Psychedelic rock

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Psychedelic rock_table_infobox_0

Psychedelic rockPsychedelic rock_header_cell_0_0_0
Stylistic originsPsychedelic rock_header_cell_0_1_0 Psychedelic rock_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsPsychedelic rock_header_cell_0_2_0 Mid 1960s, United States and United KingdomPsychedelic rock_cell_0_2_1
Derivative formsPsychedelic rock_header_cell_0_3_0 Psychedelic rock_cell_0_3_1
SubgenresPsychedelic rock_header_cell_0_4_0
Fusion genresPsychedelic rock_header_cell_0_5_0
Regional scenesPsychedelic rock_header_cell_0_6_0
Local scenesPsychedelic rock_header_cell_0_7_0
Other topicsPsychedelic rock_header_cell_0_8_0

Psychedelic rock, also referred to as psychedelia, is a diverse style of rock music inspired, influenced, or representative of psychedelic culture, which is centred on perception-altering hallucinogenic drugs. Psychedelic rock_sentence_0

The music is intended to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs, most notably LSD. Psychedelic rock_sentence_1

Many psychedelic groups differ in style, and the label is often applied spuriously. Psychedelic rock_sentence_2

Originating in the mid-1960s among British and American musicians, the sound of psychedelic rock invokes three core effects of LSD: depersonalization, dechronicization, and dynamization, all of which detach the user from reality. Psychedelic rock_sentence_3

Musically, the effects may be represented via novelty studio tricks, electronic or non-Western instrumentation, disjunctive song structures, and extended instrumental segments. Psychedelic rock_sentence_4

Some of the earlier 1960s psychedelic rock musicians were based in folk, jazz, and the blues, while others showcased an explicit Indian classical influence called "raga rock". Psychedelic rock_sentence_5

In the 1960s, there existed two main variants of the genre: the more whimsical, surrealist British psychedelia and the harder American West Coast acid rock. Psychedelic rock_sentence_6

While "acid rock" is sometimes deployed interchangeably with the term "psychedelic rock", it also refers more specifically to the heavier and more extreme ends of the genre. Psychedelic rock_sentence_7

The peak years of psychedelic rock were between 1967 and 1969, with milestone events including the 1967 Summer of Love and the 1969 Woodstock Rock Festival, becoming an international musical movement associated with a widespread counterculture before beginning a decline as changing attitudes, the loss of some key individuals, and a back-to-basics movement led surviving performers to move into new musical areas. Psychedelic rock_sentence_8

The genre bridged the transition from early blues and folk-based rock to progressive rock and hard rock, and as a result contributed to the development of sub-genres such as heavy metal. Psychedelic rock_sentence_9

Since the late 1970s it has been revived in various forms of neo-psychedelia. Psychedelic rock_sentence_10

Definition Psychedelic rock_section_0

Further information: Psychedelic music Psychedelic rock_sentence_11

See also: Acid rock Psychedelic rock_sentence_12

As a musical style, psychedelic rock attempts to replicate the effects of and enhance the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs, incorporating new electronic sound effects and recording effects, extended solos, and improvisation. Psychedelic rock_sentence_13

Common features include: Psychedelic rock_sentence_14

Psychedelic rock_unordered_list_0

The term "psychedelic" was coined in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond in a letter to LSD exponent Aldous Huxley and used as an alternative descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy. Psychedelic rock_sentence_15

As the countercultural scene developed in San Francisco, the terms acid rock and psychedelic rock were used in 1966 to describe the new drug-influenced music and were being widely used by 1967. Psychedelic rock_sentence_16

The two terms are often used interchangeably, but acid rock may be distinguished as a more extreme variation that was heavier, louder, relied on long jams, focused more directly on LSD, and made greater use of distortion. Psychedelic rock_sentence_17

Original psychedelic era Psychedelic rock_section_1

Main article: Psychedelic era Psychedelic rock_sentence_18

1960–65: Precursors and influences Psychedelic rock_section_2

See also: Psychedelic folk Psychedelic rock_sentence_19

Music critic Richie Unterberger says that attempts to "pin down" the first psychedelic record are "nearly as elusive as trying to name the first rock & roll record". Psychedelic rock_sentence_20

Some of the "far-fetched claims" include the instrumental "Telstar" (produced by Joe Meek for the Tornados in 1962) and the Dave Clark Five's "massively reverb-laden" "Any Way You Want It" (1964). Psychedelic rock_sentence_21

The first mention of LSD on a rock record was the Gamblers' 1960 surf instrumental "LSD 25". Psychedelic rock_sentence_22

