Punk rock

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For the original 1960s genre known as "punk" or "punk rock", see Garage rock. Punk rock_sentence_0

For the 2009 play by Simon Stephens, see Punk Rock (play). Punk rock_sentence_1

Punk rock_table_infobox_0

Punk rockPunk rock_header_cell_0_0_0
Other namesPunk rock_header_cell_0_1_0 PunkPunk rock_cell_0_1_1
Stylistic originsPunk rock_header_cell_0_2_0 Punk rock_cell_0_2_1
Cultural originsPunk rock_header_cell_0_3_0 1960s to mid-1970s, United States, United Kingdom, and AustraliaPunk rock_cell_0_3_1
Derivative formsPunk rock_header_cell_0_4_0 Punk rock_cell_0_4_1
SubgenresPunk rock_header_cell_0_5_0
Fusion genresPunk rock_header_cell_0_6_0
Regional scenesPunk rock_header_cell_0_7_0
Other topicsPunk rock_header_cell_0_8_0

Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s. Punk rock_sentence_2

Rooted in 1960s garage rock, punk bands rejected the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. Punk rock_sentence_3

They typically produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk rock_sentence_4

Punk embraces a DIY ethic; many bands self-produce recordings and distribute them through independent record labels. Punk rock_sentence_5

The term "punk rock" was first used by American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands. Punk rock_sentence_6

When the movement now bearing the name developed from 1974 to 1976, acts such as Television, Patti Smith, and the Ramones in New York City; the Sex Pistols, the Clash, and the Damned in London; The Runaways in Los Angeles; and the Saints in Brisbane formed its vanguard. Punk rock_sentence_7

Punk became a major cultural phenomenon in the UK late in 1976. Punk rock_sentence_8

It led to a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment (such as deliberately offensive T-shirts, leather jackets, studded or spiked bands and jewellery, safety pins, and bondage and S&M clothes) and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies. Punk rock_sentence_9

In 1977, the influence of the music and subculture spread worldwide, especially in England. Punk rock_sentence_10

It took root in a wide range of local scenes that often rejected affiliation with the mainstream. Punk rock_sentence_11

In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. Punk rock_sentence_12

By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk (e.g. Minor Threat), street punk (e.g. the Exploited), and anarcho-punk (e.g. Crass) became the predominant modes of punk rock. Punk rock_sentence_13

Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk also pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, and later indie pop, alternative rock, and noise rock. Punk rock_sentence_14

By the 1990s, punk re-emerged into the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, Rancid, The Offspring, and Blink-182. Punk rock_sentence_15

Characteristics Punk rock_section_0

See also: Punk subculture and List of punk artists and styles Punk rock_sentence_16

Philosophy Punk rock_section_1

The first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. Punk rock_sentence_17

According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of [1960s] stuff was innovative and exciting. Punk rock_sentence_18

Unfortunately, what happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away. Punk rock_sentence_19

Soon you had endless solos that went nowhere. Punk rock_sentence_20

By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock 'n' roll." Punk rock_sentence_21

John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that [acts] like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans, rock and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." Punk rock_sentence_22

In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was also a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Punk rock_sentence_23

Technical accessibility and a do it yourself (DIY) spirit are prized in punk rock. Punk rock_sentence_24

UK pub rock from 1972 to 1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Punk rock_sentence_25

Pub rock also introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Punk rock_sentence_26

Pub rock bands organized their own small venue tours and put out small pressings of their records. Punk rock_sentence_27

In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands. Punk rock_sentence_28

Musical virtuosity was often looked on with suspicion. Punk rock_sentence_29

According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have very many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". Punk rock_sentence_30

In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Punk rock_sentence_31

Now form a band". Punk rock_sentence_32

British punk rejected contemporary mainstream rock, the broader culture it represented, and their music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977". Punk rock_sentence_33

1976, when the punk revolution began in Britain, became a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". Punk rock_sentence_34

As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future"; in the later words of one observer, amid the unemployment and social unrest in 1977, "punk's nihilistic swagger was the most thrilling thing in England." Punk rock_sentence_35

While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. Punk rock_sentence_36

As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. Punk rock_sentence_37

We're meant to be able to do what we want to do." Punk rock_sentence_38

The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Punk rock_sentence_39

Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult"; as the punk scene matured, he observes, eventually "everyone got called a poseur". Punk rock_sentence_40

Musical and lyrical elements Punk rock_section_2

The early punk bands often emulated the minimal musical arrangements of 1960s garage rock. Punk rock_sentence_41

Typical punk rock instrumentation includes one or two electric guitars, an electric bass, and a drum kit, along with vocals. Punk rock_sentence_42

Songs tend to be shorter than those of other popular genres. Punk rock_sentence_43

Punk songs were played at fast, "breakneck" tempos, an approach influenced by The Ramones. Punk rock_sentence_44

Most early punk rock songs retained a traditional rock 'n' roll verse-chorus form and 4/4 time signature. Punk rock_sentence_45

However, later bands have often broken from this format. Punk rock_sentence_46

In critic Steven Blush's description, "The Sex Pistols were still rock'n'roll ... like the craziest version of Chuck Berry. Punk rock_sentence_47

Hardcore was a radical departure from that. Punk rock_sentence_48

It wasn't verse-chorus rock. Punk rock_sentence_49

It dispelled any notion of what songwriting is supposed to be. Punk rock_sentence_50

It's its own form." Punk rock_sentence_51

The vocals are sometimes nasal, and the lyrics are often shouted rather than sung in the conventional sense. Punk rock_sentence_52

Punk rock's "hoarse, rasping" vocals and chanting were a sharp contrast to the "melodic and sleeker" singing in mainstream rock. Punk rock_sentence_53

Early punk vocals had an "arrogant snarl". Punk rock_sentence_54

Complicated guitar solos are considered self-indulgent and unnecessary, although basic guitar breaks are common. Punk rock_sentence_55

Guitar parts tend to include highly distorted power chords or barre chords, creating a characteristic sound described by Christgau as a "buzzsaw drone". Punk rock_sentence_56

Some punk rock bands take a surf rock approach with a lighter, twangier guitar tone. Punk rock_sentence_57

Others, such as Robert Quine, lead guitarist of the Voidoids, have employed a wild, "gonzo" attack, a style that stretches back through the Velvet Underground to the 1950s' recordings of Ike Turner. Punk rock_sentence_58

Bass guitar lines are often uncomplicated; the quintessential approach is a relentless, repetitive "forced rhythm", although some punk rock bass players—such as Mike Watt of the Minutemen and Firehose—emphasize more technical bass lines. Punk rock_sentence_59

Bassists often use a pick due to the rapid succession of notes, which makes fingerpicking impractical. Punk rock_sentence_60

Drums typically sound heavy and dry, and often have a minimal set-up. Punk rock_sentence_61

Compared to other forms of rock, syncopation is much less the rule. Punk rock_sentence_62

Hardcore drumming tends to be especially fast. Punk rock_sentence_63

Production tends to be minimalistic, with tracks sometimes laid down on home tape recorders or simple four-track portastudios. Punk rock_sentence_64

The typical objective is to have the recording sound unmanipulated and real, reflecting the commitment and authenticity of a live performance. Punk rock_sentence_65

Punk rock lyrics are typically frank and confrontational; compared to the lyrics of other popular music genres, they frequently comment on social and political issues. Punk rock_sentence_66

Trend-setting songs such as the Clash's "Career Opportunities" and Chelsea's "Right to Work" deal with unemployment and the grim realities of urban life. Punk rock_sentence_67

Especially in early British punk, a central goal was to outrage and shock the mainstream. Punk rock_sentence_68

The Sex Pistols' "Anarchy in the U.K." and "God Save the Queen" openly disparaged the British political system and social mores. Punk rock_sentence_69

Anti-sentimental depictions of relationships and sex are common, as in "Love Comes in Spurts", written by Richard Hell and recorded by him with the Voidoids. Punk rock_sentence_70

Anomie, variously expressed in the poetic terms of Hell's "Blank Generation" and the bluntness of the Ramones' "Now I Wanna Sniff Some Glue", is a common theme. Punk rock_sentence_71

Identifying punk with such topics aligns with the view expressed by V. Punk rock_sentence_72 Vale, founder of San Francisco fanzine Search and Destroy: "Punk was a total cultural revolt. Punk rock_sentence_73

It was a hardcore confrontation with the black side of history and culture, right-wing imagery, sexual taboos, a delving into it that had never been done before by any generation in such a thorough way". Punk rock_sentence_74

The controversial content of punk lyrics led to some punk records being banned by radio stations and refused shelf space in major chain stores. Punk rock_sentence_75

Visual and other elements Punk rock_section_3

Further information: Punk fashion Punk rock_sentence_76

The classic punk rock look among male American musicians harkens back to the T-shirt, motorcycle jacket, and jeans ensemble favored by American greasers of the 1950s associated with the rockabilly scene and by British rockers of the 1960s. Punk rock_sentence_77

In addition to the T-shirt, and leather jackets they wore ripped jeans and boots, typically Doc Martens. Punk rock_sentence_78

The punk look was inspired to shock people. Punk rock_sentence_79

Richard Hell's more androgynous, ragamuffin look—and reputed invention of the safety-pin aesthetic—was a major influence on Sex Pistols impresario Malcolm McLaren and, in turn, British punk style. Punk rock_sentence_80

(John D Morton of Cleveland's Electric Eels may have been the first rock musician to wear a safety-pin-covered jacket.) Punk rock_sentence_81

McLaren's partner, fashion designer Vivienne Westwood, credits Johnny Rotten as the first British punk to rip his shirt, and Sex Pistols bassist Sid Vicious as the first to use safety pins, although few of those following punk could afford to buy McLaren and Westwood's designs so famously worn by the Pistols, so they made their own, diversifying the 'look' with various different styles based on these designs. Punk rock_sentence_82

Young women in punk demolished the typical female types in rock of either "coy sex kittens or wronged blues belters" in their fashion. Punk rock_sentence_83

Early female punk musicians displayed styles ranging from Siouxsie Sioux's bondage gear to Patti Smith's "straight-from-the-gutter androgyny". Punk rock_sentence_84

The former proved much more influential on female fan styles. Punk rock_sentence_85

Over time, tattoos, piercings, and metal-studded and -spiked accessories became increasingly common elements of punk fashion among both musicians and fans, a "style of adornment calculated to disturb and outrage". Punk rock_sentence_86

Among the other facets of the punk rock scene, a punk's hair is an important way of showing their freedom of expression. Punk rock_sentence_87

The typical male punk haircut was originally short and choppy; the mohawk later emerged as a characteristic style. Punk rock_sentence_88

Along with the mohawk, long spikes have been associated with the punk rock genre. Punk rock_sentence_89

The characteristic stage performance style of male punk musicians does not deviate significantly from the macho postures classically associated with rock music. Punk rock_sentence_90

Female punk musicians broke more clearly from earlier styles. Punk rock_sentence_91

Scholar John Strohm suggests that they did so by creating personas of a type conventionally seen as masculine: "They adopted a tough, unladylike pose that borrowed more from the macho swagger of sixties garage bands than from the calculated bad-girl image of bands like the Runaways." Punk rock_sentence_92

Scholar Dave Laing describes how bassist Gaye Advert adopted fashion elements associated with male musicians only to generate a stage persona readily consumed as "sexy". Punk rock_sentence_93

Laing focuses on more innovative and challenging performance styles, seen in the various erotically destabilizing approaches of Siouxsie Sioux, the Slits' Ari Up, and X-Ray Spex' Poly Styrene. Punk rock_sentence_94

The lack of emphatic syncopation led punk dance to "deviant" forms. Punk rock_sentence_95

