Puerto Rico

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"Porto Rico" and "Borinquen" redirect here. Puerto Rico_sentence_0

For other uses, see Porto Rico (disambiguation), Borinquen (disambiguation), and Puerto Rico (disambiguation). Puerto Rico_sentence_1

Puerto Rico_table_infobox_0

Puerto RicoPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_0_0
Sovereign statePuerto Rico_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesPuerto Rico_cell_0_1_1
Before annexationPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_2_0 Captaincy General of Puerto RicoPuerto Rico_cell_0_2_1
Cession from SpainPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_3_0 April 11, 1899Puerto Rico_cell_0_3_1
Current constitutionPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_4_0 July 25, 1952Puerto Rico_cell_0_4_1
Capital

and largest cityPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_5_0

San JuanPuerto Rico_cell_0_5_1
Official languagesPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_6_0 Puerto Rico_cell_0_6_1
Common languagesPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_7_0 94.3% Spanish

5.5% English 0.2% French 0.1% otherPuerto Rico_cell_0_7_1

Ethnic groups (2010)Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_8_0 75.8% White

12.4% Black 3.3% Two or more races 0.5% indigenous American & Alaskan native 0.2% Asian <0.1% Pacific Islander 7.8% otherPuerto Rico_cell_0_8_1

Demonym(s)Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_9_0 Puerto RicanPuerto Rico_cell_0_9_1
GovernmentPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_10_0 Devolved presidential constitutional dependencyPuerto Rico_cell_0_10_1
GovernorPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_11_0 Wanda Vázquez Garced (PNP/R)Puerto Rico_cell_0_11_1
LegislaturePuerto Rico_header_cell_0_12_0 Legislative AssemblyPuerto Rico_cell_0_12_1
Upper housePuerto Rico_header_cell_0_13_0 SenatePuerto Rico_cell_0_13_1
Lower housePuerto Rico_header_cell_0_14_0 House of RepresentativesPuerto Rico_cell_0_14_1
United States CongressPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_15_0
Resident CommissionerPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_16_0 Jenniffer González (PNP/R)Puerto Rico_cell_0_16_1
AreaPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_17_0
TotalPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_18_0 9,104 km (3,515 sq mi)Puerto Rico_cell_0_18_1
Water (%)Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_19_0 1.6Puerto Rico_cell_0_19_1
Highest elevationPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_20_0 4,390 ft (1,340 m)Puerto Rico_cell_0_20_1
PopulationPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_21_0
2019 estimatePuerto Rico_header_cell_0_22_0 3,193,694 (136th)Puerto Rico_cell_0_22_1
2010 censusPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_23_0 3,725,789Puerto Rico_cell_0_23_1
DensityPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_24_0 350.8/km (908.6/sq mi) (39th)Puerto Rico_cell_0_24_1
GDP (PPP)Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_25_0 2020 estimatePuerto Rico_cell_0_25_1
TotalPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_26_0 $128.556 billion (78th)Puerto Rico_cell_0_26_1
Per capitaPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_27_0 $41,198 (33rd)Puerto Rico_cell_0_27_1
GDP (nominal)Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_28_0 2019 estimatePuerto Rico_cell_0_28_1
TotalPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_29_0 $104.989 billion (61st)Puerto Rico_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_30_0 $32,874 (30th)Puerto Rico_cell_0_30_1
Gini (2011)Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_31_0 53.1

highPuerto Rico_cell_0_31_1

HDI (2015)Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_32_0 0.845

very high · 40thPuerto Rico_cell_0_32_1

CurrencyPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_33_0 United States dollar (US$) (USD)Puerto Rico_cell_0_33_1
Time zonePuerto Rico_header_cell_0_34_0 UTC-04:00 (AST)Puerto Rico_cell_0_34_1
Date formatPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_35_0 mm/dd/yyyyPuerto Rico_cell_0_35_1
Driving sidePuerto Rico_header_cell_0_36_0 rightPuerto Rico_cell_0_36_1
Calling codePuerto Rico_header_cell_0_37_0 +1 (787), +1 (939)Puerto Rico_cell_0_37_1
USPS abbreviationPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_38_0 PRPuerto Rico_cell_0_38_1
ISO 3166 codePuerto Rico_header_cell_0_39_0 Puerto Rico_cell_0_39_1
Internet TLDPuerto Rico_header_cell_0_40_0 .prPuerto Rico_cell_0_40_1
WebsitePuerto Rico_header_cell_0_41_0 Puerto Rico_cell_0_41_1

Puerto Rico (Spanish for 'Rich Port'; abbreviated PR, Taino: Boriken, Borinquen), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit. Puerto Rico_sentence_2

'Free Associated State of Puerto Rico') and from 1898 to 1932 also called Porto Rico in English, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Miami, Florida. Puerto Rico_sentence_3

Puerto Rico is an archipelago among the Greater Antilles located between the Dominican Republic and the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_4

Virgin Islands; it includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques. Puerto Rico_sentence_5

The capital and most populous city is San Juan. Puerto Rico_sentence_6

The unincorporated territory's total population is approximately 3.2 million, which is more than 20 U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_7

states. Puerto Rico_sentence_8

Spanish and English are the official languages of the executive branch of government, though Spanish predominates. Puerto Rico_sentence_9

Originally populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493. Puerto Rico_sentence_10

It was contested by various other European powers, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. Puerto Rico_sentence_11

The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, and settlement primarily from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. Puerto Rico_sentence_12

In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain. Puerto Rico_sentence_13

By the late 19th century, a distinct Puerto Rican identity began to emerge, based on a unique creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous, African, and European elements. Puerto Rico_sentence_14

In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico, which remains an unincorporated territorial possession, making it the world's oldest colony. Puerto Rico_sentence_15

Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, and can move freely between the island and the mainland. Puerto Rico_sentence_16

As it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_17

Congress, which governs the unincorporated territory with jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. Puerto Rico_sentence_18

Puerto Rico's sole congressional representation is through one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner. Puerto Rico_sentence_19

As residents of an unincorporated territory of the U.S., American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level, do not vote for the president or vice president of the U.S., and in most cases do not pay federal income tax. Puerto Rico_sentence_20

Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U.S. citizens of the unincorporated territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico_sentence_21

Puerto Rico's future political status has consistently been a matter of significant debate. Puerto Rico_sentence_22

Beginning in the mid 20th century, the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_23

government, together with the Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company, launched a series of economic projects to develop Puerto Rico into an industrial high-income jurisdiction. Puerto Rico_sentence_24

It is classified by the International Monetary Fund as a developed jurisdiction with an advanced, high-income economy; it ranks highly on the Human Development Index, ahead of the rest of Latin America. Puerto Rico_sentence_25

The main drivers of Puerto Rico's economy are manufacturing (primarily pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, and electronics) followed by the service industry (namely tourism and hospitality). Puerto Rico_sentence_26

Etymology Puerto Rico_section_0

Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Rico_sentence_27

Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord". Puerto Rico_sentence_28

The terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. Puerto Rico_sentence_29

The island is also popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Puerto Rico_sentence_30

Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico ("Rich Port City"). Puerto Rico_sentence_31

Eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. Puerto Rico_sentence_32

The island's name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. Puerto Rico_sentence_33

The anglicized name was used by the U.S. government and private enterprises. Puerto Rico_sentence_34

The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931. Puerto Rico_sentence_35

The official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico ("free associated state of Puerto Rico"), while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_36

History Puerto Rico_section_1

Main article: History of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_37

Pre-Columbian era Puerto Rico_section_2

The ancient history of the archipelago which is now Puerto Rico is not well known. Puerto Rico_sentence_38

Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World (Aztec, Maya and Inca) which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Puerto Rico_sentence_39

Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all that is known about them. Puerto Rico_sentence_40

The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_41

The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland. Puerto Rico_sentence_42

Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. Puerto Rico_sentence_43

An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", which was dated to around 2000 BC. Puerto Rico_sentence_44

The Ortoiroid were displaced by the Saladoid, a culture from the same region that arrived on the island between 430 and 250 BCE. Puerto Rico_sentence_45

The Igneri tribe migrated to Puerto Rico between 120 and 400 AD from the region of the Orinoco river in northern South America. Puerto Rico_sentence_46

The Arcaico and Igneri co-existed on the island between the 4th and 10th centuries. Puerto Rico_sentence_47

Between the 7th and 11th centuries, the Taíno culture developed on the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_48

By approximately 1000 AD, it had become dominant. Puerto Rico_sentence_49

At the time of Columbus' arrival, an estimated 30,000 to 60,000 Taíno Amerindians, led by the cacique (chief) Agüeybaná, inhabited the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_50

They called it Boriken, meaning "the great land of the valiant and noble Lord". Puerto Rico_sentence_51

The natives lived in small villages, each led by a cacique. Puerto Rico_sentence_52

They subsisted by hunting and fishing, done generally by men, as well as by the women's gathering and processing of indigenous cassava root and fruit. Puerto Rico_sentence_53

This lasted until Columbus arrived in 1493. Puerto Rico_sentence_54

Spanish colony (1493–1898) Puerto Rico_section_3

Further information: Columbian Viceroyalty, New Spain, and Captaincy General of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_55

Conquest and early settlement Puerto Rico_section_4

When Columbus arrived in Puerto Rico during his second voyage on November 19, 1493, the island was inhabited by the Taíno. Puerto Rico_sentence_56

They called it Borikén, spelled in a variety of ways by different writers of the day. Puerto Rico_sentence_57

Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of St John the Baptist. Puerto Rico_sentence_58

Having reported the findings of his first travel, Columbus brought with him this time a letter from King Ferdinand empowered by a papal bull that authorized any course of action necessary for the expansion of the Spanish Empire and the Christian faith. Puerto Rico_sentence_59

Juan Ponce de León, a lieutenant under Columbus, founded the first Spanish settlement, Caparra, on August 8, 1508. Puerto Rico_sentence_60

He later served as the first governor of the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_61

Eventually, traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, and San Juan became the name of the main trading/shipping port. Puerto Rico_sentence_62

At the beginning of the 16th century, the Spanish people began to colonize the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_63

Despite the Laws of Burgos of 1512 and other decrees for the protection of the indigenous population, some Taíno Indians were forced into an encomienda system of forced labor in the early years of colonization. Puerto Rico_sentence_64

The population suffered extremely high fatalities from epidemics of European infectious diseases. Puerto Rico_sentence_65

Colonization, the Habsburgs Puerto Rico_section_5

In 1520, King Charles I of Spain issued a royal decree collectively emancipating the remaining Taíno population. Puerto Rico_sentence_66

By that time, the Taíno people were few in number. Puerto Rico_sentence_67

Enslaved Africans had already begun to be imported to compensate for the native labor loss, but their numbers were proportionate to the diminished commercial interest Spain soon began to demonstrate for the island colony. Puerto Rico_sentence_68

Other nearby islands, like Cuba, Hispaniola, and Guadalupe, attracted more of the slave trade than Puerto Rico, probably because of greater agricultural interests in those islands, on which colonists had developed large sugar plantations and had the capital to invest in the Atlantic slave trade. Puerto Rico_sentence_69

From the beginning of the country, the colonial administration relied heavily on the industry of enslaved Africans and creole blacks for public works and defenses, primarily in coastal ports and cities, where the tiny colonial population had hunkered down. Puerto Rico_sentence_70

With no significant industries or large-scale agricultural production as yet, enslaved and free communities lodged around the few littoral settlements, particularly around San Juan, also forming lasting Afro-creole communities. Puerto Rico_sentence_71

Meanwhile, in the island's interior, there developed a mixed and independent peasantry that relied on a subsistence economy. Puerto Rico_sentence_72

This mostly unsupervised population supplied villages and settlements with foodstuffs and, in relative isolation, set the pattern for what later would be known as the Puerto Rican Jíbaro culture. Puerto Rico_sentence_73

By the end of the 16th century, the Spanish Empire was diminishing and, in the face of increasing raids from European competitors, the colonial administration throughout the Americas fell into a "bunker mentality". Puerto Rico_sentence_74

Imperial strategists and urban planners redesigned port settlements into military posts with the objective of protecting Spanish territorial claims and ensuring the safe passing of the king's silver-laden Atlantic Fleet to the Iberian Peninsula. Puerto Rico_sentence_75

San Juan served as an important port-of-call for ships driven across the Atlantic by its powerful trade winds. Puerto Rico_sentence_76

West Indies convoys linked Spain to the island, sailing between Cádiz and the Spanish West Indies. Puerto Rico_sentence_77

The colony's seat of government was on the forested Islet of San Juan and for a time became one of the most heavily fortified settlements in the Spanish Caribbean earning the name of the "Walled City". Puerto Rico_sentence_78

The islet is still dotted with the various forts and walls, such as La Fortaleza, Castillo San Felipe del Morro, and Castillo San Cristóbal, designed to protect the population and the strategic Port of San Juan from the raids of the Spanish European competitors. Puerto Rico_sentence_79

In 1625, in the Battle of San Juan, the Dutch commander Boudewijn Hendricksz tested the defenses' limits like no one else before. Puerto Rico_sentence_80

Learning from Francis Drake's previous failures here, he circumvented the cannons of the castle of San Felipe del Morro and quickly brought his 17 ships into the San Juan Bay. Puerto Rico_sentence_81

He then occupied the port and attacked the city while the population hurried for shelter behind the Morro's moat and high battlements. Puerto Rico_sentence_82

Historians consider this event the worst attack on San Juan. Puerto Rico_sentence_83

Though the Dutch set the village on fire, they failed to conquer the Morro, and its batteries pounded their troops and ships until Hendricksz deemed the cause lost. Puerto Rico_sentence_84

Hendricksz's expedition eventually helped propel a fortification frenzy. Puerto Rico_sentence_85

Constructions of defenses for the San Cristóbal Hill were soon ordered so as to prevent the landing of invaders out of reach of the Morro's artillery. Puerto Rico_sentence_86

Urban planning responded to the needs of keeping the colony in Spanish hands. Puerto Rico_sentence_87

Late colonial period Puerto Rico_section_6

During the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Spain concentrated its colonial efforts on the more prosperous mainland North, Central, and South American colonies. Puerto Rico_sentence_88

With the advent of the lively Bourbon Dynasty in Spain in the 1700s, the island of Puerto Rico began a gradual shift to more imperial attention. Puerto Rico_sentence_89

More roads began connecting previously isolated inland settlements to coastal cities, and coastal settlements like Arecibo, Mayaguez, and Ponce began acquiring importance of their own, separate from San Juan. Puerto Rico_sentence_90

By the end of the 18th century, merchant ships from an array of nationalities threatened the tight regulations of the Mercantilist system, which turned each colony solely toward the European metropole and limited contact with other nations. Puerto Rico_sentence_91

U.S. ships came to surpass Spanish trade and with this also came the exploitation of the island's natural resources. Puerto Rico_sentence_92

Slavers, which had made but few stops on the island before, began selling more enslaved Africans to growing sugar and coffee plantations. Puerto Rico_sentence_93

The increasing number of Atlantic wars in which the Caribbean islands played major roles, like the War of Jenkins' Ear, the Seven Years' War and the Atlantic Revolutions, ensured Puerto Rico's growing esteem in Madrid's eyes. Puerto Rico_sentence_94

On April 17, 1797, Sir Ralph Abercromby's fleet invaded the island with a force of 6,000–13,000 men, which included German soldiers and Royal Marines and 60 to 64 ships. Puerto Rico_sentence_95

Fierce fighting continued for the next days with Spanish troops. Puerto Rico_sentence_96

