists and Baptistic group members worldwide and over 33 million in North America. Protestantism_sentence_324

The largest Baptist association is the Southern Baptist Convention, with the membership of associated churches totaling more than 14 million. Protestantism_sentence_325


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Calvinism Protestantism_section_21

Main article: Calvinism Protestantism_sentence_326

Calvinism, also called the Reformed tradition, was advanced by several theologians such as Martin Bucer, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, and Huldrych Zwingli, but this branch of Christianity bears the name of the French reformer John Calvin because of his prominent influence on it and because of his role in the confessional and ecclesiastical debates throughout the 16th century. Protestantism_sentence_327

Today, this term also refers to the doctrines and practices of the Reformed churches of which Calvin was an early leader. Protestantism_sentence_328

Less commonly, it can refer to the individual teaching of Calvin himself. Protestantism_sentence_329

The particulars of Calvinist theology may be stated in a number of ways. Protestantism_sentence_330

Perhaps the best known summary is contained in the five points of Calvinism, though these points identify the Calvinist view on soteriology rather than summarizing the system as a whole. Protestantism_sentence_331

Broadly speaking, Calvinism stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things—in salvation but also in all of life. Protestantism_sentence_332

This concept is seen clearly in the doctrines of predestination and total depravity. Protestantism_sentence_333

The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 80 million members in 211 member denominations around the world. Protestantism_sentence_334

There are more conservative Reformed federations like the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches. Protestantism_sentence_335


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Lutheranism Protestantism_section_22

Main article: Lutheranism Protestantism_sentence_336

Lutheranism identifies with the theology of Martin Luther—a German monk and priest, ecclesiastical reformer, and theologian. Protestantism_sentence_337

Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith, rejecting the assertion made by Catholic leaders at the Council of Trent that authority comes from both Scriptures and Tradition. Protestantism_sentence_338

In addition, Lutherans accept the teachings of the first four ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church. Protestantism_sentence_339

Unlike the Reformed tradition, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Protestantism_sentence_340

Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of God's Law, divine grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints, and predestination. Protestantism_sentence_341

Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism. Protestantism_sentence_342

With approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant confession after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. Protestantism_sentence_343

The Lutheran World Federation, the largest global communion of Lutheran churches represents over 72 million people. Protestantism_sentence_344

Both of these figures miscount Lutherans worldwide as many members of more generically Protestant LWF member church bodies do not self-identify as Lutheran or attend congregations that self-identify as Lutheran. Protestantism_sentence_345

Additionally, there are other international organizations such as the Global Confessional and Missional Lutheran Forum, International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, as well as Lutheran denominations that are not necessarily a member of an international organization. Protestantism_sentence_346


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Methodism Protestantism_section_23

Main article: Methodism Protestantism_sentence_347

Methodism identifies principally with the theology of John Wesley—an Anglican priest and evangelist. Protestantism_sentence_348

This evangelical movement originated as a revival within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate Church following Wesley's death. Protestantism_sentence_349

Because of vigorous missionary activity, the movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, and beyond, today claiming approximately 80 million adherents worldwide. Protestantism_sentence_350

Originally it appealed especially to labourers and slaves. Protestantism_sentence_351

Soteriologically, most Methodists are Arminian, emphasizing that Christ accomplished salvation for every human being, and that humans must exercise an act of the will to receive it (as opposed to the traditional Calvinist doctrine of monergism). Protestantism_sentence_352

Methodism is traditionally low church in liturgy, although this varies greatly between individual congregations; the Wesleys themselves greatly valued the Anglican liturgy and tradition. Protestantism_sentence_353

Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition; John Wesley's brother, Charles, was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church, and many other eminent hymn writers come from the Methodist tradition. Protestantism_sentence_354


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Pentecostalism Protestantism_section_24

Main article: Pentecostalism Protestantism_sentence_355

Pentecostalism is a movement that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism with the Holy Spirit. Protestantism_sentence_356

The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek name for the Jewish Feast of Weeks. Protestantism_sentence_357

For Christians, this event commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the followers of Jesus Christ, as described in the second chapter of the Book of Acts. Protestantism_sentence_358

This branch of Protestantism is distinguished by belief in the baptism with the Holy Spirit as an experience separate from conversion that enables a Christian to live a Holy Spirit–filled and empowered life. Protestantism_sentence_359

This empowerment includes the use of spiritual gifts such as speaking in tongues and divine healing—two other defining characteristics of Pentecostalism. Protestantism_sentence_360

Because of their commitment to biblical authority, spiritual gifts, and the miraculous, Pentecostals tend to see their movement as reflecting the same kind of spiritual power and teachings that were found in the Apostolic Age of the early church. Protestantism_sentence_361

For this reason, some Pentecostals also use the term Apostolic or Full Gospel to describe their movement. Protestantism_sentence_362

Pentecostalism eventually spawned hundreds of new denominations, including large groups such as the Assemblies of God and the Church of God in Christ, both in the United States and elsewhere. Protestantism_sentence_363

There are over 279 million Pentecostals worldwide, and the movement is growing in many parts of the world, especially the global South. Protestantism_sentence_364

Since the 1960s, Pentecostalism has increasingly gained acceptance from other Christian traditions, and Pentecostal beliefs concerning Spirit baptism and spiritual gifts have been embraced by non-Pentecostal Christians in Protestant and Catholic churches through the Charismatic Movement. Protestantism_sentence_365

Together, Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity numbers over 500 million adherents. Protestantism_sentence_366


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Other Protestants Protestantism_section_25

Main article: List of Christian denominations § Protestant Protestantism_sentence_367

There are many other Protestant denominations that do not fit neatly into the mentioned branches, and are far smaller in membership. Protestantism_sentence_368

Some groups of individuals who hold basic Protestant tenets identify themselves simply as "Christians" or "born-again Christians". Protestantism_sentence_369

They typically distance themselves from the confessionalism or creedalism of other Christian communities by calling themselves "non-denominational" or "evangelical". Protestantism_sentence_370

Often founded by individual pastors, they have little affiliation with historic denominations. Protestantism_sentence_371