A 1962 single by the Ventures, "The 2000 Pound Bee", issued forth the buzz of a distorted, "fuzztone" guitar, and the quest into "the possibilities of heavy, transistorised distortion" and other effects, like improved reverb and echo began in earnest on London's fertile rock 'n' roll scene. Psychedelic rock_sentence_23

By 1964 fuzztone could be heard on singles by P.J. Psychedelic rock_sentence_24 Proby, and the Beatles had employed feedback in "I Feel Fine", their sixth consecutive number 1 hit in the UK. Psychedelic rock_sentence_25

According to AllMusic, the emergence of psychedelic rock in the mid-1960s resulted from British groups who made up the British Invasion of the US market and folk rock bands seeking to broaden "the sonic possibilities of their music". Psychedelic rock_sentence_26

Writing in his 1969 book The Rock Revolution, Arnold Shaw said the genre in its American form represented generational escapism, which he identified as a development of youth culture's "protest against the sexual taboos, racism, violence, hypocrisy and materialism of adult life". Psychedelic rock_sentence_27

American folk singer Bob Dylan's influence was central to the creation of the folk rock movement in 1965, and his lyrics remained a touchstone for the psychedelic songwriters of the late 1960s. Psychedelic rock_sentence_28

Virtuoso sitarist Ravi Shankar had begun in 1956 a mission to bring Indian classical music to the West, inspiring jazz, classical and folk musicians. Psychedelic rock_sentence_29

By the mid-1960s, his influence extended to a generation of young rock musicians who soon made raga rock part of the psychedelic rock aesthetic and one of the many intersecting cultural motifs of the era. Psychedelic rock_sentence_30

In the British folk scene, blues, drugs, jazz and Eastern influences blended in the early 1960s work of Davy Graham, who adopted modal guitar tunings to transpose Indian ragas and Celtic reels. Psychedelic rock_sentence_31

Graham was highly influential on Scottish folk virtuoso Bert Jansch and other pioneering guitarists across a spectrum of styles and genres in the mid-1960s. Psychedelic rock_sentence_32

Jazz saxophonist and composer John Coltrane had a similar impact, as the exotic sounds on his albums My Favorite Things (1960) and A Love Supreme (1964), the latter influenced by the ragas of Shankar, were source material for guitar players and others looking to improvise or "jam". Psychedelic rock_sentence_33

1965: Formative psychedelic scenes and sounds Psychedelic rock_section_3

Main article: Psychedelia Psychedelic rock_sentence_34

See also: Counterculture of the 1960s, Folk rock, and Raga rock Psychedelic rock_sentence_35

Barry Miles, a leading figure in the 1960s UK underground, says that "Hippies didn't just pop up overnight" and that "1965 was the first year in which a discernible youth movement began to emerge [in the US]. Psychedelic rock_sentence_36

Many of the key 'psychedelic' rock bands formed this year." Psychedelic rock_sentence_37

On the US West Coast, underground chemist Augustus Owsley Stanley III and Ken Kesey (along with his followers known as the Merry Pranksters) helped thousands of people take uncontrolled trips at Kesey's Acid Tests and in the new psychedelic dance halls. Psychedelic rock_sentence_38

In Britain, Michael Hollingshead opened the World Psychedelic Centre and Beat Generation poets Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Gregory Corso read at the Royal Albert Hall. Psychedelic rock_sentence_39

Miles adds: "The readings acted as a catalyst for underground activity in London, as people suddenly realized just how many like-minded people there were around. Psychedelic rock_sentence_40

This was also the year that London began to blossom into colour with the opening of the Granny Takes a Trip and Hung On You clothes shops." Psychedelic rock_sentence_41

Thanks to media coverage, use of LSD became widespread. Psychedelic rock_sentence_42

According to music critic Jim DeRogatis, writing in his book on psychedelic rock, Turn on Your Mind, the Beatles are seen as the "Acid Apostles of the New Age". Psychedelic rock_sentence_43

Producer George Martin, who was initially known as a specialist in comedy and novelty records, responded to the Beatles' requests by providing a range of studio tricks that ensured the group played a leading role in the development of psychedelic effects. Psychedelic rock_sentence_44

Anticipating their overtly psychedelic work, "Ticket to Ride" (April 1965) introduced a subtle, drug-inspired drone suggestive of India, played on rhythm guitar. Psychedelic rock_sentence_45

Musicologist William Echard writes that the Beatles employed several techniques in the years up to 1965 that soon became elements of psychedelic music, an approach he describes as "cognate" and reflective of how they, like the Yardbirds, were early pioneers in psychedelia. Psychedelic rock_sentence_46