Both sides suffered heavy losses. Puerto Rico_sentence_97

On Sunday April 30 the British ceased their attack and began their retreat from San Juan. Puerto Rico_sentence_98

By the time independence movements in the larger Spanish colonies gained success, new waves of loyal creole immigrants began to arrive in Puerto Rico, helping to tilt the island's political balance toward the Crown. Puerto Rico_sentence_99

In 1809, to secure its political bond with the island and in the midst of the European Peninsular War, the Supreme Central Junta based in Cádiz recognized Puerto Rico as an overseas province of Spain. Puerto Rico_sentence_100

This gave the island residents the right to elect representatives to the recently convened Cortes of Cádiz (effectively the Spanish government during a portion of the Napoleonic Wars), with equal representation to mainland Iberian, Mediterranean (Balearic Islands) and Atlantic maritime Spanish provinces (Canary Islands). Puerto Rico_sentence_101

Ramón Power y Giralt, the first Spanish parliamentary representative from the island of Puerto Rico, died after serving a three-year term in the Cortes. Puerto Rico_sentence_102

These parliamentary and constitutional reforms were in force from 1810 to 1814, and again from 1820 to 1823. Puerto Rico_sentence_103

They were twice reversed during the restoration of the traditional monarchy by Ferdinand VII. Puerto Rico_sentence_104

Immigration and commercial trade reforms in the 19th century increased the island's ethnic European population and economy and expanded the Spanish cultural and social imprint on the local character of the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_105

Minor slave revolts had occurred on the island throughout the years, with the revolt planned and organized by Marcos Xiorro in 1821 being the most important. Puerto Rico_sentence_106

Even though the conspiracy was unsuccessful, Xiorro achieved legendary status and is part of Puerto Rico's folklore. Puerto Rico_sentence_107

Politics of liberalism Puerto Rico_section_7

In the early 19th century, Puerto Rico spawned an independence movement that, due to harsh persecution by the Spanish authorities, convened in the island of St. Thomas. Puerto Rico_sentence_108

The movement was largely inspired by the ideals of Simón Bolívar in establishing a United Provinces of New Granada and Venezuela, that included Puerto Rico and Cuba. Puerto Rico_sentence_109

Among the influential members of this movement were Brigadier General Antonio Valero de Bernabé and María de las Mercedes Barbudo. Puerto Rico_sentence_110

The movement was discovered, and Governor Miguel de la Torre had its members imprisoned or exiled. Puerto Rico_sentence_111

With the increasingly rapid growth of independent former Spanish colonies in the South and Central American states in the first part of the 19th century, the Spanish Crown considered Puerto Rico and Cuba of strategic importance. Puerto Rico_sentence_112

To increase its hold on its last two New World colonies, the Spanish Crown revived the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 as a result of which 450,000 immigrants, mainly Spaniards, settled on the island in the period up until the American conquest. Puerto Rico_sentence_113

Printed in three languages—Spanish, English, and French—it was intended to also attract non-Spanish Europeans, with the hope that the independence movements would lose their popularity if new settlers had stronger ties to the Crown. Puerto Rico_sentence_114

Hundreds of non-Spanish families, mainly from Corsica, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy and Scotland, also immigrated to the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_115

Free land was offered as an incentive to those who wanted to populate the two islands, on the condition that they swear their loyalty to the Spanish Crown and allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church. Puerto Rico_sentence_116

The offer was very successful, and European immigration continued even after 1898. Puerto Rico_sentence_117

Puerto Rico still receives Spanish and European immigration. Puerto Rico_sentence_118

Poverty and political estrangement with Spain led to a small but significant uprising in 1868 known as Grito de Lares. Puerto Rico_sentence_119

It began in the rural town of Lares, but was subdued when rebels moved to the neighboring town of San Sebastián. Puerto Rico_sentence_120

Leaders of this independence movement included Ramón Emeterio Betances, considered the "father" of the Puerto Rican independence movement, and other political figures such as Segundo Ruiz Belvis. Puerto Rico_sentence_121

Slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico in 1873, "with provisions for periods of apprenticeship". Puerto Rico_sentence_122

Leaders of "El Grito de Lares" went into exile in New York City. Puerto Rico_sentence_123

Many joined the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee, founded on December 8, 1895, and continued their quest for Puerto Rican independence. Puerto Rico_sentence_124

In 1897, Antonio Mattei Lluberas and the local leaders of the independence movement in Yauco organized another uprising, which became known as the Intentona de Yauco. Puerto Rico_sentence_125

They raised what they called the Puerto Rican flag, which was adopted as the national flag. Puerto Rico_sentence_126

The local conservative political factions opposed independence. Puerto Rico_sentence_127

Rumors of the planned event spread to the local Spanish authorities who acted swiftly and put an end to what would be the last major uprising in the island to Spanish colonial rule. Puerto Rico_sentence_128

In 1897, Luis Muñoz Rivera and others persuaded the liberal Spanish government to agree to grant limited self-government to the island by royal decree in the Autonomic Charter, including a bicameral legislature. Puerto Rico_sentence_129

In 1898, Puerto Rico's first, but short-lived, quasi-autonomous government was organized as an "overseas province" of Spain. Puerto Rico_sentence_130

This bilaterally agreed-upon charter maintained a governor appointed by the King of Spain – who held the power to annul any legislative decision – and a partially elected parliamentary structure. Puerto Rico_sentence_131

In February, Governor-General Manuel Macías inaugurated the new government under the Autonomic Charter. Puerto Rico_sentence_132

General elections were held in March and the new government began to function on July 17, 1898. Puerto Rico_sentence_133

Spanish–American War Puerto Rico_section_8

Main articles: Spanish–American War, Puerto Rican Campaign, and Treaty of Paris (1898) Puerto Rico_sentence_134

In 1890, Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, a member of the Navy War Board and leading U.S. strategic thinker, published a book titled The Influence of Sea Power upon History in which he argued for the establishment of a large and powerful navy modeled after the British Royal Navy. Puerto Rico_sentence_135

Part of his strategy called for the acquisition of colonies in the Caribbean, which would serve as coaling and naval stations. Puerto Rico_sentence_136

They would serve as strategic points of defense with the construction of a canal through the Isthmus of Panama, to allow easier passage of ships between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Puerto Rico_sentence_137

William H. Seward, the Secretary of State under presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, had also stressed the importance of building a canal in Honduras, Nicaragua or Panama. Puerto Rico_sentence_138

He suggested that the United States annex the Dominican Republic and purchase Puerto Rico and Cuba. Puerto Rico_sentence_139

The U.S. Senate did not approve his annexation proposal, and Spain rejected the U.S. offer of 160 million dollars for Puerto Rico and Cuba. Puerto Rico_sentence_140

Since 1894, the United States Naval War College had been developing contingency plans for a war with Spain. Puerto Rico_sentence_141

By 1896, the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence had prepared a plan that included military operations in Puerto Rican waters. Puerto Rico_sentence_142

Except for one 1895 plan, which recommended annexation of the island then named Isle of Pines (later renamed as Isla de la Juventud), a recommendation dropped in later planning, plans developed for attacks on Spanish territories were intended as support operations against Spain's forces in and around Cuba. Puerto Rico_sentence_143

Recent research suggests that the U.S. did consider Puerto Rico valuable as a naval station, and recognized that it and Cuba generated lucrative crops of sugar – a valuable commercial commodity which the United States lacked, before the development of the sugar beet industry in the United States. Puerto Rico_sentence_144

On July 25, 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the U.S. invaded Puerto Rico with a landing at Guánica. Puerto Rico_sentence_145

After the U.S. victory in the war, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, along with the Philippines and Guam, then under Spanish sovereignty, to the U.S. under the Treaty of Paris, which went into effect on April 11, 1899. Puerto Rico_sentence_146

Spain relinquished sovereignty over Cuba, but did not cede it to the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_147

American colony (1898–1952) Puerto Rico_section_9

U.S. unincorporated organized territory Puerto Rico_section_10

The United States and Puerto Rico began a long-standing metropolis-colony relationship. Puerto Rico_sentence_148

In the early 20th century, Puerto Rico was ruled by the military, with officials including the governor appointed by the president of the United States. Puerto Rico_sentence_149

The Foraker Act of 1900 gave Puerto Rico a certain amount of civilian popular government, including a popularly elected House of Representatives. Puerto Rico_sentence_150

The upper house and governor were appointed by the United States. Puerto Rico_sentence_151

Its judicial system was reformed to bring it into conformity with the American federal courts system; a Puerto Rico Supreme Court and a United States District Court for the unincorporated territory were established. Puerto Rico_sentence_152

It was authorized a non-voting member of Congress, by the title of "Resident Commissioner", who was appointed. Puerto Rico_sentence_153

In addition, this Act extended all U.S. laws "not locally inapplicable" to Puerto Rico, specifying, in particular, exemption from U.S. Internal Revenue laws. Puerto Rico_sentence_154

The Act empowered the civil government to legislate on "all matters of legislative character not locally inapplicable", including the power to modify and repeal any laws then in existence in Puerto Rico, though the U.S. Congress retained the power to annul acts of the Puerto Rico legislature. Puerto Rico_sentence_155

During an address to the Puerto Rican legislature in 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt recommended that Puerto Ricans become U.S. citizens. Puerto Rico_sentence_156

In 1914, the Puerto Rican House of Delegates voted unanimously in favor of independence from the United States, but this was rejected by the U.S. Congress as "unconstitutional", and in violation of the 1900 Foraker Act. Puerto Rico_sentence_157

U.S. citizenship and Puerto Rican citizenship Puerto Rico_section_11

In 1917, the U.S. Congress passed the Jones–Shafroth Act (popularly known as the Jones Act), which granted Puerto Ricans born on or after April 25, 1898, U.S. citizenship. Puerto Rico_sentence_158

Opponents, including all of the Puerto Rican House of Delegates (who voted unanimously against it), claimed that the U.S. imposed citizenship in order to draft Puerto Rican men into the army as American entry into World War I as the likely motive. Puerto Rico_sentence_159

The same Act provided for a popularly elected Senate to complete a bicameral Legislative Assembly, as well as a bill of rights. Puerto Rico_sentence_160

It authorized the popular election of the Resident Commissioner to a four-year term. Puerto Rico_sentence_161

Natural disasters, including a major earthquake and tsunami in 1918 and several hurricanes, as well as the Great Depression, impoverished the island during the first few decades under U.S. rule. Puerto Rico_sentence_162

Some political leaders, such as Pedro Albizu Campos, who led the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, demanded a change in relations with the United States. Puerto Rico_sentence_163

He organized a protest at the University of Puerto Rico in 1935, in which four were killed by police. Puerto Rico_sentence_164

In 1936, U.S. senator Millard Tydings introduced a bill supporting independence for Puerto Rico; he had previously co-sponsored the Tydings–McDuffie Act, which provided independence to the Philippines following a 10-year transition period of limited autonomy. Puerto Rico_sentence_165

While virtually all Puerto Rican political parties supported the bill, it was opposed by Luis Muñoz Marín of the Liberal Party of Puerto Rico, leading to its defeat Puerto Rico_sentence_166

In 1937, Albizu Campos' party organized a protest in Ponce. Puerto Rico_sentence_167

The Insular Police, similar to the National Guard, opened fire upon unarmed cadets and bystanders alike. Puerto Rico_sentence_168

The attack on unarmed protesters was reported by U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_169

Congressman Vito Marcantonio and confirmed by a report from the Hays Commission, which investigated the events, led by Arthur Garfield Hays, counsel to the American Civil Liberties Union. Puerto Rico_sentence_170

Nineteen people were killed and over 200 were badly wounded, many shot in the back while running away. Puerto Rico_sentence_171

The Hays Commission declared it a massacre and police mob action, and it has since become known as the Ponce massacre. Puerto Rico_sentence_172

In the aftermath, on April 2, 1943, Tydings introduced another bill in Congress calling for independence for Puerto Rico, though it was again defeated. Puerto Rico_sentence_173

During the latter years of the RooseveltTruman administrations, the internal governance of the island was changed in a compromise reached with Luis Muñoz Marín and other Puerto Rican leaders. Puerto Rico_sentence_174

In 1946, President Truman appointed the first Puerto Rican-born governor, Jesús T. Piñero. Puerto Rico_sentence_175

Since 2007, the Puerto Rico State Department has developed a protocol to issue certificates of Puerto Rican citizenship to Puerto Ricans. Puerto Rico_sentence_176

In order to be eligible, applicants must have been born in Puerto Rico, born outside of Puerto Rico to a Puerto Rican–born parent, or be an American citizen with at least one year of residence in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_177

U.S. Commonwealth (1952–present) Puerto Rico_section_12

U.S. unincorporated organized territory with commonwealth constitution Puerto Rico_section_13

In 1947, the U.S. Congress passed the Elective Governor Act, signed by President Truman, allowing Puerto Ricans to vote for their own governor. Puerto Rico_sentence_178

The first elections under this act were held the following year, on November 2, 1948. Puerto Rico_sentence_179

On May 21, 1948, a bill was introduced before the Puerto Rican Senate which would restrain the rights of the independence and Nationalist movements on the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_180

The Senate, controlled by the Partido Popular Democrático (PPD) and presided by Luis Muñoz Marín, approved the bill that day. Puerto Rico_sentence_181

This bill, which resembled the anti-communist Smith Act passed in the United States in 1940, became known as the Ley de la Mordaza (Gag Law) when the U.S.-appointed governor of Puerto Rico, Jesús T. Piñero, signed it into law on June 10, 1948. Puerto Rico_sentence_182

Under this new law it would be a crime to print, publish, sell, or exhibit any material intended to paralyze or destroy the insular government; or to organize any society, group or assembly of people with a similar destructive intent. Puerto Rico_sentence_183

It made it illegal to sing a patriotic song, and reinforced the 1898 law that had made it illegal to display the Flag of Puerto Rico, with anyone found guilty of disobeying the law in any way being subject to a sentence of up to ten years imprisonment, a fine of up to US$10,000 (equivalent to $106,000 in 2019), or both. Puerto Rico_sentence_184

According to Dr. Leopoldo Figueroa, the only non-PPD member of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives, the law was repressive and in violation of the First Amendment of the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_185

Constitution, which guarantees Freedom of Speech. Puerto Rico_sentence_186

He asserted that the law as such was a violation of the civil rights of the people of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_187

The law was repealed in 1957. Puerto Rico_sentence_188

In the November 1948 election, Muñoz Marín became the first popularly elected governor of Puerto Rico, replacing U.S.-appointed Piñero on January 2, 1949. Puerto Rico_sentence_189

Estado Libre Asociado Puerto Rico_section_14

In 1950, the U.S. Congress granted Puerto Ricans the right to organize a constitutional convention via a referendum that gave them the option of voting their preference, "yes" or "no", on a proposed U.S. law that would organize Puerto Rico as a "commonwealth" that would continue United States sovereignty over Puerto Rico and its people. Puerto Rico_sentence_190

Puerto Rico's electorate expressed its support for this measure in 1951 with a second referendum to ratify the constitution. Puerto Rico_sentence_191

The Constitution of Puerto Rico was formally adopted on July 3, 1952. Puerto Rico_sentence_192

The Constitutional Convention specified the name by which the body politic would be known. Puerto Rico_sentence_193

On February 4, 1952, the convention approved Resolution 22 which chose in English the word Commonwealth, meaning a "politically organized community" or "state", which is simultaneously connected by a compact or treaty to another political system. Puerto Rico_sentence_194

Puerto Rico officially designates itself with the term "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico" in its constitution, as a translation into English of the term to "Estado Libre Asociado" (ELA). Puerto Rico_sentence_195