Hussitism follows the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best-known representative of the Bohemian Reformation and one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. Protestantism_sentence_372

An early hymnal was the hand-written Jistebnice hymn book. Protestantism_sentence_373

This predominantly religious movement was propelled by social issues and strengthened Czech national awareness. Protestantism_sentence_374

Among present-day Christians, Hussite traditions are represented in the Moravian Church, Unity of the Brethren, and the refounded Czechoslovak Hussite churches. Protestantism_sentence_375

The Plymouth Brethren are a conservative, low church, evangelical movement, whose history can be traced to Dublin, Ireland, in the late 1820s, originating from Anglicanism. Protestantism_sentence_376

Among other beliefs, the group emphasizes sola scriptura. Protestantism_sentence_377

Brethren generally see themselves not as a denomination, but as a network, or even as a collection of overlapping networks, of like-minded independent churches. Protestantism_sentence_378

Although the group refused for many years to take any denominational name to itself—a stance that some of them still maintain—the title The Brethren, is one that many of their number are comfortable with in that the Bible designates all believers as brethren. Protestantism_sentence_379

The Holiness movement refers to a set of beliefs and practices emerging from 19th-century Methodism, and a number of evangelical denominations, parachurch organizations, and movements which emphasized those beliefs as a central doctrine. Protestantism_sentence_380

There are an estimated 12 million adherents in Holiness movement churches. Protestantism_sentence_381

The Salvation Army and The Wesleyan Church are notable examples. Protestantism_sentence_382

Quakers, or Friends, are members of a family of religious movements collectively known as the Religious Society of Friends. Protestantism_sentence_383

The central unifying doctrine of these movements is the priesthood of all believers. Protestantism_sentence_384

Many Friends view themselves as members of a Christian denomination. Protestantism_sentence_385

They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional conservative Quaker understandings of Christianity. Protestantism_sentence_386

Unlike many other groups that emerged within Christianity, the Religious Society of Friends has actively tried to avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. Protestantism_sentence_387

Unitarianism is sometimes considered Protestant due to its origins in the Reformation and strong cooperation with other Protestants since the 16th century. Protestantism_sentence_388

It is excluded due to its Nontrinitarian theological nature. Protestantism_sentence_389

Unitarians can be regarded as Nontrinitarian Protestants, or simply Nontrinitarians. Protestantism_sentence_390

Unitarianism has been popular in the region of Transylvania within today's Romania, England, and the United States. Protestantism_sentence_391

It originated almost simultaneously in Transylvania and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Protestantism_sentence_392


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Interdenominational movements Protestantism_section_26

There are also Christian movements which cross denominational lines and even branches, and cannot be classified on the same level previously mentioned forms. Protestantism_sentence_393

Evangelicalism is a prominent example. Protestantism_sentence_394

Some of those movements are active exclusively within Protestantism, some are Christian-wide. Protestantism_sentence_395

Transdenominational movements are sometimes capable of affecting parts of the Catholic Church, such as does it the Charismatic Movement, which aims to incorporate beliefs and practices similar to Pentecostals into the various branches of Christianity. Protestantism_sentence_396

Neo-charismatic churches are sometimes regarded as a subgroup of the Charismatic Movement. Protestantism_sentence_397

Both are put under a common label of Charismatic Christianity (so-called Renewalists), along with Pentecostals. Protestantism_sentence_398

Nondenominational churches and various house churches often adopt, or are akin to one of these movements. Protestantism_sentence_399

Megachurches are usually influenced by interdenominational movements. Protestantism_sentence_400

Globally, these large congregations are a significant development in Protestant Christianity. Protestantism_sentence_401

In the United States, the phenomenon has more than quadrupled in the past two decades. Protestantism_sentence_402

It has since spread worldwide. Protestantism_sentence_403

The chart below shows the mutual relations and historical origins of the main interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism. Protestantism_sentence_404

Evangelicalism Protestantism_section_27

Main article: Evangelicalism Protestantism_sentence_405

Evangelicalism, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, transdenominational movement which maintains that the essence of the gospel consists in the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement. Protestantism_sentence_406

Evangelicals are Christians who believe in the centrality of the conversion or "born again" experience in receiving salvation, believe in the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity and have a strong commitment to evangelism or sharing the Christian message. Protestantism_sentence_407

It gained great momentum in the 18th and 19th centuries with the emergence of Methodism and the Great Awakenings in Britain and North America. Protestantism_sentence_408

The origins of Evangelicalism are usually traced back to the English Methodist movement, Nicolaus Zinzendorf, the Moravian Church, Lutheran pietism, Presbyterianism and Puritanism. Protestantism_sentence_409

Among leaders and major figures of the Evangelical Protestant movement were John Wesley, George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Billy Graham, Harold John Ockenga, John Stott and Martyn Lloyd-Jones. Protestantism_sentence_410

There are an estimated 285,480,000 Evangelicals, corresponding to 13% of the Christian population and 4% of the total world population. Protestantism_sentence_411

The Americas, Africa and Asia are home to the majority of Evangelicals. Protestantism_sentence_412

The United States has the largest concentration of Evangelicals. Protestantism_sentence_413

Evangelicalism is gaining popularity both in and outside the English-speaking world, especially in Latin America and the developing world. Protestantism_sentence_414


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Charismatic movement Protestantism_section_28

Main article: Charismatic movement Protestantism_sentence_415

The Charismatic movement is the international trend of historically mainstream congregations adopting beliefs and practices similar to Pentecostals. Protestantism_sentence_416

Fundamental to the movement is the use of spiritual gifts. Protestantism_sentence_417

Among Protestants, the movement began around 1960. Protestantism_sentence_418

In America, Episcopalian Dennis Bennett is sometimes cited as one of the charismatic movement's seminal influence. Protestantism_sentence_419

In the United Kingdom, Colin Urquhart, Michael Harper, David Watson and others were in the vanguard of similar developments. Protestantism_sentence_420

The Massey conference in New Zealand, 1964 was attended by several Anglicans, including the Rev. Protestantism_sentence_421

Ray Muller, who went on to invite Bennett to New Zealand in 1966, and played a leading role in developing and promoting the Life in the Spirit seminars. Protestantism_sentence_422