As important aspects the group brought to the genre, Echard cites the Beatles' rhythmic originality and unpredictability; "true" tonal ambiguity; leadership in incorporating elements from Indian music and studio techniques such as vari-speed, tape loops and reverse tape sounds; and their embrace of the avant-garde. Psychedelic rock_sentence_47

In Unterberger's opinion, the Byrds, emerging from the Los Angeles folk rock scene, and the Yardbirds, from England's blues scene, were more responsible than the Beatles for "sounding the psychedelic siren". Psychedelic rock_sentence_48

Drug use and attempts at psychedelic music moved out of acoustic folk-based music towards rock soon after the Byrds, inspired by the Beatles' 1964 film A Hard Day's Night, adopted electric instruments to produce a chart-topping version of Dylan's "Mr. Psychedelic rock_sentence_49 Tambourine Man" in the summer of 1965. Psychedelic rock_sentence_50

On the Yardbirds, Unterberger identifies lead guitarist Jeff Beck as having "laid the blueprint for psychedelic guitar", and says that their "ominous minor key melodies, hyperactive instrumental breaks (called rave-ups), unpredictable tempo changes, and use of Gregorian chants" helped to define the "manic eclecticism" typical of early psychedelic rock. Psychedelic rock_sentence_51

The band's "Heart Full of Soul" (June 1965), which includes a distorted guitar riff that replicates the sound of a sitar, peaked at number 2 in the UK and number 9 in the US. Psychedelic rock_sentence_52

In Echard's description, the song "carried the energy of a new scene" as the guitar-hero phenomenon emerged in rock, and it heralded the arrival of new Eastern sounds. Psychedelic rock_sentence_53

The Kinks provided the first example of sustained Indian-style drone in rock when they used open-tuned guitars to mimic the tambura on "See My Friends" (July 1965), which became a top 10 hit in the UK. Psychedelic rock_sentence_54

The Beatles' "Norwegian Wood" from the December 1965 album Rubber Soul marked the first released recording on which a member of a Western rock group played the sitar. Psychedelic rock_sentence_55

The song sparked a craze for the sitar and other Indian instrumentation – a trend that fueled the growth of raga rock as the India exotic became part of the essence of psychedelic rock. Psychedelic rock_sentence_56

Music historian George Case recognises Rubber Soul as the first of two Beatles albums that "marked the authentic beginning of the psychedelic era", while music critic Robert Christgau similarly wrote that "Psychedelia starts here". Psychedelic rock_sentence_57

San Francisco historian Charles Perry recalled the album being "the soundtrack of the Haight-Ashbury, Berkeley and the whole circuit", as pre-hippie youths suspected that the songs were inspired by drugs. Psychedelic rock_sentence_58

Although psychedelia was introduced in Los Angeles through the Byrds, according to Shaw, San Francisco emerged as the movement's capital on the West Coast. Psychedelic rock_sentence_59

Several California-based folk acts followed the Byrds into folk rock, bringing their psychedelic influences with them, to produce the "San Francisco Sound". Psychedelic rock_sentence_60

Music historian Simon Philo writes that although some commentators would state that the centre of influence had moved from London to California by 1967, it was British acts like the Beatles and the Rolling Stones that helped inspire and "nourish" the new American music in the mid-1960s, especially in the formative San Francisco scene. Psychedelic rock_sentence_61

The music scene there developed in the city's Haight-Ashbury neighborhood in 1965 at basement shows organised by Chet Helms of the Family Dog; and as Jefferson Airplane founder Marty Balin and investors opened The Matrix nightclub that summer and began booking his and other local bands such as the Grateful Dead, the Steve Miller Band and Country Joe & the Fish. Psychedelic rock_sentence_62

Helms and San Francisco Mime Troupe manager Bill Graham in the fall of 1965 organised larger scale multi-media community events/benefits featuring the Airplane, the Diggers and Allen Ginsberg. Psychedelic rock_sentence_63

By early 1966 Graham had secured booking at The Fillmore, and Helms at the Avalon Ballroom, where in-house psychedelic-themed light shows replicated the visual effects of the psychedelic experience. Psychedelic rock_sentence_64

Graham became a major figure in the growth of psychedelic rock, attracting most of the major psychedelic rock bands of the day to The Fillmore. Psychedelic rock_sentence_65

According to author Kevin McEneaney, the Grateful Dead "invented" acid rock in front of a crowd of concertgoers in San Jose, California on 4 December 1965, the date of the second Acid Test held by novelist Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters. Psychedelic rock_sentence_66

Their stage performance involved the use of strobe lights to reproduce LSD's "surrealistic fragmenting" or "vivid isolating of caught moments". Psychedelic rock_sentence_67

