Qom

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For other uses, see Qom (disambiguation). Qom_sentence_0

"Qum" redirects here. Qom_sentence_1

For other uses, see Qum (disambiguation). Qom_sentence_2

Qom_table_infobox_0

Qom

قمQom_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryQom_header_cell_0_1_0 IranQom_cell_0_1_1
ProvinceQom_header_cell_0_2_0 QomQom_cell_0_2_1
DistrictQom_header_cell_0_3_0 CentralQom_cell_0_3_1
GovernmentQom_header_cell_0_4_0
MayorQom_header_cell_0_5_0 Morteza SaghaeiannejadQom_cell_0_5_1
ElevationQom_header_cell_0_6_0 928 m (3,045 ft)Qom_cell_0_6_1
Population (2016 census)Qom_header_cell_0_7_0
UrbanQom_header_cell_0_8_0 1,200,158Qom_cell_0_8_1
MetroQom_header_cell_0_9_0 1,260,000Qom_cell_0_9_1
Population Rank in IranQom_header_cell_0_10_0 7thQom_cell_0_10_1
Time zoneQom_header_cell_0_11_0 UTC+3:30 (IRST)Qom_cell_0_11_1
Summer (DST)Qom_header_cell_0_12_0 UTC+4:30 (IRDT)Qom_cell_0_12_1
Postal codeQom_header_cell_0_13_0 37100Qom_cell_0_13_1
Area code(s)Qom_header_cell_0_14_0 (+98) 025Qom_cell_0_14_1
ClimateQom_header_cell_0_15_0 BWhQom_cell_0_15_1
WebsiteQom_header_cell_0_16_0 Qom_cell_0_16_1

Qom (Persian: قم‎ [ɢom (listen)) is the seventh largest metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran. Qom_sentence_3

Qom is the capital of Qom Province. Qom_sentence_4

It is located 140 km (87 mi) to the south of Tehran. Qom_sentence_5

At the 2016 census, its population was 1,201,158. Qom_sentence_6

It is situated on the banks of the Qom River. Qom_sentence_7

Qom is considered holy in Shi'a Islam, as it is the site of the shrine of Fatimah bint Musa, sister of Imam Ali ibn Musa Rida (Persian: Imam Reza; 789–816). Qom_sentence_8

The city is the largest center for Shi'a scholarship in the world, and is a significant destination of pilgrimage, with around twenty million pilgrims visiting the city every year, the majority being Iranians but also other Shi'a Muslims from all around the world. Qom_sentence_9

Qom is also famous for a Persian brittle toffee known as sohan (Persian: سوهان), considered a souvenir of the city and sold by 2,000 to 2,500 "sohan" shops. Qom_sentence_10

Qom has developed into a lively industrial centre owing in part to its proximity to Tehran. Qom_sentence_11

It is a regional centre for the distribution of petroleum and petroleum products, and a natural gas pipeline from Bandar Anzali and Tehran and a crude oil pipeline from Tehran run through Qom to the Abadan refinery on the Persian Gulf. Qom_sentence_12

Qom gained additional prosperity when oil was discovered at Sarajeh near the city in 1956 and a large refinery was built between Qom and Tehran. Qom_sentence_13

Geography Qom_section_0

Qom, the capital of Qom province, is located 125 kilometers south of Tehran, on a low plain. Qom_sentence_14

The shrine of Fatimeh Masumeh, the sister of Imam Reza, is located in this city, which is considered by Shiʿa Muslims holy. Qom_sentence_15

The city is located in the boundary of the central desert of Iran (Kavir-e Markazi). Qom_sentence_16

At the 2011 census its population was 1,074,036, comprising 545,704 males and 528,332 females. Qom_sentence_17

Qom is a focal center of the Shiʿah. Qom_sentence_18

Since the revolution, the clerical population has risen from around 25,000 to more than 45,000 and the non-clerical population has more than tripled to about 700,000. Qom_sentence_19

Substantial sums of money in the form of alms and Islamic taxes flow into Qom to the ten Marja'-e taqlid or "Source to be Followed" that reside there. Qom_sentence_20

