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This article is about the Canadian province. Quebec_sentence_0

For the province's capital city, see Quebec City. Quebec_sentence_1

For the historical province, see Province of Quebec (1763–1791). Quebec_sentence_2

For other uses, see Quebec (disambiguation). Quebec_sentence_3



Québec (French)Quebec_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryQuebec_header_cell_0_1_0 CanadaQuebec_cell_0_1_1
ConfederationQuebec_header_cell_0_2_0 July 1, 1867 (1st, with Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick)Quebec_cell_0_2_1
CapitalQuebec_header_cell_0_3_0 Quebec CityQuebec_cell_0_3_1
Largest cityQuebec_header_cell_0_4_0 MontrealQuebec_cell_0_4_1
Largest metroQuebec_header_cell_0_5_0 Greater MontrealQuebec_cell_0_5_1
Lieutenant GovernorQuebec_header_cell_0_7_0 J. Michel DoyonQuebec_cell_0_7_1
PremierQuebec_header_cell_0_8_0 François Legault (CAQ)Quebec_cell_0_8_1
LegislatureQuebec_header_cell_0_9_0 National Assembly of QuebecQuebec_cell_0_9_1
Federal representationQuebec_header_cell_0_10_0 Parliament of CanadaQuebec_cell_0_10_1
House seatsQuebec_header_cell_0_11_0 78 of 338 (23.1%)Quebec_cell_0_11_1
Senate seatsQuebec_header_cell_0_12_0 24 of 105 (22.9%)Quebec_cell_0_12_1
TotalQuebec_header_cell_0_14_0 1,542,056 km (595,391 sq mi)Quebec_cell_0_14_1
LandQuebec_header_cell_0_15_0 1,365,128 km (527,079 sq mi)Quebec_cell_0_15_1
WaterQuebec_header_cell_0_16_0 176,928 km (68,312 sq mi)  11.5%Quebec_cell_0_16_1
Area rankQuebec_header_cell_0_17_0 Ranked 2ndQuebec_cell_0_17_1
Quebec_header_cell_0_18_0 15.4% of CanadaQuebec_cell_0_18_1
Population (2016)Quebec_header_cell_0_19_0
TotalQuebec_header_cell_0_20_0 8,164,361Quebec_cell_0_20_1
Estimate (2020 Q3)Quebec_header_cell_0_21_0 8,574,571Quebec_cell_0_21_1
RankQuebec_header_cell_0_22_0 Ranked 2ndQuebec_cell_0_22_1
DensityQuebec_header_cell_0_23_0 5.98/km (15.5/sq mi)Quebec_cell_0_23_1
Demonym(s)Quebec_header_cell_0_24_0 in English: Quebecer or Quebecker,

in French: Québécois (m) Québécoise (f)Quebec_cell_0_24_1

Official languagesQuebec_header_cell_0_25_0 FrenchQuebec_cell_0_25_1
RankQuebec_header_cell_0_27_0 2ndQuebec_cell_0_27_1
Total (2015)Quebec_header_cell_0_28_0 C$380.972 billionQuebec_cell_0_28_1
Per capitaQuebec_header_cell_0_29_0 C$46,126 (10th)Quebec_cell_0_29_1
HDI (2018)Quebec_header_cell_0_31_0 0.908 — Very high (5th)Quebec_cell_0_31_1
Time zonesQuebec_header_cell_0_32_0
most of the provinceQuebec_header_cell_0_33_0 UTC-05:00 (Eastern Time Zone)Quebec_cell_0_33_1
Summer (DST)Quebec_header_cell_0_34_0 UTC-04:00Quebec_cell_0_34_1
Magdalen Islands and Listuguj Mi'gmaq First NationQuebec_header_cell_0_35_0 UTC-04:00 (Atlantic Time Zone)Quebec_cell_0_35_1
Summer (DST)Quebec_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC-03:00Quebec_cell_0_36_1
east of the Natashquan RiverQuebec_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC-04:00 (Atlantic Time Zone)Quebec_cell_0_37_1
Postal abbr.Quebec_header_cell_0_38_0 QCQuebec_cell_0_38_1
Postal code prefixQuebec_header_cell_0_39_0 G, H, JQuebec_cell_0_39_1
ISO 3166 codeQuebec_header_cell_0_40_0 CA-QCQuebec_cell_0_40_1
FlowerQuebec_header_cell_0_41_0 Blue flag irisQuebec_cell_0_41_1
TreeQuebec_header_cell_0_42_0 Yellow birchQuebec_cell_0_42_1
BirdQuebec_header_cell_0_43_0 Snowy owlQuebec_cell_0_43_1

Quebec (/k(w)ɪˈbɛk/ (listen); French: Québec [kebɛk (listen)) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. Quebec_sentence_4

It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the U.S. Quebec_sentence_5

states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. Quebec_sentence_6

It also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec_sentence_7

Quebec is Canada's largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nunavut is larger. Quebec_sentence_8

Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario. Quebec_sentence_9

It is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole official language. Quebec_sentence_10

Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Quebec_sentence_11

Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area and the Island of Montreal. Quebec_sentence_12

The island of Montreal houses most of the allophone and anglophone population, as well as most English-language institutions. Quebec_sentence_13

The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. Quebec_sentence_14

While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace, information and communication technologies, biotechnology, and the pharmaceutical industry also play leading roles. Quebec_sentence_15

The province's economic output was CA$439.3 billion in 2018, almost 20 percent of the Canada's total gross domestic product. Quebec_sentence_16

The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. Quebec_sentence_17

Even in central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec_sentence_18

Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Quebec_sentence_19

Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Quebec_sentence_20

Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, and only failed by less than 1%. Quebec_sentence_21

In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". Quebec_sentence_22

Etymology and boundary changes Quebec_section_0

The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin or Ojibwe word kébec meaning "where the river narrows", originally referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Quebec_sentence_23

Early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq (Levasseur, 1601) and Kébec (Lescarbot, 1609). Quebec_sentence_24

French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France. Quebec_sentence_25

The province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province" ("The beautiful province"). Quebec_sentence_26

The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War. Quebec_sentence_27

The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. Quebec_sentence_28

The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders previously existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760. Quebec_sentence_29

The Treaty of Paris (1783) ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. Quebec_sentence_30

After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) and Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. Quebec_sentence_31

In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. Quebec_sentence_32

This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Quebec_sentence_33

Each became one of the first four provinces. Quebec_sentence_34

In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. Quebec_sentence_35

In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples. Quebec_sentence_36

This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_37

In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec_sentence_38

Quebec officially disputes this boundary. Quebec_sentence_39

Geography Quebec_section_1

Main article: Geography of Quebec Quebec_sentence_40

Located in the eastern part of Canada, and (from a historical and political perspective) part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of which is very sparsely populated. Quebec_sentence_41

Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate (latitude and altitude), and the proximity to water. Quebec_sentence_42

The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec_sentence_43

Hydrography Quebec_section_2

Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface. Quebec_sentence_44

It has 3% of the world's renewable fresh water, whereas it has only 0.1% of its population. Quebec_sentence_45

More than half a million lakes, including 30 with an area greater than 250 square kilometres (97 sq mi), and 4,500 rivers pour their torrents into the Atlantic Ocean, through the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Arctic Ocean, by James, Hudson, and Ungava bays. Quebec_sentence_46

The largest inland body of water is the Caniapiscau Reservoir, created in the realization of the James Bay Project to produce hydroelectric power. Quebec_sentence_47

Lake Mistassini is the largest natural lake in Quebec. Quebec_sentence_48

The Saint Lawrence River has some of the world's largest sustaining inland Atlantic ports at Montreal (the province's largest city), Trois-Rivières, and Quebec City (the capital). Quebec_sentence_49

Its access to the Atlantic Ocean and the interior of North America made it the base of early French exploration and settlement in the 17th and 18th centuries. Quebec_sentence_50

Since 1959, the Saint Lawrence Seaway has provided a navigable link between the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes. Quebec_sentence_51

Northeast of Quebec City, the river broadens into the world's largest estuary, the feeding site of numerous species of whales, fish, and seabirds. Quebec_sentence_52

The river empties into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Quebec_sentence_53

This marine environment sustains fisheries and smaller ports in the Lower Saint Lawrence (Bas-Saint-Laurent), Lower North Shore (Côte-Nord), and Gaspé (Gaspésie) regions of the province. Quebec_sentence_54

The Saint Lawrence River with its estuary forms the basis of Quebec's development through the centuries. Quebec_sentence_55