The Acid Test experiments subsequently launched the entire psychedelic subculture. Psychedelic rock_sentence_68

1966: Growth and early popularity Psychedelic rock_section_4

See also: Psychedelic pop Psychedelic rock_sentence_69

Echard writes that in 1966, "the psychedelic implications" advanced by recent rock experiments "became fully explicit and much more widely distributed", and by the end of the year, "most of the key elements of psychedelic topicality had been at least broached." Psychedelic rock_sentence_70

DeRogatis says the start of psychedelic (or acid) rock is "best listed at 1966". Psychedelic rock_sentence_71

Music journalists Pete Prown and Harvey P. Newquist locate the "peak years" of psychedelic rock between 1966 and 1969. Psychedelic rock_sentence_72

In 1966, media coverage of rock music changed considerably as the music became reevaluated as a new form of art in tandem with the growing psychedelic community. Psychedelic rock_sentence_73

In February and March, two singles were released that later achieved recognition as the first psychedelic hits: the Yardbirds' "Shapes of Things" and the Byrds' "Eight Miles High". Psychedelic rock_sentence_74

The former reached number 3 in the UK and number 11 in the US, and continued the Yardbirds' exploration of guitar effects, Eastern-sounding scales, and shifting rhythms. Psychedelic rock_sentence_75

By overdubbing guitar parts, Beck layered multiple takes for his solo, which included extensive use of fuzz tone and harmonic feedback. Psychedelic rock_sentence_76

The song's lyrics, which Unterberger describes as "stream-of-consciousness", have been interpreted as pro-environmental or anti-war. Psychedelic rock_sentence_77

The Yardbirds became the first British band to have the term "psychedelic" applied to one of its songs. Psychedelic rock_sentence_78

On "Eight Miles High", Roger McGuinn's 12-string Rickenbacker guitar provided a psychedelic interpretation of free jazz and Indian raga, channelling Coltrane and Shankar, respectively. Psychedelic rock_sentence_79

The song's lyrics were widely taken to refer to drug use, although the Byrds denied it at the time. Psychedelic rock_sentence_80

"Eight Miles High" peaked at number 14 in the US and reached the top 30 in the UK. Psychedelic rock_sentence_81

Contributing to psychedelia's emergence into the pop mainstream was the release of the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds (May 1966) and the Beatles' Revolver (August 1966). Psychedelic rock_sentence_82

Often considered one of the earliest albums in the canon of psychedelic rock, Pet Sounds contained many elements that would be incorporated into psychedelia, with its artful experiments, psychedelic lyrics based on emotional longings and self-doubts, elaborate sound effects and new sounds on both conventional and unconventional instruments. Psychedelic rock_sentence_83

The album track "I Just Wasn't Made for These Times" contained the first use of theremin sounds on a rock record. Psychedelic rock_sentence_84

Scholar Philip Auslander says that even though psychedelic music is not normally associated with the Beach Boys, the "odd directions" and experiments in Pet Sounds "put it all on the map. Psychedelic rock_sentence_85

... basically that sort of opened the door – not for groups to be formed or to start to make music, but certainly to become as visible as say Jefferson Airplane or somebody like that." Psychedelic rock_sentence_86

DeRogatis views Revolver as another of "the first psychedelic rock masterpieces", along with Pet Sounds. Psychedelic rock_sentence_87

The Beatles' May 1966 B-side "Rain", recorded during the Revolver sessions, was the first pop recording to contain reversed sounds. Psychedelic rock_sentence_88

Together with further studio tricks such as varispeed, the song includes a droning melody that reflected the band's growing interest in non-Western musical form and lyrics conveying the division between an enlightened psychedelic outlook and conformism. Psychedelic rock_sentence_89

Philo cites "Rain" as "the birth of British psychedelic rock" and describes Revolver as "[the] most sustained deployment of Indian instruments, musical form and even religious philosophy" heard in popular music up to that time. Psychedelic rock_sentence_90

Author Steve Turner recognises the Beatles' success in conveying an LSD-inspired worldview on Revolver, particularly with "Tomorrow Never Knows", as having "opened the doors to psychedelic rock (or acid rock)". Psychedelic rock_sentence_91

In author Shawn Levy's description, it was "the first true drug album, not [just] a pop record with some druggy insinuations", while musicologists Russell Reising and Jim LeBlanc credit the Beatles with "set[ting] the stage for an important subgenre of psychedelic music, that of the messianic pronouncement". Psychedelic rock_sentence_92