The characteristic style was originally the pogo. Punk rock_sentence_96

Sid Vicious, before he became the Sex Pistols' bassist, is credited with initiating the pogo in Britain as an attendee at one of their concerts. Punk rock_sentence_97

Moshing (slamdancing) is typical at hardcore shows. Punk rock_sentence_98

The lack of conventional dance rhythms was a central factor in limiting punk's mainstream commercial impact. Punk rock_sentence_99

Breaking down the distance between performer and audience is central to the punk ethic. Punk rock_sentence_100

Fan participation at concerts is thus important; during the movement's first heyday, it was often provoked in an adversarial manner—apparently perverse, but appropriately "punk". Punk rock_sentence_101

First-wave British punk bands such as the Sex Pistols and the Damned insulted and otherwise goaded the audience into intense reactions. Punk rock_sentence_102

Laing has identified three primary forms of audience physical response to goading: can throwing, stage invasion, and spitting or "gobbing". Punk rock_sentence_103

In the hardcore realm, stage invasion is often a prelude to stage diving. Punk rock_sentence_104

In addition to the numerous fans who have started or joined punk bands, audience members also become important participants via the scene's many amateur-written and informally distributed periodicals—in England, according to Laing, punk "was the first musical genre to spawn fanzines in any significant numbers". Punk rock_sentence_105

Precursors Punk rock_section_4

Garage rock and beat music Punk rock_section_5

See also: Garage rock, Proto-punk, Mod (subculture), and Beat music Punk rock_sentence_106

In the early to mid-1960s, garage rock bands, often recognized as punk rock's progenitors, sprung up around North America. Punk rock_sentence_107

The Kingsmen had a hit with their 1963 version of Richard Berry's "Louie, Louie", which has been mentioned as punk rock's defining "ur-text". Punk rock_sentence_108

After the Beatles' first appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show, success of the British Invasion, the garage phenomenon gathered momentum around the US. Punk rock_sentence_109

By 1965, the harder-edged sound of British acts, such as the Rolling Stones, the Kinks, the Who and the Yardbirds, became increasingly influential with American garage bands. Punk rock_sentence_110

The raw sound of US groups, such as the Sonics, the Seeds, the Remains, the Standells, and the Shadows of Knight predicted the style of later acts. Punk rock_sentence_111

"She Lied" (1964) by the Rockin' Ramrods mixes melody with aggression in a way that anticipates the later sound of the Ramones. Punk rock_sentence_112

In the early 1970s certain rock critics used the term "punk rock" to refer to the mid-1960s garage genre, as well as for subsequent acts perceived to be in that stylistic tradition, such as the Stooges. Punk rock_sentence_113

From England in 1964, largely under the influence of the mod youth movement and beat group explosion, came the Kinks' hit singles, "You Really Got Me" and "All Day and All of the Night," both influenced by "Louie, Louie". Punk rock_sentence_114

In 1965, the Who released the mod anthem, "My Generation", which according to John Reed, anticipated the kind of "cerebral mix of musical ferocity and rebellious posture" that would characterize much of the later British punk rock of the 1970s. Punk rock_sentence_115

The garage/beat phenomenon extended beyond North America and Britain. Punk rock_sentence_116

"Wild About You" (1965) by Australia's the Missing Links exhibits a markedly primitivist approach and was covered a decade later by their fellow countrymen, the Saints, a prominent band in the 1970s Australian punk scene. Punk rock_sentence_117

In 1965 Peru's Los Saicos recorded "Demolicion", a notable example of prototypical punk. Punk rock_sentence_118

Proto-punk Punk rock_section_6

See also: Glam punk Punk rock_sentence_119

In August 1969, the Stooges, from Ann Arbor, premiered with a self-titled album. Punk rock_sentence_120

According to critic Greil Marcus, the band, led by singer Iggy Pop, created "the sound of Chuck Berry's Airmobile—after thieves stripped it for parts". Punk rock_sentence_121

The album was produced by John Cale, a former member of New York's experimental rock group the Velvet Underground. Punk rock_sentence_122

Having earned a reputation as one of the first underground rock bands, the Velvet Underground inspired, directly or indirectly, many of those involved in the creation of punk rock. Punk rock_sentence_123

In the early 1970s, the New York Dolls updated the original wildness of 1950s' rock 'n' roll in a fashion that later became known as glam punk. Punk rock_sentence_124

The New York duo Suicide played spare, experimental music with a confrontational stage act inspired by that of the Stooges. Punk rock_sentence_125

At the Coventry club in the New York City borough of Queens, the Dictators used rock as a vehicle for wise-ass attitude and humor. Punk rock_sentence_126

In Boston, the Modern Lovers, led by Velvet Underground devotee Jonathan Richman, gained attention with a minimalistic style. Punk rock_sentence_127

In 1974, an updated garage rock scene began to coalesce around the newly opened Rathskeller club in Kenmore Square. Punk rock_sentence_128

Among the leading acts were the Real Kids, founded by former Modern Lover John Felice; Willie Alexander and the Boom Boom Band, whose frontman had been a member of the Velvet Underground for a few months in 1971; and Mickey Clean and the Mezz. Punk rock_sentence_129

In 1974, as well, the Detroit band Death—made up of three African-American brothers—recorded "scorching blasts of feral ur-punk," but couldn't arrange a release deal. Punk rock_sentence_130

In Ohio, a small but influential underground rock scene emerged, led by Devo in Akron and Kent and by Cleveland's Electric Eels, Mirrors and Rocket from the Tombs. Punk rock_sentence_131

In 1975, Rocket from the Tombs split into Pere Ubu and Frankenstein. Punk rock_sentence_132

The Electric Eels and Mirrors both broke up, and the Styrenes emerged from the fallout. Punk rock_sentence_133

Britain's Deviants, in the late 1960s, played in a range of psychedelic styles with a satiric, anarchic edge and a penchant for situationist-style spectacle presaging the Sex Pistols by almost a decade. Punk rock_sentence_134

In 1970, the act evolved into the Pink Fairies, which carried on in a similar vein. Punk rock_sentence_135

In 1971 Marc Bolan, completed his transformation from half of hippy psychedic folk duo Tyrannosaurus Rex to glam rock superstar leader of T.Rex, rejecting hippy values of authenticity and humility in favour of glamorous artifice and arrogance that would ultimately bear fruit in punk attitude and contempt for the earlier hippy generation. Punk rock_sentence_136

With his Ziggy Stardust persona, David Bowie made artifice and exaggeration central—elements, again, that were picked up by the Sex Pistols and certain other punk acts. Punk rock_sentence_137

The Doctors of Madness built on Bowie's presentation concepts, while moving musically in the direction that would become identified with punk. Punk rock_sentence_138

Bands in London's pub rock scene stripped the music back to its basics, playing hard, R&B-influenced rock 'n' roll. Punk rock_sentence_139

By 1974, the scene's top act, Dr. Feelgood, was paving the way for others such as the Stranglers and Cock Sparrer that would play a role in the punk explosion. Punk rock_sentence_140

The pub rock scene created small venues where non-mainstream bands could play and they released low-cost recordings on independent record labels. Punk rock_sentence_141

Among the pub rock bands that formed that year was the 101ers, whose lead singer would soon adopt the name Joe Strummer, a performer who has been called the link between pub rock and punk rock. Punk rock_sentence_142

Despite the presence of some shared approaches and values, pub rock aimed to continue the tradition of earlier rock'n'roll bands, while punk rock aimed to break with tradition. Punk rock_sentence_143

Bands anticipating the forthcoming movement were appearing as far afield as Düsseldorf, West Germany, where "punk before punk" band Neu! Punk rock_sentence_144

formed in 1971, building on the Krautrock tradition of groups such as Can. Punk rock_sentence_145

In Japan, the anti-establishment Zunō Keisatsu (Brain Police) mixed garage-psych and folk. Punk rock_sentence_146

The combo regularly faced censorship challenges, their live act at least once including onstage masturbation. Punk rock_sentence_147

A new generation of Australian garage rock bands, inspired mainly by the Stooges and MC5, was coming even closer to the sound that would soon be called "punk": In Brisbane, the Saints also recalled the raw live sound of the British Pretty Things, who had made a notorious tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1975. Punk rock_sentence_148

Etymology and classification Punk rock_section_7

See also: Garage rock § Recognition and classification Punk rock_sentence_149

Between the late 16th and the 18th centuries, was a common, coarse synonym for prostitute; William Shakespeare used it with that meaning in The Merry Wives of Windsor (1602) and Measure for Measure (1603-4, published 1623 in First Folio). Punk rock_sentence_150

The term eventually came to describe "a young male hustler, a gangster, a hoodlum, or a ruffian". Punk rock_sentence_151

As Legs McNeil explains, "On TV, if you watched cop shows, Kojak, Baretta, when the cops finally catch the mass murderer, they'd say, you dirty Punk. Punk rock_sentence_152

It was what your teachers would call you. Punk rock_sentence_153

It meant that you were the lowest." Punk rock_sentence_154

Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention recorded the song "Flower Punk" in 1967, on the album We're Only in It for the Money. Punk rock_sentence_155

The first known use of the phrase punk rock appeared in the Chicago Tribune on March 22, 1970, attributed to Ed Sanders, cofounder of New York's anarcho-prankster band the Fugs. Punk rock_sentence_156

Sanders was quoted describing a solo album of his as "punk rock—redneck sentimentality". Punk rock_sentence_157

In the December 1970 issue of Creem, Lester Bangs, mocking more mainstream rock musicians, ironically referred to Iggy Pop as "that Stooge punk". Punk rock_sentence_158

Suicide's Alan Vega credits this usage with inspiring his duo to bill its gigs as a "punk mass" for the next couple of years. Punk rock_sentence_159

Greg Shaw was the first music critic to employ the term punk rock: In the April 1971 issue of Rolling Stone, he refers to a track by The Guess Who as "good, not too imaginative, punk rock and roll". Punk rock_sentence_160

Dave Marsh used the term punk rock in the May 1971 issue of Creem, where he described ? Punk rock_sentence_161 and the Mysterians, one of the most popular 1960s garage rock acts, as giving a "landmark exposition of punk rock". Punk rock_sentence_162

Later in 1971, in his fanzine Who Put the Bomp, Greg Shaw wrote about "what I have chosen to call "punkrock" bands—white teenage hard rock of '64–66 (Standells, Kingsmen, Shadows of Knight, etc.)". Punk rock_sentence_163

Lester Bangs used the term "punk rock" in several articles written in the early 1970s to refer to mid-1960s garage acts. Punk rock_sentence_164

In his June 1971 piece in Creem, "Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung," he wrote, "then punk bands started cropping up who were writing their own songs but taking the Yardbirds' sound and reducing it to this kind of goony fuzztone clatter. Punk rock_sentence_165

... oh, it was beautiful, it was pure folklore, Old America, and sometimes I think those were the best days ever." Punk rock_sentence_166

By December 1972, the term was in circulation to the extent that The New Yorker's Ellen Willis, contrasting her own tastes with those of Flash and fellow critic Nick Tosches, wrote, "Punk-rock has become the favored term of endearment." Punk rock_sentence_167

In the liner notes of the 1972 anthology LP, Nuggets, musician and rock journalist Lenny Kaye, later a member of the Patti Smith Group, used variations of the term in two places: "punk rock," in the essay liner notes, to describe the genre of 1960s garage bands, and "classic garage-punk," in the track-by-track notes, to describe a song recorded in 1966 by the Shadows of Knight. Punk rock_sentence_168

In May 1973, Billy Altman launched the short-lived punk magazine, which pre-dated the better-known 1975 publication of the same name, but, unlike the later magazine, was largely devoted to discussion of 1960s garage and psychedelic acts. Punk rock_sentence_169

In May 1974, Los Angeles Times critic Robert Hilburn reviewed the second New York Dolls album, Too Much Too Soon. Punk rock_sentence_170