Other notable rivers include the Ashuapmushuan, Chaudière, Gatineau, Manicouagan, Ottawa, Richelieu, Rupert, Saguenay, Saint-François, and Saint-Maurice. Quebec_sentence_56

Topography Quebec_section_3

Quebec's highest point at 1,652 metres is Mont d'Iberville, known in English as Mount Caubvick, located on the border with Newfoundland and Labrador in the northeastern part of the province, in the Torngat Mountains. Quebec_sentence_57

The most populous physiographic region is the Saint Lawrence Lowland. Quebec_sentence_58

It extends northeastward from the southwestern portion of the province along the shores of the Saint Lawrence River to the Quebec City region, limited to the North by the Laurentian Mountains and to the South by the Appalachians. Quebec_sentence_59

It mainly covers the areas of the Centre-du-Québec, Laval, Montérégie and Montreal, the southern regions of the Capitale-Nationale, Lanaudière, Laurentides, Mauricie and includes Anticosti Island, the Mingan Archipelago, and other small islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests ecoregion. Quebec_sentence_60

Its landscape is low-lying and flat, except for isolated igneous outcrops near Montreal called the Monteregian Hills, formerly covered by the waters of Lake Champlain. Quebec_sentence_61

The Oka hills also rise from the plain. Quebec_sentence_62

Geologically, the lowlands formed as a rift valley about 100 million years ago and are prone to infrequent but significant earthquakes. Quebec_sentence_63

The most recent layers of sedimentary rock were formed as the seabed of the ancient Champlain Sea at the end of the last ice age about 14,000 years ago. Quebec_sentence_64

The combination of rich and easily arable soils and Quebec's relatively warm climate makes this valley the most prolific agricultural area of Quebec province. Quebec_sentence_65

Mixed forests provide most of Canada's springtime maple syrup crop. Quebec_sentence_66

The rural part of the landscape is divided into narrow rectangular tracts of land that extend from the river and date back to settlement patterns in 17th century New France. Quebec_sentence_67

More than 95% of Quebec's territory lies within the Canadian Shield. Quebec_sentence_68

It is generally a quite flat and exposed mountainous terrain interspersed with higher points such as the Laurentian Mountains in southern Quebec, the Otish Mountains in central Quebec and the Torngat Mountains near Ungava Bay. Quebec_sentence_69

The topography of the Shield has been shaped by glaciers from the successive ice ages, which explains the glacial deposits of boulders, gravel and sand, and by sea water and post-glacial lakes that left behind thick deposits of clay in parts of the Shield. Quebec_sentence_70

The Canadian Shield also has a complex hydrological network of perhaps a million lakes, bogs, streams and rivers. Quebec_sentence_71

It is rich in the forestry, mineral and hydro-electric resources that are a mainstay of the Quebec economy. Quebec_sentence_72

Primary industries sustain small cities in regions of Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, and Côte-Nord. Quebec_sentence_73

The Labrador Peninsula is covered by the Laurentian Plateau (or Canadian Shield), dotted with mountains such as Otish Mountains. Quebec_sentence_74

The Ungava Peninsula is notably composed of D'Youville mountains, Puvirnituq mountains and Pingualuit crater. Quebec_sentence_75

While low and medium altitude peak from western Quebec to the far north, high altitudes mountains emerge in the Capitale-Nationale region to the extreme east, along its longitude. Quebec_sentence_76

In the Labrador Peninsula portion of the Shield, the far northern region of Nunavik includes the Ungava Peninsula and consists of flat Arctic tundra inhabited mostly by the Inuit. Quebec_sentence_77

Further south lie the subarctic taiga of the Eastern Canadian Shield taiga ecoregion and the boreal forest of the Central Canadian Shield forests, where spruce, fir, and poplar trees provide raw materials for Quebec's pulp and paper and lumber industries. Quebec_sentence_78

Although the area is inhabited principally by the Cree, Naskapi, and Innu First Nations, thousands of temporary workers reside at Radisson to service the massive James Bay Hydroelectric Project on the La Grande and Eastmain rivers. Quebec_sentence_79

The southern portion of the shield extends to the Laurentians, a mountain range just north of the Saint Lawrence Lowland, that attracts local and international tourists to ski hills and lakeside resorts. Quebec_sentence_80

The Appalachian region of Quebec has a narrow strip of ancient mountains along the southeastern border of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_81

The Appalachians are actually a huge chain that extends from Alabama to Newfoundland. Quebec_sentence_82

In between, it covers in Quebec near 800 km (497 mi), from the Montérégie hills to the Gaspé Peninsula. Quebec_sentence_83

In western Quebec, the average altitude is about 500 metres, while in the Gaspé Peninsula, the Appalachian peaks (especially the Chic-Choc) are among the highest in Quebec, exceeding 1000 metres. Quebec_sentence_84

Climate Quebec_section_4

In general, the climate of Quebec is cold and humid. Quebec_sentence_85

The climate of the province is largely determined by its latitude, maritime and elevation influences. Quebec_sentence_86

According to the Köppen climate classification, Quebec has three main climate regions. Quebec_sentence_87

Southern and western Quebec, including most of the major population centres and areas south of 51N, have a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with four distinct seasons having warm to occasionally hot and humid summers and often very cold and snowy winters. Quebec_sentence_88

The main climatic influences are from western and northern Canada and move eastward, and from the southern and central United States that move northward. Quebec_sentence_89

Because of the influence of both storm systems from the core of North America and the Atlantic Ocean, precipitation is abundant throughout the year, with most areas receiving more than 1,000 millimetres (39 in) of precipitation, including over 300 centimetres (120 in) of snow in many areas. Quebec_sentence_90

During the summer, severe weather patterns (such as tornadoes and severe thunderstorms) occur occasionally. Quebec_sentence_91

Most of central Quebec, ranging from 51 to 58 degrees North has a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc). Quebec_sentence_92

Winters are long, very cold, and snowy, and among the coldest in eastern Canada, while summers are warm but very short due to the higher latitude and the greater influence of Arctic air masses. Quebec_sentence_93

Precipitation is also somewhat less than farther south, except at some of the higher elevations. Quebec_sentence_94

The northern regions of Quebec have an arctic climate (Köppen ET), with very cold winters and short, much cooler summers. Quebec_sentence_95

The primary influences in this region are the Arctic Ocean currents (such as the Labrador Current) and continental air masses from the High Arctic. Quebec_sentence_96

The four calendar seasons in Quebec are spring, summer, autumn and winter, with conditions differing by region. Quebec_sentence_97

They are then differentiated according to the insolation, temperature, and precipitation of snow and rain. Quebec_sentence_98

At Quebec City, the length of the daily sunshine varies from 8:37 hrs in December to 15:50 hrs in June; the annual variation is much greater (from 4:54 to 19:29 hrs) at the northern tip of the province. Quebec_sentence_99

From temperate zones to the northern territories of the Far North, the brightness varies with latitude, as well as the Northern Lights and midnight sun. Quebec_sentence_100

Quebec is divided into four climatic zones: arctic, subarctic, humid continental and East maritime. Quebec_sentence_101

From south to north, average temperatures range in summer between 25 and 5 °C (77 and 41 °F) and, in winter, between −10 and −25 °C (14 and −13 °F). Quebec_sentence_102

In periods of intense heat and cold, temperatures can reach 35 °C (95 °F) in the summer and −40 °C (−40 °F) during the Quebec winter, They may vary depending on the Humidex or Wind chill. Quebec_sentence_103

The all time record high was 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) and the all time record low was −51.0 °C (−59.8 °F). Quebec_sentence_104

The all-time record of the greatest precipitation in winter was established in winter 2007–2008, with more than five metres of snow in the area of Quebec City, while the average amount received per winter is around three metres. Quebec_sentence_105

March 1971, however, saw the "Century's Snowstorm" with more than 40 centimetres (16 in) in Montreal to 80 centimetres (31 in) in Mont Apica of snow within 24 hours in many regions of southern Quebec. Quebec_sentence_106

Also, the winter of 2010 was the warmest and driest recorded in more than 60 years. Quebec_sentence_107


Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in QuebecQuebec_table_caption_1
LocationQuebec_header_cell_1_0_0 July (°C)Quebec_header_cell_1_0_1 July (°F)Quebec_header_cell_1_0_2 January (°C)Quebec_header_cell_1_0_3 January (°F)Quebec_header_cell_1_0_4
MontrealQuebec_cell_1_1_0 26/16Quebec_cell_1_1_1 79/61Quebec_cell_1_1_2 −5/−14Quebec_cell_1_1_3 22/7Quebec_cell_1_1_4
GatineauQuebec_cell_1_2_0 26/15Quebec_cell_1_2_1 79/60Quebec_cell_1_2_2 −6/−15Quebec_cell_1_2_3 21/5Quebec_cell_1_2_4
Quebec CityQuebec_cell_1_3_0 25/13Quebec_cell_1_3_1 77/56Quebec_cell_1_3_2 −8/−18Quebec_cell_1_3_3 17/0Quebec_cell_1_3_4
Trois-RivièresQuebec_cell_1_4_0 25/14Quebec_cell_1_4_1 78/58Quebec_cell_1_4_2 −7/−17Quebec_cell_1_4_3 19/1Quebec_cell_1_4_4
SherbrookeQuebec_cell_1_5_0 24/11Quebec_cell_1_5_1 76/53Quebec_cell_1_5_2 −6/−18Quebec_cell_1_5_3 21/0Quebec_cell_1_5_4
SaguenayQuebec_cell_1_6_0 24/12Quebec_cell_1_6_1 75/54Quebec_cell_1_6_2 −10/−21Quebec_cell_1_6_3 14/−6Quebec_cell_1_6_4
MatagamiQuebec_cell_1_7_0 23/9Quebec_cell_1_7_1 73/48Quebec_cell_1_7_2 −13/−26Quebec_cell_1_7_3 8/−16Quebec_cell_1_7_4
KuujjuaqQuebec_cell_1_8_0 17/6Quebec_cell_1_8_1 63/43Quebec_cell_1_8_2 −20/−29Quebec_cell_1_8_3 −4/−20Quebec_cell_1_8_4
InukjuakQuebec_cell_1_9_0 13/5Quebec_cell_1_9_1 56/42Quebec_cell_1_9_2 −21/−28Quebec_cell_1_9_3 −6/−19Quebec_cell_1_9_4

Wildlife Quebec_section_5

The large land wildlife is mainly composed of the white-tailed deer, the moose, the muskox, the caribou (reindeer), the American black bear and the polar bear. Quebec_sentence_108

The average land wildlife includes the cougar, the coyote, the eastern wolf, the bobcat, the Arctic fox, the fox, etc. Quebec_sentence_109

The small animals seen most commonly include the eastern grey squirrel, the snowshoe hare, the groundhog, the skunk, the raccoon, the chipmunk and the Canadian beaver. Quebec_sentence_110

Biodiversity of the estuary and gulf of Saint Lawrence River consists of an aquatic mammal wildlife, of which most goes upriver through the estuary and the Saguenay–St. Quebec_sentence_111

Lawrence Marine Park until the Île d'Orléans (French for Orleans Island), such as the blue whale, the beluga, the minke whale and the harp seal (earless seal). Quebec_sentence_112

Among the Nordic marine animals, there are two particularly important to cite: the walrus and the narwhal. Quebec_sentence_113

Inland waters are populated by small to large fresh water fish, such as the largemouth bass, the American pickerel, the walleye, the Acipenser oxyrinchus, the muskellunge, the Atlantic cod, the Arctic char, the brook trout, the Microgadus tomcod (tomcod), the Atlantic salmon, the rainbow trout, etc. Quebec_sentence_114

Among the birds commonly seen in the southern inhabited part of Quebec, there are the American robin, the house sparrow, the red-winged blackbird, the mallard, the common grackle, the blue jay, the American crow, the black-capped chickadee, some warblers and swallows, the starling and the rock pigeon, the latter two having been introduced in Quebec and are found mainly in urban areas. Quebec_sentence_115

Avian fauna includes birds of prey like the golden eagle, the peregrine falcon, the snowy owl and the bald eagle. Quebec_sentence_116

Sea and semi-aquatic birds seen in Quebec are mostly the Canada goose, the double-crested cormorant, the northern gannet, the European herring gull, the great blue heron, the sandhill crane, the Atlantic puffin and the common loon. Quebec_sentence_117

Many more species of land, maritime or avian wildlife are seen in Quebec, but most of the Quebec-specific species and the most commonly seen species are listed above. Quebec_sentence_118

Some livestock have the title of "Québec heritage breed", namely the Canadian horse, the Chantecler chicken and the Canadian cow. Quebec_sentence_119

Moreover, in addition to food certified as "organic", Charlevoix lamb is the first local Quebec product whose geographical indication is protected. Quebec_sentence_120

Livestock production also includes the pig breeds Landrace, Duroc and Yorkshire and many breeds of sheep and cattle. Quebec_sentence_121

The Wildlife Foundation of Quebec and the Data Centre on Natural Heritage of Quebec (CDPNQ)(French acronym) are the main agencies working with officers for wildlife conservation in Quebec. Quebec_sentence_122

Vegetation Quebec_section_6

Given the geology of the province and its different climates, there is an established number of large areas of vegetation in Quebec. Quebec_sentence_123

These areas, listed in order from the northernmost to the southernmost are: the tundra, the taiga, the Canadian boreal forest (coniferous), mixed forest and Deciduous forest. Quebec_sentence_124

On the edge of the Ungava Bay and Hudson Strait is the tundra, whose flora is limited to a low vegetation of lichen with only less than 50 growing days a year. Quebec_sentence_125

The tundra vegetation survives an average annual temperature of −8 °C (18 °F). Quebec_sentence_126

The tundra covers more than 24% of the area of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_127

Further south, the climate is conducive to the growth of the Canadian boreal forest, bounded on the north by the taiga. Quebec_sentence_128

Not as arid as the tundra, the taiga is associated with the sub-Arctic regions of the Canadian Shield and is characterized by a greater number of both plant (600) and animal (206) species, many of which live there all year. Quebec_sentence_129

The taiga covers about 20% of the total area of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_130

The Canadian boreal forest is the northernmost and most abundant of the three forest areas in Quebec that straddle the Canadian Shield and the upper lowlands of the province. Quebec_sentence_131

Given a warmer climate, the diversity of organisms is also higher, since there are about 850 plant species and 280 vertebrates species. Quebec_sentence_132

The Canadian boreal forest covers 27% of the area of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_133

The mixed forest is a transition zone between the Canadian boreal forest and deciduous forest. Quebec_sentence_134

By virtue of its transient nature, this area contains a diversity of habitats resulting in large numbers of plant (1000) and vertebrates (350) species, despite relatively cool temperatures. Quebec_sentence_135

The ecozone mixed forest covers 11.5% of the area of Quebec and is characteristic of the Laurentians, the Appalachians and the eastern lowlands forests. Quebec_sentence_136

The third most northern forest area is characterized by deciduous forests. Quebec_sentence_137

Because of its climate (average annual temperature of 7 °C (45 °F)), it is in this area that one finds the greatest diversity of species, including more than 1600 vascular plants and 440 vertebrates. Quebec_sentence_138

Its relatively long growing season lasts almost 200 days and its fertile soils make it the centre of agricultural activity and therefore of urbanization of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_139

Most of Quebec's population lives in this area of vegetation, almost entirely along the banks of the St. Lawrence. Quebec_sentence_140

Deciduous forests cover approximately 6.6% of the area of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_141

The total forest area of Quebec is estimated at 750,300 square kilometres (289,700 sq mi). Quebec_sentence_142

From the Abitibi-Témiscamingue to the North Shore, the forest is composed primarily of conifers such as the Abies balsamea, the jack pine, the white spruce, the black spruce and the tamarack. Quebec_sentence_143

Some species of deciduous trees such as the yellow birch appear when the river is approached in the south. Quebec_sentence_144

The deciduous forest of the Saint Lawrence Lowlands is mostly composed of deciduous species such as the sugar maple, the red maple, the white ash, the American beech, the butternut (white walnut), the American elm, the basswood, the bitternut hickory and the northern red oak as well as some conifers such as the eastern white pine and the northern whitecedar. Quebec_sentence_145

The distribution areas of the paper birch, the trembling aspen and the mountain ash cover more than half of Quebec territory. Quebec_sentence_146

History Quebec_section_7

Main article: History of Quebec Quebec_sentence_147

Indigenous peoples and European exploration Quebec_section_8

At the time of first European contact and later colonization, Algonquian, Iroquois and Inuit nations controlled what is now Quebec. Quebec_sentence_148

Their lifestyles and cultures reflected the land on which they lived. Quebec_sentence_149

Algonquians organized into seven political entities lived nomadic lives based on hunting, gathering, and fishing in the rugged terrain of the Canadian Shield (James Bay Cree, Innu, Algonquins) and Appalachian Mountains (Mi'kmaq, Abenaki). Quebec_sentence_150