Other Charismatic movement leaders in New Zealand include Bill Subritzky. Protestantism_sentence_423

Larry Christenson, a Lutheran theologian based in San Pedro, California, did much in the 1960s and 1970s to interpret the charismatic movement for Lutherans. Protestantism_sentence_424

A very large annual conference regarding that matter was held in Minneapolis. Protestantism_sentence_425

Charismatic Lutheran congregations in Minnesota became especially large and influential; especially "Hosanna!" Protestantism_sentence_426

in Lakeville, and North Heights in St. Paul. Protestantism_sentence_427

The next generation of Lutheran charismatics cluster around the Alliance of Renewal Churches. Protestantism_sentence_428

There is considerable charismatic activity among young Lutheran leaders in California centered around an annual gathering at Robinwood Church in Huntington Beach. Protestantism_sentence_429

Richard A. Jensen's Touched by the Spirit published in 1974, played a major role of the Lutheran understanding to the charismatic movement. Protestantism_sentence_430

In Congregational and Presbyterian churches which profess a traditionally Calvinist or Reformed theology there are differing views regarding present-day continuation or cessation of the gifts (charismata) of the Spirit. Protestantism_sentence_431

Generally, however, Reformed charismatics distance themselves from renewal movements with tendencies which could be perceived as overemotional, such as Word of Faith, Toronto Blessing, Brownsville Revival and Lakeland Revival. Protestantism_sentence_432

Prominent Reformed charismatic denominations are the Sovereign Grace Churches and the Every Nation Churches in the US, in Great Britain there is the Newfrontiers churches and movement, which leading figure is Terry Virgo. Protestantism_sentence_433

A minority of Seventh-day Adventists today are charismatic. Protestantism_sentence_434

They are strongly associated with those holding more "progressive" Adventist beliefs. Protestantism_sentence_435

In the early decades of the church charismatic or ecstatic phenomena were commonplace. Protestantism_sentence_436

Neo-charismatic churches Protestantism_section_29

Main article: Neo-charismatic churches Protestantism_sentence_437

Neo-charismatic churches are a category of churches in the Christian Renewal movement. Protestantism_sentence_438

Neo-charismatics include the Third Wave, but are broader. Protestantism_sentence_439

Now more numerous than Pentecostals (first wave) and charismatics (second wave) combined, owing to the remarkable growth of postdenominational and independent charismatic groups. Protestantism_sentence_440

Neo-charismatics believe in and stress the post-Biblical availability of gifts of the Holy Spirit, including glossolalia, healing, and prophecy. Protestantism_sentence_441

They practice laying on of hands and seek the "infilling" of the Holy Spirit. Protestantism_sentence_442

However, a specific experience of baptism with the Holy Spirit may not be requisite for experiencing such gifts. Protestantism_sentence_443

No single form, governmental structure, or style of church service characterizes all neo-charismatic services and churches. Protestantism_sentence_444

Some nineteen thousand denominations, with approximately 295 million individual adherents, are identified as neo-charismatic. Protestantism_sentence_445

Neo-charismatic tenets and practices are found in many independent, nondenominational or post-denominational congregations, with strength of numbers centered in the African independent churches, among the Han Chinese house-church movement, and in Latin American churches. Protestantism_sentence_446

Other Protestant developments Protestantism_section_30

A plenty of other movements and thoughts to be distinguished from the widespread transdenominational ones and branches appeared within Protestant Christianity. Protestantism_sentence_447

Some of them are also in evidence today. Protestantism_sentence_448

Others appeared during the centuries following the Reformation and disappeared gradually with the time, such as much of Pietism. Protestantism_sentence_449

Some inspired the current transdenominational ones, such as Evangelicalism which has its foundation in the Christian fundamentalism. Protestantism_sentence_450

Arminianism Protestantism_section_31

Main articles: Arminianism and Remonstrants Protestantism_sentence_451

See also: History of the Calvinist–Arminian debate Protestantism_sentence_452

Arminianism is based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as Remonstrants. Protestantism_sentence_453

His teachings held to the five solae of the Reformation, but they were distinct from particular teachings of Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, and other Protestant Reformers. Protestantism_sentence_454

Jacobus Arminius was a student of Theodore Beza at the Theological University of Geneva. Protestantism_sentence_455

Arminianism is known to some as a soteriological diversification of Calvinism. Protestantism_sentence_456

However, to others, Arminianism is a reclamation of early Church theological consensus. Protestantism_sentence_457

Dutch Arminianism was originally articulated in the Remonstrance (1610), a theological statement signed by 45 ministers and submitted to the States General of the Netherlands. Protestantism_sentence_458

Many Christian denominations have been influenced by Arminian views on the will of man being freed by grace prior to regeneration, notably the Baptists in the 16th century, the Methodists in the 18th century and the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the 19th century. Protestantism_sentence_459

The original beliefs of Jacobus Arminius himself are commonly defined as Arminianism, but more broadly, the term may embrace the teachings of Hugo Grotius, John Wesley, and others as well. Protestantism_sentence_460

Classical Arminianism and Wesleyan Arminianism are the two main schools of thought. Protestantism_sentence_461

Wesleyan Arminianism is often identical with Methodism. Protestantism_sentence_462

The two systems of Calvinism and Arminianism share both history and many doctrines, and the history of Christian theology. Protestantism_sentence_463

However, because of their differences over the doctrines of divine predestination and election, many people view these schools of thought as opposed to each other. Protestantism_sentence_464

In short, the difference can be seen ultimately by whether God allows His desire to save all to be resisted by an individual's will (in the Arminian doctrine) or if God's grace is irresistible and limited to only some (in Calvinism). Protestantism_sentence_465

Some Calvinists assert that the Arminian perspective presents a synergistic system of Salvation and therefore is not only by grace, while Arminians firmly reject this conclusion. Protestantism_sentence_466

Many consider the theological differences to be crucial differences in doctrine, while others find them to be relatively minor. Protestantism_sentence_467