Echard highlights early records by the 13th Floor Elevators and Love among the key psychedelic releases of 1966, along with "Shapes of Things", "Eight Miles High", "Rain" and Revolver. Psychedelic rock_sentence_93

Originating from Austin, Texas, the first of these new bands came to the genre via the garage scene before releasing their debut album, The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators in December that year. Psychedelic rock_sentence_94

It was the first rock album to include the adjective in its title, although the LP was released on an independent label and was little noticed at the time. Psychedelic rock_sentence_95

Having formed in late 1965 with the aim of spreading LSD consciousness, the Elevators commissioned business cards containing an image of the third eye and the caption "Psychedelic rock". Psychedelic rock_sentence_96

Rolling Stone highlights the 13th Floor Elevators as arguably "the most important early progenitors of psychedelic garage rock". Psychedelic rock_sentence_97

The Beach Boys' October 1966 single "Good Vibrations" was another early pop song to incorporate psychedelic lyrics and sounds. Psychedelic rock_sentence_98

The single's success prompted an unexpected revival in theremins and increased the awareness of analog synthesizers. Psychedelic rock_sentence_99

As psychedelia gained prominence, Beach Boys-style harmonies would be ingrained into the newer psychedelic pop. Psychedelic rock_sentence_100

1967–69: Continued development Psychedelic rock_section_5

Peak era Psychedelic rock_section_6

In 1967, psychedelic rock received widespread media attention and a larger audience beyond local psychedelic communities. Psychedelic rock_sentence_101

From 1967 to 1968, it was the prevailing sound of rock music, either in the more whimsical British variant, or the harder American West Coast acid rock. Psychedelic rock_sentence_102

Music historian David Simonelli says the genre's commercial peak lasted "a brief year", with San Francisco and London recognised as the two key cultural centres. Psychedelic rock_sentence_103

Compared with the American form, British psychedelic music was often more arty in its experimentation, and it tended to stick within pop song structures. Psychedelic rock_sentence_104

Music journalist Mark Prendergast writes that it was only in US garage-band psychedelia that the often whimsical traits of UK psychedelic music were found. Psychedelic rock_sentence_105

He says that aside from the work of the Byrds, Love and the Doors, there were three categories of US psychedelia: the "acid jams" of the San Francisco bands, who favoured albums over singles; pop psychedelia typified by groups such as the Beach Boys and Buffalo Springfield; and the "wigged-out" music of bands following in the example of the Beatles and the Yardbirds, such as the Electric Prunes, the Nazz, the Chocolate Watchband and the Seeds. Psychedelic rock_sentence_106

In February 1967, the Beatles released the double A-side single "Strawberry Fields Forever" / "Penny Lane", which Ian MacDonald says launched both the "English pop-pastoral mood" typified by bands such as Pink Floyd, Family, Traffic and Fairport Convention, and English psychedelia's LSD-inspired preoccupation with "nostalgia for the innocent vision of a child". Psychedelic rock_sentence_107

The Mellotron parts on "Strawberry Fields Forever" remain the most celebrated example of the instrument on a pop or rock recording. Psychedelic rock_sentence_108

According to Simonelli, the two songs heralded the Beatles' brand of Romanticism as a central tenet of psychedelic rock. Psychedelic rock_sentence_109

Jefferson Airplane's Surrealistic Pillow (February 1967) was one of the first albums to come out of San Francisco that sold well enough to bring national attention to the city's music scene. Psychedelic rock_sentence_110

The LP tracks "White Rabbit" and "Somebody to Love" subsequently became top 10 hits in the US. Psychedelic rock_sentence_111

Pink Floyd's "Arnold Layne" (March 1967) and "See Emily Play" (June 1967), both written by Syd Barrett, helped set the pattern for pop-psychedelia in the UK. Psychedelic rock_sentence_112

There, "underground" venues like the UFO Club, Middle Earth Club, The Roundhouse, the Country Club and the Art Lab drew capacity audiences with psychedelic rock and ground-breaking liquid light shows. Psychedelic rock_sentence_113

A major figure in the development of British psychedelia was the American promoter and record producer Joe Boyd, who moved to London in 1966. Psychedelic rock_sentence_114

He co-founded venues including the UFO Club, produced Pink Floyd's "Arnold Layne", and went on to manage folk and folk rock acts including Nick Drake, the Incredible String Band and Fairport Convention. Psychedelic rock_sentence_115

Psychedelic rock's popularity accelerated following the release of the Beatles' album Sgt. Psychedelic rock_sentence_116 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (May 1967) and the staging of the Monterey Pop Festival in June. Psychedelic rock_sentence_117