St. Quebec_sentence_151

Lawrence Iroquoians, a branch of the Iroquois, lived more settled lives, growing corn, beans and squash in the fertile soils of the St. Lawrence Valley. Quebec_sentence_152

They appear to have been later supplanted by the Mohawk nation. Quebec_sentence_153

The Inuit continue to fish and hunt whale and seal in the harsh Arctic climate along the coasts of Hudson and Ungava Bay. Quebec_sentence_154

These people traded fur and food and sometimes warred with each other. Quebec_sentence_155

New France Quebec_section_9

Main article: New France Quebec_sentence_156

Around 1522–1523, the Italian navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano persuaded King Francis I of France to commission an expedition to find a western route to Cathay (China). Quebec_sentence_157

In 1534, Breton explorer Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of King Francis I. Quebec_sentence_158

It was the first province of New France. Quebec_sentence_159

However, initial French attempts at settling the region met with failure. Quebec_sentence_160

French fishing fleets, however, continued to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, making alliances with First Nations that would become important once France began to occupy the land. Quebec_sentence_161

Samuel de Champlain was part of a 1603 expedition from France that travelled into the St. Lawrence River. Quebec_sentence_162

In 1608, he returned as head of an exploration party and founded Quebec City with the intention of making the area part of the French colonial empire. Quebec_sentence_163

Champlain's Habitation de Québec, built as a permanent fur trading outpost, was where he would forge a trading, and ultimately a military alliance, with the Algonquin and Huron nations. Quebec_sentence_164

First Nations traded their furs for many French goods such as metal objects, guns, alcohol, and clothing. Quebec_sentence_165

Coureurs des bois, voyageurs and Catholic missionaries used river canoes to explore the interior of the North American continent. Quebec_sentence_166

They established fur trading forts on the Great Lakes (Étienne Brûlé 1615), Hudson Bay (Radisson and Groseilliers 1659–60), Ohio River and Mississippi River (La Salle 1682), as well as the Saskatchewan River and Missouri River (de la Verendrye 1734–1738). Quebec_sentence_167

After 1627, King Louis XIII of France allowed the Company of New France to introduced the seigneurial system and forbade settlement in New France by anyone other than Roman Catholics. Quebec_sentence_168

In 1629 there was the surrender of Quebec, without battle, to English privateers led by David Kirke during the Anglo-French War. Quebec_sentence_169

However, Samuel de Champlain argued that the English seizing of the lands was illegal as the war had already ended; he worked to have the lands returned to France. Quebec_sentence_170

As part of the ongoing negotiations of their exit from the Anglo-French War, in 1632 the English king Charles agreed to return the lands in exchange for Louis XIII paying his wife's dowry. Quebec_sentence_171

These terms were signed into law with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Quebec_sentence_172

The lands in Quebec and Acadia were returned to the French Company of One Hundred Associates. Quebec_sentence_173

New France became a Royal Province in 1663 under King Louis XIV of France with a Sovereign Council that included intendant Jean Talon. Quebec_sentence_174

The population grew slowly under French rule, thus remained relatively low as growth was largely achieved through natural births, rather than by immigration. Quebec_sentence_175

To encourage population growth and to redress the severe imbalance between single men and women, King Louis XIV sponsored the passage of approximately 800 young French women (known as les filles du roi) to the colony. Quebec_sentence_176

Most of the French were farmers ("Canadiens" or "Habitants"), and the rate of population growth among the settlers themselves was very high. Quebec_sentence_177

Seven Years' War and capitulation of New France Quebec_section_10

Main article: Seven Years' War Quebec_sentence_178

Authorities in New France became more aggressive in their efforts to expel British traders and colonists from the Ohio Valley. Quebec_sentence_179

They began construction of a series of fortifications to protect the area. Quebec_sentence_180

In 1754, George Washington launched a surprise attack on a group of Canadian soldiers sleeping in the early morning hours. Quebec_sentence_181

It came at a time when no declaration of war had been issued by either country. Quebec_sentence_182

This frontier aggression known as the Jumonville affair set the stage for the French and Indian War (a US designation; in Canada it is usually referred to as the Seven Years' War, although French Canadians often call it La guerre de la Conquête ["The War of Conquest"]) in North America. Quebec_sentence_183

By 1756, France and Britain were battling the Seven Years' War worldwide. Quebec_sentence_184

In 1758, the British mounted an attack on New France by sea and took the French fort at Louisbourg. Quebec_sentence_185

On September 13, 1759, the British forces of General James Wolfe defeated those of French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham outside Quebec City. Quebec_sentence_186

With the exception of the small islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, located off the coast of Newfoundland, France ceded its North American possessions to Great Britain through the Treaty of Paris (1763) in favour of gaining the island of Guadeloupe for its then-lucrative sugar cane industry. Quebec_sentence_187

The British Royal Proclamation of 1763 renamed Canada (part of New France) as the Province of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_188

Quebec Act Quebec_section_11

Main article: Quebec Act Quebec_sentence_189

With unrest growing in the colonies to the south, which would one day grow into the American Revolution, the British were worried that the French-speaking Canadians might also support the growing rebellion. Quebec_sentence_190

At that time, French-speaking Canadians formed the vast majority of the population of the province of Quebec (more than 99%) and British immigration was not going well. Quebec_sentence_191

To secure the allegiance of the approximately 90,000 French-speaking Canadians to the British crown, first Governor James Murray and later Governor Guy Carleton promoted the need for change. Quebec_sentence_192

There was also a need to compromise between the conflicting demands of the French-speaking Canadian subjects and those of newly arrived British subjects. Quebec_sentence_193

These efforts by the colonial governors eventually resulted in enactment of the Quebec Act of 1774. Quebec_sentence_194

The Quebec Act provided the people of Quebec their first Charter of Rights and paved the way to later official recognition of the French language and French culture. Quebec_sentence_195

The act also allowed the French speakers, known as Canadiens, to maintain French civil law and sanctioned freedom of religion, allowing the Roman Catholic Church to remain, one of the first cases in history of state-sanctioned freedom of religious practice. Quebec_sentence_196

Effects of the American Revolution Quebec_section_12

Although the Quebec Act was unrelated to the events in Boston of 1773, and was not regarded as one of the Coercive Acts, the timing of its passage led British colonists to the south to believe that it was part of the program to punish them. Quebec_sentence_197

The Quebec Act offended a variety of interest groups in the British colonies. Quebec_sentence_198

Land speculators and settlers objected to the transfer of western lands previously claimed by the colonies to a non-representative government. Quebec_sentence_199

Many feared the establishment of Catholicism in Quebec, and that the French Canadians were being courted to help oppress British Americans. Quebec_sentence_200

On June 27, 1775, General George Washington and his Continental Army invaded Canada in an attempt to conquer Quebec. Quebec_sentence_201

British reinforcements came up the St. Lawrence in May 1776, and the Battle of Trois-Rivières turned into a disaster for the Americans. Quebec_sentence_202

The army withdrew to Ticonderoga. Quebec_sentence_203

Although some help was given to the Americans by the locals, Governor Carleton punished American sympathizers, and public support of the American cause came to an end. Quebec_sentence_204

In 1778, Frederick Haldimand took over for Guy Carleton as governor of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_205

The arrival of 10,000 Loyalists at Quebec in 1784 destroyed the political balance that Haldimand (and Carleton before him) had worked so hard to achieve. Quebec_sentence_206

The swelling numbers of English encouraged them to make greater demands for recognition with the colonial government. Quebec_sentence_207

To restore stability to his largest remaining North American colony, King George III sent Carleton back to Quebec to remedy the situation. Quebec_sentence_208

In ten years, Quebec had undergone a dramatic change. Quebec_sentence_209

What worked for Carleton in 1774 was not likely to succeed in 1784. Quebec_sentence_210

Specifically, there was no possibility of restoring the previous political balance – there were simply too many English people unwilling to reach a compromise with the 145,000 Canadiens or their colonial governor. Quebec_sentence_211

The situation called for a more creative approach to problem solving. Quebec_sentence_212

Separation of the Province of Quebec Quebec_section_13

Loyalists soon petitioned the government to be allowed to use the British legal system they were used to in the American colonies. Quebec_sentence_213

The creation of Upper and Lower Canada in 1791 allowed most Loyalists to live under British laws and institutions, while the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain their familiar French civil law and the Catholic religion. Quebec_sentence_214

Therefore, Governor Haldimand (at the suggestion of Carleton) drew Loyalists away from Quebec City and Montreal by offering free land on the northern shore of Lake Ontario to anyone willing to swear allegiance to George III. Quebec_sentence_215