Pietism Protestantism_section_32

Main articles: Pietism and Haugean movement Protestantism_sentence_468

Pietism was an influential movement within Lutheranism that combined the 17th-century Lutheran principles with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life. Protestantism_sentence_469

It began in the late 17th century, reached its zenith in the mid-18th century, and declined through the 19th century, and had almost vanished in America by the end of the 20th century. Protestantism_sentence_470

While declining as an identifiable Lutheran group, some of its theological tenets influenced Protestantism generally, inspiring the Anglican priest John Wesley to begin the Methodist movement and Alexander Mack to begin the Brethren movement among Anabaptists. Protestantism_sentence_471

Though Pietism shares an emphasis on personal behavior with the Puritan movement, and the two are often confused, there are important differences, particularly in the concept of the role of religion in government. Protestantism_sentence_472


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Puritanism, English dissenters and nonconformists Protestantism_section_33

Main articles: Puritanism, English Dissenters, Independent (religion), Nonconformism, English Presbyterianism, Ecclesiastical separatism, and 17th-century denominations in England Protestantism_sentence_473

The Puritans were a group of English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries, which sought to purify the Church of England of what they considered to be Catholic practices, maintaining that the church was only partially reformed. Protestantism_sentence_474

Puritanism in this sense was founded by some of the returning clergy exiled under Mary I shortly after the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558, as an activist movement within the Church of England. Protestantism_sentence_475

Puritans were blocked from changing the established church from within, and were severely restricted in England by laws controlling the practice of religion. Protestantism_sentence_476

Their beliefs, however, were transported by the emigration of congregations to the Netherlands (and later to New England), and by evangelical clergy to Ireland (and later into Wales), and were spread into lay society and parts of the educational system, particularly certain colleges of the University of Cambridge. Protestantism_sentence_477

The first Protestant sermon delivered in England was in Cambridge, with the pulpit that this sermon was delivered from surviving to today. Protestantism_sentence_478

They took on distinctive beliefs about clerical dress and in opposition to the episcopal system, particularly after the 1619 conclusions of the Synod of Dort they were resisted by the English bishops. Protestantism_sentence_479

They largely adopted Sabbatarianism in the 17th century, and were influenced by millennialism. Protestantism_sentence_480

They formed, and identified with various religious groups advocating greater purity of worship and doctrine, as well as personal and group piety. Protestantism_sentence_481

Puritans adopted a Reformed theology, but they also took note of radical criticisms of Zwingli in Zurich and Calvin in Geneva. Protestantism_sentence_482

In church polity, some advocated for separation from all other Christians, in favor of autonomous gathered churches. Protestantism_sentence_483

These separatist and independent strands of Puritanism became prominent in the 1640s, when the supporters of a Presbyterian polity in the Westminster Assembly were unable to forge a new English national church. Protestantism_sentence_484

Nonconforming Protestants along with the Protestant refugees from continental Europe were the primary founders of the United States of America. Protestantism_sentence_485


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Neo-orthodoxy and paleo-orthodoxy Protestantism_section_34

Main articles: Neo-orthodoxy and Paleo-orthodoxy Protestantism_sentence_486

A non-fundamentalist rejection of liberal Christianity along the lines of the Christian existentialism of Søren Kierkegaard, who attacked the Hegelian state churches of his day for "dead orthodoxy," neo-orthodoxy is associated primarily with Karl Barth, Jürgen Moltmann, and Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Protestantism_sentence_487

Neo-orthodoxy sought to counter-act the tendency of liberal theology to make theological accommodations to modern scientific perspectives. Protestantism_sentence_488

Sometimes called "crisis theology," in the existentialist sense of the word crisis, also sometimes called neo-evangelicalism, which uses the sense of "evangelical" pertaining to continental European Protestants rather than American evangelicalism. Protestantism_sentence_489

"Evangelical" was the originally preferred label used by Lutherans and Calvinists, but it was replaced by the names some Catholics used to label a heresy with the name of its founder. Protestantism_sentence_490

Paleo-orthodoxy is a movement similar in some respects to neo-evangelicalism but emphasizing the ancient Christian consensus of the undivided church of the first millennium AD, including in particular the early creeds and church councils as a means of properly understanding the scriptures. Protestantism_sentence_491

This movement is cross-denominational. Protestantism_sentence_492

A prominent theologian in this group is Thomas Oden, a Methodist. Protestantism_sentence_493

Christian fundamentalism Protestantism_section_35

Main article: Christian fundamentalism Protestantism_sentence_494

In reaction to liberal Bible critique, fundamentalism arose in the 20th century, primarily in the United States, among those denominations most affected by Evangelicalism. Protestantism_sentence_495

Fundamentalist theology tends to stress Biblical inerrancy and Biblical literalism. Protestantism_sentence_496

Toward the end of the 20th century, some have tended to confuse evangelicalism and fundamentalism; however, the labels represent very distinct differences of approach that both groups are diligent to maintain, although because of fundamentalism's dramatically smaller size it often gets classified simply as an ultra-conservative branch of evangelicalism. Protestantism_sentence_497

Modernism and liberalism Protestantism_section_36

Main article: Liberal Christianity Protestantism_sentence_498

Modernism and liberalism do not constitute rigorous and well-defined schools of theology, but are rather an inclination by some writers and teachers to integrate Christian thought into the spirit of the Age of Enlightenment. Protestantism_sentence_499

New understandings of history and the natural sciences of the day led directly to new approaches to theology. Protestantism_sentence_500

Its opposition to the fundamentalist teaching resulted in religious debates, such as the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy within the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America in the 1920s. Protestantism_sentence_501

Protestant culture Protestantism_section_37

Main article: Protestant culture Protestantism_sentence_502

Although the Reformation was a religious movement, it also had a strong impact on all other aspects of life: marriage and family, education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy, and the arts. Protestantism_sentence_503

Protestant churches reject the idea of a celibate priesthood and thus allow their clergy to marry. Protestantism_sentence_504

Many of their families contributed to the development of intellectual elites in their countries. Protestantism_sentence_505

Since about 1950, women have entered the ministry, and some have assumed leading positions (e.g. bishops), in most Protestant churches. Protestantism_sentence_506