Sgt. Pepper was the first commercially successful work that critics recognised as a landmark aspect of psychedelia, and the Beatles' mass appeal meant that the record was played virtually everywhere. Psychedelic rock_sentence_118

The album was highly influential on bands in the US psychedelic rock scene and its elevation of the LP format benefited the San Francisco bands. Psychedelic rock_sentence_119

Among many changes brought about by its success, artists sought to imitate its psychedelic effects and devoted more time to creating their albums; the counterculture was scrutinised by musicians; and acts adopted its non-conformist sentiments. Psychedelic rock_sentence_120

The 1967 Summer of Love saw a huge number of young people from across America and the world travel to Haight-Ashbury, boosting the area's population from 15,000 to around 100,000. Psychedelic rock_sentence_121

It was prefaced by the Human Be-In event in March and reached its peak at the Monterey Pop Festival in June, the latter helping to make major American stars of Janis Joplin, lead singer of Big Brother and the Holding Company, Jimi Hendrix, and the Who. Psychedelic rock_sentence_122

Several established British acts joined the psychedelic revolution, including Eric Burdon (previously of the Animals) and the Who, whose The Who Sell Out (December 1967) included the psychedelic-influenced "I Can See for Miles" and "Armenia City in the Sky". Psychedelic rock_sentence_123

The Incredible String Band's The 5000 Spirits or the Layers of the Onion (July 1967) developed their folk music into a pastoral form of psychedelia. Psychedelic rock_sentence_124

According to author Edward Macan, there ultimately existed three distinct branches of British psychedelic music. Psychedelic rock_sentence_125

The first, dominated by Cream, the Yardbirds and Hendrix, was founded on a heavy, electric adaptation of the blues played by the Rolling Stones, adding elements such as the Who's power chord style and feedback. Psychedelic rock_sentence_126

The second, considerably more complex form drew strongly from jazz sources and was typified by Traffic, Colosseum, If, and Canterbury scene bands such as Soft Machine and Caravan. Psychedelic rock_sentence_127

The third branch, represented by the Moody Blues, Pink Floyd, Procol Harum and the Nice, was influenced by the later music of the Beatles. Psychedelic rock_sentence_128

Several of the post-Sgt. Pepper English psychedelic groups developed the Beatles' classical influences further than either the Beatles or contemporaneous West Coast psychedelic bands. Psychedelic rock_sentence_129

Among such groups, the Pretty Things abandoned their R&B roots to create S.F. Psychedelic rock_sentence_130 Sorrow (December 1968), the first example of a psychedelic rock opera. Psychedelic rock_sentence_131

International variants Psychedelic rock_section_7

See also: Psychedelic rock in Australia and New Zealand and Psychedelic rock in Latin America Psychedelic rock_sentence_132

The US and UK were the major centres of psychedelic music, but in the late 1960s scenes began to develop across the world, including continental Europe, Australasia, Asia and south and Central America. Psychedelic rock_sentence_133

In the later 1960s psychedelic scenes developed in a large number of countries in continental Europe, including the Netherlands with bands like The Outsiders, Denmark where it was pioneered by Steppeulvene, and Germany, where musicians began to fuse music of psychedelia and the electronic avant-garde. Psychedelic rock_sentence_134

1968 saw the first major German rock festival, the Internationale Essener Songtage [] in Essen, and the foundation of the Zodiak Free Arts Lab in Berlin by Hans-Joachim Roedelius, and Conrad Schnitzler, which helped bands like Tangerine Dream and Amon Düül achieve cult status. Psychedelic rock_sentence_135

A thriving psychedelic music scene in Cambodia, influenced by psychedelic rock and soul broadcast by US forces radio in Vietnam, was pioneered by artists such as Sinn Sisamouth and Ros Serey Sothea. Psychedelic rock_sentence_136

In South Korea, Shin Jung-Hyeon, often considered the godfather of Korean rock, played psychedelic-influenced music for the American soldiers stationed in the country. Psychedelic rock_sentence_137

Following Shin Jung-Hyeon, the band San Ul Lim (Mountain Echo) often combined psychedelic rock with a more folk sound. Psychedelic rock_sentence_138

In Turkey, Anatolian rock artist Erkin Koray blended classic Turkish music and Middle Eastern themes into his psychedelic-driven rock, helping to found the Turkish rock scene with artists such as Cem Karaca, Mogollar, Baris Manco and Erkin Koray. Psychedelic rock_sentence_139

In Brasil the Tropicalia movement merged Brazilian and African rhythms with psychedelic rock. Psychedelic rock_sentence_140