The Loyalists were thus given land grants of 200 acres (81 ha) per person. Quebec_sentence_216

Basically, this approach was designed with the intent of keeping French and English as far apart as possible. Quebec_sentence_217

Therefore, after the separation of the Province of Quebec, Lower Canada and Upper Canada were formed, each with its own government. Quebec_sentence_218

Rebellion in Lower Canada Quebec_section_14

Main article: Lower Canada Rebellion Quebec_sentence_219

In 1837, residents of Lower Canada – led by Louis-Joseph Papineau and Robert Nelson – formed an armed resistance group to seek an end to the unilateral control of the British governors. Quebec_sentence_220

They made a Declaration of Rights with equality for all citizens without discrimination and a Declaration of Independence of Lower Canada in 1838. Quebec_sentence_221

Their actions resulted in rebellions in both Lower and Upper Canada. Quebec_sentence_222

An unprepared British Army had to raise militia force; the rebel forces scored a victory in Saint-Denis but were soon defeated. Quebec_sentence_223

After the rebellions, Lord Durham was asked to undertake a study and prepare a report on the matter and to offer a solution for the British Parliament to assess. Quebec_sentence_224

Following Durham's report, the British government merged the two colonial provinces into one Province of Canada in 1840 with the Act of Union. Quebec_sentence_225

The two colonies remained distinct in administration, election, and law. Quebec_sentence_226

In 1848, Baldwin and LaFontaine, allies and leaders of the Reformist party, were asked by Lord Elgin to form an administration together under the new policy of responsible government. Quebec_sentence_227

The French language subsequently regained legal status in the Legislature. Quebec_sentence_228

Canadian Confederation Quebec_section_15

Main article: Canadian Confederation Quebec_sentence_229

In the 1860s, the delegates from the colonies of British North America (Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland) met in a series of conferences to discuss self-governing status for a new confederation. Quebec_sentence_230

The first Charlottetown Conference took place in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, followed by the Quebec Conference in Quebec City which led to a delegation going to London, England, to put forth a proposal for a national union. Quebec_sentence_231

As a result of those deliberations, in 1867 the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the British North America Acts, providing for the Confederation of most of these provinces. Quebec_sentence_232

The former Province of Canada was divided into its two previous parts as the provinces of Ontario (Upper Canada) and Quebec (Lower Canada). Quebec_sentence_233

New Brunswick and Nova Scotia joined Ontario and Quebec in the new Dominion of Canada. Quebec_sentence_234

The other provinces then joined Confederation, one after the other: Manitoba and the Northwest Territories in 1870, British Columbia in 1871, Prince Edward Island in 1873, Yukon in 1898, Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905, Newfoundland in 1949 and finally Nunavut in 1999. Quebec_sentence_235

World War I and World War II Quebec_section_16

When Great Britain declared war on August 4, 1914, Canada was automatically involved as a dominion. Quebec_sentence_236

About 6,000 volunteers from Quebec participated on the European front. Quebec_sentence_237

Although reaction to conscription was favourable in English Canada the idea was deeply unpopular in Quebec. Quebec_sentence_238

The Conscription Crisis of 1917 did much to highlight the divisions between French and English-speaking Canadians in Canada. Quebec_sentence_239

During World War II, the participation of Quebec was more important but led to the Conscription Crisis of 1944 and opposition. Quebec_sentence_240

Many Quebecers fought against the axis powers between 1939 to 1945 with the involvement of many francophone regiments such as Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal, le Régiment de la Chaudière and many more. Quebec_sentence_241

Quiet Revolution Quebec_section_17

Main article: Quiet Revolution Quebec_sentence_242

The conservative government of Maurice Duplessis and his Union Nationale dominated Quebec politics from 1944 to 1959 with the support of the Catholic Church. Quebec_sentence_243

Pierre Trudeau and other liberals formed an intellectual opposition to Duplessis's regime, setting the groundwork for the Quiet Revolution under Jean Lesage's Liberals. Quebec_sentence_244

The Quiet Revolution was a period of dramatic social and political change that saw the decline of Anglo supremacy in the Quebec economy, the decline of the Roman Catholic Church's influence, the formation of hydroelectric companies under Hydro-Québec and the emergence of a pro-sovereignty movement under former Liberal minister René Lévesque. Quebec_sentence_245

October Crisis Quebec_section_18

Main articles: October Crisis and Front de libération du Québec Quebec_sentence_246

Beginning in 1963, a paramilitary group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade-long programme of propaganda and terrorism that included bombings, robberies and attacks directed primarily at English institutions, resulting in at least five deaths. Quebec_sentence_247

In 1970, their activities culminated in events referred to as the October Crisis when James Cross, the British trade commissioner to Canada, was kidnapped along with Pierre Laporte, a provincial minister and Vice-Premier. Quebec_sentence_248

Laporte was strangled with his own rosary beads a few days later. Quebec_sentence_249

In their published Manifesto, the militants stated: "In the coming year Bourassa will have to face reality; 100,000 revolutionary workers, armed and organized." Quebec_sentence_250

At the request of Premier Robert Bourassa, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invoked the War Measures Act. Quebec_sentence_251

Parti Québécois and national unity Quebec_section_19

Main articles: Parti Québécois and Quebec sovereignty movement Quebec_sentence_252

In 1977, the newly elected Parti Québécois government of René Lévesque introduced the Charter of the French Language. Quebec_sentence_253

Often known as Bill 101, it defined French as the only official language of Quebec in areas of provincial jurisdiction. Quebec_sentence_254

Lévesque and his party had run in the 1970 and 1973 Quebec elections under a platform of separating Quebec from the rest of Canada. Quebec_sentence_255

The party failed to win control of Quebec's National Assembly both times – though its share of the vote increased from 23 percent to 30 percent – and Lévesque was defeated both times in the riding he contested. Quebec_sentence_256

In the 1976 election campaign, he softened his message by promising a referendum (plebiscite) on sovereignty-association rather than outright separation, by which Quebec would have independence in most government functions but share some other ones, such as a common currency, with Canada. Quebec_sentence_257

On November 15, 1976, Lévesque and the Parti Québécois won control of the provincial government for the first time. Quebec_sentence_258

The question of sovereignty-association was placed before the voters in the 1980 Quebec referendum. Quebec_sentence_259

During the campaign, Pierre Trudeau promised that a vote for the "no" side was a vote for reforming Canada. Quebec_sentence_260

Trudeau advocated the patriation of Canada's Constitution from the United Kingdom. Quebec_sentence_261

The existing constitutional document, the British North America Act, could only be amended by the United Kingdom Parliament upon a request by the Canadian parliament. Quebec_sentence_262

Sixty percent of the Quebec electorate voted against the proposition for sovereignty-association. Quebec_sentence_263

Polls showed that the overwhelming majority of English and immigrant Quebecers voted against, and that French Quebecers were almost equally divided, with older voters less in favour and younger voters more in favour. Quebec_sentence_264

After his loss in the referendum, Lévesque went back to Ottawa to start negotiating a new constitution with Trudeau, his minister of Justice Jean Chrétien and the nine other provincial premiers. Quebec_sentence_265

Lévesque insisted Quebec be able to veto any future constitutional amendments. Quebec_sentence_266

The negotiations quickly reached a stand-still. Quebec_sentence_267

Quebec is the only province not to have assented to the patriation of the Canadian constitution in 1982. Quebec_sentence_268

In subsequent years, two attempts were made to gain Quebec's approval of the constitution. Quebec_sentence_269

The first was the Meech Lake Accord of 1987, which was finally abandoned in 1990 when the province of Manitoba did not pass it within the established deadline. Quebec_sentence_270

(Newfoundland premier Clyde Wells had expressed his opposition to the accord, but, with the failure in Manitoba, the vote for or against Meech never took place in his province.) Quebec_sentence_271

This led to the formation of the sovereigntist Bloc Québécois party in Ottawa under the leadership of Lucien Bouchard, who had resigned from the federal cabinet. Quebec_sentence_272

The second attempt, the Charlottetown Accord of 1992, also failed to gain traction. Quebec_sentence_273

This result caused a split in the Quebec Liberal Party that led to the formation of the new Action démocratique (Democratic Action) party led by Mario Dumont and Jean Allaire. Quebec_sentence_274

On October 30, 1995, with the Parti Québécois back in power since 1994, a second referendum on sovereignty took place. Quebec_sentence_275

This time, it was rejected by a slim majority (50.6 percent NO to 49.4 percent YES). Quebec_sentence_276