As the Reformers wanted all members of the church to be able to read the Bible, education on all levels got a strong boost. Protestantism_sentence_507

By the middle of the eighteenth century, the literacy rate in England was about 60 per cent, in Scotland 65 per cent, and in Sweden eight of ten men and women were able to read and to write. Protestantism_sentence_508

Colleges and universities were founded. Protestantism_sentence_509

For example, the Puritans who established Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1628 founded Harvard College only eight years later. Protestantism_sentence_510

About a dozen other colleges followed in the 18th century, including Yale (1701). Protestantism_sentence_511

Pennsylvania also became a centre of learning. Protestantism_sentence_512

Members of mainline Protestant denominations have played leadership roles in many aspects of American life, including politics, business, science, the arts, and education. Protestantism_sentence_513

They founded most of the country's leading institutes of higher education. Protestantism_sentence_514

Thought and work ethic Protestantism_section_38

See also: Protestant work ethic Protestantism_sentence_515

The Protestant concept of God and man allows believers to use all their God-given faculties, including the power of reason. Protestantism_sentence_516

That means that they are allowed to explore God's creation and, according to Genesis 2:15, make use of it in a responsible and sustainable way. Protestantism_sentence_517

Thus a cultural climate was created that greatly enhanced the development of the humanities and the sciences. Protestantism_sentence_518

Another consequence of the Protestant understanding of man is that the believers, in gratitude for their election and redemption in Christ, are to follow God's commandments. Protestantism_sentence_519

Industry, frugality, calling, discipline, and a strong sense of responsibility are at the heart of their moral code. Protestantism_sentence_520

In particular, Calvin rejected luxury. Protestantism_sentence_521

Therefore, craftsmen, industrialists, and other businessmen were able to reinvest the greater part of their profits in the most efficient machinery and the most modern production methods that were based on progress in the sciences and technology. Protestantism_sentence_522

As a result, productivity grew, which led to increased profits and enabled employers to pay higher wages. Protestantism_sentence_523

In this way, the economy, the sciences, and technology reinforced each other. Protestantism_sentence_524

The chance to participate in the economic success of technological inventions was a strong incentive to both inventors and investors. Protestantism_sentence_525

The Protestant work ethic was an important force behind the unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that influenced the development of capitalism and the Industrial Revolution. Protestantism_sentence_526

This idea is also known as the "Protestant ethic thesis." Protestantism_sentence_527

However, eminent historian Fernand Braudel (d. 1985), a leader of the important Annales School wrote: "all historians have opposed this tenuous theory [the Protestant Ethic], although they have not managed to be rid of it once and for all. Protestantism_sentence_528

Yet it is clearly false. Protestantism_sentence_529

The northern countries took over the place that earlier had been so long and brilliantly been occupied by the old capitalist centers of the Mediterranean. Protestantism_sentence_530

They invented nothing, either in technology or business management." Protestantism_sentence_531

Social scientist Rodney Stark moreover comments that "during their critical period of economic development, these northern centers of capitalism were Catholic, not Protestant—the Reformation still lay well into the future," while British historian Hugh Trevor-Roper (d. 2003) said, "The idea that large-scale industrial capitalism was ideologically impossible before the Reformation is exploded by the simple fact that it existed." Protestantism_sentence_532

In a factor analysis of the latest wave of World Values Survey data, Arno Tausch (Corvinus University of Budapest) found that Protestantism emerges to be very close to combining religion and the traditions of liberalism. Protestantism_sentence_533

The Global Value Development Index, calculated by Tausch, relies on the World Values Survey dimensions such as trust in the state of law, no support for shadow economy, postmaterial activism, support for democracy, a non-acceptance of violence, xenophobia and racism, trust in transnational capital and Universities, confidence in the market economy, supporting gender justice, and engaging in environmental activism, etc. Protestantism_sentence_534

Episcopalians and Presbyterians, as well as other WASPs, tend to be considerably wealthier and better educated (having graduate and post-graduate degrees per capita) than most other religious groups in United States, and are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business, law and politics, especially the Republican Party. Protestantism_sentence_535

Numbers of the most wealthy and affluent American families as the Vanderbilts and the Astors, Rockefeller, Du Pont, Roosevelt, Forbes, Whitneys, the Morgans and Harrimans are Mainline Protestant families. Protestantism_sentence_536

Science Protestantism_section_39

See also: Merton thesis Protestantism_sentence_537

Protestantism has had an important influence on science. Protestantism_sentence_538

According to the Merton Thesis, there was a positive correlation between the rise of English Puritanism and German Pietism on the one hand and early experimental science on the other. Protestantism_sentence_539

The Merton Thesis has two separate parts: Firstly, it presents a theory that science changes due to an accumulation of observations and improvement in experimental technique and methodology; secondly, it puts forward the argument that the popularity of science in 17th-century England and the religious demography of the Royal Society (English scientists of that time were predominantly Puritans or other Protestants) can be explained by a correlation between Protestantism and the scientific values. Protestantism_sentence_540

Merton focused on English Puritanism and German Pietism as having been responsible for the development of the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries. Protestantism_sentence_541

He explained that the connection between religious affiliation and interest in science was the result of a significant synergy between the ascetic Protestant values and those of modern science. Protestantism_sentence_542

Protestant values encouraged scientific research by allowing science to identify God's influence on the world—his creation—and thus providing a religious justification for scientific research. Protestantism_sentence_543

According to Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States by Harriet Zuckerman, a review of American Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 1972, 72% of American Nobel Prize laureates identified a Protestant background. Protestantism_sentence_544

Overall, 84% of all the Nobel Prizes awarded to Americans in Chemistry, 60% in Medicine, and 59% in Physics between 1901 and 1972 were won by Protestants. Protestantism_sentence_545

According to 100 Years of Nobel Prize (2005), a review of Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 2000, 65% of Nobel Prize Laureates, have identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference (423 prizes). Protestantism_sentence_546

While 32% have identified with Protestantism in its various forms (208 prizes), although Protestant comprise 12% to 13% of the world's population. Protestantism_sentence_547

Government Protestantism_section_40

In the Middle Ages, the Church and the worldly authorities were closely related. Protestantism_sentence_548