In 1967 Puerto Rico's Legislative Assembly polled the political preferences of the Puerto Rican electorate by passing a act that provided for a vote on the status of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_196

This constituted the first plebiscite by the Legislature for a choice among three status options (commonwealth, statehood, and independence). Puerto Rico_sentence_197

In subsequent plebiscites organized by Puerto Rico held in 1993 and 1998 (without any formal commitment on the part of the U.S. government to honor the results), the current political status failed to receive majority support. Puerto Rico_sentence_198

In 1993, Commonwealth status won by a plurality of votes (48.6% versus 46.3% for statehood), while the "none of the above" option, which was the Popular Democratic Party-sponsored choice, won in 1998 with 50.3% of the votes (versus 46.5% for statehood). Puerto Rico_sentence_199

Disputes arose as to the definition of each of the ballot alternatives, and Commonwealth advocates, among others, reportedly urged a vote for "none of the above". Puerto Rico_sentence_200

In 1950, the U.S. Congress approved Public Law 600 (P.L. 81-600), which allowed for a democratic referendum in Puerto Rico to determine whether Puerto Ricans desired to draft their own local constitution. Puerto Rico_sentence_201

This Act was meant to be adopted in the "nature of a compact". Puerto Rico_sentence_202

It required congressional approval of the Puerto Rico Constitution before it could go into effect, and repealed certain sections of the Organic Act of 1917. Puerto Rico_sentence_203

The sections of this statute left in force were entitled the Puerto Rican Federal Relations Act. Puerto Rico_sentence_204

U.S. Secretary of the Interior Oscar L. Chapman, under whose Department resided responsibility of Puerto Rican affairs, clarified the new commonwealth status in this manner: Puerto Rico_sentence_205

Puerto Rico_table_infobox_1

External videoPuerto Rico_header_cell_1_0_0

On October 30, 1950, Pedro Albizu Campos and other nationalists led a three-day revolt against the United States in various cities and towns of Puerto Rico, in what is known as the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party Revolts of the 1950s. Puerto Rico_sentence_206

The most notable occurred in Jayuya and Utuado. Puerto Rico_sentence_207

In the Jayuya revolt, known as the "Jayuya Uprising", the Puerto Rican governor declared martial law, and attacked the insurgents in Jayuya with infantry, artillery and bombers under control of the Puerto Rican commander. Puerto Rico_sentence_208

The "Utuado Uprising" culminated in what is known as the Utuado massacre. Puerto Rico_sentence_209

On November 1, 1950, Puerto Rican nationalists from New York City, Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo, attempted to assassinate President Harry S. Truman at his temporary residence of Blair House. Puerto Rico_sentence_210

Torresola was killed during the attack, but Collazo was wounded and captured. Puerto Rico_sentence_211

He was convicted of murder and sentenced to death, but President Truman commuted his sentence to life. Puerto Rico_sentence_212

After Collazo served 29 years in a federal prison, President Jimmy Carter commuted his sentence to times served and he was released in 1979. Puerto Rico_sentence_213

Pedro Albizu Campos served many years in a federal prison in Atlanta, for seditious conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. government in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_214

The Constitution of Puerto Rico was approved by a Constitutional Convention on February 6, 1952, and 82% of the voters in a March referendum. Puerto Rico_sentence_215

It was modified and ratified by the U.S. Congress, approved by President Truman on July 3 of that year, and proclaimed by Gov. Puerto Rico_sentence_216

Muñoz Marín on July 25, 1952. Puerto Rico_sentence_217

This was the anniversary of July 25, 1898, landing of U.S. troops in the Puerto Rican Campaign of the Spanish–American War, until then celebrated as an annual Puerto Rico holiday. Puerto Rico_sentence_218

Puerto Rico adopted the name of Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico (literally "Associated Free State of Puerto Rico"), officially translated into English as Commonwealth, for its body politic. Puerto Rico_sentence_219

"The United States Congress legislates over many fundamental aspects of Puerto Rican life, including citizenship, the currency, the postal service, foreign policy, military defense, communications, labor relations, the environment, commerce, finance, health and welfare, and many others." Puerto Rico_sentence_220

During the 1950s and 1960s, Puerto Rico experienced rapid industrialization, due in large part to Operación Manos a la Obra ("Operation Bootstrap"), an offshoot of FDR's New Deal. Puerto Rico_sentence_221

It was intended to transform Puerto Rico's economy from agriculture-based to manufacturing-based to provide more jobs. Puerto Rico_sentence_222

Puerto Rico has become a major tourist destination, as well as a global center for pharmaceutical manufacturing. Puerto Rico_sentence_223

21st century Puerto Rico_section_15

Further information: Proposed political status for Puerto Rico; Puerto Rican status referendum, 2012; President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status; and 2020 Puerto Rican status referendum Puerto Rico_sentence_224

On July 15, 2009, the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization approved a draft resolution calling on the government of the United States to expedite a process that would allow the Puerto Rican people to exercise fully their inalienable right to self-determination and independence. Puerto Rico_sentence_225

On November 6, 2012, a two-question referendum took place, simultaneous with the general elections. Puerto Rico_sentence_226

The first question, voted on in August, asked voters whether they wanted to maintain the current status under the territorial clause of the U.S. Constitution. Puerto Rico_sentence_227

54% voted against the status quo, effectively approving the second question to be voted on in November. Puerto Rico_sentence_228

The second question posed three alternate status options: statehood, independence, or free association. Puerto Rico_sentence_229

61.16% voted for statehood, 33.34% for a sovereign free associated state, and 5.49% for independence. Puerto Rico_sentence_230

On June 30, 2016, President Obama signed a new law approved by U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_231

Congress, H.R. 5278: PROMESA, establishing a Control Board over the Puerto Rico government. Puerto Rico_sentence_232

This board will have a significant degree of federal control involved in its establishment and operations. Puerto Rico_sentence_233

In particular, the authority to establish the control board derives from the federal government's constitutional power to "make all needful rules and regulations" regarding U.S. territories; The president would appoint all seven voting members of the board; and the board would have broad sovereign powers to effectively overrule decisions by Puerto Rico's legislature, governor, and other public authorities. Puerto Rico_sentence_234

Puerto Rico held its statehood referendum during the November 3 general elections, and voted to be admitted as the 51st US state. Puerto Rico_sentence_235

The ballot asked one question: Should Puerto Rico be admitted immediately into the Union as a State? Puerto Rico_sentence_236

The results showed that 52 percent of Puerto Rico voters answered yes. Puerto Rico_sentence_237

Environment Puerto Rico_section_16

Main articles: Geography of Puerto Rico and Geology of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_238

Puerto Rico consists of the main island of Puerto Rico and various smaller islands, including Vieques, Culebra, Mona, Desecheo, and Caja de Muertos. Puerto Rico_sentence_239

Of these five, only Culebra and Vieques are inhabited year-round. Puerto Rico_sentence_240

Mona, which has played a key role in maritime history, is uninhabited most of the year except for employees of the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources. Puerto Rico_sentence_241

There are many other even smaller islets, like Monito, which is near to Mona, Isla de Cabras and La Isleta de San Juan, both located on the San Juan Bay. Puerto Rico_sentence_242

The latter is the only inhabited islet with communities like Old San Juan and Puerta de Tierra, and connected to the main island by bridges. Puerto Rico_sentence_243

The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has an area of 5,320 square miles (13,800 km), of which 3,420 sq mi (8,900 km) is land and 1,900 sq mi (4,900 km) is water. Puerto Rico_sentence_244

Puerto Rico is larger than Delaware and Rhode Island. Puerto Rico_sentence_245

The maximum length of the main island from east to west is 110 mi (180 km), and the maximum width from north to south is 40 mi (64 km). Puerto Rico_sentence_246

Puerto Rico is the smallest of the Greater Antilles. Puerto Rico_sentence_247

It is 80% of the size of Jamaica, just over 18% of the size of Hispaniola and 8% of the size of Cuba, the largest of the Greater Antilles. Puerto Rico_sentence_248

The island is mostly mountainous with large coastal areas in the north and south. Puerto Rico_sentence_249

The main mountain range is called "La Cordillera Central" (The Central Range). Puerto Rico_sentence_250

The highest elevation in Puerto Rico, Cerro de Punta 4,390 feet (1,340 m), is located in this range. Puerto Rico_sentence_251

Another important peak is El Yunque, one of the highest in the Sierra de Luquillo at the El Yunque National Forest, with an elevation of 3,494 ft (1,065 m). Puerto Rico_sentence_252

Puerto Rico has 17 lakes, all man-made, and more than 50 rivers, most originating in the Cordillera Central. Puerto Rico_sentence_253

Rivers in the northern region of the island are typically longer and of higher water flow rates than those of the south, since the south receives less rain than the central and northern regions. Puerto Rico_sentence_254

Puerto Rico is composed of Cretaceous to Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks, overlain by younger Oligocene and more recent carbonates and other sedimentary rocks. Puerto Rico_sentence_255

Most of the caverns and karst topography on the island occurs in the northern region in the carbonates. Puerto Rico_sentence_256

The oldest rocks are approximately 190 million years old (Jurassic) and are located at Sierra Bermeja in the southwest part of the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_257

They may represent part of the oceanic crust and are believed to come from the Pacific Ocean realm. Puerto Rico_sentence_258

Puerto Rico lies at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates and is being deformed by the tectonic stresses caused by their interaction. Puerto Rico_sentence_259

These stresses may cause earthquakes and tsunamis. Puerto Rico_sentence_260

These seismic events, along with landslides, represent some of the most dangerous geologic hazards in the island and in the northeastern Caribbean. Puerto Rico_sentence_261

The 1918 San Fermín earthquake occurred on October 11, 1918, and had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale. Puerto Rico_sentence_262

It originated off the coast of Aguadilla, several kilometers off the northern coast, and was accompanied by a tsunami. Puerto Rico_sentence_263

It caused extensive property damage and widespread losses, damaging infrastructure, especially bridges. Puerto Rico_sentence_264

It resulted in an estimated 116 deaths and $4 million in property damage. Puerto Rico_sentence_265

The failure of the government to move rapidly to provide for the general welfare contributed to political activism by opponents and eventually to the rise of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party. Puerto Rico_sentence_266

On January 7, 2020, the country experienced its second largest earthquake, estimated at a 6.4 on the Richter scale. Puerto Rico_sentence_267

Its estimated economic loss is more than $100 million. Puerto Rico_sentence_268

The Puerto Rico Trench, the largest and deepest trench in the Atlantic, is located about 71 mi (114 km) north of Puerto Rico at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates. Puerto Rico_sentence_269

It is 170 mi (270 km) long. Puerto Rico_sentence_270

At its deepest point, named the Milwaukee Deep, it is almost 27,600 ft (8,400 m) deep. Puerto Rico_sentence_271

Climate Puerto Rico_section_17

Main article: Climate of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_272

The climate of Puerto Rico in the Köppen climate classification is tropical rainforest. Puerto Rico_sentence_273

Temperatures are warm to hot year round, averaging near 85 °F (29 °C) in lower elevations and 70 °F (21 °C) in the mountains. Puerto Rico_sentence_274

Easterly trade winds pass across the island year round. Puerto Rico_sentence_275

Puerto Rico has a rainy season which stretches from April into November. Puerto Rico_sentence_276

The mountains of the Cordillera Central are the main cause of the variations in the temperature and rainfall that occur over very short distances. Puerto Rico_sentence_277

The mountains can also cause wide variation in local wind speed and direction due to their sheltering and channeling effects adding to the climatic variation. Puerto Rico_sentence_278

The island has an average temperature of 82.4 °F (28 °C) throughout the year, with an average minimum temperature of 66.9 °F (19 °C) and maximum of 85.4 °F (30 °C). Puerto Rico_sentence_279

Daily temperature changes seasonally are quite small in the lowlands and coastal areas. Puerto Rico_sentence_280

The temperature in the south is usually a few degrees higher than those in the north and temperatures in the central interior mountains are always cooler than those on the rest of the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_281

Between the dry and wet season, there is a temperature change of around 6 °F (3.3 °C). Puerto Rico_sentence_282

This change is due mainly to the warm waters of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, which significantly modify cooler air moving in from the north and northwest. Puerto Rico_sentence_283

Coastal waters temperatures around the years are about 75 °F (24 °C) in February to 85 °F (29 °C) in August. Puerto Rico_sentence_284

The highest temperature ever recorded was 99 °F (37 °C) at Arecibo, while the lowest temperature ever recorded was 40 °F (4 °C) in the mountains at Adjuntas, Aibonito, and Corozal. Puerto Rico_sentence_285

The average yearly precipitation is 66 in (1,676 mm). Puerto Rico_sentence_286

Hurricanes Puerto Rico_section_18

Puerto Rico experiences the Atlantic hurricane season, similar to the remainder of the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic oceans. Puerto Rico_sentence_287

On average, a quarter of its annual rainfall is contributed from tropical cyclones, which are more prevalent during periods of La Niña than El Niño. Puerto Rico_sentence_288

A cyclone of tropical storm strength passes near Puerto Rico, on average, every five years. Puerto Rico_sentence_289

A hurricane passes in the vicinity of the island, on average, every seven years. Puerto Rico_sentence_290

Since 1851, the Lake Okeechobee Hurricane (also known as the San Felipe Segundo hurricane in Puerto Rico) of September 1928 is the only hurricane to make landfall as a Category 5 hurricane. Puerto Rico_sentence_291

In the busy 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Puerto Rico avoided a direct hit by the Category 5 Hurricane Irma on September 6, 2017, as it passed about 60 mi (97 km) north of Puerto Rico, but high winds caused a loss of electrical power to some one million residents. Puerto Rico_sentence_292

Almost 50% of hospitals were operating with power provided by generators. Puerto Rico_sentence_293

The Category 4 Hurricane Jose, as expected, veered away from Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_294

A short time later, the devastating Hurricane Maria made landfall on Puerto Rico on Wednesday, September 20, near the Yabucoa municipality at 10:15 UTC (6:15 am local time) as a high-end Category 4 hurricane with sustained winds of 155 mph (250 km/h), powerful rains and widespread flooding causing tremendous destruction, including the electrical grid, which would remain out for 4–6 months in many portions of the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_295

Hurricane Dorian was the third hurricane in three years to hit Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_296

The recovering infrastructure from the 2017 hurricanes, as well as new governor Wanda Vázquez Garced, were put to the test against a potential humanitarian crisis. Puerto Rico_sentence_297

Climate change Puerto Rico_section_19

Biodiversity Puerto Rico_section_20

Main articles: Fauna of Puerto Rico and Flora of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_298

Species endemic to the archipelago number 239 plants, 16 birds and 39 amphibians/reptiles, recognized as of 1998. Puerto Rico_sentence_299

Most of these (234, 12 and 33 respectively) are found on the main island. Puerto Rico_sentence_300

The most recognizable endemic species and a symbol of Puerto Rican pride is the coquí, a small frog easily identified by the sound of its call, from which it gets its name. Puerto Rico_sentence_301

Most coquí species (13 of 17) live in the El Yunque National Forest, a tropical rainforest in the northeast of the island previously known as the Caribbean National Forest. Puerto Rico_sentence_302

El Yunque is home to more than 240 plants, 26 of which are endemic to the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_303

It is also home to 50 bird species, including the critically endangered Puerto Rican amazon. Puerto Rico_sentence_304

Across the island in the southwest, the 15 sq mi (39 km) of dry land at the Guánica Commonwealth Forest Reserve contain over 600 uncommon species of plants and animals, including 48 endangered species and 16 endemic to Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_305