Statut particulier ("special status") Quebec_section_20

Given the province's heritage and the preponderance of French (unique among the Canadian provinces), there has been debate in Canada regarding the unique status (statut particulier) of Quebec and its people, wholly or partially. Quebec_sentence_277

Prior attempts to amend the Canadian constitution to acknowledge Quebec as a "distinct society" – referring to the province's uniqueness within Canada regarding law, language, and culture – have been unsuccessful; however, the federal government under Prime Minister Jean Chrétien would later endorse recognition of Quebec as a distinct society. Quebec_sentence_278

On October 30, 2003, the National Assembly of Quebec voted unanimously to affirm "that the people of Québec form a nation". Quebec_sentence_279

On November 27, 2006, the House of Commons passed a symbolic motion moved by Prime Minister Stephen Harper declaring "that this House recognize that the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada." Quebec_sentence_280

However, there is considerable debate and uncertainty over what this means. Quebec_sentence_281

The debate over the status of Quebec is a highly animated one to this day. Quebec_sentence_282

Government and politics Quebec_section_21

Main articles: Politics of Quebec, Monarchy in Quebec, and Government of Quebec Quebec_sentence_283

The Lieutenant Governor represents the Queen of Canada and acts as the province's head of state. Quebec_sentence_284

The head of government is the premier (called premier ministre in French) who leads the largest party in the unicameral National Assembly, or Assemblée Nationale, from which the Executive Council of Quebec is appointed. Quebec_sentence_285

Until 1968, the Quebec legislature was bicameral, consisting of the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly. Quebec_sentence_286

In that year, the Legislative Council was abolished and the Legislative Assembly was renamed the National Assembly. Quebec_sentence_287

Quebec was the last province to abolish its legislative council. Quebec_sentence_288

The government of Quebec awards an order of merit called the National Order of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_289

It is inspired in part by the French Legion of Honour. Quebec_sentence_290

It is conferred upon men and women born or living in Quebec (but non-Quebecers can be inducted as well) for outstanding achievements. Quebec_sentence_291

The government of Quebec takes the majority of its revenue through a progressive income tax, a 9.975% sales tax and various other taxes (such as carbon, corporate and capital gains taxes), equalization payments from the federal government, transfer payments from other provinces and direct payments. Quebec_sentence_292

By some measures Quebec is the highest taxed province; a 2012 study indicated that "Quebec companies pay 26 per cent more in taxes than the Canadian average". Quebec_sentence_293

A 2014 report by the Fraser Institute indicated that "Relative to its size, Quebec is the most indebted province in Canada by a wide margin". Quebec_sentence_294

Administrative subdivisions Quebec_section_22

Main article: Administrative subdivisions of Quebec Quebec_sentence_295

Quebec has subdivisions at the regional, supralocal and local levels. Quebec_sentence_296

Excluding administrative units reserved for Aboriginal lands, the primary types of subdivision are: Quebec_sentence_297

At the regional level: Quebec_sentence_298


At the supralocal level: Quebec_sentence_299


At the local level: Quebec_sentence_300


Demographics Quebec_section_23

Main articles: Demographics of Quebec and French Canadian Quebec_sentence_301

In the 2016 census, Quebec had a population of 8,164,361 living in 3,531,663 of its 3,858,943 total dwellings, a 3.3% change from its 2011 population of 7,903,001. Quebec_sentence_302

With a land area of 1,356,625.27 km (523,795.95 sq mi), it had a population density of 6.0/km (15.6/sq mi) in 2016. Quebec_sentence_303

In 2013, Statistics Canada estimated the province's population to be 8,155,334. Quebec_sentence_304

At 1.69 children per woman, Quebec's 2011 fertility rate is above the Canada-wide rate of 1.61, and is higher than it was at the turn of the 21st century. Quebec_sentence_305

However, it is still below the replacement fertility rate of 2.1. Quebec_sentence_306

This contrasts with its fertility rates before 1960, which were among the highest of any industrialized society. Quebec_sentence_307

Although Quebec is home to only 24% of the population of Canada, the number of international adoptions in Quebec is the highest of all provinces of Canada. Quebec_sentence_308

In 2001, 42% of international adoptions in Canada were carried out in Quebec. Quebec_sentence_309

By 2012, the population of Quebec reached 8 million, and it is projected to reach 9.2 million in 2056. Quebec_sentence_310

Life expectancy in Quebec reached a new high in 2011, with an expectancy of 78.6 years for men and 83.2 years for women; this ranked as the third-longest life expectancy among Canadian provinces, behind those of British Columbia and Ontario. Quebec_sentence_311

All the tables in the following section have been reduced from their original size, for full tables see main article Demographics of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_312

Origins in this table are self-reported and respondents were allowed to give more than one answer. Quebec_sentence_313


Ethnic origin (2006)Quebec_table_caption_2
Ethnic originQuebec_header_cell_2_0_0 PopulationQuebec_header_cell_2_0_1 PercentQuebec_header_cell_2_0_2
Canadian (Canadiens)Quebec_cell_2_1_0 4,474,115Quebec_cell_2_1_1 60%Quebec_cell_2_1_2
FrenchQuebec_cell_2_2_0 2,151,655Quebec_cell_2_2_1 29%Quebec_cell_2_2_2
IrishQuebec_cell_2_3_0 406,085Quebec_cell_2_3_1 5.5%Quebec_cell_2_3_2
ItalianQuebec_cell_2_4_0 299,655Quebec_cell_2_4_1 4%Quebec_cell_2_4_2
EnglishQuebec_cell_2_5_0 245,155Quebec_cell_2_5_1 3.3%Quebec_cell_2_5_2
First NationsQuebec_cell_2_6_0 219,815Quebec_cell_2_6_1 3%Quebec_cell_2_6_2
ScottishQuebec_cell_2_7_0 202,515Quebec_cell_2_7_1 2.7%Quebec_cell_2_7_2
QuébécoisQuebec_cell_2_8_0 140,075Quebec_cell_2_8_1 2%Quebec_cell_2_8_2
GermanQuebec_cell_2_9_0 131,795Quebec_cell_2_9_1 1.8%Quebec_cell_2_9_2

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905) and may total more than 100 percent due to dual responses. Quebec_sentence_314

Only groups with 1.5 percent or more of respondents are shown. Quebec_sentence_315

The 2006 census counted a total aboriginal population of 108,425 (1.5 percent) including 65,085 North American Indians (0.9 percent), 27,985 Métis (0.4 percent), and 10,950 Inuit (0.15 percent). Quebec_sentence_316

There is a significant undercount, as many of the largest Indian bands regularly refuse to participate in Canadian censuses for political reasons regarding the question of aboriginal sovereignty. Quebec_sentence_317

In particular, the largest Mohawk Iroquois reserves (Kahnawake, Akwesasne and Kanesatake) were not counted. Quebec_sentence_318

Nearly 9% of the population of Quebec belongs to a visible minority group. Quebec_sentence_319

This is a lower percentage than that of British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta, and Manitoba but higher than that of the other five provinces. Quebec_sentence_320

Most visible minorities in Quebec live in or near Montreal. Quebec_sentence_321


Visible minorities (2006)Quebec_table_caption_3
Visible minorityQuebec_header_cell_3_0_0 PopulationQuebec_header_cell_3_0_1 PercentageQuebec_header_cell_3_0_2
Total visible minority populationQuebec_cell_3_1_0 654,355Quebec_cell_3_1_1 8.8%Quebec_cell_3_1_2
HaitianQuebec_cell_3_2_0 188,070Quebec_cell_3_2_1 2.5%Quebec_cell_3_2_2
ArabQuebec_cell_3_3_0 109,020Quebec_cell_3_3_1 1.5%Quebec_cell_3_3_2
Latin AmericanQuebec_cell_3_4_0 89,505Quebec_cell_3_4_1 1.2%Quebec_cell_3_4_2
ChineseQuebec_cell_3_5_0 79,830Quebec_cell_3_5_1 1.1%Quebec_cell_3_5_2
South AsianQuebec_cell_3_6_0 72,845Quebec_cell_3_6_1 1.0%Quebec_cell_3_6_2
Southeast AsianQuebec_cell_3_7_0 50,455Quebec_cell_3_7_1 0.7%Quebec_cell_3_7_2

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905). Quebec_sentence_322

Only groups with more than 0.5 percent of respondents are shown. Quebec_sentence_323

Religion Quebec_section_24

Quebec is unique among the provinces in its overwhelmingly Roman Catholic population, though recently with a low church attendance. Quebec_sentence_324