The number of seminary schools in Qom is now over fifty, and the number of research institutes and libraries somewhere near two hundred and fifty. Qom_sentence_21

Its theological center and the Fatima Masumeh Shrine are prominent features of Qom. Qom_sentence_22

Another very popular religious site of pilgrimage formerly outside the city of Qom but now more of a suburb is called Jamkaran. Qom_sentence_23

Qom's proximity to Tehran has allowed the clerical establishment easy access to monitor the affairs and decisions of state. Qom_sentence_24

Many Grand Ayatollahs possess offices in both Tehran and Qom; many people simply commute between the two cities as they are only 156 kilometres or 97 miles apart. Qom_sentence_25

Southeast of Qom is the ancient city of Kashan. Qom_sentence_26

Directly south of Qom lie the towns of Delijan, Mahallat, Naraq, Pardisan City, Kahak, and Jasb. Qom_sentence_27

The surrounding area to the east of Qom is populated by Tafresh, Saveh, and Ashtian and Jafarieh. Qom_sentence_28

Climate Qom_section_1

Qom has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh border on BWk) with low annual rainfall due to remoteness from the sea and being situated in the vicinity of the subtropical anticyclone aloft. Qom_sentence_29

Summer weather is very hot and essentially rainless, whilst in winter weather can vary from warm to – when Siberian air masses are driven south across the Elburz Mountains by blocking over Europe – frigid. Qom_sentence_30

An example of the latter situation was in January 2008 when minima fell to −23 °C or −9.4 °F on the 15th, whilst earlier similar situations occurred in January 1964 and to a lesser extent January 1950, January 1972 and December 1972. Qom_sentence_31

History Qom_section_2

See also: Timeline of Qom Qom_sentence_32

The present town of Qom in Central Iran dates back to ancient times. Qom_sentence_33

Its pre-Islamic history can be partially documented, although the earlier epochs remain unclear. Qom_sentence_34

Excavations at Tepe Sialk indicate that the region had been settled since ancient times (Ghirshman and Vanden Berghe), and more recent surveys have revealed traces of large inhabited places south of Qom, dating from the 4th and 1st millennium BC. Qom_sentence_35

While nothing is known about the area from Elamite, Medes, and Achaemenid times, there are significant archeological remains from the Seleucid and Parthian epochs, of which the ruins of Khurha (about 70 kilometres or 43 miles southwest of Qom) are the most famous and important remnants. Qom_sentence_36

Their dating and function have instigated long and controversial debates and interpretations, for they have been interpreted and explained variously as the remains of a Sasanian temple, or of a Seleucid Dionysian temple, or of a Parthian complex. Qom_sentence_37

Its true function is still a matter of dispute, but the contributions by Wolfram Kleiss point to a Parthian palace that served as a station on the nearby highway and was used until Sasanian times. Qom_sentence_38

The recently published results of the excavations carried out in 1955 by Iranian archeologists have, however, revived the old thesis of a Seleucid religious building. Qom_sentence_39

Besides Khurha, which is already mentioned as Khor Abad at Qomi in the 9th century, the region has turned up a few other remnants from this epoch, including the four Parthian heads found near Qom, now kept in the National Museum of Iran in Tehran. Qom_sentence_40

Qomi names Parthian personalities as founders of villages in the Qom area. Qom_sentence_41

The possible mention of Qom in the form of Greek names in two ancient geographical works (the Tabula Peutingera and Ptolemy's geographical tables) remains doubtful. Qom_sentence_42

The Sasanian epoch offers many archeological findings and remnants, besides the fact that various sources mention Qom. Qom_sentence_43

The most interesting building from an archeological point of view is the Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar in Qom itself, which was long thought to have served religious purposes, while more recent research points to an administrative use. Qom_sentence_44

The wider surroundings of Qom also contain numerous traces from palaces, religious, military and administrative buildings. Qom_sentence_45

Some of these are mentioned by Qomi, who also names many more fire temples in the urban area of present Qom and its region, of which no archeological traces are left although the location of one fire temple can probably be equated with today's Masjed-e Emām in the city. Qom_sentence_46