Puerto Rico has three bioluminescent bays: rare bodies of water occupied by microscopic marine organisms that glow when touched. Puerto Rico_sentence_306

However, tourism, pollution, and hurricanes have threatened the organisms. Puerto Rico_sentence_307

Demographics Puerto Rico_section_21

Main articles: Demographics of Puerto Rico and Cultural diversity in Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_308

The population of Puerto Rico has been shaped by initial Amerindian settlement, European colonization, slavery, economic migration, and Puerto Rico's status as unincorporated territory of the United States. Puerto Rico_sentence_309

Population makeup Puerto Rico_section_22

Main article: Puerto Rican people Puerto Rico_sentence_310

The estimated population of Puerto Rico as of July 1, 2019 was 3,193,694, a 14.28% decrease since the 2010 United States Census. Puerto Rico_sentence_311

From 2000 to 2010, the population declined for the first time in census history for Puerto Rico, from 3,808,610 to 3,725,789. Puerto Rico_sentence_312

Continuous European immigration and high natural increase helped the population of Puerto Rico grow from 155,426 in 1800 to almost a million by the close of the 19th century. Puerto Rico_sentence_313

A census conducted by royal decree on September 30, 1858, gave the following totals of the Puerto Rican population at that time: 341,015 were free colored; 300,430 identified as Whites; and 41,736 were slaves. Puerto Rico_sentence_314

A census in 1887 found a population of around 800,000, of which 320,000 were black. Puerto Rico_sentence_315

During the 19th century, hundreds of families arrived in Puerto Rico, primarily from the Canary Islands and Andalusia, but also from other parts of Spain such as Catalonia, Asturias, Galicia and the Balearic Islands and numerous Spanish loyalists from Spain's former colonies in South America. Puerto Rico_sentence_316

Settlers from outside Spain also arrived in the islands, including from Corsica, France, Lebanon, China, Portugal, Ireland, Scotland, Germany and Italy. Puerto Rico_sentence_317

This immigration from non-Hispanic countries was the result of the Real Cedula de Gracias de 1815 ("Royal Decree of Graces of 1815"), which allowed European Catholics to settle in the island with land allotments in the interior of the island, provided they paid taxes and continued to support the Catholic Church. Puerto Rico_sentence_318

Between 1960 and 1990 the census questionnaire in Puerto Rico did not ask about race or ethnicity. Puerto Rico_sentence_319

The 2000 United States Census included a racial self-identification question in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_320

According to the census, most Puerto Ricans identified as White and Hispanic; few identified as Black or some other race. Puerto Rico_sentence_321

Population genetics Puerto Rico_section_23

A group of researchers from Puerto Rican universities conducted a study of mitochondrial DNA that revealed that the modern population of Puerto Rico has a high genetic component of Taíno and Guanche (especially of the island of Tenerife). Puerto Rico_sentence_322

Other studies show Amerindian ancestry in addition to the Taíno. Puerto Rico_sentence_323

One genetic study on the racial makeup of Puerto Ricans (including all races) found them to be roughly around 61% West Eurasian/North African (overwhelmingly of Spanish provenance), 27% Sub-Saharan African and 11% Native American. Puerto Rico_sentence_324

Another genetic study from 2007, claimed that "the average genomewide individual (ie. Puerto Rican) ancestry proportions have been estimated as 66%, 18%, and 16%, for European, West African, and Native American, respectively." Puerto Rico_sentence_325

Another study estimates 63.7% European, 21.2% (Sub-Saharan) African, and 15.2% Native American; European ancestry is more prevalent in the West and in Central Puerto Rico, African in Eastern Puerto Rico, and Native American in Northern Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_326

Literacy Puerto Rico_section_24

A Pew Research survey indicated an adult literacy rate of 90.4% in 2012 based on data from the United Nations. Puerto Rico_sentence_327

Life expectancy Puerto Rico_section_25

Puerto Rico has a life expectancy of approximately 81.0 years according to the CIA World Factbook, an improvement from 78.7 years in 2010. Puerto Rico_sentence_328

This means Puerto Rico has the second highest life expectancy in the United States, if territories are taken into account. Puerto Rico_sentence_329

Immigration and emigration Puerto Rico_section_26

Puerto Rico_table_general_2

Racial groupsPuerto Rico_cell_2_0_0
YearPuerto Rico_header_cell_2_1_0 PopulationPuerto Rico_header_cell_2_1_1 WhitePuerto Rico_header_cell_2_1_2 Mixed (mainly biracial white European and black African )Puerto Rico_header_cell_2_1_3 BlackPuerto Rico_header_cell_2_1_4 AsianPuerto Rico_header_cell_2_1_5 OtherPuerto Rico_header_cell_2_1_6
2000Puerto Rico_cell_2_2_0 3,808,610Puerto Rico_cell_2_2_1 80.5% (3 064 862)Puerto Rico_cell_2_2_2 11.0% (418 426)Puerto Rico_cell_2_2_3 8.0% (302 933)Puerto Rico_cell_2_2_4 0.2% (7 960)Puerto Rico_cell_2_2_5 0.4% (14 429)Puerto Rico_cell_2_2_6
2010Puerto Rico_cell_2_3_0 3,725,789Puerto Rico_cell_2_3_1 75.8% ('2 824 148)Puerto Rico_cell_2_3_2 11.1% ('413 563)Puerto Rico_cell_2_3_3 12.4% ('461 998)Puerto Rico_cell_2_3_4 0.2% ('7 452)Puerto Rico_cell_2_3_5 0.6% ('22 355)Puerto Rico_cell_2_3_6
2016Puerto Rico_cell_2_4_0 3,195,153Puerto Rico_cell_2_4_1 68.9% ('2 201 460)Puerto Rico_cell_2_4_2 (')Puerto Rico_cell_2_4_3 9.8% ('313 125)Puerto Rico_cell_2_4_4 0.2% ('6 390)Puerto Rico_cell_2_4_5 0.8% ('25 561)Puerto Rico_cell_2_4_6

As of 2019, Puerto Rico was home to 100,000 permanent legal residents. Puerto Rico_sentence_330

The vast majority of recent immigrants, both legal and illegal, come from the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Puerto Rico_sentence_331

Other major sources of recent immigrants include Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, Panama, Jamaica, Venezuela, Spain, and Nigeria. Puerto Rico_sentence_332

Additionally, there are many non-Puerto Rican U.S. citizens settling in Puerto Rico from the mainland United States and the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_333

Virgin Islands, as well as Nuyoricans (stateside Puerto Ricans) coming back. Puerto Rico_sentence_334

Most recent immigrants settle in and around San Juan. Puerto Rico_sentence_335

Emigration is a major part of contemporary Puerto Rican history. Puerto Rico_sentence_336

Starting soon after World War II, poverty, cheap airfares, and promotion by the island government caused waves of Puerto Ricans to move to the United States mainland, particularly to the northeastern states and nearby Florida. Puerto Rico_sentence_337

This trend continued even as Puerto Rico's economy improved and its birth rate declined. Puerto Rico_sentence_338

Puerto Ricans continue to follow a pattern of "circular migration", with some migrants returning to the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_339

In recent years, the population has declined markedly, falling nearly 1% in 2012 and an additional 1% (36,000 people) in 2013 due to a falling birthrate and emigration. Puerto Rico_sentence_340

The impact of hurricanes Maria and Irma in 2017, combined with the unincorporated territory's worsening economy, led to its greatest population decline since the U.S. acquired the archipelago. Puerto Rico_sentence_341

According to the 2010 Census, the number of Puerto Ricans living in the United States outside of Puerto Rico far exceeds those living in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_342

Emigration exceeds immigration. Puerto Rico_sentence_343

As those who leave tend to be better educated than those who remain, this accentuates the drain on Puerto Rico's economy. Puerto Rico_sentence_344

Based on the July 1, 2019 estimate by the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_345

Census Bureau, the population of the Commonwealth had declined by 532,095 people since the 2010 Census data had been tabulated. Puerto Rico_sentence_346

Population distribution Puerto Rico_section_27

The most populous city is the capital, San Juan, with 318,441 people based on a 2019 estimate by the Census Bureau. Puerto Rico_sentence_347

Other major cities include Bayamón, Carolina, Ponce, and Caguas. Puerto Rico_sentence_348

Of the ten most populous cities on the island, eight are located within what is considered San Juan's metropolitan area, while the other two are located in the south (Ponce) and west (Mayagüez) of the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_349

Languages Puerto Rico_section_28

Main articles: Puerto Rican Spanish and English language in Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_350

The official languages of the executive branch of government of Puerto Rico are Spanish and English, with Spanish being the primary language. Puerto Rico_sentence_351

Spanish is, and has been, the only official language of the entire Commonwealth judiciary system, despite a 1902 English-only language law. Puerto Rico_sentence_352

However, all official business of the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_353

District Court for the District of Puerto Rico is conducted in English. Puerto Rico_sentence_354

English is the primary language of less than 10% of the population. Puerto Rico_sentence_355

Spanish is the dominant language of business, education and daily life on the island, spoken by nearly 95% of the population. Puerto Rico_sentence_356

The U.S. Census Bureau's 2016 update provides the following facts: 94.3% of adults speak only Spanish at home, which compares to 5.5% who speak English, 0.2% who speak French, and 0.1% who speak another language at home. Puerto Rico_sentence_357

In Puerto Rico, public school instruction is conducted almost entirely in Spanish. Puerto Rico_sentence_358

There have been pilot programs in about a dozen of the over 1,400 public schools aimed at conducting instruction in English only. Puerto Rico_sentence_359

Objections from teaching staff are common, perhaps because many of them are not fully fluent in English. Puerto Rico_sentence_360

English is taught as a second language and is a compulsory subject from elementary levels to high school. Puerto Rico_sentence_361

The languages of the deaf community are American Sign Language and its local variant, Puerto Rican Sign Language. Puerto Rico_sentence_362

The Spanish of Puerto Rico has evolved into having many idiosyncrasies in vocabulary and syntax that differentiate it from the Spanish spoken elsewhere. Puerto Rico_sentence_363

As a product of Puerto Rican history, the island possesses a unique Spanish dialect. Puerto Rico_sentence_364

Puerto Rican Spanish utilizes many Taíno words, as well as English words. Puerto Rico_sentence_365

The largest influence on the Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico is that of the Canary Islands. Puerto Rico_sentence_366

Taíno loanwords are most often used in the context of vegetation, natural phenomena, and native musical instruments. Puerto Rico_sentence_367

Similarly, words attributed to primarily West African languages were adopted in the contexts of foods, music, and dances, particularly in coastal towns with concentrations of descendants of Sub-Saharan Africans. Puerto Rico_sentence_368

Religion Puerto Rico_section_29

The Roman Catholic Church was brought by Spanish colonists and gradually became the dominant religion in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_369

The first dioceses in the Americas, including that of Puerto Rico, were authorized by Pope Julius II in 1511. Puerto Rico_sentence_370

In 1512, priests were established for the parrochial churches. Puerto Rico_sentence_371

By 1759, there was a priest for each church. Puerto Rico_sentence_372

One Pope, John Paul II, visited Puerto Rico in October 1984. Puerto Rico_sentence_373

All municipalities in Puerto Rico have at least one Catholic church, most of which are located at the town center, or plaza. Puerto Rico_sentence_374

Protestantism, which was suppressed under the Spanish Catholic regime, has reemerged under United States rule, making contemporary Puerto Rico more interconfessional than in previous centuries, although Catholicism continues to be the dominant religion. Puerto Rico_sentence_375

The first Protestant church, Iglesia de la Santísima Trinidad, was established in Ponce by the Anglican Diocese of Antigua in 1872. Puerto Rico_sentence_376

It was the first non-Roman Catholic Church in the entire Spanish Empire in the Americas. Puerto Rico_sentence_377

Pollster Pablo Ramos stated in 1998 that the population was 38% Roman Catholic, 28% Pentecostal, and 18% were members of independent churches, which would give a Protestant percentage of 46% if the last two populations are combined. Puerto Rico_sentence_378

Protestants collectively added up to almost two million people. Puerto Rico_sentence_379

Another researcher gave a more conservative assessment of the proportion of Protestants: Puerto Rico_sentence_380

An Associated Press article in March 2014 stated that "more than 70 percent of whom identify themselves as Catholic" but provided no source for this information. Puerto Rico_sentence_381

The CIA World Factbook reports that 85% of the population of Puerto Rico identifies as Roman Catholic, while 15% identify as Protestant and Other. Puerto Rico_sentence_382

Neither a date or a source for that information is provided and may not be recent. Puerto Rico_sentence_383

A 2013 Pew Research survey found that only about 45% of Puerto Rican adults identified themselves as Catholic, 29% as Protestant and 20% as unaffiliated with a religion. Puerto Rico_sentence_384

The people surveyed by Pew consisted of Puerto Ricans living in the 50 states and DC and may not be indicative of those living in the Commonwealth. Puerto Rico_sentence_385

By 2014, a Pew Research report, with the sub-title Widespread Change in a Historically Catholic Region, indicated that only 56% of Puerto Ricans were Catholic and that 33% were Protestant; this survey was completed between October 2013 and February 2014. Puerto Rico_sentence_386

An Eastern Orthodox community, the Dormition of the Most Holy Theotokos / St. Spyridon's Church is located in Trujillo Alto, and serves the small Orthodox community. Puerto Rico_sentence_387

This affiliation accounted for under 1% of the population in 2010 according to the Pew Research report. Puerto Rico_sentence_388

In 1940, Juanita García Peraza founded the Mita Congregation, the first religion of Puerto Rican origin. Puerto Rico_sentence_389

Taíno religious practices have been rediscovered/reinvented to a degree by a handful of advocates. Puerto Rico_sentence_390

Similarly, some aspects of African religious traditions have been kept by some adherents. Puerto Rico_sentence_391

African slaves brought and maintained various ethnic African religious practices associated with different peoples; in particular, the Yoruba beliefs of Santería and/or Ifá, and the Kongo-derived Palo Mayombe. Puerto Rico_sentence_392

Some aspects were absorbed into syncretic Christianity. Puerto Rico_sentence_393

In 1952, a handful of American Jews established the island's first synagogue; this religion accounts for under 1% of the population in 2010 according to the Pew Research report. Puerto Rico_sentence_394

The synagogue, called Sha'are Zedeck, hired its first rabbi in 1954. Puerto Rico_sentence_395

Puerto Rico has the largest Jewish community in the Caribbean, numbering 3000 people, and is the only Caribbean island in which the Conservative, Reform and Orthodox Jewish movements all are represented. Puerto Rico_sentence_396

In 2007, there were about 5,000 Muslims in Puerto Rico, representing about 0.13% of the population. Puerto Rico_sentence_397

Eight mosques are located throughout the island, with most Muslims living in Río Piedras and Caguas; most Muslims are of Palestinian and Jordanian descent. Puerto Rico_sentence_398

There is also a Baháʼí community. Puerto Rico_sentence_399

In 2015, the 25,832 Jehovah's Witnesses represented about 0.70% of the population, with 324 congregations. Puerto Rico_sentence_400

The Padmasambhava Buddhist Center, whose followers practice Tibetan Buddhism, as well as Nichiren Buddhism have branches in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_401

There are several atheist activist and educational organizations, and an atheistic parody religion called the Pastafarian Church of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_402

An ISKCON temple in Gurabo is devoted to Krishna Consciousness, with two preaching centers in the metropolitan area. Puerto Rico_sentence_403

Government Puerto Rico_section_30

Main articles: Government of Puerto Rico and Politics of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_404

Puerto Rico has 8 senatorial districts, 40 representative districts and 78 municipalities. Puerto Rico_sentence_405