This is a legacy of colonial times when only Roman Catholics were permitted to settle in New France. Quebec_sentence_325

The 2001 census showed the population to be 90.3 percent Christian (in contrast to 77 percent for the whole country) with 83.4 percent Catholic (including 83.2 percent Roman Catholic); 4.7 percent Protestant Christian (including 1.2 percent Anglican, 0.7 percent United Church; and 0.5 percent Baptist); 1.4 percent Orthodox Christian (including 0.7 percent Greek Orthodox); and 0.8 percent other Christian; as well as 1.5 percent Muslim; 1.3 percent Jewish; 0.6 percent Buddhist; 0.3 percent Hindu; and 0.1 percent Sikh. Quebec_sentence_326

An additional 5.8 percent of the population said they had no religious affiliation (including 5.6 percent who stated that they had no religion at all). Quebec_sentence_327

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580) Quebec_sentence_328

Language Quebec_section_25

Main article: Language demographics of Quebec Quebec_sentence_329

The official language of Quebec is French. Quebec_sentence_330

Quebec is the only Canadian province whose population is mainly Francophone; 6,102,210 people (78.1 percent of the population) recorded it as their sole native language in the 2011 Census, and 6,249,085 (80.0%) recorded that they spoke it most often at home. Quebec_sentence_331

Knowledge of French is widespread even among those who do not speak it natively; in 2011, about 94.4 percent of the total population reported being able to speak French, alone or in combination with other languages, while 47.3% reported being able to speak English. Quebec_sentence_332

In 2011, 599,230 people (7.7 percent of the population) people in Quebec declared English to be their mother tongue, and 767,415 (9.8 percent) used it most often as their home language The English-speaking community or Anglophones are entitled to services in English in the areas of justice, health, and education; services in English are offered in municipalities in which more than half the residents have English as their mother tongue. Quebec_sentence_333

Allophones, people whose mother tongue is neither French nor English, made up 12.3 percent (961,700) of the population, according to the 2011 census, though a smaller figure – 554,400 (7.1 percent) – actually used these languages most often in the home. Quebec_sentence_334

A considerable number of Quebec residents consider themselves to be bilingual in French and English. Quebec_sentence_335

In Quebec, about 42.6 percent of the population (3,328,725 people) report knowing both languages; this is the highest proportion of bilinguals of any Canadian province. Quebec_sentence_336

One specific area in the Bilingual Belt called the West Island of Montreal, represented by the federal electoral district of Lac-Saint-Louis, is the most bilingual area in the province: 72.8% of its residents claim to know English and French according to the most recent census. Quebec_sentence_337

In contrast, in the rest of Canada, in 2006 only about 10.2 percent (2,430,990) of the population had a knowledge of both of the country's official languages. Quebec_sentence_338

Altogether, 17.5% of Canadians are bilingual in French and English. Quebec_sentence_339

In 2011, the most common mother tongue languages in the province were as follows: (Figures shown are for single-language responses only.) Quebec_sentence_340


Mother tongue language (2011)Quebec_table_caption_4
LanguageQuebec_header_cell_4_0_0 Number of

native speakersQuebec_header_cell_4_0_1

Percentage of

singular responsesQuebec_header_cell_4_0_2

FrenchQuebec_cell_4_1_0 6,102,210Quebec_cell_4_1_1 78%Quebec_cell_4_1_2
EnglishQuebec_cell_4_2_0 599,230Quebec_cell_4_2_1 7.7%Quebec_cell_4_2_2
ArabicQuebec_cell_4_3_0 164,390Quebec_cell_4_3_1 2%Quebec_cell_4_3_2
SpanishQuebec_cell_4_4_0 141,000Quebec_cell_4_4_1 1.8%Quebec_cell_4_4_2
ItalianQuebec_cell_4_5_0 121,720Quebec_cell_4_5_1 1.6%Quebec_cell_4_5_2

Following were Creoles (0.8%), Chinese (0.6%), Greek (0.5%), Portuguese (0.5%), Romanian (0.4%), Vietnamese (0.3%), and Russian (0.3%). Quebec_sentence_341

In addition, 152,820 (2.0%) reported having more than one native language. Quebec_sentence_342

English is not designated an official language by Quebec law. Quebec_sentence_343

However, both English and French are required by the Constitution Act, 1867, for the enactment of laws and regulations, and any person may use English or French in the National Assembly and the courts. Quebec_sentence_344

The books and records of the National Assembly must also be kept in both languages. Quebec_sentence_345

Until 1969, Quebec was the only officially bilingual province in Canada and most public institutions functioned in both languages. Quebec_sentence_346

English was also used in the legislature, government commissions and courts. Quebec_sentence_347

Since the 1970s, languages other than French on commercial signs have been permitted only if French is given marked prominence. Quebec_sentence_348

This law has been the subject of periodic controversy since its inception. Quebec_sentence_349

The written forms of French place-names in Canada retain their diacritics such as accent marks over vowels in English text. Quebec_sentence_350

Legitimate exceptions are Montreal and Quebec. Quebec_sentence_351

However, the accented forms are increasingly evident in some publications. Quebec_sentence_352

The Canadian Style states that Montréal and Québec (the city) must retain their accents in English federal documents. Quebec_sentence_353

Population centres Quebec_section_26

Main article: List of population centres in Quebec Quebec_sentence_354

Economy Quebec_section_27

Main article: Economy of Quebec Quebec_sentence_355

Quebec has an advanced, market-based, and open economy. Quebec_sentence_356

In 2009, its gross domestic product (GDP) of US$32,408 per capita at purchasing power parity puts the province at par with Japan, Italy and Spain, but remains lower than the Canadian average of US$37,830 per capita. Quebec_sentence_357

The economy of Quebec is ranked the 37th largest economy in the world just behind Greece and 28th for the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Quebec_sentence_358

The economy of Quebec represents 20.36% of the total GDP of Canada. Quebec_sentence_359

Like most industrialized countries, the economy of Quebec is based mainly on the services sector. Quebec_sentence_360

Quebec's economy has traditionally been fuelled by abundant natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure, and average productivity. Quebec_sentence_361

The provincial GDP in 2010 was C$319,348 billion, which makes Quebec the second largest economy in Canada. Quebec_sentence_362

The provincial debt-to-GDP ratio peaked at 50.7% in fiscal year 2012–2013, and is projected to decline to 33.8% in 2023–2024. Quebec_sentence_363

The credit rating of Quebec is currently Aa2 according to the Moody's agency. Quebec_sentence_364

In June 2017 S&P rated Quebec as an AA- credit risk, surpassing Ontario for the first time. Quebec_sentence_365

Quebec's economy has undergone tremendous changes over the last decade. Quebec_sentence_366

Firmly grounded in the knowledge economy, Quebec has one of the highest growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) in Canada. Quebec_sentence_367

The knowledge sector represents about 30.9% of Quebec's GDP. Quebec_sentence_368

Quebec is experiencing faster growth of its R&D spending than other Canadian provinces. Quebec_sentence_369

Quebec's spending in R&D in 2011 was equal to 2.63% of GDP, above the European Union average of 1.84% and will have to reaches the target of devoting 3% of GDP to research and development activities in 2013 according to the Lisbon Strategy. Quebec_sentence_370

The percentage spent on research and technology (R&D) is the highest in Canada and higher than the averages for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the G7 countries. Quebec_sentence_371

Approximately 1.1 million Quebecers work in the field of science and technology. Quebec_sentence_372

Quebec is also a major player in several leading-edge industries including aerospace, information technologies and software and multimedia. Quebec_sentence_373

Approximately 60% of the production of the Canadian aerospace industry are from Quebec, where sales totalled C$12.4 billion in 2009. Quebec_sentence_374

Quebec is one of North America's leading high-tech player. Quebec_sentence_375

This vast sector encompassing approximately 7,300 businesses and employ more than 145,000 people. Quebec_sentence_376

Pauline Marois has recently unveiled a two billion dollar budget for the period between 2013 to 2017 to create about 115,000 new jobs in knowledge and innovation sectors. Quebec_sentence_377

The government promises to provide about 3% of Quebec's GDP in research and development (R&D). Quebec_sentence_378

About 180 000 Quebeckers work in different field of information technology. Quebec_sentence_379

Approximately 52% of Canadian companies in these sectors are based in Quebec, mainly in Montreal and Quebec City. Quebec_sentence_380

There are currently approximately 115 telecommunications companies established in the province, such as Motorola and Ericsson. Quebec_sentence_381