"I told ya the New York Dolls were the real thing," he wrote, describing the album as "perhaps the best example of raw, thumb-your-nose-at-the-world, punk rock since the Rolling Stones' Exile on Main Street." Punk rock_sentence_171

Bassist Jeff Jensen of Boston's Real Kids reports of a show that year, "A reviewer for one of the free entertainment magazines of the time caught the act and gave us a great review, calling us a 'punk band.' Punk rock_sentence_172

... [W]e all sort of looked at each other and said, 'What's punk?'" Punk rock_sentence_173

In a 1974 interview for his fanzine Heavy Metal Digest Danny Sugerman told Iggy Pop "You went on record as saying you never were a punk" and Iggy replied "...well I ain't. Punk rock_sentence_174

I never was a punk." Punk rock_sentence_175

By 1975, punk was being used to describe acts as diverse as the Patti Smith Group, the Bay City Rollers, and Bruce Springsteen. Punk rock_sentence_176

As the scene at New York's CBGB club attracted notice, a name was sought for the developing sound. Punk rock_sentence_177

Club owner Hilly Kristal called the movement "Street rock"; John Holmstrom credits Aquarian magazine with using punk "to describe what was going on at CBGBs". Punk rock_sentence_178

Holmstrom, Legs McNeil, and Ged Dunn's magazine Punk, which debuted at the end of 1975, was crucial in codifying the term. Punk rock_sentence_179

"It was pretty obvious that the word was getting very popular", Holmstrom later remarked. Punk rock_sentence_180

"We figured we'd take the name before anyone else claimed it. Punk rock_sentence_181

We wanted to get rid of the bullshit, strip it down to rock 'n' roll. Punk rock_sentence_182

We wanted the fun and liveliness back." Punk rock_sentence_183

1974–1976: Early history Punk rock_section_8

North America Punk rock_section_9

New York City Punk rock_section_10

The origins of New York's punk rock scene can be traced back to such sources as late 1960s trash culture and an early 1970s underground rock movement centered on the Mercer Arts Center in Greenwich Village, where the New York Dolls performed. Punk rock_sentence_184

In early 1974, a new scene began to develop around the CBGB club, also in lower Manhattan. Punk rock_sentence_185

At its core was Television, described by critic John Walker as "the ultimate garage band with pretensions". Punk rock_sentence_186

Their influences ranged from the Velvet Underground to the staccato guitar work of Dr. Feelgood's Wilko Johnson. Punk rock_sentence_187

The band's bassist/singer, Richard Hell, created a look with cropped, ragged hair, ripped T-shirts, and black leather jackets credited as the basis for punk rock visual style. Punk rock_sentence_188

In April 1974, Patti Smith, a member of the Mercer Arts Center crowd and a friend of Hell's, came to CBGB for the first time to see the band perform. Punk rock_sentence_189

A veteran of independent theater and performance poetry, Smith was developing an intellectual, feminist take on rock 'n' roll. Punk rock_sentence_190

On June 5, she recorded the single "Hey Joe"/"Piss Factory", featuring Television guitarist Tom Verlaine; released on her own Mer Records label, it heralded the scene's do it yourself (DIY) ethic and has often been cited as the first punk rock record. Punk rock_sentence_191

By August, Smith and Television were gigging together at another downtown New York club, Max's Kansas City. Punk rock_sentence_192

Out in Forest Hills, Queens, several miles from lower Manhattan, the members of a newly formed band adopted a common surname. Punk rock_sentence_193

Drawing on sources ranging from the Stooges to the Beatles and the Beach Boys to Herman's Hermits and 1960s girl groups, the Ramones condensed rock 'n' roll to its primal level: "'1-2-3-4!' Punk rock_sentence_194

bass-player Dee Dee Ramone shouted at the start of every song, as if the group could barely master the rudiments of rhythm." Punk rock_sentence_195

The band played its first show at CBGB on August 16, 1974, on the same bill as another new act, Angel and the Snake, soon to be renamed Blondie. Punk rock_sentence_196

By the end of the year, the Ramones had performed seventy-four shows, each about seventeen minutes long. Punk rock_sentence_197

"When I first saw the Ramones", critic Mary Harron later remembered, "I couldn't believe people were doing this. Punk rock_sentence_198

The dumb brattiness." Punk rock_sentence_199

The Dictators, with a similar "playing dumb" concept, were recording their debut album. Punk rock_sentence_200

The Dictators' Go Girl Crazy! Punk rock_sentence_201

came out in March 1975, mixing absurdist originals such as "Master Race Rock" and loud, straight-faced covers of cheese pop like Sonny & Cher's "I Got You Babe". Punk rock_sentence_202

That spring, Smith and Television shared a two-month-long weekend residency at CBGB that significantly raised the club's profile. Punk rock_sentence_203

The Television sets included Richard Hell's "Blank Generation", which became the scene's emblematic anthem. Punk rock_sentence_204

Soon after, Hell left Television and founded a band featuring a more stripped-down sound, the Heartbreakers, with former New York Dolls Johnny Thunders and Jerry Nolan. Punk rock_sentence_205

The pairing of Hell and Thunders, in one critical assessment, "inject[ed] a poetic intelligence into mindless self-destruction". Punk rock_sentence_206

A July festival at CBGB featuring over thirty new groups brought the scene its first substantial media coverage. Punk rock_sentence_207

In August, Television—with Fred Smith, former Blondie bassist, replacing Hell—recorded a single, "Little Johnny Jewel", for the tiny Ork label. Punk rock_sentence_208

In the words of John Walker, the record was "a turning point for the whole New York scene" if not quite for the punk rock sound itself—Hell's departure had left the band "significantly reduced in fringe aggression". Punk rock_sentence_209

Other bands were becoming regulars at CBGB, such as Mink DeVille and Talking Heads, which moved down from Rhode Island, as well as Cleveland, Ohio's The Dead Boys. Punk rock_sentence_210

More closely associated with Max's Kansas City were Suicide and the band led by Jayne County, another Mercer Arts Center alumna. Punk rock_sentence_211

The first album to come out of this downtown scene was released in November 1975: Smith's debut, Horses, produced by John Cale for major label Arista. Punk rock_sentence_212

The inaugural issue of Punk appeared in December. Punk rock_sentence_213

The new magazine tied together earlier artists such as Velvet Underground lead singer Lou Reed, the Stooges, and the New York Dolls with the editors' favorite band, the Dictators, and the array of new acts centered on CBGB and Max's. Punk rock_sentence_214

That winter, Pere Ubu came in from Cleveland and played at both spots. Punk rock_sentence_215

Early in 1976, Hell left the Heartbreakers; he soon formed a new group that would become known as the Voidoids, "one of the most harshly uncompromising bands" on the scene. Punk rock_sentence_216

That April, the Ramones' debut album was released by Sire Records; the first single was "Blitzkrieg Bop", opening with the rally cry "Hey! Punk rock_sentence_217

Ho! Punk rock_sentence_218

Let's go!" Punk rock_sentence_219

According to a later description, "Like all cultural watersheds, Ramones was embraced by a discerning few and slagged off as a bad joke by the uncomprehending majority." Punk rock_sentence_220

At the instigation of Ramones lead singer Joey Ramone, the members of Cleveland's Frankenstein moved east to join the New York scene. Punk rock_sentence_221

Reconstituted as the Dead Boys, they played their first CBGB gig in late July. Punk rock_sentence_222

In August, Ork put out an EP recorded by Hell with his new band that included the first released version of "Blank Generation". Punk rock_sentence_223

Other New York venues apart from CBGB included the Lismar Lounge (41 First Avenue) and Aztec Lounge (9th Street). Punk rock_sentence_224

At this early stage, the term punk applied to the scene in general, not necessarily a particular stylistic approach as it would later—the early New York punk bands represented a broad variety of influences. Punk rock_sentence_225

Among them, the Ramones, the Heartbreakers, Richard Hell and the Voidoids, and the Dead Boys were establishing a distinct musical style. Punk rock_sentence_226

Even where they diverged most clearly, in lyrical approach—the Ramones' apparent guilelessness at one extreme, Hell's conscious craft at the other—there was an abrasive attitude in common. Punk rock_sentence_227

Their shared attributes of minimalism and speed, however, had not yet come to define punk rock. Punk rock_sentence_228

Other U.S. cities Punk rock_section_11

Chickasha, Oklahoma gave birth to avant garde, glam-punk bands Victoria Vein and the Thunderpunks in 1974 and Debris' in 1975 whose self-released underground classic Static Disposal was released in 1976. Punk rock_sentence_229

The album has been touted as an inspiration by numerous bands including Scream, Nurse With Wound, the Melvins and Sonic Youth. Punk rock_sentence_230

In 1975, the Suicide Commandos formed in Minneapolis. Punk rock_sentence_231

They were one of the first U.S. bands outside of New York to play in the Ramones-style harder-louder-faster mode that would define punk rock. Punk rock_sentence_232

Detroit's Death self-released one of their 1974 recordings, "Politicians in My Eyes", in 1976. Punk rock_sentence_233

As the punk movement expanded rapidly in the United Kingdom that year, a few bands with similar tastes and attitude appeared around the United States. Punk rock_sentence_234

The first West Coast punk scenes emerged in San Francisco, with the bands Crime and the Nuns, and Seattle, where the Telepaths, Meyce, and the Tupperwares played a groundbreaking show on May 1. Punk rock_sentence_235

Rock critic Richard Meltzer cofounded VOM (short for "vomit") in Los Angeles. Punk rock_sentence_236

Meanwhile, in Los Angeles, performer Alice Bag formed the punk music group the Bags in 1977. Punk rock_sentence_237

Alice influenced the Hollywood punk scene by incorporating Mexican and Chicano musical culture into her music through canción ranchera—which translates to "country song" and is associated with mariachi ensembles—as well as estilo bravío, a wild style of performance often seen in punk. Punk rock_sentence_238

In Washington, D.C., raucous roots-rockers the Razz helped along a nascent punk scene featuring Overkill, the Slickee Boys, and the Look. Punk rock_sentence_239

Around the turn of the year, White Boy began giving notoriously crazed performances. Punk rock_sentence_240

In Boston, the scene at the Rathskeller—affectionately known as the Rat—was also turning toward punk, though the defining sound retained a distinct garage rock orientation. Punk rock_sentence_241

Among the city's first new acts to be identified with punk rock was DMZ. Punk rock_sentence_242

In Bloomington, Indiana, the Gizmos played in a jokey, raunchy, Dictators-inspired style later referred to as "frat punk". Punk rock_sentence_243

Like their garage rock predecessors, these local scenes were facilitated by enthusiastic impresarios who operated nightclubs or organized concerts in venues such as schools, garages, or warehouses, advertised via inexpensively printed flyers and fanzines. Punk rock_sentence_244

In some cases, punk's do it yourself ethic reflected an aversion to commercial success, as well as a desire to maintain creative and financial autonomy. Punk rock_sentence_245

As Joe Harvard, a participant in the Boston scene, describes, it was often a simple necessity—the absence of a local recording industry and well-distributed music magazines left little recourse but DIY. Punk rock_sentence_246

Australia Punk rock_section_12

At the same time, a similar music-based subculture was beginning to take shape in various parts of Australia. Punk rock_sentence_247

A scene was developing around Radio Birdman and its main performance venue, the Oxford Tavern (later the Oxford Funhouse), located in Sydney's Darlinghurst suburb. Punk rock_sentence_248

In December 1975, the group won the RAM (Rock Australia Magazine)/Levi's Punk Band Thriller competition. Punk rock_sentence_249

By 1976, the Saints were hiring Brisbane local halls to use as venues, or playing in "Club 76", their shared house in the inner suburb of Petrie Terrace. Punk rock_sentence_250

The band soon discovered that musicians were exploring similar paths in other parts of the world. Punk rock_sentence_251