It has a republican form of government with separation of powers subject to the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United States. Puerto Rico_sentence_406

Its current powers are all delegated by the United States Congress and lack full protection under the United States Constitution. Puerto Rico_sentence_407

Puerto Rico's head of state is the president of the United States. Puerto Rico_sentence_408

The government of Puerto Rico, based on the formal republican system, is composed of three branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial branch. Puerto Rico_sentence_409

The executive branch is headed by the governor, currently Wanda Vázquez Garced. Puerto Rico_sentence_410

The legislative branch consists of a bicameral legislature called the Legislative Assembly, made up of a Senate as its upper chamber and a House of Representatives as its lower chamber. Puerto Rico_sentence_411

The Senate is headed by the president of the Senate, currently Thomas Rivera Schatz, while the House of Representatives is headed by the speaker of the House, currently Carlos Johnny Méndez. Puerto Rico_sentence_412

The governor and legislators are elected by popular vote every four years with the last election held in November 2016. Puerto Rico_sentence_413

The judicial branch is headed by the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, currently Maite Oronoz Rodríguez. Puerto Rico_sentence_414

Members of the judicial branch are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate. Puerto Rico_sentence_415

Puerto Rico is represented in the United States Congress by a nonvoting delegate, the resident commissioner, currently Jenniffer González. Puerto Rico_sentence_416

Current congressional rules have removed the commissioner's power to vote in the Committee of the Whole, but the commissioner can vote in committee. Puerto Rico_sentence_417

Puerto Rican elections are governed by the Federal Election Commission and the State Elections Commission of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_418

While residing in Puerto Rico, Puerto Ricans cannot vote in U.S. presidential elections, but they can vote in primaries. Puerto Rico_sentence_419

Puerto Ricans who become residents of a U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_420

state can vote in presidential elections. Puerto Rico_sentence_421

Puerto Rico hosts consulates from 41 countries, mainly from the Americas and Europe, with most located in San Juan. Puerto Rico_sentence_422

Puerto Rico does not have any first-order administrative divisions as defined by the U.S. government, but has 78 municipalities at the second level. Puerto Rico_sentence_423

Mona Island is not a municipality, but part of the municipality of Mayagüez. Puerto Rico_sentence_424

Municipalities are subdivided into wards or barrios, and those into sectors. Puerto Rico_sentence_425

Each municipality has a mayor and a municipal legislature elected for a four-year term. Puerto Rico_sentence_426

The municipality of San Juan (previously called "town"), was founded first, in 1521, San Germán in 1570, Coamo in 1579, Arecibo in 1614, Aguada in 1692 and Ponce in 1692. Puerto Rico_sentence_427

An increase of settlement saw the founding of 30 municipalities in the 18th century and 34 in the 19th. Puerto Rico_sentence_428

Six were founded in the 20th century; the last was Florida in 1971. Puerto Rico_sentence_429

Political parties and elections Puerto Rico_section_31

Main article: Political party strength in Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_430

Since 1952, Puerto Rico has had three main political parties: the Popular Democratic Party (PPD in Spanish), the New Progressive Party (PNP in Spanish) and the Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP). Puerto Rico_sentence_431

The three parties stand for different political status. Puerto Rico_sentence_432

The PPD, for example, seeks to maintain the island's status with the U.S. as a commonwealth, while the PNP, on the other hand, seeks to make Puerto Rico a state of the United States. Puerto Rico_sentence_433

The PIP, in contrast, seeks a complete separation from the United States by seeking to make Puerto Rico a sovereign nation. Puerto Rico_sentence_434

In terms of party strength, the PPD and PNP usually hold about 47% of the vote each while the PIP holds only about 5%. Puerto Rico_sentence_435

After 2007, other parties emerged on the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_436

The first, the Puerto Ricans for Puerto Rico Party (PPR in Spanish) was registered that same year. Puerto Rico_sentence_437

The party claims that it seeks to address the islands' problems from a status-neutral platform. Puerto Rico_sentence_438

But it ceased to remain as a registered party when it failed to obtain the required number of votes in the 2008 general election. Puerto Rico_sentence_439

Four years later, the 2012 election saw the emergence of the Movimiento Unión Soberanista (MUS; English: Sovereign Union Movement) and the Partido del Pueblo Trabajador (PPT; English: Working People's Party) but none obtained more than 1% of the vote. Puerto Rico_sentence_440

Other non-registered parties include the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, the Socialist Workers Movement, and the Hostosian National Independence Movement. Puerto Rico_sentence_441

Law Puerto Rico_section_32

Main articles: Constitution of Puerto Rico and Law of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_442

The insular legal system is a blend of civil law and the common law systems. Puerto Rico_sentence_443

Puerto Rico is the only current U.S. possession whose legal system operates primarily in a language other than American English: namely, Spanish. Puerto Rico_sentence_444

Because the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_445

federal government operates primarily in English, all Puerto Rican attorneys must be bilingual in order to litigate in English in U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_446

federal courts, and litigate federal preemption issues in Puerto Rican courts. Puerto Rico_sentence_447

Title 48 of the United States Code outlines the role of the United States Code to United States territories and insular areas such as Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_448

After the U.S. government assumed control of Puerto Rico in 1901, it initiated legal reforms resulting in the adoption of codes of criminal law, criminal procedure, and civil procedure modeled after those then in effect in California. Puerto Rico_sentence_449

Although Puerto Rico has since followed the federal example of transferring criminal and civil procedure from statutory law to rules promulgated by the judiciary, several portions of its criminal law still reflect the influence of the California Penal Code. Puerto Rico_sentence_450

The judicial branch is headed by the chief justice of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court, which is the only appellate court required by the Constitution. Puerto Rico_sentence_451

All other courts are created by the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_452

There is also a Federal District Court for Puerto Rico, and someone accused of a criminal act at the federal level may not be accused for the same act in a Commonwealth court, and vice-versa, since Puerto Rico as an unincorporated territory lacks sovereignty separate from Congress as a state does. Puerto Rico_sentence_453

Such a parallel accusation would constitute double jeopardy. Puerto Rico_sentence_454

Political status Puerto Rico_section_33

Main articles: Political status of Puerto Rico and Proposed political status for Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_455

The nature of Puerto Rico's political relationship with the U.S. is the subject of ongoing debate in Puerto Rico, the United States Congress, and the United Nations. Puerto Rico_sentence_456

Specifically, the basic question is whether Puerto Rico should remain an unincorporated territory of the U.S., become a U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_457

state, or become an independent country. Puerto Rico_sentence_458

Within the United States Puerto Rico_section_34

Constitutionally, Puerto Rico is subject to the plenary powers of the United States Congress under the territorial clause of Article IV of the U.S. Constitution. Puerto Rico_sentence_459

Laws enacted at the federal level in the United States apply to Puerto Rico as well, regardless of its political status. Puerto Rico_sentence_460

Their residents do not have voting representation in the U.S. Congress. Puerto Rico_sentence_461

Like the different states of the United States, Puerto Rico lacks "the full sovereignty of an independent nation", for example, the power to manage its "external relations with other nations", which is held by the U.S. federal government. Puerto Rico_sentence_462

The Supreme Court of the United States has indicated that once the U.S. Constitution has been extended to an area (by Congress or the courts), its coverage is irrevocable. Puerto Rico_sentence_463

To hold that the political branches may switch the Constitution on or off at will would lead to a regime in which they, not this Court, say "what the law is". Puerto Rico_sentence_464

Puerto Ricans "were collectively made U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_465

citizens" in 1917 as a result of the Jones-Shafroth Act. Puerto Rico_sentence_466

U.S. citizens residing in Puerto Rico cannot vote for the U.S. president, though both major parties, Republican and Democratic, run primary elections in Puerto Rico to send delegates to vote on a presidential candidate. Puerto Rico_sentence_467

Since Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory (see above) and not a U.S. state, the United States Constitution does not fully enfranchise U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_468

citizens residing in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_469

Only fundamental rights under the American federal constitution and adjudications are applied to Puerto Ricans. Puerto Rico_sentence_470

Various other U.S. Supreme Court decisions have held which rights apply in Puerto Rico and which ones do not. Puerto Rico_sentence_471

Puerto Ricans have a long history of service in the U.S. Armed Forces and, since 1917, they have been included in the U.S. compulsory draft whensoever it has been in effect. Puerto Rico_sentence_472

Though the Commonwealth government has its own tax laws, Puerto Ricans are also required to pay many kinds of U.S. federal taxes, not including the federal personal income tax for Puerto Rico-sourced income, but only under certain circumstances. Puerto Rico_sentence_473

In 2009, Puerto Rico paid $3.742 billion into the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_474

Treasury. Puerto Rico_sentence_475

Residents of Puerto Rico pay into Social Security, and are thus eligible for Social Security benefits upon retirement. Puerto Rico_sentence_476

They are excluded from the Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and the island actually receives a smaller fraction of the Medicaid funding it would receive if it were a U.S. state. Puerto Rico_sentence_477

Also, Medicare providers receive less-than-full state-like reimbursements for services rendered to beneficiaries in Puerto Rico, even though the latter paid fully into the system. Puerto Rico_sentence_478

While a state may try an individual for the same crime he/she was tried in federal court, this is not the case in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_479

Being an unincorporated territory of the U.S., Puerto Rico's authority to enact a criminal code derives from Congress and not from local sovereignty as with the states. Puerto Rico_sentence_480

Thus, such a parallel accusation would constitute double jeopardy and is constitutionally impermissible. Puerto Rico_sentence_481

In 1992, President George H. W. Bush issued a memorandum to heads of executive departments and agencies establishing the current administrative relationship between the federal government and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_482

This memorandum directs all federal departments, agencies, and officials to treat Puerto Rico administratively as if it were a state, insofar as doing so would not disrupt federal programs or operations. Puerto Rico_sentence_483

Many federal executive branch agencies have significant presence in Puerto Rico, just as in any state, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Transportation Security Administration, Social Security Administration, and others. Puerto Rico_sentence_484

While Puerto Rico has its own Commonwealth judicial system similar to that of a U.S. state, there is also a U.S. federal district court in Puerto Rico, and Puerto Ricans have served as judges in that Court and in other federal courts on the U.S. mainland regardless of their residency status at the time of their appointment. Puerto Rico_sentence_485

Sonia Sotomayor, a New Yorker of Puerto Rican descent, serves as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Puerto Rico_sentence_486

Puerto Ricans have also been frequently appointed to high-level federal positions, including serving as United States ambassadors to other nations. Puerto Rico_sentence_487

Foreign and intergovernmental relations Puerto Rico_section_35

Military Puerto Rico_section_36

Main article: Military of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_488

As it is an unincorporated territory of the United States, the defense of Puerto Rico is provided by the United States as part of the Treaty of Paris with the president of the United States as its commander-in-chief. Puerto Rico_sentence_489

Puerto Rico has its own Puerto Rico National Guard, and its own state defense force, the Puerto Rico State Guard, which by local law is under the authority of the Puerto Rico National Guard. Puerto Rico_sentence_490

The commander-in-chief of both local forces is the governor of Puerto Rico who delegates his authority to the Puerto Rico adjutant general, currently Major General José J. Reyes. Puerto Rico_sentence_491

The Adjutant General, in turn, delegates the authority over the State Guard to another officer but retains the authority over the Puerto Rico National Guard as a whole. Puerto Rico_sentence_492

U.S. military installations in Puerto Rico were part of the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_493

Atlantic Command (LANTCOM after 1993 USACOM), which had authority over all U.S. military operations that took place throughout the Atlantic. Puerto Rico_sentence_494

Puerto Rico had been seen as crucial in supporting LANTCOM's mission until 1999, when U.S. Atlantic Command was renamed and given a new mission as United States Joint Forces Command. Puerto Rico_sentence_495

Puerto Rico is currently under the responsibility of United States Northern Command. Puerto Rico_sentence_496

Both the Naval Forces Caribbean (NFC) and the Fleet Air Caribbean (FAIR) were formerly based at the Roosevelt Roads Naval Station. Puerto Rico_sentence_497

The NFC had authority over all U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_498

Naval activity in the waters of the Caribbean while FAIR had authority over all U.S. military flights and air operations over the Caribbean. Puerto Rico_sentence_499

With the closing of the Roosevelt Roads and Vieques Island training facilities, the U.S. Navy has basically exited from Puerto Rico, except for the ships that steam by, and the only significant military presence in the island is the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_500

Army at Ft Buchanan, the Puerto Rican Army and Air National Guards, and the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_501

Coast Guard. Puerto Rico_sentence_502

Protests over the noise of bombing practice forced the closure of the naval base. Puerto Rico_sentence_503

This resulted in a loss of 6,000 jobs and an annual decrease in local income of $300 million. Puerto Rico_sentence_504

A branch of the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_505

Army National Guard is stationed in Puerto Rico – known as the Puerto Rico Army National Guard – which performs missions equivalent to those of the Army National Guards of the different states of the United States, including ground defense, disaster relief, and control of civil unrest. Puerto Rico_sentence_506

The local National Guard also incorporates a branch of the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_507

Air National Guard – known as the Puerto Rico Air National Guard – which performs missions equivalent to those of the Air National Guards of each one of the U.S. states. Puerto Rico_sentence_508

At different times in the 20th century, the U.S. had about 25 military or naval installations in Puerto Rico, some very small ones, as well as large installations. Puerto Rico_sentence_509

The largest of these installations were the former Roosevelt Roads Naval Station in Ceiba, the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facility (AFWTF) on Vieques, the National Guard training facility at Camp Santiago in Salinas, Fort Allen in Juana Diaz, the Army's Fort Buchanan in San Juan, the former U.S. Air Force Ramey Air Force Base in Aguadilla, and the Puerto Rico Air National Guard at Muñiz Air Force base in San Juan. Puerto Rico_sentence_510

The former U.S. Navy facilities at Roosevelt Roads, Vieques, and Sabana Seca have been deactivated and partially turned over to the local government. Puerto Rico_sentence_511

Other than U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_512

Coast Guard and Puerto Rico National Guard facilities, there are only two remaining military installations in Puerto Rico: the U.S. Army's small Ft. Buchanan (supporting local veterans and reserve units) and the PRANG (Puerto Rico Air National Guard) Muñiz Air Base (the C-130 Fleet). Puerto Rico_sentence_513

In recent years, the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_514

Congress has considered their deactivations, but these have been opposed by diverse public and private entities in Puerto Rico – such as retired military who rely on Ft. Buchanan for the services available there. Puerto Rico_sentence_515

Puerto Ricans have participated in many of the military conflicts in which the United States has been involved. Puerto Rico_sentence_516

For example, they participated in the American Revolution, when volunteers from Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Mexico fought the British in 1779 under the command of General Bernardo de Gálvez (1746–1786), and have continued to participate up to the present-day conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Puerto Rico_sentence_517

A significant number of Puerto Ricans participate as members and work for the U.S. Armed Services, largely as National Guard members and civilian employees. Puerto Rico_sentence_518

The size of the overall military-related community in Puerto Rico is estimated to be 100,000 individuals. Puerto Rico_sentence_519

This includes retired personnel. Puerto Rico_sentence_520

Fort Buchanan has about 4,000 military and civilian personnel. Puerto Rico_sentence_521

In addition, approximately 17,000 people are members of the Puerto Rico Army and Air National Guards, or the U.S. Reserve forces. Puerto Rico_sentence_522

Puerto Rican soldiers have served in every U.S. military conflict from World War I to the current military engagement known by the United States and its allies as the War against Terrorism. Puerto Rico_sentence_523