Musicians who were part of the movement include Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil, Os Mutantes, Gal Costa, Tom Zé, and the poet/lyricist Torquato Neto, all of whom participated in the 1968 album Tropicália: ou Panis et Circencis, which served as a musical manifesto. Psychedelic rock_sentence_141

1969–71: Decline Psychedelic rock_section_8

See also: Progressive rock and Heavy metal music Psychedelic rock_sentence_142

By the end of the 1960s, psychedelic rock was in retreat. Psychedelic rock_sentence_143

Psychedelic trends climaxed in the 1969 Woodstock festival, which saw performances by most of the major psychedelic acts, including Jimi Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane, and the Grateful Dead. Psychedelic rock_sentence_144

LSD had been made illegal in the UK in September 1966 and in California in October; by 1967, it was outlawed throughout the United States. Psychedelic rock_sentence_145

In 1969, the murders of Sharon Tate and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca by Charles Manson and his cult of followers, claiming to have been inspired by Beatles' songs such as "Helter Skelter", has been seen as contributing to an anti-hippie backlash. Psychedelic rock_sentence_146

At the end of the same year, the Altamont Free Concert in California, headlined by the Rolling Stones, became notorious for the fatal stabbing of black teenager Meredith Hunter by Hells Angel security guards. Psychedelic rock_sentence_147

George Clinton's ensembles Funkadelic and Parliament and their various spin-offs took psychedelia and funk to create their own unique style, producing over forty singles, including three in the US top ten, and three platinum albums. Psychedelic rock_sentence_148

Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys, Brian Jones of the Rolling Stones, Peter Green and Danny Kirwan of Fleetwood Mac and Syd Barrett of Pink Floyd were early "acid casualties", helping to shift the focus of the respective bands of which they had been leading figures. Psychedelic rock_sentence_149

Some groups, such as the Jimi Hendrix Experience and Cream, broke up. Psychedelic rock_sentence_150

Hendrix died in London in September 1970, shortly after recording Band of Gypsys (1970), Janis Joplin died of a heroin overdose in October 1970 and they were closely followed by Jim Morrison of the Doors, who died in Paris in July 1971. Psychedelic rock_sentence_151

By this point, many surviving acts had moved away from psychedelia into either more back-to-basics "roots rock", traditional-based, pastoral or whimsical folk, the wider experimentation of progressive rock, or riff-based heavy rock. Psychedelic rock_sentence_152

Revivals and successors Psychedelic rock_section_9

Psychedelic soul Psychedelic rock_section_10

Main articles: Psychedelic soul and Psychedelic funk Psychedelic rock_sentence_153

Following the lead of Hendrix in rock, psychedelia began to influence African American musicians, particularly the stars of the Motown label. Psychedelic rock_sentence_154

This psychedelic soul was influenced by the civil rights movement, giving it a darker and more political edge than much psychedelic rock. Psychedelic rock_sentence_155

Building on the funk sound of James Brown, it was pioneered from about 1968 by Sly and the Family Stone and The Temptations. Psychedelic rock_sentence_156

Acts that followed them into this territory included Edwin Starr and the Undisputed Truth. Psychedelic rock_sentence_157

George Clinton's interdependent Funkadelic and Parliament ensembles and their various spin-offs took the genre to its most extreme lengths making funk almost a religion in the 1970s, producing over forty singles, including three in the US top ten, and three platinum albums. Psychedelic rock_sentence_158

While psychedelic rock began to waver at the end of the 1960s, psychedelic soul continued into the 1970s, peaking in popularity in the early years of the decade, and only disappearing in the late 1970s as tastes began to change. Psychedelic rock_sentence_159

Songwriter Norman Whitfield wrote psychedelic soul songs for The Temptations and Marvin Gaye. Psychedelic rock_sentence_160

Prog, heavy metal, and krautrock Psychedelic rock_section_11

Main articles: Progressive rock, Heavy metal music, and Krautrock Psychedelic rock_sentence_161

Many of the British musicians and bands that had embraced psychedelia went on to create progressive rock in the 1970s, including Pink Floyd, Soft Machine and members of Yes. Psychedelic rock_sentence_162

King Crimson's album In the Court of the Crimson King (1969) has been seen as an important link between psychedelia and progressive rock. Psychedelic rock_sentence_163

While bands such as Hawkwind maintained an explicitly psychedelic course into the 1970s, most dropped the psychedelic elements in favour of wider experimentation. Psychedelic rock_sentence_164

The incorporation of jazz into the music of bands like Soft Machine and Can also contributed to the development of the jazz rock of bands like Colosseum. Psychedelic rock_sentence_165