Ed Kuepper, co-founder of the Saints, later recalled: Punk rock_sentence_252

On the other side of Australia, in Perth, germinal punk rock act the Cheap Nasties, featuring singer-guitarist Kim Salmon, formed in August. Punk rock_sentence_253

In September 1976, the Saints became the first punk rock band outside the U.S. to release a recording, the single "(I'm) Stranded". Punk rock_sentence_254

As with Patti Smith's debut, the band self-financed, packaged, and distributed the single. Punk rock_sentence_255

"(I'm) Stranded" had limited impact at home, but the British music press recognized it as a groundbreaking record. Punk rock_sentence_256

At the insistence of their superiors in the UK, EMI Australia signed the Saints. Punk rock_sentence_257

Meanwhile, Radio Birdman came out with a self-financed EP, Burn My Eye, in October. Punk rock_sentence_258

Trouser Press critic Ian McCaleb later described the record as the "archetype for the musical explosion that was about to occur". Punk rock_sentence_259

United Kingdom Punk rock_section_13

After a brief period unofficially managing the New York Dolls, Briton Malcolm McLaren returned to London in May 1975, inspired by the new scene he had witnessed at CBGB. Punk rock_sentence_260

The King's Road clothing store he co-owned, recently renamed Sex, was building a reputation with its outrageous "anti-fashion". Punk rock_sentence_261

Among those who frequented the shop were members of a band called the Strand, which McLaren had also been managing. Punk rock_sentence_262

In August, the group was seeking a new lead singer. Punk rock_sentence_263

Another Sex habitué, Johnny Rotten, auditioned for and won the job. Punk rock_sentence_264

Adopting a new name, the group played its first gig as the Sex Pistols on November 6, 1975, at Saint Martin's School of Art and soon attracted a small but ardent following. Punk rock_sentence_265

In February 1976, the band received its first significant press coverage; guitarist Steve Jones declared that the Sex Pistols were not so much into music as they were "chaos". Punk rock_sentence_266

The band often provoked its crowds into near-riots. Punk rock_sentence_267

Rotten announced to one audience, "Bet you don't hate us as much as we hate you!" Punk rock_sentence_268

McLaren envisioned the Sex Pistols as central players in a new youth movement, "hard and tough". Punk rock_sentence_269

As described by critic Jon Savage, the band members "embodied an attitude into which McLaren fed a new set of references: late-sixties radical politics, sexual fetish material, pop history, ... youth sociology". Punk rock_sentence_270

Bernard Rhodes, a sometime associate of McLaren and friend of the Sex Pistols, was similarly aiming to make stars of the band London SS. Punk rock_sentence_271

Early in 1976, London SS broke up before ever performing publicly, spinning off two new bands: the Damned and the Clash, which was joined by Joe Strummer, former lead singer of the 101'ers. Punk rock_sentence_272

On June 4, 1976, the Sex Pistols played Manchester's Lesser Free Trade Hall in what came to be regarded as one of the most influential rock shows ever. Punk rock_sentence_273

Among the approximately forty audience members were the two locals who organised the gig—they had formed Buzzcocks after seeing the Sex Pistols in February. Punk rock_sentence_274

Others in the small crowd went on to form Joy Division, the Fall, and—in the 1980s—the Smiths. Punk rock_sentence_275

In July, the Ramones crossed the Atlantic for two London shows that helped spark the nascent UK punk scene and affected its musical style—"instantly nearly every band speeded up". Punk rock_sentence_276

On July 4, they played with the Flamin' Groovies and the Stranglers before a crowd of 2,000 at the Roundhouse. Punk rock_sentence_277

That same night, the Clash debuted, opening for the Sex Pistols in Sheffield. Punk rock_sentence_278

On July 5, members of both bands attended a Ramones gig at Dingwalls club. Punk rock_sentence_279

The following night, the Damned performed their first show, as the Sex Pistols opening act in London. Punk rock_sentence_280

In critic Kurt Loder's description, the Sex Pistols purveyed a "calculated, arty nihilism, [while] the Clash were unabashed idealists, proponents of a radical left-wing social critique of a sort that reached back at least to ... Woody Guthrie in the 1940s". Punk rock_sentence_281

The Damned built a reputation as "punk's party boys". Punk rock_sentence_282

This London scene's first fanzine appeared a week later. Punk rock_sentence_283

Its title, Sniffin' Glue, derived from a Ramones song. Punk rock_sentence_284

Its subtitle affirmed the connection with what was happening in New York: "+ Other Rock 'n' Roll Habits for Punks!" Punk rock_sentence_285

Another Sex Pistols gig in Manchester on July 20, with a reorganized version of Buzzcocks debuting in support, gave further impetus to the scene there. Punk rock_sentence_286

In August, the self-described "First European Punk Rock Festival" was held in Mont de Marsan in the southwest of France. Punk rock_sentence_287

Eddie and the Hot Rods, a London pub rock group, headlined. Punk rock_sentence_288

The Sex Pistols, originally scheduled to play, were dropped by the organizers who said the band had gone "too far" in demanding top billing and certain amenities; the Clash backed out in solidarity. Punk rock_sentence_289

The only band from the new punk movement to appear was the Damned. Punk rock_sentence_290

Over the next several months, many new punk rock bands formed, often directly inspired by the Sex Pistols. Punk rock_sentence_291

In London, women were near the center of the scene—among the initial wave of bands were the female-fronted Siouxsie and the Banshees and X-Ray Spex and the all-female the Slits. Punk rock_sentence_292

There were female bassists Gaye Advert in the Adverts and Shanne Bradley in the Nipple Erectors. Punk rock_sentence_293

Other groups included Subway Sect, Eater, Wire, The Stranglers, the Subversives, Johnny Moped, the aptly named London, and Chelsea, which soon spun off Generation X. Punk rock_sentence_294

Farther afield, Sham 69 began practicing in the southeastern town of Hersham. Punk rock_sentence_295

In Durham, there was Penetration, with lead singer Pauline Murray. Punk rock_sentence_296

On September 20–21, the 100 Club Punk Festival in London featured the four primary British groups (London's big three and Buzzcocks), as well as Paris's female-fronted Stinky Toys, arguably the first punk rock band from a non-Anglophone country. Punk rock_sentence_297

Siouxsie and the Banshees and Subway Sect debuted on the festival's first night; that same evening, Eater debuted in Manchester. Punk rock_sentence_298

On the festival's second night, audience member Sid Vicious was arrested, charged with throwing a glass at the Damned that shattered and destroyed a girl's eye. Punk rock_sentence_299

Press coverage of the incident fueled punk's reputation as a social menace. Punk rock_sentence_300

Some new bands, such as London's Alternative TV, Edinburgh's Rezillos, and Leamington's the Shapes, identified with the scene even as they pursued more experimental music. Punk rock_sentence_301

Others of a comparatively traditional rock 'n' roll bent were also swept up by the movement: the Vibrators, formed as a pub rock–style act in February 1976, soon adopted a punk look and sound. Punk rock_sentence_302

A few even longer-active bands including Surrey neo-mods the Jam and pub rockers the Stranglers and Cock Sparrer also became associated with the punk rock scene. Punk rock_sentence_303

Alongside the musical roots shared with their American counterparts and the calculated confrontationalism of the early Who, the British punks also reflected the influence of glam rock and related bands such as Slade, T.Rex, and Roxy Music. Punk rock_sentence_304

One of the groups openly acknowledging that influence were the Undertones, from Derry in Northern Ireland. Punk rock_sentence_305

In October, the Damned became the first UK punk rock band to release a single, "New Rose". Punk rock_sentence_306

The Vibrators followed the next month with "We Vibrate". Punk rock_sentence_307

On November 26, the Sex Pistols' "Anarchy in the U.K." came out—with its debut single the band succeeded in its goal of becoming a "national scandal". Punk rock_sentence_308

Jamie Reid's "anarchy flag" poster and his other design work for the Sex Pistols helped establish a distinctive punk visual aesthetic. Punk rock_sentence_309

On December 1, an incident took place that sealed punk rock's notorious reputation: On Thames Today, an early evening London TV show, Sex Pistols guitarist Steve Jones was challenged by the host, Bill Grundy, to "say something outrageous". Punk rock_sentence_310

Jones called Grundy a "dirty fucker" on live television, triggering a media controversy. Punk rock_sentence_311

Two days later, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned, and the Heartbreakers set out on the Anarchy Tour, a series of gigs throughout the UK. Punk rock_sentence_312

Many of the shows were cancelled by venue owners in response to the media outrage following the Grundy interview. Punk rock_sentence_313

1977–1978: Second wave Punk rock_section_14

By 1977, a second wave of the punk rock movement was breaking in the three countries where it had emerged, as well as in many other places. Punk rock_sentence_314

Bands from the same scenes often sounded very different from each other, reflecting the eclectic state of punk music during the era. Punk rock_sentence_315

While punk rock remained largely an underground phenomenon in North America, Australia, and the new spots where it was emerging, in the UK it briefly became a major sensation. Punk rock_sentence_316

North America Punk rock_section_15

The California punk scene was in full swing by early 1977. Punk rock_sentence_317

In Los Angeles, there were: the Weirdos, the Zeros, the Bags, Black Randy and the Metrosquad, the Germs, Fear, The Go-Go's, X, the Dickies, and the relocated Tupperwares, now dubbed the Screamers. Punk rock_sentence_318

San Francisco's second wave included the Avengers, The Nuns, Negative Trend, the Mutants, and the Sleepers. Punk rock_sentence_319

the Dils, from Carlsbad, moved between the two major cities. Punk rock_sentence_320

The Wipers formed in Portland, Oregon. Punk rock_sentence_321

In Seattle, there was the Lewd. Punk rock_sentence_322

Often sharing gigs with the Seattle punks were bands from across the Canada–US border. Punk rock_sentence_323

A major scene developed in Vancouver, spearheaded by the Furies and Victoria's all-female Dee Dee and the Dishrags. Punk rock_sentence_324

the Skulls spun off into D.O.A. Punk rock_sentence_325

and the Subhumans. Punk rock_sentence_326

The K-Tels (later known as the Young Canadians) and Pointed Sticks were among the area's other leading punk acts. Punk rock_sentence_327

In eastern Canada, the Toronto protopunk band Dishes had laid the groundwork for another sizable scene, and a September 1976 concert by the touring Ramones had catalyzed the movement. Punk rock_sentence_328

Early Ontario punk bands included the Diodes, the Viletones, Battered Wives, the Demics, Forgotten Rebels, Teenage Head, the Poles, and the Ugly. Punk rock_sentence_329

Along with the Dishrags, Toronto's the Curse and B Girls were North America's first all-female punk acts. Punk rock_sentence_330

In July 1977, the Viletones, Diodes, Curse, and Teenage Head headed down to New York City to play "Canada night" at CBGB. Punk rock_sentence_331

By mid-1977 in downtown New York, punk rock was already ceding its cutting-edge status to the anarchic sound of Teenage Jesus and the Jerks and Mars, spearheads of what became known as no wave, although several original punk bands continued to perform and new ones emerged on the scene. Punk rock_sentence_332

The Cramps, whose core members were from Sacramento, California by way of Akron, had debuted at CBGB in November 1976, opening for the Dead Boys. Punk rock_sentence_333

They were soon playing regularly at Max's Kansas City. Punk rock_sentence_334

The Misfits formed in nearby New Jersey. Punk rock_sentence_335

Still developing what would become their signature B movie–inspired style, later dubbed horror punk, they made their first appearance at CBGB in April 1977. Punk rock_sentence_336

Leave Home, the Ramones' second album, had come out in January. Punk rock_sentence_337

The Dead Boys' debut LP, Young, Loud and Snotty, was released at the end of August. Punk rock_sentence_338