According to Qomi, the most important fire temple of the area stood in the nearby village of Dizijan. Qom_sentence_47

Tāriḵ-e Qom and some other sources also speak of genuine historical figures of the Sasanian epoch in connection with Qom and its region. Qom_sentence_48

They shed new light on the time of the seizure of power by the first Sasanian king Ardashir I, who fought his decisive battles near Qom, and the collapse of the Sasanian empire, which is extensively reported by Ebn Aʿṯam Kufi and the Nehāyat al-Erab and names a certain Šērzād as the satrap of the region. Qom_sentence_49

The existence of an urban settlement in the Sasanian epoch is furthermore verified by Middle Persian sources (literary sources, inscriptions, and seals) that mention in the time of Shapur I and Kawād I the names Godmān/Gomān and Ērān Win(n)ārd Kawād, both of which could be identified as Qom. Qom_sentence_50

Altogether one can assume that Qom functioned as a small administrative unit throughout the whole Sasanian era. Qom_sentence_51

Probably the urban structure of the Sasanian settlement of Qom can be compared with the type of city of Ctesiphon (Or. Qom_sentence_52

Madāʾen) and consisted of several villages and little towns with Abaraštejān, Mamajjān and Jamkarān as the bigger settlements that were loosely connected by defense installations. Qom_sentence_53

It is difficult to decipher the actual process of the Arab conquest of Qom from the extant Arabic sources. Qom_sentence_54

According to Balāḏori, the first tentative conquest of Qom took place in 23/644 by Abu Musa Ashaari after a few days of fighting (although Abu Musa's route through Western Persia, as narrated by Balāḏori, appears somewhat confusing). Qom_sentence_55

It remains unclear who the defenders of Qom were; probably fleeing Sasanian nobles and local soldiers returning from the great battles against the Arabs formed the core of the resistance. Qom_sentence_56

The area remained largely untouched for 60 years after the initial conquest and was probably administered from Isfahan. Qom_sentence_57

The first permanent settlement of Arab settlers in Qom took place during the revolts of Mukhtar al-Thaqafi and Moṭarref b. Moḡira b. Šaʿba in 66–77/685–96, when small groups of refugees moved there and Qom itself was affected by the fighting between the Umayyad state power and the rebels Qom_sentence_58

The decisive step for the later urban development of Qom occurred when a group of Ashaari Arabs came to the area. Qom_sentence_59

These Ashaaries originated in Yemen and the first important figure among them was the first conqueror of the area of Qom, the above-mentioned Abu Musa Ashaari. Qom_sentence_60

ʿAbd-Allāh b. Saʿd and Aḥwaṣ b. Saʿd were grandsons of Abi Musa's nephew and led the group of Ashaaries that emigrated from Kufa to the region of Qom. Qom_sentence_61

It is not exactly clear why they migrated, but it might have also been a general opposition to the Umayyad dynasty. Qom_sentence_62

A central element was the early contact with the leading local Zoroastrian Persian noble Yazdanfadar. Qom_sentence_63

As the Arabs required a great deal of pasture for their large herds of cattle and were much wealthier than the local Persians, they slowly started to buy land and take over more villages. Qom_sentence_64

The decisive step for controlling the area was the elimination of the local Persian noble class that took place after the death of Yazdanfadar in 733. Qom_sentence_65

The emigration and the subsequent settlement and building activities led to the fusion of the original six villages on the area of Qom to an urban conglomerate which probably happened within two generations after the first coming of Arabs. Qom_sentence_66

Although a few names of governors and their tax assessments are known from the time after the administrative independence, the death of Fātimah bint Mūsā, the sister of the eighth Imam of Shias Ali al-Ridha in the city in 201/816–17 proved to be of great importance for the later history of Qom. Qom_sentence_67

Fātimah bint Mūsā died while following her brother to Khorasan, a region in northern Iran. Qom_sentence_68

The place of her entombment developed from 869–70 into a building that was transformed over time into today's magnificent and economically important sanctuary. Qom_sentence_69