Martin Luther separated the religious and the worldly realms in principle (doctrine of the two kingdoms). Protestantism_sentence_549

The believers were obliged to use reason to govern the worldly sphere in an orderly and peaceful way. Protestantism_sentence_550

Luther's doctrine of the priesthood of all believers upgraded the role of laymen in the church considerably. Protestantism_sentence_551

The members of a congregation had the right to elect a minister and, if necessary, to vote for his dismissal (Treatise On the right and authority of a Christian assembly or congregation to judge all doctrines and to call, install and dismiss teachers, as testified in Scripture; 1523). Protestantism_sentence_552

Calvin strengthened this basically democratic approach by including elected laymen (church elders, presbyters) in his representative church government. Protestantism_sentence_553

The Huguenots added regional synods and a national synod, whose members were elected by the congregations, to Calvin's system of church self-government. Protestantism_sentence_554

This system was taken over by the other reformed churches and was adopted by some Lutherans beginning with those in Jülich-Cleves-Berg during the 17th century. Protestantism_sentence_555

Politically, Calvin favoured a mixture of aristocracy and democracy. Protestantism_sentence_556

He appreciated the advantages of democracy: "It is an invaluable gift, if God allows a people to freely elect its own authorities and overlords." Protestantism_sentence_557

Calvin also thought that earthly rulers lose their divine right and must be put down when they rise up against God. Protestantism_sentence_558

To further protect the rights of ordinary people, Calvin suggested separating political powers in a system of checks and balances (separation of powers). Protestantism_sentence_559

Thus he and his followers resisted political absolutism and paved the way for the rise of modern democracy. Protestantism_sentence_560

Besides England, the Netherlands were, under Calvinist leadership, the freest country in Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Protestantism_sentence_561

It granted asylum to philosophers like Baruch Spinoza and Pierre Bayle. Protestantism_sentence_562

Hugo Grotius was able to teach his natural-law theory and a relatively liberal interpretation of the Bible. Protestantism_sentence_563

Consistent with Calvin's political ideas, Protestants created both the English and the American democracies. Protestantism_sentence_564

In seventeenth-century England, the most important persons and events in this process were the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, John Milton, John Locke, the Glorious Revolution, the English Bill of Rights, and the Act of Settlement. Protestantism_sentence_565

Later, the British took their democratic ideals to their colonies, e.g. Australia, New Zealand, and India. Protestantism_sentence_566

In North America, Plymouth Colony (Pilgrim Fathers; 1620) and Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628) practised democratic self-rule and separation of powers. Protestantism_sentence_567

These Congregationalists were convinced that the democratic form of government was the will of God. Protestantism_sentence_568

The Mayflower Compact was a social contract. Protestantism_sentence_569

Rights and liberty Protestantism_section_41

Protestants also took the initiative in advocating for religious freedom. Protestantism_sentence_570

Freedom of conscience had high priority on the theological, philosophical, and political agendas since Luther refused to recant his beliefs before the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire at Worms (1521). Protestantism_sentence_571

In his view, faith was a free work of the Holy Spirit and could, therefore, not be forced on a person. Protestantism_sentence_572

The persecuted Anabaptists and Huguenots demanded freedom of conscience, and they practised separation of church and state. Protestantism_sentence_573

In the early seventeenth century, Baptists like John Smyth and Thomas Helwys published tracts in defense of religious freedom. Protestantism_sentence_574

Their thinking influenced John Milton and John Locke's stance on tolerance. Protestantism_sentence_575

Under the leadership of Baptist Roger Williams, Congregationalist Thomas Hooker, and Quaker William Penn, respectively, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania combined democratic constitutions with freedom of religion. Protestantism_sentence_576

These colonies became safe havens for persecuted religious minorities, including Jews. Protestantism_sentence_577

The United States Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the American Bill of Rights with its fundamental human rights made this tradition permanent by giving it a legal and political framework. Protestantism_sentence_578

The great majority of American Protestants, both clergy and laity, strongly supported the independence movement. Protestantism_sentence_579

All major Protestant churches were represented in the First and Second Continental Congresses. Protestantism_sentence_580

In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the American democracy became a model for numerous other countries and regions throughout the world (e.g., Latin America, Japan, and Germany). Protestantism_sentence_581

The strongest link between the American and French Revolutions was Marquis de Lafayette, an ardent supporter of the American constitutional principles. Protestantism_sentence_582

The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was mainly based on Lafayette's draft of this document. Protestantism_sentence_583

The Declaration by United Nations and Universal Declaration of Human Rights also echo the American constitutional tradition. Protestantism_sentence_584

Democracy, social-contract theory, separation of powers, religious freedom, separation of church and state—these achievements of the Reformation and early Protestantism were elaborated on and popularized by Enlightenment thinkers. Protestantism_sentence_585

Some of the philosophers of the English, Scottish, German, and Swiss Enlightenment—Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, John Toland, David Hume, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian Wolff, Immanuel Kant, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau—had Protestant backgrounds. Protestantism_sentence_586

For example, John Locke, whose political thought was based on "a set of Protestant Christian assumptions", derived the equality of all humans, including the equality of the genders ("Adam and Eve"), from Genesis 1, 26–28. Protestantism_sentence_587

As all persons were created equally free, all governments needed "the consent of the governed." Protestantism_sentence_588

Also, other human rights were advocated for by some Protestants. Protestantism_sentence_589

For example, torture was abolished in Prussia in 1740, slavery in Britain in 1834 and in the United States in 1865 (William Wilberforce, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Abraham Lincoln—against Southern Protestants). Protestantism_sentence_590

Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf were among the first thinkers who made significant contributions to international law. Protestantism_sentence_591

The Geneva Convention, an important part of humanitarian international law, was largely the work of Henry Dunant, a reformed pietist. Protestantism_sentence_592

He also founded the Red Cross. Protestantism_sentence_593

Social teaching Protestantism_section_42

Protestants have founded hospitals, homes for disabled or elderly people, educational institutions, organizations that give aid to developing countries, and other social welfare agencies. Protestantism_sentence_594