October saw two more debut albums from the scene: Richard Hell and the Voidoids' first full-length, Blank Generation, and the Heartbreakers' L.A.M.F. Punk rock_sentence_339

One track on the latter exemplified both the scene's close-knit character and the popularity of heroin within it: "Chinese Rocks"—the title refers to a strong form of the drug—was written by Dee Dee Ramone and Hell, both users, as were the Heartbreakers' Thunders and Nolan. Punk rock_sentence_340

(During the Heartbreakers' 1976 and 1977 tours of Britain, Thunders played a central role in popularizing heroin among the punk crowd there, as well.) Punk rock_sentence_341

The Ramones' third album, Rocket to Russia, appeared in November 1977. Punk rock_sentence_342

The Ohio protopunk bands were joined by Cleveland's the Pagans, Akron's Bizarros and Rubber City Rebels, and Kent's Human Switchboard. Punk rock_sentence_343

Bloomington, Indiana, had MX-80 Sound and Detroit had the Sillies. Punk rock_sentence_344

The Suburbs came together in the Twin Cities scene sparked by the Suicide Commandos. Punk rock_sentence_345

The Feederz formed in Arizona. Punk rock_sentence_346

Atlanta had the Fans. Punk rock_sentence_347

In North Carolina, there was Chapel Hill's H-Bombs and Raleigh's Th' Cigaretz. Punk rock_sentence_348

The Chicago scene began not with a band but with a group of DJs transforming a gay bar, La Mere Vipere, into what became known as America's first punk dance club. Punk rock_sentence_349

The Crucified, Tutu and the Pirates and Silver Abuse were among the city's first punk bands. Punk rock_sentence_350

In Boston, the scene at the Rat was joined by the Nervous Eaters, Thrills, and Human Sexual Response. Punk rock_sentence_351

In Washington, D.C., the Controls played their first gig in spring 1977, but the city's second wave really broke the following year with acts such as the Urban Verbs, Half Japanese, D'Chumps, Rudements and Shirkers. Punk rock_sentence_352

By early 1978, the D.C. jazz-fusion group Mind Power had transformed into Bad Brains, one of the first bands to be identified with hardcore punk. Punk rock_sentence_353

United Kingdom Punk rock_section_16

The Sex Pistols' live TV skirmish with Bill Grundy on December 1, 1976 was the signal moment in British punk's transformation into a major media phenomenon, even as some stores refused to stock the records and radio airplay was hard to come by. Punk rock_sentence_354

Press coverage of punk misbehavior grew intense: On January 4, 1977, The Evening News of London ran a front-page story on how the Sex Pistols "vomited and spat their way to an Amsterdam flight". Punk rock_sentence_355

In February 1977, the first album by a British punk band appeared: Damned Damned Damned (by the Damned) reached number thirty-six on the UK chart. Punk rock_sentence_356

The EP Spiral Scratch, self-released by Manchester's Buzzcocks, was a benchmark for both the DIY ethic and regionalism in the country's punk movement. Punk rock_sentence_357

The Clash's self-titled debut album came out two months later and rose to number twelve; the single "White Riot" entered the top forty. Punk rock_sentence_358

In May, the Sex Pistols achieved new heights of controversy (and number two on the singles chart) with "God Save the Queen". Punk rock_sentence_359

The band had recently acquired a new bassist, Sid Vicious, who was seen as exemplifying the punk persona. Punk rock_sentence_360

The swearing during the Grundy interview and the controversy over "God Save the Queen" led to a moral panic. Punk rock_sentence_361

Scores of new punk groups formed around the United Kingdom, as far from London as Belfast's Stiff Little Fingers and Dunfermline, Scotland's the Skids. Punk rock_sentence_362

Though most survived only briefly, perhaps recording a small-label single or two, others set off new trends. Punk rock_sentence_363

Crass, from Essex, merged a vehement, straight-ahead punk rock style with a committed anarchist mission, and played a major role in the emerging anarcho-punk movement. Punk rock_sentence_364

Sham 69, London's Menace, and the Angelic Upstarts from South Shields in the Northeast combined a similarly stripped-down sound with populist lyrics, a style that became known as street punk. Punk rock_sentence_365

These expressly working-class bands contrasted with others in the second wave that presaged the post-punk phenomenon. Punk rock_sentence_366

Liverpool's first punk group, Big in Japan, moved in a glam, theatrical direction. Punk rock_sentence_367

The band didn't survive long, but it spun off several well-known post-punk acts. Punk rock_sentence_368

The songs of London's Wire were characterized by sophisticated lyrics, minimalist arrangements, and extreme brevity. Punk rock_sentence_369

By the end of 1977, according to music historian Clinton Heylin, they were "England's arch-exponents of New Musick, and the true heralds of what came next." Punk rock_sentence_370

Alongside thirteen original songs that would define classic punk rock, the Clash's debut had included a cover of the recent Jamaican reggae hit "Police and Thieves". Punk rock_sentence_371

Other first wave bands such as the Slits and new entrants to the scene like the Ruts and the Police interacted with the reggae and ska subcultures, incorporating their rhythms and production styles. Punk rock_sentence_372

The punk rock phenomenon helped spark a full-fledged ska revival movement known as 2 Tone, centered on bands such as the Specials, the Beat, Madness, and the Selecter. Punk rock_sentence_373

June 1977 saw the release of another charting punk album: the Vibrators' Pure Mania. Punk rock_sentence_374

In July, the Sex Pistols' third single, "Pretty Vacant", reached number six and the Saints had a top-forty hit with "This Perfect Day". Punk rock_sentence_375

Recently arrived from Australia, the band was now considered insufficiently "cool" to qualify as punk by much of the British media, though they had been playing a similar brand of music for years. Punk rock_sentence_376

In August, the Adverts entered the top twenty with "Gary Gilmore's Eyes". Punk rock_sentence_377

As punk became a broad-based national phenomenon in the summer of 1977, punk musicians and fans were increasingly subject to violent assaults by Teddy boys, football yobbos, and others. Punk rock_sentence_378

A Ted-aligned band recorded "The Punk Bashing Boogie". Punk rock_sentence_379

The radio censorship, refusal to stock some punk records and large venue bans of punk groups had two impacts on punk: some groups reclassified themselves as new wave to garner airplay and venue access, while other bands shifted to a DIY approach, pressing their own records and delivering them by hand or via mail-order. Punk rock_sentence_380

In September, Generation X and the Clash reached the top forty with, respectively, "Your Generation" and "Complete Control". Punk rock_sentence_381

X-Ray Spex' "Oh Bondage Up Yours!" Punk rock_sentence_382

didn't chart, but it became a requisite item for punk fans. Punk rock_sentence_383

BBC refused to play "Oh Bondage ..." due to its controversial lyrics. Punk rock_sentence_384

In October, the Sex Pistols hit number eight with "Holidays in the Sun", followed by the release of their first and only "official" album, Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols. Punk rock_sentence_385

Inspiring yet another round of controversy, it topped the British charts. Punk rock_sentence_386

In December, one of the first books about punk rock was published: The Boy Looked at Johnny, by Julie Burchill and Tony Parsons. Punk rock_sentence_387

Australia Punk rock_section_17

In February 1977, EMI released the Saints' debut album, (I'm) Stranded, which the band recorded in two days. Punk rock_sentence_388

The Saints had relocated to Sydney; in April, they and Radio Birdman united for a major gig at Paddington Town Hall. Punk rock_sentence_389

Last Words had also formed in the city. Punk rock_sentence_390

The following month, the Saints relocated again, to Great Britain. Punk rock_sentence_391

In June, Radio Birdman released the album Radios Appear on its own Trafalgar label. Punk rock_sentence_392

The Victims became a short-lived leader of the Perth scene, self-releasing "Television Addict". Punk rock_sentence_393

They were joined by the Scientists, Kim Salmon's successor band to the Cheap Nasties. Punk rock_sentence_394

Among the other bands constituting Australia's second wave were Johnny Dole & the Scabs, Shock Treatment, the Hellcats, and Psychosurgeons (later known as the Lipstick Killers) in Sydney; the Leftovers, the Survivors, and Razar in Brisbane; and La Femme, the Negatives, and the Babeez (later known as the News) in Melbourne. Punk rock_sentence_395

Melbourne's art rock–influenced Boys Next Door featured singer Nick Cave, who would become one of the world's best-known post-punk artists. Punk rock_sentence_396

Rest of the world Punk rock_section_18

Meanwhile, punk rock scenes were emerging around the globe. Punk rock_sentence_397

In France, les punks, a Parisian subculture of Lou Reed fans, had already been around for years. Punk rock_sentence_398

Following the lead of Stinky Toys, Métal Urbain played its first concert in December 1976. Punk rock_sentence_399

In August 1977, Asphalt Jungle played at the second Mont de Marsan punk festival. Punk rock_sentence_400

Stinky Toys' debut single, "Boozy Creed", came out in September. Punk rock_sentence_401

It was perhaps the first non-English-language punk rock record, though as music historian George Gimarc notes, the punk enunciation made that distinction somewhat moot. Punk rock_sentence_402

The following month, Métal Urbain's first 45, "Panik", appeared. Punk rock_sentence_403

After the release of their minimalist punk debut, "Rien à dire", Marie et les Garçons became involved in New York's mutant disco scene. Punk rock_sentence_404

Asphalt Jungle's "Deconnection" and Gasoline's "Killer Man" also came out before the end of the year, and other French punk acts such as Oberkampf and Starshooter soon formed. Punk rock_sentence_405

1977 also saw the debut album from Hamburg's Big Balls and the Great White Idiot, arguably West Germany's first punk band. Punk rock_sentence_406

Other early German punk acts included the Fred Banana Combo and Pack. Punk rock_sentence_407

Bands primarily inspired by British punk sparked what became known as the Neue Deutsche Welle (NDW) movement. Punk rock_sentence_408

Vanguard NDW acts such as the Nina Hagen Band and S.Y.P.H. Punk rock_sentence_409

featured strident vocals and an emphasis on provocation. Punk rock_sentence_410

Before turning in a mainstream direction in the 1980s, NDW attracted a politically conscious and diverse audience, including both participants of the left-wing alternative scene and neo-Nazi skinheads. Punk rock_sentence_411

These opposing factions were mutually attracted by a view of punk rock as "politically as well as musically ... 'against the system'." Punk rock_sentence_412

Scandinavian punk was propelled early on by tour dates by bands such as the Clash and the Ramones (both in Stockholm in May 1977), and the Sex Pistols' tour through Denmark, Sweden and Norway in July the same year. Punk rock_sentence_413

The band Briard jump-started Finnish punk with its November 1977 single "I Really Hate Ya"/"I Want Ya Back"; other early Finnish punk acts included Eppu Normaali and singer Pelle Miljoona. Punk rock_sentence_414

The first Swedish punk single was "Vårdad klädsel"/"Förbjudna ljud" released by Kriminella Gitarrer in February 1978, which started an extensive Swedish punk scene featuring act such as Ebba Grön, KSMB, Rude Kids, Besökarna, Liket Lever, Garbochock, Attentat, Grisen Skriker and many others. Punk rock_sentence_415

Within a couple of years, hundreds of punk singles were released in Sweden. Punk rock_sentence_416

In Japan, a punk movement developed around bands playing in an art/noise style such as Friction, and "psych punk" acts like Gaseneta and Kadotani Michio. Punk rock_sentence_417

In New Zealand, Auckland's Scavengers and Suburban Reptiles were followed by the Enemy of Dunedin. Punk rock_sentence_418

Punk rock scenes also grew in other countries such as Belgium (the Kids, Chainsaw), the Netherlands (the Suzannes, the Ex), Spain (La Banda Trapera Del Río, Kaka De Luxe, Kortatu, Eskorbuto, La Polla Records, Zarama, RIP, Barricada, Siniestro Total), and Switzerland (Nasal Boys, Kleenex). Punk rock_sentence_419