In 825–26 a major rebellion against the tax regulations of the caliphate broke out in Qom. Qom_sentence_70

It was caused by the refusal of the caliph Al-Ma'mun to lower the yearly tax assessment as he had done in Ray. Qom_sentence_71

The revolt was led by an Ashaari named Yahya ibn Emran, maintaining that taxes should not be paid to an unlawful ruler. Qom_sentence_72

Yahya was killed by troops sent by the caliph and the citizens were severely punished; the taxes were raised from 2 million to 7 million dirhams. Qom_sentence_73

Two years later the taxes were again raised by 700,000 dirham by the Ashaari governor Ali ibn Isa, who was subsequently deposed because he was strongly rejected by the inhabitants of Qom. Qom_sentence_74

But in 833 Ali returned to the post of governor (wali) and forcefully collected tax debts that were laid upon him by the caliph. Qom_sentence_75

He destroyed parts of Qom and handed over a wanted rebel to caliphal authorities under Al-Moʿtasem. Qom_sentence_76

Between 839–42 two contradicting tax assessments were carried out under turbulent circumstances which amounted to a sum of 5 million dirhams. Qom_sentence_77

The names of those involved have survived. Qom_sentence_78

The move of a Hadith transmitter from Kufa to Qom, which took place probably in the middle of the 9th century, indicates the increased importance of Qom as a center of Shia learning. Qom_sentence_79

At about the same time another military attack on the city occurred in 254/868, when Mofleḥ, the Turkish officer of the caliph Al-Mostaʿin, executed some of its inhabitants because of the city's refusal to pay taxes. Qom_sentence_80

Mofleḥ became governor of Qom and lasted in that position for at least five years. Qom_sentence_81

During his governorship important Alids moved to Qom and there are references to close contacts between the representative of the 11th Shia's Imam, Hassan al-Askari, in Qom and other Qomis. Qom_sentence_82

The representative Aḥmad b. Esḥāq was at the same time administrator of the Fāṭema sanctuary and the agent (wakil) responsible for the pensions of the Alids. Qom_sentence_83

The first Friday mosque in Qom was built in 878–79 on the site of a fire temple, although there are also confusing reports concerning a possible earlier Friday mosque. Qom_sentence_84

In 881–82 Qom was occupied by the Turkish military leader Edgu Tegin (Arabic: Yadkutakin b. Asātakin or Aḏkutakin), who tried to collect the tax arrears for seven years which partially ruined the guarantors (some of whom are known) of these taxes. Qom_sentence_85

At about the same time the early orthodox Shias achieved their victory in the town. Qom_sentence_86

In 893–94, at the latest, all extremists (ḡolāt) were driven out of town by the leading Shia shaikh of Qom, Aḥmad b. Moḥammed b. Isa Ashaari. Qom_sentence_87

Probably one year later the famous Islamic mystic Ḥosayn b. Manṣur Ḥallaj stayed in Qom, where he was arrested. Qom_sentence_88

From 895–96 onwards the history of Qom was connected with a family of Turkish military leaders from the army of the caliph Al-Moʿtazed, including the governor Berun (Birun). Qom_sentence_89

In the same year, Berun destroyed a big and probably still active fire temple located on the territory of the evolving city and probably opposite today's sanctuary of Fātimah bint Mūsā. Qom_sentence_90

In these unstable political times, Qom was visited by the vizier of Al-Moʿtazed, Obayd-Allah ibn Solayman, and two tax assessments were organized. Qom_sentence_91

An administrative peculiarity of Qom was put to an end at about the same time, to wit the independent appointment of judges through the Arab inhabitants of Qom until the time of al-Moktafi, which, together with the dispatch of a joint Arab-Persian delegation to the vizier Ḥamid ibn Abbas indicate the end of the elevated position of the Arabs in Qom. Qom_sentence_92

The period of the governor Abbas ibn Amr Ganawi (292–96/904–09) is remarkable for the presence of non-Twelver Shias in Qom and the establishment of the office of the jahbaḏ (financial officer) as the tax broker for the city, which fostered local self-determination. Qom_sentence_93