The 65th Infantry Regiment, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" from the original Taíno name of the island (Borinquen), is a Puerto Rican regiment of the United States Army. Puerto Rico_sentence_524

The regiment's motto is Honor et Fidelitas, Latin for Honor and Fidelity. Puerto Rico_sentence_525

The 65th Infantry Regiment participated in World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and the War on Terror and in 2014 was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, presented by President Barack Obama, for its heroism during the Korean War. Puerto Rico_sentence_526

Administrative divisions Puerto Rico_section_37

Main article: Municipalities of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_527

There are no counties, as there are in 48 of the 50 United States. Puerto Rico_sentence_528

There are 78 municipalities. Puerto Rico_sentence_529

Municipalities are subdivided into barrios, and those into sectors. Puerto Rico_sentence_530

Each municipality has a mayor and a municipal legislature elected to four-year term Puerto Rico_sentence_531

Economy Puerto Rico_section_38

Main articles: Economy of Puerto Rico and Puerto Rico government-debt crisis Puerto Rico_sentence_532

The economy of Puerto Rico is classified as a high income economy by the World Bank and as the most competitive economy in Latin America by the World Economic Forum. Puerto Rico_sentence_533

It is classified by the International Monetary Fund as a developed jurisdiction with an advanced, high-income economy; it ranks highly on the Human Development Index, ahead of the rest of Latin America. Puerto Rico_sentence_534

Puerto Rico currently has a public debt of $72.204 billion (equivalent to 103% of GNP), and a government deficit of $2.5 billion. Puerto Rico_sentence_535

According to World Bank, gross national income per capita in Puerto Rico in 2013 was $23,830 (PPP, International Dollars); it ranked 63rd among all sovereign and dependent territories in the world. Puerto Rico_sentence_536

Its economy is mainly driven by manufacturing (primarily pharmaceuticals, textiles, petrochemicals and electronics) followed by the service industry (primarily finance, insurance, real estate and tourism). Puerto Rico_sentence_537

In recent years, the unincorporated territory has also become a popular destination for MICE (meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions), with a modern convention centre district overlooking the Port of San Juan. Puerto Rico_sentence_538

The geography of Puerto Rico and its political status are both determining factors on its economic prosperity, primarily due to its relatively small size as an island; its lack of natural resources used to produce raw materials, and, consequently, its dependence on imports; as well as its territorial status with the United States, which controls its foreign policy while exerting trading restrictions, particularly in its shipping industry. Puerto Rico_sentence_539

Puerto Rico experienced a recession from 2006 to 2011, interrupted by 4 quarters of economic growth, and entered into recession again in 2013, following growing fiscal imbalance and the expiration of the IRS Section 936 corporate incentives that the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_540

Internal Revenue Code had applied to Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_541

This IRS section was critical to the economy, as it established tax exemptions for U.S. corporations that settled in Puerto Rico, and allowed their insular subsidiaries to send their earnings to the parent corporation at any time, without paying federal tax on corporate income. Puerto Rico_sentence_542

Puerto Rico has surprisingly been able to maintain a relatively low inflation in the past decade while maintaining a purchasing power parity per capita higher than 80% of the rest of the world. Puerto Rico_sentence_543

Academically, most of Puerto Rico's economic woes stem from federal regulations that expired, have been repealed, or no longer apply to Puerto Rico; its inability to become self-sufficient and self-sustainable throughout history; its highly politicized public policy which tends to change whenever a political party gains power; as well as its highly inefficient local government which has accrued a public debt equal to 68% of its gross domestic product throughout time. Puerto Rico_sentence_544

In comparison to the different states of the United States, Puerto Rico is poorer than Mississippi (the poorest state of the U.S.) with 41% of its population below the poverty line. Puerto Rico_sentence_545

When compared to Latin America, Puerto Rico has the highest GDP per capita in the region. Puerto Rico_sentence_546

Its main trading partners are the United States, Ireland, and Japan, with most products coming from East Asia, mainly from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Puerto Rico_sentence_547

At a global scale, Puerto Rico's dependency on oil for transportation and electricity generation, as well as its dependency on food imports and raw materials, makes Puerto Rico volatile and highly reactive to changes in the world economy and climate. Puerto Rico_sentence_548

Puerto Rico's agricultural sector represents less than 1% of GNP. Puerto Rico_sentence_549

Tourism Puerto Rico_section_39

Tourism in Puerto Rico is also an important part of the economy. Puerto Rico_sentence_550

In 2017, Hurricane Maria caused severe damage to the island and its infrastructure, disrupting tourism for many months. Puerto Rico_sentence_551

The damage was estimated at $100 billion. Puerto Rico_sentence_552

An April 2019 report indicated that by that time, only a few hotels were still closed, that life for tourists in and around the capital had, for the most part, returned to normal. Puerto Rico_sentence_553

By October 2019, nearly all of the popular amenities for tourists, in the major destinations such as San Juan, Ponce and Arecibo, were in operation on the island and tourism was rebounding. Puerto Rico_sentence_554

This was important for the economy, since tourism provides up to 10% of Puerto Rico's GDP, according to Discover Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_555

The latest Discover Puerto Rico campaign started in July 2018. Puerto Rico_sentence_556

An April 2019 report stated that the tourism team "after hitting the one-year anniversary of the storm in September , the organization began to shift towards more optimistic messaging. Puerto Rico_sentence_557

The "Have We Met Yet?" Puerto Rico_sentence_558

campaign was intended to highlight the island's culture and history, making it distinct, different than other Caribbean destinations. Puerto Rico_sentence_559

In 2019, Discover Puerto Rico planned to continue that campaign, including "streaming options for branded content". Puerto Rico_sentence_560

In late November 2019, reports indicated that 90 calls to San Juan by Royal Caribbean ships would be cancelled during 2020 and 2021. Puerto Rico_sentence_561

This step would mean 360,000 fewer visitors, with a loss to the island's economy of 44 million. Puerto Rico_sentence_562

As well, 30 ship departures from San Juan were being canceled. Puerto Rico_sentence_563

The rationale for this decision was discussed in a news report: Puerto Rico_sentence_564

Heavy fiscal debt load Puerto Rico_section_40

In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government which was saddled with outstanding bond debt that had climbed to $70 billion. Puerto Rico_sentence_565

The debt had been increasing during a decade-long recession. Puerto Rico_sentence_566

The Commonwealth had been defaulting on many debts, including bonds, since 2015. Puerto Rico_sentence_567

With debt payments due, the governor was facing the risk of a government shutdown and failure to fund the managed health care system. Puerto Rico_sentence_568

"Without action before April, Puerto Rico's ability to execute contracts for Fiscal Year 2018 with its managed care organizations will be threatened, thereby putting at risk beginning July 1, 2017 the health care of up to 900,000 poor U.S. citizens living in Puerto Rico", according to a letter sent to Congress by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Puerto Rico_sentence_569

They also said that "Congress must enact measures recommended by both Republicans and Democrats that fix Puerto Rico's inequitable health care financing structure and promote sustained economic growth." Puerto Rico_sentence_570

Initially, the oversight board created under PROMESA called for Puerto Rico's governor Ricardo Rosselló to deliver a fiscal turnaround plan by January 28. Puerto Rico_sentence_571

Just before that deadline, the control board gave the Commonwealth government until February 28 to present a fiscal plan (including negotiations with creditors for restructuring debt) to solve the problems. Puerto Rico_sentence_572

A moratorium on lawsuits by debtors was extended to May 31. Puerto Rico_sentence_573

It is essential for Puerto Rico to reach restructuring deals to avoid a bankruptcy-like process under PROMESA. Puerto Rico_sentence_574

An internal survey conducted by the Puerto Rican Economists Association revealed that the majority of Puerto Rican economists reject the policy recommendations of the Board and the Rosselló government, with more than 80% of economists arguing in favor of auditing the debt. Puerto Rico_sentence_575

In early August 2017, the island's financial oversight board (created by PROMESA) planned to institute two days off without pay per month for government employees, down from the original plan of four days per month; the latter had been expected to achieve $218 million in savings. Puerto Rico_sentence_576

Governor Rossello rejected this plan as unjustified and unnecessary. Puerto Rico_sentence_577

Pension reforms were also discussed including a proposal for a 10% reduction in benefits to begin addressing the $50 billion in unfunded pension liabilities. Puerto Rico_sentence_578

Public finances Puerto Rico_section_41

Main articles: Puerto Rico government-debt crisis, Budget of the Government of Puerto Rico, and public debt of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_579

Puerto Rico has an operating budget of about U.S.$9.8 billion with expenses at about $10.4 billion, creating a structural deficit of $775 million (about 7.9% of the budget). Puerto Rico_sentence_580

The practice of approving budgets with a structural deficit has been done for 20 consecutive years starting in 2000. Puerto Rico_sentence_581

Throughout those years, including present time, all budgets contemplated issuing bonds to cover these projected deficits rather than making structural adjustments. Puerto Rico_sentence_582

This practice increased Puerto Rico's cumulative debt, as the government had already been issuing bonds to balance its actual budget for four decades beginning in 1973. Puerto Rico_sentence_583

Projected deficits added substantial burdens to an already indebted nation which accrued a public debt of $71B or about 70% of Puerto Rico's gross domestic product. Puerto Rico_sentence_584

This sparked an ongoing government-debt crisis after Puerto Rico's general obligation bonds were downgraded to speculative non-investment grade ("junk status") by three credit-rating agencies. Puerto Rico_sentence_585

In terms of financial control, almost 9.6%—or about $1.5 billion—of Puerto Rico's central government budget expenses for FY2014 is expected to be spent on debt service. Puerto Rico_sentence_586

Harsher budget cuts are expected as Puerto Rico must now repay larger chunks of debts in the coming years. Puerto Rico_sentence_587

For practical reasons the budget is divided into two aspects: a "general budget" which comprises the assignments funded exclusively by the Department of Treasury of Puerto Rico, and the "consolidated budget" which comprises the assignments funded by the general budget, by Puerto Rico's government-owned corporations, by revenue expected from loans, by the sale of government bonds, by subsidies extended by the federal government of the United States, and by other funds. Puerto Rico_sentence_588

Both budgets contrast each other drastically, with the consolidated budget being usually thrice the size of the general budget; currently $29B and $9.0B respectively. Puerto Rico_sentence_589

Almost one out of every four dollars in the consolidated budget comes from U.S. federal subsidies while government-owned corporations compose more than 31% of the consolidated budget. Puerto Rico_sentence_590

The critical aspects come from the sale of bonds, which comprise 7% of the consolidated budget – a ratio that increased annually due to the government's inability to prepare a balanced budget in addition to being incapable of generating enough income to cover all its expenses. Puerto Rico_sentence_591

In particular, the government-owned corporations add a heavy burden to the overall budget and public debt, as none is self-sufficient. Puerto Rico_sentence_592

For example, in FY2011 the government-owned corporations reported aggregated losses of more than $1.3B with the Puerto Rico Highways and Transportation Authority (PRHTA) reporting losses of $409M, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA; the government monopoly that controls all electricity on the island) reporting losses of $272M, while the Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewers Authority (PRASA; the government monopoly that controls all water utilities on the island) reported losses of $112M. Puerto Rico_sentence_593

Losses by government-owned corporations have been defrayed through the issuance of bonds compounding more than 40% of Puerto Rico's entire public debt today. Puerto Rico_sentence_594

Holistically, from FY2000–FY2010 Puerto Rico's debt grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9% while GDP remained stagnant. Puerto Rico_sentence_595

This has not always provided a long-term solution. Puerto Rico_sentence_596

In early July 2017 for example, the PREPA power authority was effectively bankrupt after defaulting in a plan to restructure $9 billion in bond debt; the agency planned to seek Court protection. Puerto Rico_sentence_597

In terms of protocol, the governor, together with the Puerto Rico Office of Management and Budget (OGP in Spanish), formulates the budget he believes is required to operate all government branches for the ensuing fiscal year. Puerto Rico_sentence_598

He then submits this formulation as a budget request to the Puerto Rican legislature before July 1, the date established by law as the beginning of Puerto Rico's fiscal year. Puerto Rico_sentence_599

While the constitution establishes that the request must be submitted "at the beginning of each regular session", the request is typically submitted during the first week of May as the regular sessions of the legislature begin in January and it would be impractical to submit a request so far in advance. Puerto Rico_sentence_600

Once submitted, the budget is then approved by the legislature, typically with amendments, through a joint resolution and is referred back to the governor for his approval. Puerto Rico_sentence_601

The governor then either approves it or vetoes it. Puerto Rico_sentence_602

If vetoed, the legislature can then either refer it back with amendments for the governor's approval, or approve it without the governor's consent by two-thirds of the bodies of each chamber. Puerto Rico_sentence_603

Once the budget is approved, the Department of Treasury disburses funds to the Office of Management and Budget which in turn disburses the funds to the respective agencies, while the Puerto Rico Government Development Bank (the government's intergovernmental bank) manages all related banking affairs including those related to the government-owned corporations. Puerto Rico_sentence_604

Cost of living Puerto Rico_section_42

The cost of living in Puerto Rico is high and has increased over the past decade. Puerto Rico_sentence_605

San Juan's in particular is higher than Atlanta, Dallas, and Seattle but lower than Boston, Chicago, and New York City. Puerto Rico_sentence_606

One factor is housing prices which are comparable to Miami and Los Angeles, although property taxes are considerably lower than most places in the United States. Puerto Rico_sentence_607

Statistics used for cost of living sometimes do not take into account certain costs, such as the high cost of electricity, which has hovered in the 24¢ to 30¢ range per kilowatt/hour, two to three times the national average, increased travel costs for longer flights, additional shipping fees, and the loss of promotional participation opportunities for customers "outside the continental United States". Puerto Rico_sentence_608

While some online stores do offer free shipping on orders to Puerto Rico, many merchants exclude Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico and other United States territories. Puerto Rico_sentence_609

The household median income is stated as $19,350 and the mean income as $30,463 in the U.S. Census Bureau's 2015 update. Puerto Rico_sentence_610

The report also indicates that 45.5% of individuals are below the poverty level. Puerto Rico_sentence_611

The median home value in Puerto Rico ranges from U.S.$100,000 to U.S.$214,000, while the national median home value sits at $119,600. Puerto Rico_sentence_612

One of the most cited contributors to the high cost of living in Puerto Rico is the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, also known as the Jones Act, which prevents foreign-flagged ships from carrying cargo between two American ports, a practice known as cabotage. Puerto Rico_sentence_613

Because of the Jones Act, foreign ships inbound with goods from Central and South America, Western Europe, and Africa cannot stop in Puerto Rico, offload Puerto Rico-bound goods, load mainland-bound Puerto Rico-manufactured goods, and continue to U.S. ports. Puerto Rico_sentence_614

Instead, they must proceed directly to U.S. ports, where distributors break bulk and send Puerto Rico-bound manufactured goods to Puerto Rico across the ocean by U.S.-flagged ships. Puerto Rico_sentence_615

The local government of Puerto Rico has requested several times to the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_616

Congress to exclude Puerto Rico from the Jones Act restrictions without success. Puerto Rico_sentence_617

The most recent measure has been taken by the 17th Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico through R. Conc. Puerto Rico_sentence_618

del S. 21. Puerto Rico_sentence_619

These measures have always received support from all the major local political parties. Puerto Rico_sentence_620

In 2013 the Government Accountability Office published a report which concluded that "repealing or amending the Jones Act cabotage law might cut Puerto Rico shipping costs" and that "shippers believed that opening the trade to non-U.S.-flag competition could lower costs". Puerto Rico_sentence_621