Indonesia was a part of the largest punk movement in Southeast Asia, heavily influenced by Green Day, Rancid, and the Offspring. Punk rock_sentence_420

Young people created their own underground sub-culture of punk, which over time developed into a style that was completely different from the original movement. Punk rock_sentence_421

Punk emerged in South Africa as direct opposition to the conservative apartheid government and racial segregation enforcement of the time. Punk rock_sentence_422

Bands like Wild Youth and National Wake led the way in the late 1970s and early 1980s, followed by Powerage and Screaming Foetus from Durban and Toxik Sox in Johannesburg in the mid-1980s. Punk rock_sentence_423

Mexico's punk/ska music has innovated the political standard has how the world is view in both countries. Punk rock_sentence_424

Production and reception of particular texts in a global context of inequality in which Mexican are racialized and objectified generate transnational archives of feelings in relation to migration from Mexico. Punk rock_sentence_425

The cultural memories reflects upon the power relations that affect social categories and social identities. Punk rock_sentence_426

(Zavella, 2012) Punks embrace the ethic of do-it-yourself (DIY), which disavows materialism and consumerism and the individualist fame of rock stars. Punk rock_sentence_427

(Zavella, 2012) Being a punk was a form of expressing freedom and not caring of judgement. Punk rock_sentence_428

1979–1984: Schism and diversification Punk rock_section_19

By 1979, the hardcore punk movement was emerging in Southern California. Punk rock_sentence_429

A rivalry developed between adherents of the new sound and the older punk rock crowd. Punk rock_sentence_430

Hardcore, appealing to a younger, more suburban audience, was perceived by some as anti-intellectual, overly violent, and musically limited. Punk rock_sentence_431

In Los Angeles, the opposing factions were often described as "Hollywood punks" and "beach punks", referring to Hollywood's central position in the original L.A. punk rock scene and to hardcore's popularity in the shoreline communities of South Bay and Orange County. Punk rock_sentence_432

As hardcore became the dominant punk rock style, many bands of the older California punk rock movement split up. Punk rock_sentence_433

Across North America, many other first and second wave punk bands also dissolved, while younger musicians inspired by the movement explored new variations on punk. Punk rock_sentence_434

Some early punk bands transformed into hardcore acts. Punk rock_sentence_435

A few, most notably the Ramones, Richard Hell and the Voidoids, and Johnny Thunders and the Heartbreakers, continued to pursue the style they had helped create. Punk rock_sentence_436

Crossing the lines between "classic" punk, post-punk, and hardcore, San Francisco's Flipper was founded in 1979 by former members of Negative Trend and the Sleepers. Punk rock_sentence_437

They became "the reigning kings of American underground rock, for a few years". Punk rock_sentence_438

Radio Birdman broke up in June 1978 while touring the UK, where the early unity between bohemian, middle-class punks (many with art school backgrounds) and working-class punks had disintegrated. Punk rock_sentence_439

In contrast to North America, more of the bands from the original British punk movement remained active, sustaining extended careers even as their styles evolved and diverged. Punk rock_sentence_440

Meanwhile, the Oi! Punk rock_sentence_441

and anarcho-punk movements were emerging. Punk rock_sentence_442

Musically in the same aggressive vein as American hardcore, they addressed different constituencies with overlapping but distinct anti-establishment messages. Punk rock_sentence_443

As described by Dave Laing, "The model for self-proclaimed punk after 1978 derived from the Ramones via the eight-to-the-bar rhythms most characteristic of the Vibrators and Clash. Punk rock_sentence_444

... Punk rock_sentence_445

It became essential to sound one particular way to be recognized as a 'punk band' now." Punk rock_sentence_446

In February 1979, former Sex Pistols bassist Sid Vicious died of a heroin overdose in New York. Punk rock_sentence_447

If the Sex Pistols' breakup the previous year had marked the end of the original UK punk scene and its promise of cultural transformation, for many the death of Vicious signified that it had been doomed from the start. Punk rock_sentence_448

By the turn of the decade, the punk rock movement had split deeply along cultural and musical lines, leaving a variety of derivative scenes and forms. Punk rock_sentence_449

On one side were new wave and post-punk artists; some adopted more accessible musical styles and gained broad popularity, while some turned in more experimental, less commercial directions. Punk rock_sentence_450

On the other side, hardcore punk, Oi!, and anarcho-punk bands became closely linked with underground cultures and spun off an array of subgenres. Punk rock_sentence_451

Somewhere in between, pop punk groups created blends like that of the ideal record, as defined by Mekons cofounder Kevin Lycett: "a cross between Abba and the Sex Pistols". Punk rock_sentence_452

A range of other styles emerged, many of them fusions with long-established genres. Punk rock_sentence_453

The Clash album London Calling, released in December 1979, exemplified the breadth of classic punk's legacy. Punk rock_sentence_454

Combining punk rock with reggae, ska, R&B, and rockabilly, it went on to be acclaimed as one of the best rock records ever. Punk rock_sentence_455

At the same time, as observed by Flipper singer Bruce Loose, the relatively restrictive hardcore scenes diminished the variety of music that could once be heard at many punk gigs. Punk rock_sentence_456

If early punk, like most rock scenes, was ultimately male-oriented, the hardcore and Oi! Punk rock_sentence_457

scenes were significantly more so, marked in part by the slam dancing and moshing with which they became identified. Punk rock_sentence_458

New wave Punk rock_section_20

Main article: New wave music Punk rock_sentence_459

In 1976—first in London, then in the United States—"New Wave" was introduced as a complementary label for the formative scenes and groups also known as "punk"; the two terms were essentially interchangeable. Punk rock_sentence_460

NME journalist Roy Carr is credited with proposing the term's use (adopted from the cinematic French New Wave of the 1960s) in this context. Punk rock_sentence_461

Over time, "new wave" acquired a distinct meaning: bands such as Blondie and Talking Heads from the CBGB scene; the Cars, who emerged from the Rat in Boston; the Go-Go's in Los Angeles; and the Police in London that were broadening their instrumental palette, incorporating dance-oriented rhythms, and working with more polished production were specifically designated "new wave" and no longer called "punk". Punk rock_sentence_462

Dave Laing suggests that some punk-identified British acts pursued the new wave label in order to avoid radio censorship and make themselves more palatable to concert bookers. Punk rock_sentence_463

Bringing elements of punk rock music and fashion into more pop-oriented, less "dangerous" styles, new wave artists became very popular on both sides of the Atlantic. Punk rock_sentence_464

New wave became a catch-all term, encompassing disparate styles such as 2 Tone ska, the mod revival inspired by the Jam, the sophisticated pop-rock of Elvis Costello and XTC, the New Romantic phenomenon typified by Ultravox, synthpop groups like Tubeway Army (which had started out as a straight-ahead punk band) and Human League, and the sui generis subversions of Devo, who had gone "beyond punk before punk even properly existed". Punk rock_sentence_465

New wave became a pop culture sensation with the debut of the cable television network MTV in 1981, which put many new wave videos into regular rotation. Punk rock_sentence_466

However, the music was often derided at the time as being silly and disposable. Punk rock_sentence_467

Post-punk Punk rock_section_21

Main article: Post-punk Punk rock_sentence_468

During 1976–77, in the midst of the original UK punk movement, bands emerged such as Manchester's Joy Division, the Fall, and Magazine, Leeds' Gang of Four, and London's the Raincoats that became central post-punk figures. Punk rock_sentence_469

Some bands classified as post-punk, such as Throbbing Gristle and Cabaret Voltaire, had been active well before the punk scene coalesced; others, such as Siouxsie and the Banshees and the Slits, transitioned from punk rock into post-punk. Punk rock_sentence_470

A few months after the Sex Pistols' breakup, John Lydon (no longer "Rotten") cofounded Public Image Ltd. Punk rock_sentence_471

Lora Logic, formerly of X-Ray Spex, founded Essential Logic. Punk rock_sentence_472

Killing Joke formed in 1979. Punk rock_sentence_473

These bands were often musically experimental, like certain new wave acts; defining them as "post-punk" was a sound that tended to be less pop and more dark and abrasive—sometimes verging on the atonal, as with Subway Sect and Wire—and an anti-establishment posture directly related to punk's. Punk rock_sentence_474

Post-punk reflected a range of art rock influences from Syd Barrett and Captain Beefheart to David Bowie and Roxy Music to Krautrock and free jazz. Punk rock_sentence_475

Post-punk brought together a new fraternity of musicians, journalists, managers, and entrepreneurs; the latter, notably Geoff Travis of Rough Trade and Tony Wilson of Factory, helped to develop the production and distribution infrastructure of the indie music scene that blossomed in the mid-1980s. Punk rock_sentence_476

Smoothing the edges of their style in the direction of new wave, several post-punk bands such as New Order (descended from Joy Division) and The Cure crossed over to a mainstream U.S. audience. Punk rock_sentence_477

Bauhaus was one of the formative gothic rock bands. Punk rock_sentence_478

Others, like Gang of Four, the Raincoats and Throbbing Gristle, who had little more than cult followings at the time, are seen in retrospect as significant influences on modern popular culture. Punk rock_sentence_479

Television's debut album Marquee Moon, released in 1977, is frequently cited as a seminal album in the field. Punk rock_sentence_480

The no wave movement that developed in New York in the late 1970s, with artists such as Lydia Lunch and James Chance, is often treated as the phenomenon's U.S. parallel. Punk rock_sentence_481

The later work of Ohio protopunk pioneers Pere Ubu is also commonly described as post-punk. Punk rock_sentence_482

One of the most influential American post-punk bands was Boston's Mission of Burma, who brought abrupt rhythmic shifts derived from hardcore into a highly experimental musical context. Punk rock_sentence_483

In 1980, Australia's Boys Next Door moved to London and changed their name to the Birthday Party, which evolved into Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. Punk rock_sentence_484

Led by the Primitive Calculators, Melbourne's Little Band scene further explored the possibilities of post-punk. Punk rock_sentence_485

Later alternative rock musicians found diverse inspiration among these post-punk predecessors, as they did among their new wave contemporaries. Punk rock_sentence_486

Hardcore Punk rock_section_22

Main article: Hardcore punk Punk rock_sentence_487

A distinctive style of punk, characterized by superfast, aggressive beats, screaming vocals, and often politically aware lyrics, began to emerge in 1978 among bands scattered around the United States and Canada. Punk rock_sentence_488

The first major scene of what came to be known as hardcore punk developed in Southern California in 1978–79, initially around such punk bands as the Germs and Fear. Punk rock_sentence_489

The movement soon spread around North America and internationally. Punk rock_sentence_490

According to author Steven Blush, "Hardcore comes from the bleak suburbs of America. Punk rock_sentence_491

Parents moved their kids out of the cities to these horrible suburbs to save them from the 'reality' of the cities and what they ended up with was this new breed of monster". Punk rock_sentence_492

Among the earliest hardcore bands, regarded as having made the first recordings in the style, were Southern California's Middle Class and Black Flag. Punk rock_sentence_493

Bad Brains—all of whom were black, a rarity in punk of any era—launched the D.C. Punk rock_sentence_494 scene with their rapid-paced single 'Pay to Cum" in 1980. Punk rock_sentence_495

Austin, Texas's Big Boys, San Francisco's Dead Kennedys, and Vancouver's D.O.A. Punk rock_sentence_496

and Dayglo Abortions were among the other initial hardcore groups. Punk rock_sentence_497

They were soon joined by bands such as the Minutemen, Descendents, Circle Jerks, Adolescents, and T.S.O.L. Punk rock_sentence_498

in Southern California; D.C.'s Teen Idles, Minor Threat, and State of Alert; and Austin's MDC and the Dicks. Punk rock_sentence_499