In 909 Hosayn ibn Hamdan ibn Hamdun was appointed governor of Qom and Kāšān by the caliph Al-Moqtader and had to assist the caliph's army against the Saffarids in Fars. Qom_sentence_94

Altogether he stayed in power only for two years before he had to return to Baghdad. Qom_sentence_95

In the years 301/913–14 to 315/927 the people of Qom had, besides another tax assessment (meanwhile the eighth), a caliphal intervention that resulted in the appointment of a governor to stabilize the administrative grip over the region. Qom_sentence_96

This move caused more unrest and affected the balance of power in an area that was disputed between the powers of the time (Daylamites, Samanids). Qom_sentence_97

Beginning in 316/928 Qom fell into the sphere of interest of Daylami warlords and was relieved from the direct authority of the caliph, although it changed hands several times between 928 and 943. Qom_sentence_98

The Daylamites brutally exploited the city through harsh taxes. Qom_sentence_99

With the firm establishment of Buyids control from 340/951–52 on, the political circumstances were less troubled than before, although the economic situation deteriorated. Qom_sentence_100

No outstanding events are reported for the relatively stable political period until 988–89, but Qom seems to have been isolated inside Persia because of its Shia creed. Qom_sentence_101

At the same time, the Fatima sanctuary was enlarged and the number of sayyeds residing in Qom reached a considerable number. Qom_sentence_102

In 373/984 Qom and its environs were affected by the revolt of the Kurdish Moḥammad Barzikāni against the Buyid Fakr-Al-Dawla. Qom_sentence_103

The population amounted to 50,000 inhabitants at the most and consisted of Persians and Arabs who had adopted the Persian of the time as their language and many social customs from the Persians, whose proportion was probably smaller than the Arabs. Qom_sentence_104

The Kurds lived in the countryside to the west. Qom_sentence_105

The Twelver Shia constituted the great majority of the population and many important Shia scholars of the time came from Qom or lived there. Qom_sentence_106

As many as 331 male Alids lived in Qom in 988–89, and they produced a good number of community leaders and there is also mention of one prominent female ʿAlid besides Fātimah bint Mūsā. Qom_sentence_107

These Alids descended from the Imams and were supported by pensions. Qom_sentence_108

Apart from the Shia mainstream, other Shia sects existed in the city and one can also assume the presence of Sunnies. Qom_sentence_109

Ḏemmis, or followers of other revealed religions (Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians) must have lived in the city, too, as the payment of poll tax (jezya) indicates, although their number can only be very roughly estimated at a few thousand at the end of the 9th century and must have shrunk drastically in the 10th century. Qom_sentence_110

The majority of these non-Muslims were Zoroastrians, who made their living mostly as farmers. Qom_sentence_111

Jews must have lived in Qom as well, but information on them is scant. Qom_sentence_112

It is striking that the formerly dominant Ashaaries had lost their leading positions by the end of the 10th century. Qom_sentence_113

This points at a new social situation that allowed assimilated Persians to join the local establishment. Qom_sentence_114

The city's topography in the 10th century still reflected the evolutionary merging of the original six villages; these were still separated by fields. Qom_sentence_115

The town center was located in the village of Mamajjān, which was connected to other parts of the city on the other side of the river by four bridges. Qom_sentence_116

There were about eight squares whose function is not clear and three mosques within the city. Qom_sentence_117

There is almost no information about madrasas. Qom_sentence_118

The sanctuary must have still been quite small as only two cupolas are mentioned. Qom_sentence_119

A bazaar and bathhouses must have existed, too, as well as certain administrative buildings (prison, mint). Qom_sentence_120

Five bigger and eight smaller roads indicate good traffic connections, which were supported by at least three or maybe even nine city gates. Qom_sentence_121

Qom was then in a difficult economical and social position. Qom_sentence_122

Many houses inside the city as well as bridges and mills were ruined and the roads and agriculture were suffering from an insecure situation. Qom_sentence_123

This has to be attributed to difficult social circumstances and excessive taxation. Qom_sentence_124