However, the same GAO report also found that "[shippers] doing business in Puerto Rico that GAO contacted reported that the freight rates are often—although not always—lower for foreign carriers going to and from Puerto Rico and foreign locations than the rates shippers pay to ship similar cargo to and from the United States, despite longer distances. Puerto Rico_sentence_622

Data were not available to allow us to validate the examples given or verify the extent to which this difference occurred." Puerto Rico_sentence_623

Ultimately, the report concluded that "[the] effects of modifying the application of the Jones Act for Puerto Rico are highly uncertain" for both Puerto Rico and the United States, particularly for the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_624

shipping industry and the military preparedness of the United States. Puerto Rico_sentence_625

A 2018 study by economists at Boston-based Reeve & Associates and Puerto Rico-based Estudios Tecnicos has concluded that the 1920 Jones Act has no impact on either retail prices or the cost of livings on Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_626

The study found that Puerto Rico received very similar or lower shipping freight rates when compared to neighboring islands, and that the transportation costs have no impact on retail prices on the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_627

The study was based in part on actual comparison of consumer goods at retail stores in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Jacksonville, Florida, finding: no significant difference in the prices of either grocery items or durable goods between the two locations. Puerto Rico_sentence_628

Education Puerto Rico_section_43

Main article: Education in Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_629

The first school in Puerto Rico was the Escuela de Gramática (Grammar School). Puerto Rico_sentence_630

It was established by Bishop Alonso Manso in 1513, in the area where the Cathedral of San Juan was to be constructed. Puerto Rico_sentence_631

The school was free of charge and the courses taught were Latin language, literature, history, science, art, philosophy and theology. Puerto Rico_sentence_632

Education in Puerto Rico is divided in three levels—Primary (elementary school grades 1–6), Secondary (intermediate and high school grades 7–12), and Higher Level (undergraduate and graduate studies). Puerto Rico_sentence_633

As of 2002, the literacy rate of the Puerto Rican population was 94.1%; by gender, it was 93.9% for males and 94.4% for females. Puerto Rico_sentence_634

According to the 2000 Census, 60.0% of the population attained a high school degree or higher level of education, and 18.3% has a bachelor's degree or higher. Puerto Rico_sentence_635

Instruction at the primary school level is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 18. Puerto Rico_sentence_636

As of 2010, there are 1539 public schools and 806 private schools. Puerto Rico_sentence_637

The largest and oldest university system is the public University of Puerto Rico (UPR) with 11 campuses. Puerto Rico_sentence_638

The largest private university systems on the island are the Sistema Universitario Ana G. Mendez which operates the Universidad del Turabo, Metropolitan University and Universidad del Este. Puerto Rico_sentence_639

Other private universities include the multi-campus Inter American University, the Pontifical Catholic University, Universidad Politécnica de Puerto Rico, and the Universidad del Sagrado Corazón. Puerto Rico_sentence_640

Puerto Rico has four schools of Medicine and three ABA-approved Law Schools. Puerto Rico_sentence_641

Public health and safety Puerto Rico_section_44

As of 2015, medical care in Puerto Rico had been heavily impacted by emigration of doctors to the mainland and underfunding of the Medicare and Medicaid programs which serve 60% of the island's population. Puerto Rico_sentence_642

Since Puerto Ricans pay no income tax, they are not eligible for health insurance subsidies under the Affordable Care Act. Puerto Rico_sentence_643

The city of San Juan has a system of triage, hospital, and preventive care health services. Puerto Rico_sentence_644

The municipal government sponsors regular health fairs in different areas of the city focusing on health care for the elderly and the disabled. Puerto Rico_sentence_645

In 2017, there were 69 hospitals in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_646

Reforma de Salud de Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico Health Reform) – locally referred to as La Reforma (The Reform) – is a government-run program which provides medical and health care services to the indigent and impoverished, by means of contracting private health insurance companies, rather than employing government-owned hospitals and emergency centers. Puerto Rico_sentence_647

The Reform is administered by the Puerto Rico Health Insurance Administration. Puerto Rico_sentence_648

Crime Puerto Rico_section_45

See also: Crime in Puerto Rico and Illegal drugs in Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_649

The overall rate of crime is low in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_650

The unincorporated territory has a high firearm homicide rate. Puerto Rico_sentence_651

The homicide rate of 19.2 per 100,000 inhabitants was significantly higher than any U.S. state in 2014. Puerto Rico_sentence_652

Most homicide victims are gang members and drug traffickers with about 80% of homicides in Puerto Rico being drug related. Puerto Rico_sentence_653

Carjackings happen often in many areas of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_654

In 1992, the FBI made it a Federal crime and rates decreased per statistics, but as of 2019, the problem continued in municipalities like Guaynabo and others. Puerto Rico_sentence_655

From January 1, 2019, to March 14, 2019, thirty carjackings had occurred on the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_656

Culture Puerto Rico_section_46

Main article: Culture of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_657

Modern Puerto Rican culture is a unique mix of cultural antecedents: including European (predominantly Spanish, Italian, French, German and Irish), African, and, more recently, some North American and many South Americans. Puerto Rico_sentence_658

Many Cubans and Dominicans have relocated to the island in the past few decades. Puerto Rico_sentence_659

From the Spanish, Puerto Rico received the Spanish language, the Catholic religion and the vast majority of their cultural and moral values and traditions. Puerto Rico_sentence_660

The United States added English-language influence, the university system and the adoption of some holidays and practices. Puerto Rico_sentence_661

On March 12, 1903, the University of Puerto Rico was officially founded, branching out from the "Escuela Normal Industrial", a smaller organization that was founded in Fajardo three years earlier. Puerto Rico_sentence_662

Much of Puerto Rican culture centers on the influence of music and has been shaped by other cultures combining with local and traditional rhythms. Puerto Rico_sentence_663

Early in the history of Puerto Rican music, the influences of Spanish and African traditions were most noticeable. Puerto Rico_sentence_664

The cultural movements across the Caribbean and North America have played a vital role in the more recent musical influences which have reached Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_665

The official symbols of Puerto Rico are the reinita mora or Puerto Rican spindalis (a type of bird), the flor de maga (a type of flower), and the ceiba or kapok (a type of tree). Puerto Rico_sentence_666

The unofficial animal and a symbol of Puerto Rican pride is the coquí, a small frog. Puerto Rico_sentence_667

Other popular symbols of Puerto Rico are the jíbaro (the "countryman") and the carite. Puerto Rico_sentence_668

Architecture Puerto Rico_section_47

Main article: Architecture of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_669

The architecture of Puerto Rico demonstrates a broad variety of traditions, styles and national influences accumulated over four centuries of Spanish rule, and a century of American rule. Puerto Rico_sentence_670

Spanish colonial architecture, Ibero-Islamic, art deco, post-modern, and many other architectural forms are visible throughout the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_671

From town to town, there are also many regional distinctions. Puerto Rico_sentence_672

Old San Juan is one of the two barrios, in addition to Santurce, that made up the municipality of San Juan from 1864 to 1951, at which time the former independent municipality of Río Piedras was annexed. Puerto Rico_sentence_673

With its abundance of shops, historic places, museums, open air cafés, restaurants, gracious homes, tree-shaded plazas, and its old beauty and architectonical peculiarity, Old San Juan is a main spot for local and internal tourism. Puerto Rico_sentence_674

The district is also characterized by numerous public plazas and churches including San José Church and the Cathedral of San Juan Bautista, which contains the tomb of the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León. Puerto Rico_sentence_675

It also houses the oldest Catholic school for elementary education in Puerto Rico, the Colegio de Párvulos, built in 1865. Puerto Rico_sentence_676

The oldest parts of the district of Old San Juan remain partly enclosed by massive walls. Puerto Rico_sentence_677

Several defensive structures and notable forts, such as the emblematic Fort San Felipe del Morro, Fort San Cristóbal, and El Palacio de Santa Catalina, also known as La Fortaleza, acted as the primary defenses of the settlement which was subjected to numerous attacks. Puerto Rico_sentence_678

La Fortaleza continues to serve also as the executive mansion for the governor of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_679

Many of the historic fortifications are part of San Juan National Historic Site. Puerto Rico_sentence_680

During the 1940s, sections of Old San Juan fell into disrepair, and many renovation plans were suggested. Puerto Rico_sentence_681

There was even a strong push to develop Old San Juan as a "small Manhattan". Puerto Rico_sentence_682

Strict remodeling codes were implemented to prevent new constructions from affecting the common colonial Spanish architectural themes of the old city. Puerto Rico_sentence_683

When a project proposal suggested that the old Carmelite Convent in San Juan be demolished to erect a new hotel, the Institute had the building declared as a historic building, and then asked that it be converted to a hotel in a renewed facility. Puerto Rico_sentence_684

This was what became the Hotel El Convento in Old San Juan. Puerto Rico_sentence_685

The paradigm to reconstruct and renovate the old city and revitalize it has been followed by other cities in the Americas, particularly Havana, Lima and Cartagena de Indias. Puerto Rico_sentence_686

Ponce Creole is an architectural style created in Ponce, Puerto Rico, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Puerto Rico_sentence_687

This style of Puerto Rican buildings is found predominantly in residential homes in Ponce that developed between 1895 and 1920. Puerto Rico_sentence_688

Ponce Creole architecture borrows heavily from the traditions of the French, the Spaniards, and the Caribbean to create houses that were especially built to withstand the hot and dry climate of the region, and to take advantage of the sun and sea breezes characteristic of the southern Puerto Rico's Caribbean Sea coast. Puerto Rico_sentence_689

It is a blend of wood and masonry, incorporating architectural elements of other styles, from Classical revival and Spanish Revival to Victorian. Puerto Rico_sentence_690

Arts Puerto Rico_section_48

Main article: Puerto Rican art Puerto Rico_sentence_691

Puerto Rican art reflects many influences, much from its ethnically diverse background. Puerto Rico_sentence_692

A form of folk art, called santos evolved from the Catholic Church's use of sculptures to convert indigenous Puerto Ricans to Christianity. Puerto Rico_sentence_693

Santos depict figures of saints and other religious icons and are made from native wood, clay, and stone. Puerto Rico_sentence_694

After shaping simple, they are often finished by painting them in vivid colors. Puerto Rico_sentence_695

Santos vary in size, with the smallest examples around eight inches tall and the largest about twenty inches tall. Puerto Rico_sentence_696

Traditionally, santos were seen as messengers between the earth and Heaven. Puerto Rico_sentence_697

As such, they occupied a special place on household altars, where people prayed to them, asked for help, or tried to summon their protection. Puerto Rico_sentence_698

Also popular, caretas or vejigantes are masks worn during carnivals. Puerto Rico_sentence_699

Similar masks signifying evil spirits were used in both Spain and Africa, though for different purposes. Puerto Rico_sentence_700

The Spanish used their masks to frighten lapsed Christians into returning to the church, while tribal Africans used them as protection from the evil spirits they represented. Puerto Rico_sentence_701

True to their historic origins, Puerto Rican caretas always bear at least several horns and fangs. Puerto Rico_sentence_702

While usually constructed of papier-mâché, coconut shells and fine metal screening are sometimes used as well. Puerto Rico_sentence_703

Red and black were the typical colors for caretas but their palette has expanded to include a wide variety of bright hues and patterns. Puerto Rico_sentence_704

Literature Puerto Rico_section_49

Main article: Puerto Rican literature Puerto Rico_sentence_705

Puerto Rican literature evolved from the art of oral story telling to its present-day status. Puerto Rico_sentence_706

Written works by the native islanders of Puerto Rico were prohibited and repressed by the Spanish colonial government. Puerto Rico_sentence_707

Only those who were commissioned by the Spanish Crown to document the chronological history of the island were allowed to write. Puerto Rico_sentence_708

Diego de Torres Vargas was allowed to circumvent this strict prohibition for three reasons: he was a priest, he came from a prosperous Spanish family, and his father was a Sergeant Major in the Spanish Army, who died while defending Puerto Rico from an invasion by the Dutch armada. Puerto Rico_sentence_709

In 1647, Torres Vargas wrote Descripción de la Ciudad e Isla de Puerto Rico ("Description of the Island and City of Puerto Rico"). Puerto Rico_sentence_710

This historical book was the first to make a detailed geographic description of the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_711

The book described all the fruits and commercial establishments of the time, mostly centered in the towns of San Juan and Ponce. Puerto Rico_sentence_712

The book also listed and described every mine, church, and hospital in the island at the time. Puerto Rico_sentence_713

The book contained notices on the State and Capital, plus an extensive and erudite bibliography. Puerto Rico_sentence_714

Descripción de la Ciudad e Isla de Puerto Rico was the first successful attempt at writing a comprehensive history of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_715

Some of Puerto Rico's earliest writers were influenced by the teachings of Rafael Cordero. Puerto Rico_sentence_716

Among these was Dr. Manuel A. Alonso, the first Puerto Rican writer of notable importance. Puerto Rico_sentence_717

In 1849 he published El Gíbaro, a collection of verses whose main themes were the poor Puerto Rican country farmer. Puerto Rico_sentence_718

Eugenio María de Hostos wrote La peregrinación de Bayoán in 1863, which used Bartolomé de las Casas as a spring board to reflect on Caribbean identity. Puerto Rico_sentence_719

After this first novel, Hostos abandoned fiction in favor of the essay which he saw as offering greater possibilities for inspiring social change. Puerto Rico_sentence_720

In the late 19th century, with the arrival of the first printing press and the founding of the Royal Academy of Belles Letters, Puerto Rican literature began to flourish. Puerto Rico_sentence_721

The first writers to express their political views in regard to Spanish colonial rule of the island were journalists. Puerto Rico_sentence_722

After the United States invaded Puerto Rico during the Spanish–American War and the island was ceded to the Americans as a condition of the Treaty of Paris of 1898, writers and poets began to express their opposition to the new colonial rule by writing about patriotic themes. Puerto Rico_sentence_723

Alejandro Tapia y Rivera, also known as the Father of Puerto Rican Literature, ushered in a new age of historiography with the publication of The Historical Library of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_724

Cayetano Coll y Toste was another Puerto Rican historian and writer. Puerto Rico_sentence_725

His work The Indo-Antillano Vocabulary is valuable in understanding the way the Taínos lived. Puerto Rico_sentence_726

Manuel Zeno Gandía in 1894 wrote La Charca and told about the harsh life in the remote and mountainous coffee regions in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_727

Antonio S. Pedreira, described in his work Insularismo the cultural survival of the Puerto Rican identity after the American invasion. Puerto Rico_sentence_728

With the Puerto Rican diaspora of the 1940s, Puerto Rican literature was greatly influenced by a phenomenon known as the Nuyorican Movement. Puerto Rico_sentence_729

Puerto Rican literature continued to flourish and many Puerto Ricans have since distinguished themselves as authors, journalists, poets, novelists, playwrights, essayists, and screenwriters. Puerto Rico_sentence_730

The influence of Puerto Rican literature has transcended the boundaries of the island to the United States and the rest of the world. Puerto Rico_sentence_731

Over the past fifty years, significant writers include Ed Vega (Omaha Bigelow), Miguel Piñero (Short Eyes), Piri Thomas (Down These Mean Streets), Giannina Braschi (Yo-Yo Boing! Puerto Rico_sentence_732

), Rosario Ferrer (Eccentric Neighborhoods). Puerto Rico_sentence_733

and Esmeralda Santiago (When I was Puerto Rican). Puerto Rico_sentence_734

Media Puerto Rico_section_50

Main article: Media in Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_735

The mass media in Puerto Rico includes local radio stations, television stations and newspapers, the majority of which are conducted in Spanish. Puerto Rico_sentence_736