By 1981, hardcore was the dominant punk rock style not only in California, but much of the rest of North America as well. Punk rock_sentence_500

A New York hardcore scene grew, including the relocated Bad Brains, New Jersey's Misfits and Adrenalin O.D. Punk rock_sentence_501 , and local acts such as the Mob, Reagan Youth, and Agnostic Front. Punk rock_sentence_502

Beastie Boys, who would become famous as a hip-hop group, debuted that year as a hardcore band. Punk rock_sentence_503

They were followed by the Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law, and Leeway. Punk rock_sentence_504

By 1983, St. Punk rock_sentence_505 Paul's Hüsker Dü, Willful Neglect, Chicago's Naked Raygun, Indianapolis's Zero Boys, and D.C.'s the Faith were taking the hardcore sound in experimental and ultimately more melodic directions. Punk rock_sentence_506

Hardcore would constitute the American punk rock standard throughout the decade. Punk rock_sentence_507

The lyrical content of hardcore songs is often critical of commercial culture and middle-class values, as in Dead Kennedys' celebrated "Holiday in Cambodia" (1980). Punk rock_sentence_508

Straight edge bands like Minor Threat, Boston's SS Decontrol, and Reno, Nevada's 7 Seconds rejected the self-destructive lifestyles of many of their peers, and built a movement based on positivity and abstinence from cigarettes, alcohol, drugs, and casual sex. Punk rock_sentence_509

Skate punk innovators also pointed in other directions: Big Boys helped establish funkcore, while Venice, California's Suicidal Tendencies had a formative effect on the heavy metal–influenced crossover thrash style. Punk rock_sentence_510

Toward the middle of the decade, D.R.I. Punk rock_sentence_511

spawned the superfast thrashcore genre. Punk rock_sentence_512

Both developed in multiple locations. Punk rock_sentence_513

Sacramento's Tales of Terror, which mixed psychedelic rock into their hardcore sound, were an early influence on the grunge genre. Punk rock_sentence_514

D.C.'s Void was one of the first punk-metal crossover acts and influenced thrash metal. Punk rock_sentence_515

Oi! Punk rock_section_23

Main article: Oi! Punk rock_sentence_516

Following the lead of first-wave British punk bands Cock Sparrer and Sham 69, in the late 1970s second-wave units like Cockney Rejects, Angelic Upstarts, the Exploited, Anti-Establishment and the 4-Skins sought to realign punk rock with a working class, street-level following. Punk rock_sentence_517

For that purpose, they believed, the music needed to stay "accessible and unpretentious", in the words of music historian Simon Reynolds. Punk rock_sentence_518

Their style was originally called "real punk" or street punk; Sounds journalist Garry Bushell is credited with labelling the genre Oi! Punk rock_sentence_519

in 1980. Punk rock_sentence_520

The name is partly derived from the Cockney Rejects' habit of shouting "Oi! Punk rock_sentence_521

Oi! Punk rock_sentence_522

Oi!" Punk rock_sentence_523

before each song, instead of the time-honored "1,2,3,4!" Punk rock_sentence_524

The Oi! Punk rock_sentence_525

movement was fueled by a sense that many participants in the early punk rock scene were, in the words of the Business guitarist Steve Kent, "trendy university people using long words, trying to be artistic ... and losing touch". Punk rock_sentence_526

According to Bushell, "Punk was meant to be of the voice of the dole queue, and in reality most of them were not. Punk rock_sentence_527

But Oi was the reality of the punk mythology. Punk rock_sentence_528

In the places where [these bands] came from, it was harder and more aggressive and it produced just as much quality music." Punk rock_sentence_529

Lester Bangs described Oi! Punk rock_sentence_530

as "politicized football chants for unemployed louts". Punk rock_sentence_531

One song in particular, the Exploited's "Punks Not Dead", spoke to an international constituency. Punk rock_sentence_532

It was adopted as an anthem by the groups of disaffected Mexican urban youth known in the 1980s as bandas; one banda named itself PND, after the song's initials. Punk rock_sentence_533

Although most Oi! Punk rock_sentence_534

bands in the initial wave were apolitical or left wing, many of them began to attract a white power skinhead following. Punk rock_sentence_535

Racist skinheads sometimes disrupted Oi! Punk rock_sentence_536

concerts by shouting fascist slogans and starting fights, but some Oi! Punk rock_sentence_537

bands were reluctant to endorse criticism of their fans from what they perceived as the "middle-class establishment". Punk rock_sentence_538

In the popular imagination, the movement thus became linked to the far right. Punk rock_sentence_539

Strength Thru Oi! Punk rock_sentence_540 , an album compiled by Bushell and released in May 1981, stirred controversy, especially when it was revealed that the belligerent figure on the cover was a neo-Nazi jailed for racist violence (Bushell claimed ignorance). Punk rock_sentence_541

On July 3, a concert at Hamborough Tavern in Southall featuring the Business, the 4-Skins, and the Last Resort was firebombed by local Asian youths who believed that the event was a neo-Nazi gathering. Punk rock_sentence_542

Following the Southall riot, press coverage increasingly associated Oi! Punk rock_sentence_543

with the extreme right, and the movement soon began to lose momentum. Punk rock_sentence_544

Anarcho-punk Punk rock_section_24

Main article: Anarcho-punk Punk rock_sentence_545

Anarcho-punk developed alongside the Oi! Punk rock_sentence_546

and American hardcore movements. Punk rock_sentence_547

Inspired by Crass, its Dial House commune, and its independent Crass Records label, a scene developed around British bands such as Subhumans, Flux of Pink Indians, Conflict, Poison Girls, and the Apostles that was concerned as much with anarchist and DIY principles as it was with music. Punk rock_sentence_548

The acts featured ranting vocals, discordant instrumental sounds, primitive production values, and lyrics filled with political and social content, often addressing issues such as class inequalities and military violence. Punk rock_sentence_549

Anarcho-punk musicians and fans disdained the older punk scene from which theirs had evolved. Punk rock_sentence_550

In historian Tim Gosling's description, they saw "safety pins and Mohicans as little more than ineffectual fashion posturing stimulated by the mainstream media and industry. Punk rock_sentence_551

... Punk rock_sentence_552

Whereas the Sex Pistols would proudly display bad manners and opportunism in their dealings with 'the establishment,' the anarcho-punks kept clear of 'the establishment' altogether". Punk rock_sentence_553

The movement spun off several subgenres of a similar political bent. Punk rock_sentence_554

Discharge, founded back in 1977, established D-beat in the early 1980s. Punk rock_sentence_555

Other groups in the movement, led by Amebix and Antisect, developed the extreme style known as crust punk. Punk rock_sentence_556

Several of these bands rooted in anarcho-punk such as the Varukers, Discharge, and Amebix, along with former Oi! Punk rock_sentence_557

groups such as the Exploited and bands from farther afield like Birmingham's Charged GBH, became the leading figures in the UK 82 hardcore movement. Punk rock_sentence_558

The anarcho-punk scene also spawned bands such as Napalm Death, Carcass, and Extreme Noise Terror that in the mid-1980s defined grindcore, incorporating extremely fast tempos and death metal–style guitarwork. Punk rock_sentence_559

Led by Dead Kennedys, a U.S. anarcho-punk scene developed around such bands as Austin's MDC and Southern California's Another Destructive System. Punk rock_sentence_560

Pop punk Punk rock_section_25

Main article: Pop punk Punk rock_sentence_561

With their love of the Beach Boys and late 1960s bubblegum pop, the Ramones paved the way to what became known as pop punk. Punk rock_sentence_562

In the late 1970s, UK bands such as Buzzcocks and the Undertones combined pop-style tunes and lyrical themes with punk's speed and chaotic edge. Punk rock_sentence_563

In the early 1980s, some of the leading bands in Southern California's hardcore punk rock scene emphasized a more melodic approach than was typical of their peers. Punk rock_sentence_564

According to music journalist Ben Myers, Bad Religion "layered their pissed off, politicized sound with the smoothest of harmonies"; Descendents "wrote almost surfy, Beach Boys-inspired songs about girls and food and being young(ish)". Punk rock_sentence_565

Epitaph Records, founded by Brett Gurewitz of Bad Religion, was the base for many future pop punk bands. Punk rock_sentence_566

Bands that fused punk with light-hearted pop melodies, such as the Queers and Screeching Weasel, began appearing around the country, in turn influencing bands like Green Day and the Offspring, who brought pop punk wide popularity and major record sales. Punk rock_sentence_567

Bands such as the Vandals and Guttermouth developed a style blending pop melodies with humorous and offensive lyrics. Punk rock_sentence_568

Eventually, the geographically large Midwest U.S. punk scene, anchored largely in places like Chicago and Minneapolis, would spawn bands like Dillinger Four who would take a catchy, hooky pop-punk approach and reinfuse it with some of punk's earlier grit and fury, creating a distinctive punk rock sound with a regional tag. Punk rock_sentence_569

This particular substrate still maintains an identity today. Punk rock_sentence_570

The mainstream pop punk of latter-day bands such as Blink-182 is criticized by many punk rock devotees; in critic Christine Di Bella's words, "It's punk taken to its most accessible point, a point where it barely reflects its lineage at all, except in the three-chord song structures." Punk rock_sentence_571

Other fusions and directions Punk rock_section_26

"Electropunk" and "Synthpunk" redirect here. Punk rock_sentence_572

For the genre of similar roots, see Electroclash. Punk rock_sentence_573

For the 1995 video by The Prodigy, see Electronic Punks. Punk rock_sentence_574

Not to be confused with Neon pop. Punk rock_sentence_575

From 1977 on, punk rock crossed lines with many other popular music genres. Punk rock_sentence_576

Los Angeles punk rock bands laid the groundwork for a wide variety of styles: the Flesh Eaters with deathrock; the Plugz with Chicano punk; and Gun Club with punk blues. Punk rock_sentence_577

The Meteors, from South London, and the Cramps, who moved from New York to Los Angeles in 1980, were innovators in the psychobilly fusion style. Punk rock_sentence_578

Milwaukee's Violent Femmes jumpstarted the American folk punk scene, while the Pogues did the same on the other side of the Atlantic. Punk rock_sentence_579

Other artists to fuse elements of folk music into punk included R.E.M. Punk rock_sentence_580

and the Proclaimers. Punk rock_sentence_581

Other bands pointed punk rock toward future rock styles or its own foundations. Punk rock_sentence_582

Synthpunk (also known as electropunk) is a fusion genre that combines elements from electronic rock (such as electronic keyboards/synthesizers) with punk. Punk rock_sentence_583

It originates from punk musicians between 1977 and 1984 that swapped their guitars with synthesizers. Punk rock_sentence_584

The term "synth-punk" is a retroactive label coined in 1999 by Damien Ramsey. Punk rock_sentence_585

Besides electropunk, a handful of other punk based genres were fused with electronic music. Punk rock_sentence_586

These included: New wave, neon pop, electroclash, electronic body music, and dance-punk. Punk rock_sentence_587

In contrast, garage punk bands, such as Chicago's Dwarves, pursued a version of punk rock that was close to its roots in 1960s garage rock. Punk rock_sentence_588

Seattle's Mudhoney, a central band in the development of grunge, has been described as "garage punk". Punk rock_sentence_589

Legacy and later developments Punk rock_section_27

Alternative rock Punk rock_section_28

Main article: Alternative rock Punk rock_sentence_590

The underground punk rock movement inspired countless bands that either evolved from a punk rock sound or brought its outsider spirit to very different kinds of music. Punk rock_sentence_591

The original punk explosion also had a long-term effect on the music industry, spurring the growth of the independent sector. Punk rock_sentence_592

During the early 1980s, British bands like New Order and the Cure that straddled the lines of post-punk and new wave developed both new musical styles and a distinctive industrial niche. Punk rock_sentence_593