The water supply seems to have been satisfactory and the Ashaaries seem to have undertaken continuous renovation works on the irrigation channels between 733 and 900. Qom_sentence_125

The Ašʿaris were also the proprietors of the water rights, which were safeguarded in the water authority (divān-e āb) that regulated the water shares. Qom_sentence_126

The system made the Ašʿaris the wealthiest inhabitants of Qom and stayed in place until 347/958–59 when they were expropriated by the Buyids, which consequently brought about a decline in the whole system of irrigation. Qom_sentence_127

Although there were attempts at restoration in 371/981–82, only three of originally twenty-one channels had flowing water which meant enough drinking water was supplied for the population, but the available amount could not have been adequate for agricultural purposes. Qom_sentence_128

Altogether the state of cultivation in Qom seems to have resembled that of the other regions of Persia, although the thirty different crops and plants are only indirectly mentioned in connection with the tax assessments. Qom_sentence_129

The soil is reported to have good quality and produced big quantities of food. Qom_sentence_130

Little is known about animal husbandry in the region, but the considerable number of fifty-one mills existed, of which a fifth was in decay. Qom_sentence_131

Legends speak of mineral deposits and mines of silver, iron, gold and lead, while Kurds seem to have produced salt from a lake nearby (see Qom Lake). Qom_sentence_132

The production of chairs, textiles, and saddle equipment indicates craftsmanship. Qom_sentence_133

The city's taxation has to be distinguished between the more proper rule of the Abbasid tax bureaucracy and the time of the Deylamid warlords where rules were bent arbitrarily. Qom_sentence_134

A stunning diversity of taxes is known (often meant to serve the ever greedy Abbasid bureaucracy and the Deylamid and Buyid war machinery) but the Karaj (land tax), which was composed of many different separate sums, was the most important single tax existing in Qom at least since post-Sasanian times. Qom_sentence_135

Within the known 18 tax figures ranging over 160 years there are great differences and the tax figures vary from 8 million to 2 million dirhams with a mean value at around 3 million. Qom_sentence_136

In taxation Qom always followed the solar calendar with its own local variation, starting from the death of the Sasanian Yazdegerd III. Qom_sentence_137

A highly differentiated tax administration existed and is known in great detail; 24 tax collectors (ʿommāl) are listed from 189/804–05 to 371/981–82 plus two jahabaḏa who acted as mediators after the attempt to enforce collective responsibility by the taxpayers had failed. Qom_sentence_138

The information in the Tāriḵ-e Qom on taxation also mention by name 21 tax districts (rasātiq) in the region with 900 villages. Qom_sentence_139

Little is known about the time until the period of Seljuki dominance. Qom_sentence_140

In 387/997, Qom became involved in internal Buyid quarrels and was subsequently unsuccessfully besieged. Qom_sentence_141

In 418/1027–28, Qom fell under the rule of Šahryuš from the Kakuyid dynasty and a few years later (1030–40) it became part of the Ghaznavid domain. Qom_sentence_142

The Seljuki did not occupy Qom at once but left the town and Jebāl in Kakuyid hands for ten years. Qom_sentence_143

From 442/1050–51 on, the city was under Seljuk rule and nothing is known about its fate until 487/1094. Qom_sentence_144

Afterwards the growing instability of the Seljuk empire involved Qom in the power struggles between the competing Seljuk factions in Jebāl and the city changed hands many times. Qom_sentence_145

The most stable period seem to have been the 14 years (513–27/1119–33) when Qom lay in Sanjar's sphere of power and witnessed the construction of a second Friday mosque. Qom_sentence_146

Surprisingly, Qom enjoyed relative prosperity in its economy in the Seljuk period. Qom_sentence_147

The rigidly Sunni Seljuks seem to have practiced a pragmatic policy and one of the main sources of this time (ʿAbd-al-Jalil Qazvini) speaks of good relations between the famous vizier Nizam al-Mulk and Seljuk sultans on the one hand, and members of the local nobility on the other. Qom_sentence_148

Sultans reportedly visited the sanctuary (although no specific sultan is mentioned by name) and in general no religiously motivated punitive action against Qom is known to have taken place. Qom_sentence_149