There are also three stations of the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_737

Armed Forces Radio and Television Service. Puerto Rico_sentence_738

Newspapers with daily distribution are El Nuevo Día, El Vocero and Índice, Metro, and Primera Hora. Puerto Rico_sentence_739

El Vocero is distributed free of charge, as are Índice and Metro. Puerto Rico_sentence_740

Newspapers distributed on a weekly or regional basis include Claridad, La Perla del Sur, La Opinión, Visión, and La Estrella del Norte, among others. Puerto Rico_sentence_741

Several television channels provide local content in the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_742

These include WIPR-TV, Telemundo, Univision Puerto Rico, WAPA-TV, and WKAQ-TV. Puerto Rico_sentence_743

Music Puerto Rico_section_51

Main article: Music of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_744

The music of Puerto Rico has evolved as a heterogeneous and dynamic product of diverse cultural resources. Puerto Rico_sentence_745

The most conspicuous musical sources have been Spain and West Africa, although many aspects of Puerto Rican music reflect origins elsewhere in Europe and the Caribbean and, over the last century, from the U.S. Puerto Rican music culture today comprises a wide and rich variety of genres, ranging from indigenous genres like bomba, plena, aguinaldo, danza and salsa to recent hybrids like reggaeton. Puerto Rico_sentence_746

Puerto Rico has some national instruments, like the cuatro (Spanish for "four"). Puerto Rico_sentence_747

The cuatro is a local instrument that was made by the "Jibaro" or people from the mountains. Puerto Rico_sentence_748

Originally, the Cuatro consisted of four steel strings, hence its name, but currently the Cuatro consists of five double steel strings. Puerto Rico_sentence_749

It is easily confused with a guitar, even by locals. Puerto Rico_sentence_750

When held upright, from right to left, the strings are G, D, A, E, B. Puerto Rico_sentence_751

In the realm of classical music, the island hosts two main orchestras, the Orquesta Sinfónica de Puerto Rico and the Orquesta Filarmónica de Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_752

The Casals Festival takes place annually in San Juan, drawing in classical musicians from around the world. Puerto Rico_sentence_753

With respect to opera, the legendary Puerto Rican tenor Antonio Paoli was so celebrated, that he performed private recitals for Pope Pius X and the Czar Nicholas II of Russia. Puerto Rico_sentence_754

In 1907, Paoli was the first operatic artist in world history to record an entire opera – when he participated in a performance of Pagliacci by Ruggiero Leoncavallo in Milan, Italy. Puerto Rico_sentence_755

Over the past fifty years, Puerto Rican artists such as Jorge Emmanuelli, Yomo Toro, Ramito, Jose Feliciano, Bobby Capo, Rafael Cortijo, Ismael Rivera, Chayanne, Tito Puente, Eddie Palmieri, Ray Barreto, Dave Valentin, Omar Rodríguez-López, Hector Lavoe, Ricky Martin, Marc Anthony and Luis Fonsi have gained fame internationally. Puerto Rico_sentence_756

Cuisine Puerto Rico_section_52

Main article: Puerto Rican cuisine Puerto Rico_sentence_757

Puerto Rican cuisine has its roots in the cooking traditions and practices of Europe (Spain), Africa and the native Taínos. Puerto Rico_sentence_758

In the latter part of the 19th century, the cuisine of Puerto Rico was greatly influenced by the United States in the ingredients used in its preparation. Puerto Rico_sentence_759

Puerto Rican cuisine has transcended the boundaries of the island, and can be found in several countries outside the archipelago. Puerto Rico_sentence_760

Basic ingredients include grains and legumes, herbs and spices, starchy tropical tubers, vegetables, meat and poultry, seafood and shellfish, and fruits. Puerto Rico_sentence_761

Main dishes include mofongo, arroz con gandules, pasteles, alcapurrias and pig roast (or lechón). Puerto Rico_sentence_762

Beverages include maví and piña colada. Puerto Rico_sentence_763

Desserts include flan, arroz con dulce (sweet rice pudding), piraguas, brazo gitanos, tembleque, polvorones, and dulce de leche. Puerto Rico_sentence_764

Locals call their cuisine cocina criolla. Puerto Rico_sentence_765

The traditional Puerto Rican cuisine was well established by the end of the 19th century. Puerto Rico_sentence_766

By 1848 the first restaurant, La Mallorquina, opened in Old San Juan. Puerto Rico_sentence_767

El Cocinero Puertorriqueño, the island's first cookbook was published in 1849. Puerto Rico_sentence_768

From the diet of the Taíno people come many tropical roots and tubers like yautía (taro) and especially Yuca (cassava), from which thin cracker-like casabe bread is made. Puerto Rico_sentence_769

Ajicito or cachucha pepper, a slightly hot habanero pepper, recao/culantro (spiny leaf), achiote (annatto), peppers, ají caballero (the hottest pepper native to Puerto Rico), peanuts, guavas, pineapples, jicacos (cocoplum), quenepas (mamoncillo), lerenes (Guinea arrowroot), calabazas (tropical pumpkins), and guanabanas (soursops) are all Taíno foods. Puerto Rico_sentence_770

The Taínos also grew varieties of beans and some maize/corn, but maize was not as dominant in their cooking as it was for the peoples living on the mainland of Mesoamerica. Puerto Rico_sentence_771

This is due to the frequent hurricanes that Puerto Rico experiences, which destroy crops of maize, leaving more safeguarded plants like conucos (hills of yuca grown together). Puerto Rico_sentence_772

Spanish / European influence is also seen in Puerto Rican cuisine. Puerto Rico_sentence_773

Wheat, chickpeas (garbanzos), capers, olives, olive oil, black pepper, onions, garlic, cilantrillo (cilantro), oregano, basil, sugarcane, citrus fruit, eggplant, ham, lard, chicken, beef, pork, and cheese all came to Puerto Rico from Spain. Puerto Rico_sentence_774

The tradition of cooking complex stews and rice dishes in pots such as rice and beans are also thought to be originally European (much like Italians, Spaniards, and the British). Puerto Rico_sentence_775

Early Dutch, French, Italian, and Chinese immigrants influenced not only the culture but Puerto Rican cooking as well. Puerto Rico_sentence_776

This great variety of traditions came together to form La Cocina Criolla. Puerto Rico_sentence_777

Coconuts, coffee (brought by the Arabs and Corsos to Yauco from Kafa, Ethiopia), okra, yams, sesame seeds, gandules (pigeon peas in English) sweet bananas, plantains, other root vegetables and Guinea hen, all come to Puerto Rico from Africa. Puerto Rico_sentence_778

Philately Puerto Rico_section_53

Main article: Puerto Rico on stamps Puerto Rico_sentence_779

Puerto Rico has been commemorated on four U.S. postal stamps and four personalities have been featured. Puerto Rico_sentence_780

Insular Territories were commemorated in 1937, the third stamp honored Puerto Rico featuring 'La Fortaleza', the Spanish Governor's Palace. Puerto Rico_sentence_781

The first free election for governor of the U.S. colony of Puerto Rico was honored on April 27, 1949, at San Juan, Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_782

'Inauguration' on the 3-cent stamp refers to the election of Luis Muñoz Marín, the first democratically elected governor of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_783

San Juan, Puerto Rico was commemorated with an 8-cent stamp on its 450th anniversary issued September 12, 1971, featuring a sentry box from Castillo San Felipe del Morro. Puerto Rico_sentence_784

In the "Flags of our nation series" 2008–2012, of the fifty-five, five territorial flags were featured. Puerto Rico_sentence_785

Forever stamps included the Puerto Rico Flag illustrated by a bird issued 2011. Puerto Rico_sentence_786

Four Puerto Rican personalities have been featured on U.S. postage stamps. Puerto Rico_sentence_787

These include Roberto Clemente in 1984 as an individual and in the Legends of Baseball series issued in 2000. Puerto Rico_sentence_788

Luis Muñoz Marín in the Great Americans series, on February 18, 1990, Julia de Burgos in the Literary Arts series, issued 2010, and José Ferrer in the Distinguished American series, issued 2012. Puerto Rico_sentence_789

Sports Puerto Rico_section_54

Main article: Sports in Puerto Rico Puerto Rico_sentence_790

Baseball was one of the first sports to gain widespread popularity in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_791

The Puerto Rico Baseball League serves as the only active professional league, operating as a winter league. Puerto Rico_sentence_792

No Major League Baseball franchise or affiliate plays in Puerto Rico, however, San Juan hosted the Montreal Expos for several series in 2003 and 2004 before they moved to Washington, D.C. and became the Washington Nationals. Puerto Rico_sentence_793

The Puerto Rico national baseball team has participated in the World Cup of Baseball winning one gold (1951), four silver and four bronze medals, the Caribbean Series (winning fourteen times) and the World Baseball Classic. Puerto Rico_sentence_794

On March 2006, San Juan's Hiram Bithorn Stadium hosted the opening round as well as the second round of the newly formed World Baseball Classic. Puerto Rico_sentence_795

Puerto Rican baseball players include Hall of Famers Roberto Clemente, Orlando Cepeda and Roberto Alomar, enshrined in 1973, 1999, and 2011 respectively. Puerto Rico_sentence_796

Boxing, basketball, and volleyball are considered popular sports as well. Puerto Rico_sentence_797

Wilfredo Gómez and McWilliams Arroyo have won their respective divisions at the World Amateur Boxing Championships. Puerto Rico_sentence_798

Other medalists include José Pedraza, who holds a silver medal, and three boxers who finished in third place, José Luis Vellón, Nelson Dieppa and McJoe Arroyo. Puerto Rico_sentence_799

In the professional circuit, Puerto Rico has the third-most boxing world champions and it is the global leader in champions per capita. Puerto Rico_sentence_800

These include Miguel Cotto, Félix Trinidad, Wilfred Benítez and Gómez among others. Puerto Rico_sentence_801

The Puerto Rico national basketball team joined the International Basketball Federation in 1957. Puerto Rico_sentence_802

Since then, it has won more than 30 medals in international competitions, including gold in three FIBA Americas Championships and the 1994 Goodwill Games August 8, 2004, became a landmark date for the team when it became the first team to defeat the United States in an Olympic tournament since the integration of National Basketball Association players. Puerto Rico_sentence_803

Winning the inaugural game with scores of 92–73 as part of the 2004 Summer Olympics organized in Athens, Greece. Puerto Rico_sentence_804

Baloncesto Superior Nacional acts as the top-level professional basketball league in Puerto Rico, and has experienced success since its beginning in 1930. Puerto Rico_sentence_805

Puerto Rico is also a member of FIFA and CONCACAF. Puerto Rico_sentence_806

In 2008, the archipelago's first unified league, the Puerto Rico Soccer League, was established. Puerto Rico_sentence_807

Other sports include professional wrestling and road running. Puerto Rico_sentence_808

The World Wrestling Council and International Wrestling Association are the largest wrestling promotions in the main island. Puerto Rico_sentence_809

The World's Best 10K, held annually in San Juan, has been ranked among the 20 most competitive races globally. Puerto Rico_sentence_810

The "Puerto Rico All Stars" team, which has won twelve world championships in unicycle basketball. Puerto Rico_sentence_811

Organized Streetball has gathered some exposition, with teams like "Puerto Rico Street Ball" competing against established organizations including the Capitanes de Arecibo and AND1's Mixtape Tour Team. Puerto Rico_sentence_812

Six years after the first visit, AND1 returned as part of their renamed Live Tour, losing to the Puerto Rico Streetballers. Puerto Rico_sentence_813

Consequently, practitioners of this style have earned participation in international teams, including Orlando "El Gato" Meléndez, who became the first Puerto Rican born athlete to play for the Harlem Globetrotters. Puerto Rico_sentence_814

Orlando Antigua, whose mother is Puerto Rican, in 1995 became the first Hispanic and the first non-black in 52 years to play for the Harlem Globetrotters. Puerto Rico_sentence_815

Puerto Rico has representation in all international competitions including the Summer and Winter Olympics, the Pan American Games, the Caribbean World Series, and the Central American and Caribbean Games. Puerto Rico_sentence_816

Puerto Rico hosted the Pan Am Games in 1979 (officially in San Juan), and The Central American and Caribbean Games were hosted in 1993 in Ponce and in 2010 in Mayagüez. Puerto Rico_sentence_817

Puerto Rican athletes have won nine medals in Olympic competition (one gold, two silver, six bronze), the first one in 1948 by boxer Juan Evangelista Venegas. Puerto Rico_sentence_818

Monica Puig won the first gold medal for Puerto Rico in the Olympic Games by winning the Women's Tennis singles title in Rio 2016. Puerto Rico_sentence_819

Folklore Puerto Rico_section_55

In her poem The Messenger-Bird, Felicia Hemans refers to a Puerto Rican legend concerning The Fountain of Youth, supposedly to be found in the Lucayan Archipelago. Puerto Rico_sentence_820

She sourced this from Robertson's History of America. Puerto Rico_sentence_821

Some books that talk about folklore/myths in Puerto Rico are Stories from Puerto Rico written by Robert L. Muckley and Adela Martínez-Santiago and Cuentos: An Anthology of Short Stories from Puerto Rico written by Kal Wagenheim. Puerto Rico_sentence_822

Infrastructure Puerto Rico_section_56

Main articles: Transportation in Puerto Rico, Communications in Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, and Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewers Authority Puerto Rico_sentence_823

Cities and towns in Puerto Rico are interconnected by a system of roads, freeways, expressways, and highways maintained by the Highways and Transportation Authority under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and patrolled by the Puerto Rico Police Department. Puerto Rico_sentence_824

The island's metropolitan area is served by a public bus transit system and a metro system called Tren Urbano (in English: Urban Train). Puerto Rico_sentence_825

Other forms of public transportation include seaborne ferries (that serve Puerto Rico's archipelago) as well as Carros Públicos (private mini buses). Puerto Rico_sentence_826

Puerto Rico has three international airports, the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport in Carolina, Mercedita Airport in Ponce, and the Rafael Hernández Airport in Aguadilla, and 27 local airports. Puerto Rico_sentence_827

The Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport is the largest aerial transportation hub in the Caribbean. Puerto Rico_sentence_828

Puerto Rico has nine ports in different cities across the main island. Puerto Rico_sentence_829

The San Juan Port is the largest in Puerto Rico, and the busiest port in the Caribbean and the 10th busiest in the United States in terms of commercial activity and cargo movement, respectively. Puerto Rico_sentence_830

The second largest port is the Port of the Americas in Ponce, currently under expansion to increase cargo capacity to 1.5 million twenty-foot containers (TEUs) per year. Puerto Rico_sentence_831

The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA)—Spanish: Autoridad de Energía Eléctrica (AEE)—is an electric power company and the government-owned corporation of Puerto Rico responsible for electricity generation, power transmission, and power distribution in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico_sentence_832

PREPA is the only entity authorized to conduct such business in Puerto Rico, effectively making it a government monopoly. Puerto Rico_sentence_833

The Authority is ruled by a governing board appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate of Puerto Rico, and is run by an executive director. Puerto Rico_sentence_834

Telecommunications in Puerto Rico includes radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet. Puerto Rico_sentence_835

Broadcasting in Puerto Rico is regulated by the U.S. Puerto Rico_sentence_836 Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Puerto Rico_sentence_837

As of 2007, there were 30 TV stations, 125 radio stations and roughly 1 million TV sets on the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_838

Cable TV subscription services are available and the U.S. Armed Forces Radio and Television Service also broadcast on the island. Puerto Rico_sentence_839

See also Puerto Rico_section_57

Puerto Rico_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puerto Rico.