As they moved away from their psychedelic roots and placed increasing emphasis on electronic experimentation, German bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Can and Faust developed a distinctive brand of electronic rock, known as kosmische musik, or in the British press as "Kraut rock". Psychedelic rock_sentence_166

The adoption of electronic synthesisers, pioneered by Popol Vuh from 1970, together with the work of figures like Brian Eno (for a time the keyboard player with Roxy Music), would be a major influence on subsequent electronic rock. Psychedelic rock_sentence_167

The jam band movement, which began in the late 1980s, was influenced by the Grateful Dead's improvisational and psychedelic musical style. Psychedelic rock_sentence_168

The Vermont band Phish developed a sizable and devoted fan following during the 1990s, and were described as "heirs" to the Grateful Dead after the death of Jerry Garcia in 1995. Psychedelic rock_sentence_169

Psychedelic rock, with its distorted guitar sound, extended solos and adventurous compositions, has been seen as an important bridge between blues-oriented rock and later heavy metal. Psychedelic rock_sentence_170

American bands whose loud, repetitive psychedelic rock emerged as early heavy metal included the Amboy Dukes and Steppenwolf. Psychedelic rock_sentence_171

From England, two former guitarists with the Yardbirds, Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page, moved on to form key acts in the genre, The Jeff Beck Group and Led Zeppelin respectively. Psychedelic rock_sentence_172

Other major pioneers of the genre had begun as blues-based psychedelic bands, including Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Judas Priest and UFO. Psychedelic rock_sentence_173

Psychedelic music also contributed to the origins of glam rock, with Marc Bolan changing his psychedelic folk duo into rock band T. Psychedelic rock_sentence_174 Rex and becoming the first glam rock star from 1970. Psychedelic rock_sentence_175

From 1971 David Bowie moved on from his early psychedelic work to develop his Ziggy Stardust persona, incorporating elements of professional make up, mime and performance into his act. Psychedelic rock_sentence_176

Emerging in the 1990s, stoner rock combined elements of psychedelic rock and doom metal. Psychedelic rock_sentence_177

Typically using a slow-to-mid tempo and featuring low-tuned guitars in a bass-heavy sound, with melodic vocals, and 'retro' production, it was pioneered by the Californian bands Kyuss and Sleep. Psychedelic rock_sentence_178

Modern festivals focusing on psychedelic music include Austin Psych Fest in Texas, founded in 2008, Liverpool Psych Fest, and Desert Daze in Southern California. Psychedelic rock_sentence_179

Neo-psychedelia Psychedelic rock_section_12

There were occasional mainstream acts that dabbled in neo-psychedelia, a style of music which emerged in late 1970s post-punk circles. Psychedelic rock_sentence_180

Although it has mainly been an influence on alternative and indie rock bands, neo-psychedelia sometimes updated the approach of 1960s psychedelic rock. Psychedelic rock_sentence_181

Neo-psychedelia may include forays into psychedelic pop, jangly guitar rock, heavily distorted free-form jams, or recording experiments. Psychedelic rock_sentence_182

Some of the scene's bands, including the Soft Boys, the Teardrop Explodes, and Echo & the Bunnymen, became major figures of neo-psychedelia. Psychedelic rock_sentence_183

In the US in the early 1980s it was joined by the Paisley Underground movement, based in Los Angeles and fronted by acts such as Dream Syndicate, the Bangles and Rain Parade. Psychedelic rock_sentence_184

In the late 80s in the UK the genre of Madchester emerged in the Manchester area, in which artists merged alternative rock with acid house and dance culture as well as other sources, including psychedelic music and 1960s pop. Psychedelic rock_sentence_185

The label was popularised by the British music press in the early 1990s. Psychedelic rock_sentence_186

Erchard talks about it as being part of a "thread of 80s psychedelic rock" and lists as main bands in it the Stone Roses, Happy Mondays and Inspiral Carpets. Psychedelic rock_sentence_187

The rave-influenced scene is widely seen as heavily influenced by drugs, especially ecstasy (MDMA), and it is seen by Erchard as central to a wider phenomenon of what he calls a "rock rave crossover" in the late 80s and early 90s UK indie scene which also included the Screamadelica album by Scottish band Primal Scream. Psychedelic rock_sentence_188

Later according to Treblezine's Jeff Telrich: "Primal Scream made [neo-psychedelia] dancefloor ready. Psychedelic rock_sentence_189

The Flaming Lips and Spiritualized took it to orchestral realms. Psychedelic rock_sentence_190

And Animal Collective—well, they kinda did their own thing." Psychedelic rock_sentence_191

See also Psychedelic rock_section_13

Psychedelic rock_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: rock.