In the nineteenth century, throughout the Anglo-American world, numerous dedicated members of all Protestant denominations were active in social reform movements such as the abolition of slavery, prison reforms, and woman suffrage. Protestantism_sentence_595

As an answer to the "social question" of the nineteenth century, Germany under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck introduced insurance programs that led the way to the welfare state (health insurance, accident insurance, disability insurance, old-age pensions). Protestantism_sentence_596

To Bismarck this was "practical Christianity". Protestantism_sentence_597

These programs, too, were copied by many other nations, particularly in the Western world. Protestantism_sentence_598

The Young Men's Christian Association was founded by Congregationalist George Williams, aimed at empowering young people. Protestantism_sentence_599

Arts Protestantism_section_43

Further information: Reformation § Music and art Protestantism_sentence_600

The arts have been strongly inspired by Protestant beliefs. Protestantism_sentence_601

Martin Luther, Paul Gerhardt, George Wither, Isaac Watts, Charles Wesley, William Cowper, and many other authors and composers created well-known church hymns. Protestantism_sentence_602

Musicians like Heinrich Schütz, Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Henry Purcell, Johannes Brahms, Philipp Nicolai and Felix Mendelssohn composed great works of music. Protestantism_sentence_603

Prominent painters with Protestant background were, for example, Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Lucas Cranach the Younger, Rembrandt, and Vincent van Gogh. Protestantism_sentence_604

World literature was enriched by the works of Edmund Spenser, John Milton, John Bunyan, John Donne, John Dryden, Daniel Defoe, William Wordsworth, Jonathan Swift, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Edgar Allan Poe, Matthew Arnold, Conrad Ferdinand Meyer, Theodor Fontane, Washington Irving, Robert Browning, Emily Dickinson, Emily Brontë, Charles Dickens, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Thomas Stearns Eliot, John Galsworthy, Thomas Mann, William Faulkner, John Updike, and many others. Protestantism_sentence_605


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Catholic responses Protestantism_section_44

Main articles: Anti-Protestantism, Counter-Reformation § Politics, Council of Trent, and Criticism of Protestantism Protestantism_sentence_606

The view of the Catholic Church is that Protestant denominations cannot be considered churches but rather that they are ecclesial communities or specific faith-believing communities because their ordinances and doctrines are not historically the same as the Catholic sacraments and dogmas, and the Protestant communities have no sacramental ministerial priesthood and therefore lack true apostolic succession. Protestantism_sentence_607

According to Bishop Hilarion (Alfeyev) the Eastern Orthodox Church shares the same view on the subject. Protestantism_sentence_608

Contrary to how the Protestant Reformers were often characterized, the concept of a catholic or universal Church was not brushed aside during the Protestant Reformation. Protestantism_sentence_609

On the contrary, the visible unity of the catholic or universal church was seen by the Protestant reformers as an important and essential doctrine of the Reformation. Protestantism_sentence_610

The Magisterial reformers, such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Huldrych Zwingli, believed that they were reforming the Catholic Church, which they viewed as having become corrupted. Protestantism_sentence_611

Each of them took very seriously the charges of schism and innovation, denying these charges and maintaining that it was the Catholic Church that had left them. Protestantism_sentence_612

The Protestant Reformers formed a new and radically different theological opinion on ecclesiology, that the visible Church is "catholic" (lower-case "c") rather than "Catholic" (upper-case "C"). Protestantism_sentence_613

Accordingly, there is not an indefinite number of parochial, congregational or national churches, constituting, as it were, so many ecclesiastical individualities, but one great spiritual republic of which these various organizations form a part, although they each have very different opinions. Protestantism_sentence_614

This was markedly far-removed from the traditional and historic Catholic understanding that the Roman Catholic Church was the one true Church of Christ. Protestantism_sentence_615

Yet in the Protestant understanding, the visible church is not a genus, so to speak, with so many species under it. Protestantism_sentence_616

In order to justify their departure from the Catholic Church, Protestants often posited a new argument, saying that there was no real visible Church with divine authority, only a spiritual, invisible, and hidden church—this notion began in the early days of the Protestant Reformation. Protestantism_sentence_617

Wherever the Magisterial Reformation, which received support from the ruling authorities, took place, the result was a reformed national Protestant church envisioned to be a part of the whole invisible church, but disagreeing, in certain important points of doctrine and doctrine-linked practice, with what had until then been considered the normative reference point on such matters, namely the Papacy and central authority of the Catholic Church. Protestantism_sentence_618

The Reformed churches thus believed in some form of Catholicity, founded on their doctrines of the five solas and a visible ecclesiastical organization based on the 14th- and 15th-century Conciliar movement, rejecting the papacy and papal infallibility in favor of ecumenical councils, but rejecting the latest ecumenical council, the Council of Trent. Protestantism_sentence_619

Religious unity therefore became not one of doctrine and identity but one of invisible character, wherein the unity was one of faith in Jesus Christ, not common identity, doctrine, belief, and collaborative action. Protestantism_sentence_620

There are Protestants, especially of the Reformed tradition, that either reject or down-play the designation Protestant because of the negative idea that the word invokes in addition to its primary meaning, preferring the designation Reformed, Evangelical or even Reformed Catholic expressive of what they call a Reformed Catholicity and defending their arguments from the traditional Protestant confessions. Protestantism_sentence_621

Ecumenism Protestantism_section_45

Main article: Christian ecumenism Protestantism_sentence_622

The ecumenical movement has had an influence on mainline churches, beginning at least in 1910 with the Edinburgh Missionary Conference. Protestantism_sentence_623

Its origins lay in the recognition of the need for cooperation on the mission field in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Protestantism_sentence_624

Since 1948, the World Council of Churches has been influential, but ineffective in creating a united church. Protestantism_sentence_625

There are also ecumenical bodies at regional, national and local levels across the globe; but schisms still far outnumber unifications. Protestantism_sentence_626

One, but not the only expression of the ecumenical movement, has been the move to form united churches, such as the Church of South India, the Church of North India, the US-based United Church of Christ, the United Church of Canada, the Uniting Church in Australia and the United Church of Christ in the Philippines which have rapidly declining memberships. Protestantism_sentence_627