Though commercially successful over an extended period, they maintained an underground-style, subcultural identity. Punk rock_sentence_594

In the United States, bands such as Hüsker Dü and their Minneapolis protégés the Replacements bridged the gap between punk rock genres like hardcore and the more melodic, explorative realm of what was then called "college rock". Punk rock_sentence_595

In 1985, Rolling Stone declared that "Primal punk is passé. Punk rock_sentence_596

The best of the American punk rockers have moved on. Punk rock_sentence_597

They have learned how to play their instruments. Punk rock_sentence_598

They have discovered melody, guitar solos and lyrics that are more than shouted political slogans. Punk rock_sentence_599

Some of them have even discovered the Grateful Dead." Punk rock_sentence_600

By the mid-to-late 1980s, these bands, who had largely eclipsed their punk rock and post-punk forebears in popularity, were classified broadly as alternative rock. Punk rock_sentence_601

Alternative rock encompasses a diverse set of styles—including indie rock, gothic rock, dream pop, shoegaze, and grunge, among others—unified by their debt to punk rock and their origins outside of the musical mainstream. Punk rock_sentence_602

As American alternative bands like Sonic Youth, which had grown out of the no wave scene, and Boston's Pixies started to gain larger audiences, major labels sought to capitalize on the underground market that had been sustained by hardcore punk for years. Punk rock_sentence_603

In 1991, Nirvana emerged from Washington State's underground, DIY grunge scene; after recording their first album, Bleach in 1989 for about $600, the band achieved huge (and unexpected) commercial success with its second album, Nevermind. Punk rock_sentence_604

The band's members cited punk rock as a key influence on their style. Punk rock_sentence_605

"Punk is musical freedom", wrote frontman Kurt Cobain. Punk rock_sentence_606

"It's saying, doing, and playing what you want." Punk rock_sentence_607

Nirvana's success opened the door to mainstream popularity for a wide range of other "left-of-the-dial" acts, such as Pearl Jam and Red Hot Chili Peppers, and fueled the alternative rock boom of the early and mid-1990s. Punk rock_sentence_608

Emo Punk rock_section_29

Further information: Emo Punk rock_sentence_609

In its original, mid-1980s incarnation, emo was a less musically restrictive style of punk with focus on emotional lyrics, developed by participants in the Washington, D.C. area hardcore punk scene. Punk rock_sentence_610

It was originally referred to as "emocore", an abbreviation of "emotional/emotive hardcore" and was pioneered by bands such as Rites of Spring and Embrace. Punk rock_sentence_611

In the 1990s the emo label was adopted by a number of indie rock acts, particularly in the Midwest, while other groups went for a more abrasive style influenced by their hardcore punk forebears which employed screamed vocals and came to be known as screamo. Punk rock_sentence_612

Jimmy Eat World took emo in a radio-ready pop punk and indie rock direction, and had top ten albums in 2004 and 2007. Punk rock_sentence_613

Bands such as My Chemical Romance, Paramore, Fall Out Boy, The All American Rejects, and Yellowcard also popularized the emo subgenre known as emo pop during the 2000s and helped define the associated subculture. Punk rock_sentence_614

In the 2010s a number of underground emo acts have taken strong influence from the emo acts of the 1990s and early 2000s, a movement known as the "emo revival". Punk rock_sentence_615

Queercore Punk rock_section_30

Further information: Queercore Punk rock_sentence_616

In the 1990s, the queercore movement developed around a number of punk bands with gay, lesbian, bisexual, or genderqueer members such as God Is My Co-Pilot, Pansy Division, Team Dresch, and Sister George. Punk rock_sentence_617

Inspired by openly gay punk musicians of an earlier generation such as Jayne County, Phranc, and Randy Turner, and bands like Nervous Gender, the Screamers, and Coil, queercore embraces a variety of punk and other alternative music styles. Punk rock_sentence_618

Queercore lyrics often treat the themes of prejudice, sexual identity, gender identity, and individual rights. Punk rock_sentence_619

The movement has continued into the 21st century, supported by festivals such as Queeruption. Punk rock_sentence_620

Riot grrrl Punk rock_section_31

Further information: Riot grrrl Punk rock_sentence_621

The riot grrrl movement, a significant aspect in the formation of the Third Wave feminist movement, was organized by taking the values and rhetoric of punk and using it to convey feminist messages. Punk rock_sentence_622

In 1991, a concert of female-led bands at the International Pop Underground Convention in Olympia, Washington, heralded the emerging riot grrrl phenomenon. Punk rock_sentence_623

Billed as "Love Rock Revolution Girl Style Now", the concert's lineup included Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, Heavens to Betsy, L7, and Mecca Normal. Punk rock_sentence_624

The riot grrrl movement foregrounded feminist concerns and progressive politics in general; the DIY ethic and fanzines were also central elements of the scene. Punk rock_sentence_625

This movement relied on media and technology to spread their ideas and messages, creating a cultural-technological space for feminism to voice their concerns. Punk rock_sentence_626

They embodied the punk perspective, taking the anger and emotions and creating a separate culture from it. Punk rock_sentence_627

With riot grrrl, they were grounded in girl punk past, but also rooted in modern feminism. Punk rock_sentence_628

Tammy Rae Carbund, from Mr. Punk rock_sentence_629 Lady Records, explains that without riot grrrl bands, "[women] would have all starved to death culturally." Punk rock_sentence_630

Singer-guitarists Corin Tucker of Heavens to Betsy and Carrie Brownstein of Excuse 17, bands active in both the queercore and riot grrrl scenes, cofounded the indie/punk band Sleater-Kinney in 1994. Punk rock_sentence_631

Bikini Kill's lead singer, Kathleen Hanna, the iconic figure of riot grrrl, moved on to form the art punk group Le Tigre in 1998. Punk rock_sentence_632

Revival and mainstream success in the United States Punk rock_section_32

Punk music in the late 1970s was anti-conformity and anti-mainstream, and achieved limited commercial success. Punk rock_sentence_633

By the 1990s, punk rock was sufficiently ingrained in Western culture that punk trappings were often used to market highly commercial bands as "rebels". Punk rock_sentence_634

Marketers capitalized on the style and hipness of punk rock to such an extent that a 1993 ad campaign for an automobile, the Subaru Impreza, claimed that the car was "like punk rock". Punk rock_sentence_635

In 1993, California's Green Day and Bad Religion were both signed to major labels. Punk rock_sentence_636

The next year, Green Day put out Dookie, which became a huge hit, selling nine million albums in the United States in just over two years. Punk rock_sentence_637

Bad Religion's Stranger Than Fiction was certified gold. Punk rock_sentence_638

Other California punk bands on the independent label Epitaph, run by Bad Religion guitarist Brett Gurewitz, also began achieving mainstream popularity. Punk rock_sentence_639

In 1994, Epitaph released Let's Go by Rancid, Punk in Drublic by NOFX, and Smash by the Offspring, each eventually certified gold or better. Punk rock_sentence_640

That June, Green Day's "Longview" reached number one on Billboard's Modern Rock Tracks chart and became a top forty airplay hit, arguably the first ever American punk song to do so; just one month later, the Offspring's "Come Out and Play" followed suit. Punk rock_sentence_641

MTV and radio stations such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM played a major role in these bands' crossover success, though NOFX refused to let MTV air its videos. Punk rock_sentence_642

Following the lead of Boston's Mighty Mighty Bosstones and two California bands, Anaheim's No Doubt and Long Beach's Sublime, ska punk and ska-core became widely popular in the mid-1990s. Punk rock_sentence_643

By 1996, genre acts such as Reel Big Fish and Less Than Jake were being signed to major labels. Punk rock_sentence_644

The original 2 Tone bands had emerged amid punk rock's second wave, but their music was much closer to its Jamaican roots—"ska at 78 rpm". Punk rock_sentence_645

Ska punk bands in the third wave of ska created a true musical fusion between the genres. Punk rock_sentence_646

...And Out Come the Wolves, the 1995 album by Rancid—which had evolved out of Operation Ivy—became the first record in this ska revival to be certified gold; Sublime's self-titled 1996 album was certified platinum early in 1997. Punk rock_sentence_647

In Australia, two popular groups, skatecore band Frenzal Rhomb and pop punk act Bodyjar, also established followings in Japan. Punk rock_sentence_648

Green Day and Dookie's enormous sales paved the way for a host of bankable North American pop punk bands in the following decade. Punk rock_sentence_649

With punk rock's renewed visibility came concerns among some in the punk community that the music was being co-opted by the mainstream. Punk rock_sentence_650

They argued that by signing to major labels and appearing on MTV, punk bands like Green Day were buying into a system that punk was created to challenge. Punk rock_sentence_651

Such controversies have been part of the punk culture since 1977, when the Clash was widely accused of "selling out" for signing with CBS Records. Punk rock_sentence_652

The Vans Warped Tour and the mall chain store Hot Topic brought punk even further into the U.S. mainstream. Punk rock_sentence_653

The Offspring's 1998 album Americana, released by the major Columbia label, debuted at number two on the album chart. Punk rock_sentence_654

A bootleg MP3 of Americana's first single, "Pretty Fly (for a White Guy)", made it onto the Internet and was downloaded a record 22 million times—illegally. Punk rock_sentence_655

The following year, Enema of the State, the first major-label release by pop punk band Blink-182, reached the top ten and sold four million copies in under twelve months. Punk rock_sentence_656

On February 19, 2000, the album's second single, "All the Small Things", peaked at number 6 on the Billboard Hot 100. Punk rock_sentence_657

While they were viewed as Green Day "acolytes", critics also found teen pop acts such as Britney Spears, the Backstreet Boys, and 'N Sync suitable points of comparison for Blink-182's sound and market niche. Punk rock_sentence_658

The band's Take Off Your Pants and Jacket (2001) and Untitled (2003) respectively rose to numbers one and three on the album chart. Punk rock_sentence_659

In November 2003, The New Yorker described how the "giddily puerile" act had "become massively popular with the mainstream audience, a demographic formerly considered untouchable by punk-rock purists." Punk rock_sentence_660

Other new North American pop punk bands, though often critically dismissed, also achieved major sales in the first decade of the 2000s. Punk rock_sentence_661

Ontario's Sum 41 reached the Canadian top ten with its 2001 debut album, All Killer No Filler, which eventually went platinum in the United States. Punk rock_sentence_662

The record included the number one U.S. Punk rock_sentence_663

Alternative hit "Fat Lip", which incorporated verses of what one critic called "brat rap." Punk rock_sentence_664

Elsewhere around the world, "punkabilly" band the Living End became major stars in Australia with their self-titled 1998 debut. Punk rock_sentence_665

The effect of commercialization on the music became an increasingly contentious issue. Punk rock_sentence_666

As observed by scholar Ross Haenfler, many punk fans "'despise corporate punk rock', typified by bands such as Sum 41 and Blink 182". Punk rock_sentence_667

At the same time, politicized and independent-label punk continued to thrive in the United States. Punk rock_sentence_668

Since 1993, Anti-Flag had been putting progressive politics at the center of its music. Punk rock_sentence_669

The administration of George W. Bush provided them and similarly minded acts eight years of conservative government to excoriate. Punk rock_sentence_670

Rise Against was the most successful of these groups, registering five straight Billboard 200 top ten records between 2006 and 2017 with The Sufferer & the Witness, Appeal to Reason, Endgame, The Black Market, and Wolves. Punk rock_sentence_671

Leftist punk band Against Me! Punk rock_sentence_672 's New Wave was named best album of 2007 by Spin. Punk rock_sentence_673

Politicized DIY punk also sustains active and inter-linked communities across Europe, as demonstrated by independent international events such as Fluff Fest in the Czech Republic. Punk rock_sentence_674

See also Punk rock_section_33

Punk rock_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punk rock.