Under Seljuk rule a considerable number of religious buildings were erected. Qom_sentence_150

At least ten madrasas are known by name. Qom_sentence_151

Two Friday mosques seem to have existed in Seljuk times: the old one was renovated and a new one, located outside of the town area, was built in 528/1133–34 by the order of Sultan Togrel II (Persian: سلطان طغرل دوم). Qom_sentence_152

Qom must have expanded during this period, but precise reasons for its prosperity are not known. Qom_sentence_153

A family of Ḥosaynid Alids was influential and provided a number of community leaders. Qom_sentence_154

Another important Shia family was that of the Daʿwidār (Persian: دعوی‌دار), whose members were judges (Arabic: قاضی) in town, which indicates the transformation of Qom from a town governed by the Sunnis to a completely Shai domain. Qom_sentence_155

The following epochs of the Eldiguzids and Khawrazmshahs lasted for almost 30 years and brought different systems of rule in quick succession. Qom_sentence_156

The two noteworthy events of this period are the execution of ʿEzz-al-Din Yaḥyā, the naqib of the Shias, by the Tekesh in 592/1196 and the work on the tiles of the sanctuary (probably in 605–13/1208–17), which indicate a certain economic prosperity at a time of unstable political conditions. Qom_sentence_157

From 614/1217–18 until the Mongol attack, Qom remained under Muhammad II of Khwarezm. Qom_sentence_158

The Mongol invasion led to the total destruction of Qom by the armies of the Mongol generals, Jebe and Sübedei, in 621/1224 and left the city in ruins for at least twenty years, when the sources (Jovayni) tell of the levying of taxes. Qom_sentence_159

Twenty years later, reconstruction and repair works, probably sponsored by some wealthy inhabitants, were being done on the mausoleums of Shia saints in the city, which contradict those sources, such as Ḥamd-Allāh Mostawfi, that describe Qom as a ruined and depopulated city throughout the Ilkhanid period. Qom_sentence_160

Besides, the fact that the Ilkhanid vizier Šams-al-Din Jovayni took refuge in the Fātimah bint Mūsā sanctuary in 683/1284, indicates that the city must have experienced at least a modest comeback. Qom_sentence_161

The city walls were probably rebuilt and, moreover, four graves of saints are known to have been constructed between 720/1301 and 1365. Qom_sentence_162

Additionally some fine tiles are known from this period. Qom_sentence_163

Nothing is known about the irrigation systems of the town, but nearby a dam was built in the Ilkhanid period and the local administration must have functioned again, as the name of a judge shows. Qom_sentence_164

The agricultural situation is described as flourishing with a variety of cultivated plants and a good supply of water, and legends indicate the use of deposits of mineral resources. Qom_sentence_165

Information exists concerning taxes for the post-Mongolian period. Qom_sentence_166

Qom paid 40,000 dinars, but more remarkable is the fact that some of the surrounding rural districts paid as much as Qom or even more, which suggests that the whole administrative structure of districts had also changed. Qom_sentence_167

In the late 14th century, the city was plundered by Tamerlane and the inhabitants were massacred. Qom_sentence_168

Qom gained special attention and gradually developed due to its religious shrine during the Saffavid dynasty. Qom_sentence_169

By 1503, Qom became one of the important centers of theology in relation to Shia Islam, and became a significant religious pilgrimage site and pivot. Qom_sentence_170

The city suffered heavy damage again during the Afghan invasions, resulting in consequent severe economic hardships. Qom_sentence_171

Qom further sustained damage during the reign of Nader Shah and the conflicts between the two households of Zandieh and Qajariyeh in order to gain power over Iran. Qom_sentence_172

Finally in 1793 Qom came under the control of Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar. Qom_sentence_173

On being victorious over his enemies, the Qajar Sultan Fath Ali Shah was responsible for the repairs done on the sepulchre and Holy Shrine of Hæzræt Mæ'sume, as he had made such a vow. Qom_sentence_174

The city of Qom began another era of prosperity in the Qajar era. Qom_sentence_175