There has been a strong engagement of Orthodox churches in the ecumenical movement, though the reaction of individual Orthodox theologians has ranged from tentative approval of the aim of Christian unity to outright condemnation of the perceived effect of watering down Orthodox doctrine. Protestantism_sentence_628

A Protestant baptism is held to be valid by the Catholic Church if given with the trinitarian formula and with the intent to baptize. Protestantism_sentence_629

However, as the ordination of Protestant ministers is not recognized due to the lack of apostolic succession and the disunity from Catholic Church, all other sacraments (except marriage) performed by Protestant denominations and ministers are not recognized as valid. Protestantism_sentence_630

Therefore, Protestants desiring full communion with the Catholic Church are not re-baptized (although they are confirmed) and Protestant ministers who become Catholics may be ordained to the priesthood after a period of study. Protestantism_sentence_631

In 1999, the representatives of Lutheran World Federation and Catholic Church signed the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, apparently resolving the conflict over the nature of justification which was at the root of the Protestant Reformation, although Confessional Lutherans reject this statement. Protestantism_sentence_632

This is understandable, since there is no compelling authority within them. Protestantism_sentence_633

On 18 July 2006, delegates to the World Methodist Conference voted unanimously to adopt the Joint Declaration. Protestantism_sentence_634

Spread and demographics Protestantism_section_46

Main article: Protestants by country Protestantism_sentence_635

See also: Christianity by country Protestantism_sentence_636

There are more than 900 million Protestants worldwide, among approximately 2.4 billion Christians. Protestantism_sentence_637

In 2010, a total of more than 800 million included 300 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 260 million in the Americas, 140 million in Asia-Pacific region, 100 million in Europe and 2 million in Middle East-North Africa. Protestantism_sentence_638

Protestants account for nearly forty percent of Christians worldwide and more than one tenth of the total human population. Protestantism_sentence_639

Various estimates put the percentage of Protestants in relation to the total number of world's Christians at 33%, 36%, 36.7%, and 40%, while in relation to the world's population at 11.6% and 13%. Protestantism_sentence_640

In European countries which were most profoundly influenced by the Reformation, Protestantism still remains the most practiced religion. Protestantism_sentence_641

These include the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom. Protestantism_sentence_642

In other historical Protestant strongholds such as Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Latvia, and Estonia, it remains one of the most popular religions. Protestantism_sentence_643

Although Czech Republic was the site of one of the most significant pre-reformation movements, there are only few Protestant adherents; mainly due to historical reasons like persecution of Protestants by the Catholic Habsburgs, restrictions during the Communist rule, and also the ongoing secularization. Protestantism_sentence_644

Over the last several decades, religious practice has been declining as secularization has increased. Protestantism_sentence_645

According to a 2019 study about Religiosity in the European Union in 2019 by Eurobarometer, Protestants made up 9% of the EU population. Protestantism_sentence_646

According to Pew Research Center, Protestants constituted nearly one fifth (or 18%) of the continent's Christian population in 2010. Protestantism_sentence_647

Clarke and Beyer estimate that Protestants constituted 15% of all Europeans in 2009, while Noll claims that less than 12% of them lived in Europe in 2010. Protestantism_sentence_648

Changes in worldwide Protestantism over the last century have been significant. Protestantism_sentence_649

Since 1900, Protestantism has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, Oceania and Latin America. Protestantism_sentence_650

That caused Protestantism to be called a primarily non-Western religion. Protestantism_sentence_651

Much of the growth has occurred after World War II, when decolonization of Africa and abolition of various restrictions against Protestants in Latin American countries occurred. Protestantism_sentence_652

According to one source, Protestants constituted respectively 2.5%, 2%, 0.5% of Latin Americans, Africans and Asians. Protestantism_sentence_653

In 2000, percentage of Protestants on mentioned continents was 17%, more than 27% and 6%, respectively. Protestantism_sentence_654

According to Mark A. Noll, 79% of Anglicans lived in the United Kingdom in 1910, while most of the remainder was found in the United States and across the British Commonwealth. Protestantism_sentence_655

By 2010, 59% of Anglicans were found in Africa. Protestantism_sentence_656

In 2010, more Protestants lived in India than in the UK or Germany, while Protestants in Brazil accounted for as many people as Protestants in the UK and Germany combined. Protestantism_sentence_657

Almost as many lived in each of Nigeria and China as in all of Europe. Protestantism_sentence_658

China is home to world's largest Protestant minority. Protestantism_sentence_659

Protestantism is growing in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania, while declining in Anglo America and Europe, with some exceptions such as France, where it was eradicated after the abolition of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau and the following persecution of Huguenots, but now is claimed to be stable in number or even growing slightly. Protestantism_sentence_660

According to some, Russia is another country to see a Protestant revival. Protestantism_sentence_661

In 2010, the largest Protestant denominational families were historically Pentecostal denominations (11%), Anglican (11%), Lutheran (10%), Baptist (9%), United and uniting churches (unions of different denominations) (7%), Presbyterian or Reformed (7%), Methodist (3%), Adventist (3%), Congregationalist (1%), Brethren (1%), The Salvation Army (<1%) and Moravian (<1%). Protestantism_sentence_662

Other denominations accounted for 38% of Protestants. Protestantism_sentence_663

United States is home to approximately 20% of Protestants. Protestantism_sentence_664

According to a 2012 study, Protestant share of U.S. population dropped to 48%, thus ending its status as religion of the majority for the first time. Protestantism_sentence_665

The decline is attributed mainly to the dropping membership of the Mainline Protestant churches, while Evangelical Protestant and Black churches are stable or continue to grow. Protestantism_sentence_666

By 2050, Protestantism is projected to rise to slightly more than half of the world's total Christian population. Protestantism_sentence_667

According to other experts such as Hans J. Hillerbrand, Protestants will be as numerous as Catholics. Protestantism_sentence_668

According to Mark Jürgensmeyer of the University of California, popular Protestantism is the most dynamic religious movement in the contemporary world, alongside the resurgent Islam. Protestantism_sentence_669

See also Protestantism_section_47


Tied movements Protestantism_section_48


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