After Russian forces entered Karaj in 1915, many of the inhabitants of Tehran moved to Qom due to reasons of proximity, and the transfer of the capital from Tehran to Qom was even discussed. Qom_sentence_176

But the British and Russians defeated prospects of the plan by putting Ahmad Shah Qajar under political pressure. Qom_sentence_177

Coinciding with this period, a "National Defense Committee" was set up in Tehran, and Qom turned into a political and military apex opposed to the Russian and British colonial powers. Qom_sentence_178

As a center of religious learning Qom fell into decline for about a century from 1820 to 1920, but had a resurgence when Shaykh Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi accepted an invitation to move from Sultanabad (now called Arak, Iran), where he had been teaching, to Qom. Qom_sentence_179

In 1964–65, before his exile from Iran, the Ayatollah Khomeini led his opposition to the Pahlavi dynasty from Qom. Qom_sentence_180

After the Islamic revolution in 1979, Khomeini spent time in the city before and after moving to Tehran. Qom_sentence_181

On 19 February 2020, the Iranian Students News Agency reported that the first two cases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran were detected in Qom. Qom_sentence_182

Governance Qom_section_3

Tourism Qom_section_4

Historical and cultural heritage Qom_section_5

Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 195 sites of historical and cultural significance in Qom. Qom_sentence_183

But the more visited sites of Qom are: Qom_sentence_184

Museums Qom_section_6

Qom_unordered_list_0

  • Astaneh Moqaddaseh Museum (Qom Central Museum)Qom_item_0_0
  • Anthropology Museum Of QomQom_item_0_1
  • The Museum Of Traditional ArtsQom_item_0_2
  • The Museum Of Natural History & WildlifeQom_item_0_3
  • The Museum Of AstronomyQom_item_0_4

Educational institutions Qom_section_7

Qom is well known for its many religious seminaries and institutes that offer advanced religious studies, which made this city the largest center for Shia scholarship in the world. Qom_sentence_185

There are an estimated 50,000 seminarians in the city coming from 80 countries, including 6,000 from Pakistan alone. Qom_sentence_186

Qom has seminaries for women and some non-Shia students. Qom_sentence_187

Most of the seminaries teach their students modern social sciences and Western thought as well as traditional religious studies. Qom_sentence_188

Hawzah 'Ilmiyya Qom (Qom Seminary) Qom_section_8

The Hawzah (a short form of al-Hawzah al-Ilmiyya), which presently consists of over 200 education and research centres and organisations, catering for over 40,000 scholars and students from over 80 List of sovereign states. Qom_sentence_189

The modern Qom hawza was revitalized by Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi and Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi and is barely a century old. Qom_sentence_190

There are nearly three hundred thousand clerics in Iran's seminaries. Qom_sentence_191

At present Hossein Vahid Khorasani heads Hawza 'Ilmiyya Qom. Qom_sentence_192

Universities and seminaries Qom_section_9

Qom_unordered_list_1

  • Qom_item_1_5
  • Qom_item_1_6
  • Qom_item_1_7
  • Qom_item_1_8

Fordow uranium enrichment facility Qom_section_10

Main article: Fordow uranium enrichment facility Qom_sentence_193

The Fordow uranium enrichment facility is located 20 miles north east of Qom. Qom_sentence_194

In January 2012 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) announced that Iran had started producing uranium enriched up to 20% for medical purposes and that material "remains under the agency's containment and surveillance.” Iranian authorities state the facility is built deep in a mountain because of repeated threats by Israel to attack such facilities, which Israel believes can be used to produce nuclear weapons. Qom_sentence_195

However, attacking a nuclear facility so close to a city considered so holy in Shia Islam brings concern of a potential risk of a Shiite religious response. Qom_sentence_196

Qom space center Qom_section_11

Qom space center is one of the two places where the Iranian Space Agency is launching its suborbital Shahab-3 ballistic missiles, the other being the Emamshahr space center. Qom_sentence_197

Notable people Qom_section_12

Qom_unordered_list_2

Twin towns Qom_section_13

Qom is twinned with: Qom_sentence_198

Qom_table_general_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qom.