About 60 000 people currently working in computer software development. Quebec_sentence_382

Approximately 12 900 people working in over 110 companies such as IBM, CMC, and Matrox. Quebec_sentence_383

The multimedia sector is also dominated by the province of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_384

Several companies, such as Ubisoft settled in Quebec since the late 1990s. Quebec_sentence_385

The mining industry accounted for 6.3% of Quebec's GDP. Quebec_sentence_386

It employs about 50,000 people in 158 companies. Quebec_sentence_387

The pulp and paper industries generate annual shipments valued at more than $14 billion. Quebec_sentence_388

The forest products industry ranks second in exports, with shipments valued at almost $11 billion. Quebec_sentence_389

It is also the main, and in some circumstances only, source of manufacturing activity in more than 250 municipalities in the province. Quebec_sentence_390

The forest industry has slowed in recent years because of the softwood lumber dispute. Quebec_sentence_391

This industry employs 68,000 people in several regions of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_392

This industry accounted for 3.1% of Quebec's GDP. Quebec_sentence_393

Agri-food industry plays an important role in the economy of Quebec, with meat and Dairy products being the two main sectors. Quebec_sentence_394

It accounts for 8% of the Quebec's GDP and generate $19.2 billion. Quebec_sentence_395

This industry generated 487,000 jobs in agriculture, fisheries, manufacturing of food, beverages and tobacco and food distribution. Quebec_sentence_396

Natural resources Quebec_section_28

The abundance of natural resources gives Quebec an advantageous position on the world market. Quebec_sentence_397

Quebec stands out particularly in the mining sector, ranking among the top ten areas to do business in mining. Quebec_sentence_398

It also stands for the exploitation of its forest resources. Quebec_sentence_399

Quebec is remarkable for the natural resources of its vast territory. Quebec_sentence_400

It has about 30 mines, 158 exploration companies and fifteen primary processing industries. Quebec_sentence_401

Many metallic minerals are exploited, the principals are gold, iron, copper and zinc. Quebec_sentence_402

Many other substances are extracted including titanium, asbestos, silver, magnesium, nickel and many other metals and industrial minerals. Quebec_sentence_403

However, only 40% of the mineral potential of Quebec is currently known. Quebec_sentence_404

In 2003, the value of mineral exploitation reached Quebec 3.7 billion Canadian dollars. Quebec_sentence_405

Moreover, as a major centre of exploration for diamonds, Quebec has seen, since 2002, an increase in its mineral explorations, particularly in the Northwest as well as in the Otish Mountains and the Torngat Mountains. Quebec_sentence_406

The vast majority (90.5%) of Quebec's forests are publicly owned. Quebec_sentence_407

Forests cover more than half of Quebec's territory, for a total area of nearly 761,100 square kilometres (293,900 sq mi). Quebec_sentence_408

The Quebec forest area covers seven degrees of latitude. Quebec_sentence_409

More than a million lakes and rivers cover Quebec, occupying 21% of the total area of its territory. Quebec_sentence_410

The aquatic environment is composed of 12.1% of fresh water and 9.2% of saltwater (percentage of total QC area). Quebec_sentence_411

Science and technology Quebec_section_29

The government of Quebec has launched the Stratégie québécoise de la recherche et de l'innovation (SQRI) in 2007 which aims to promote development through research, science and technology. Quebec_sentence_412

The government hopes to create a strong culture of innovation in Quebec for the next decades and to create a sustainable economy. Quebec_sentence_413

The spending on research and development reached some 7.824 billion dollars in 2007, roughly the equivalent of 2.63% of Quebec's GDP. Quebec_sentence_414

Quebec is ranked, as of March 2011, 13th in the world in terms of investment in research and development. Quebec_sentence_415

The research and development expenditures will be more than 3% of the province's GDP in 2013. Quebec_sentence_416

The R&D expenditure in Quebec is higher than the average G7 and OECD countries. Quebec_sentence_417

Science and technology are key factors in the economic position of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_418

More than one million people in Quebec are employed in the science and technology sector. Quebec_sentence_419

Quebec is considered as one of world leaders in fundamental scientific research, having produced ten Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry, or medicine. Quebec_sentence_420

It is also considered as one of the world leaders in sectors such as aerospace, information technology, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals, and therefore plays a significant role in the world's scientific and technological communities. Quebec_sentence_421

Quebec is also active in the development of its energy industries, including renewable energy such as hydropower and wind power. Quebec_sentence_422

Quebec has had over 9,469 scientific publications in the sector of medicine, biomedical research and engineering since the year 2000. Quebec_sentence_423

Overall, the province of Quebec count about 125 scientific publications per 100,000 inhabitants in 2009. Quebec_sentence_424

The contribution of Quebec in science and technology represent approximately 1% of the researches worldwide since the 1980s to 2009. Quebec_sentence_425

Between 1991 to 2000, Quebec produced more scientific papers per 100,000 inhabitants than the United States and Germany. Quebec_sentence_426

The Canadian Space Agency was established in Quebec due to its major role in this research field. Quebec_sentence_427

A total of three Quebecers have been in space since the creation of the CSA: Marc Garneau, Julie Payette and Guy Laliberté. Quebec_sentence_428

Quebec has also contributed to the creation of some Canadian artificial satellites including SCISAT-1, ISIS, Radarsat-1 and Radarsat-2. Quebec_sentence_429

The province is one of the world leaders in the field of space science and contributed to important discoveries in this field. Quebec_sentence_430

One of the most recent is the discovery of the complex extrasolar planets system HR 8799. Quebec_sentence_431

HR 8799 is the first direct observation of an exoplanet in history. Quebec_sentence_432

Olivier Daigle and Claude Carignan, astrophysicists from Université de Montréal have invented an astronomical camera approximately 500 times more powerful than those currently on the market. Quebec_sentence_433

It is therefore considered as the most sensitive camera in the world. Quebec_sentence_434

The Mont Mégantic Observatory was recently equipped with this camera. Quebec_sentence_435

Quebec ranks among the world leaders in the field of life science. Quebec_sentence_436

William Osler, Wilder Penfield, Donald Hebb, Brenda Milner, and others made significant discoveries in medicine, neuroscience and psychology while working at McGill University in Montreal. Quebec_sentence_437

Quebec has more than 450 biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies which together employ more than 25,000 people and 10,000 highly qualified researchers. Quebec_sentence_438

Montreal is ranked 4th in North America for the number of jobs in the pharmaceutical sector. Quebec_sentence_439

Infrastructure Quebec_section_30

Transportation Quebec_section_31

Development and security of land transportation in Canada are provided by the ministère des Transports du Québec. Quebec_sentence_440

Other organizations, such as the Canadian Coast Guard and Nav Canada, provide the same service for the sea and air transportation. Quebec_sentence_441

The Commission des transports du Québec works with the freight carriers and the public transport. Quebec_sentence_442

The réseau routier québécois (Quebec road network) is managed by the Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec (SAAQ) (Quebec Automobile Insurance Corporation) and consists of about 185,000 kilometres (115,000 mi) of highways and national, regional, local, collector and forest roads. Quebec_sentence_443

In addition, Quebec has almost 12,000 bridges, tunnels, retaining walls, culverts and other structures such as the Quebec Bridge, the Laviolette Bridge and the Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine Bridge–Tunnel. Quebec_sentence_444

In the waters of the St. Lawrence there are eight deep-water ports for the transhipment of goods. Quebec_sentence_445

In 2003, 3886 cargo and 9.7 million tonnes of goods transited the Quebec portion of the St. Quebec_sentence_446

Lawrence Seaway. Quebec_sentence_447

Concerning rail transport, Quebec has 6,678 kilometres (4,150 mi) of railways integrated in the large North American network. Quebec_sentence_448

Although primarily intended for the transport of goods through companies such as the Canadian National (CN) and the Canadian Pacific (CP), the Quebec railway network is also used by inter-city passengers via Via Rail Canada and Amtrak. Quebec_sentence_449

In April 2012, plans were unveiled for the construction of an 800 km (497 mi) railway running north from Sept-Îles, to support mining and other resource extraction in the Labrador Trough. Quebec_sentence_450

The upper air network includes 43 airports that offer scheduled services on a daily basis. Quebec_sentence_451

In addition, the Government of Quebec owns airports and heliports to increase the accessibility of local services to communities in the Basse-Côte-Nord and northern regions. Quebec_sentence_452

Various other transport networks crisscross the province of Quebec, including hiking trails, snowmobile trails and bike paths; the Green Road being the largest with nearly 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) in length. Quebec_sentence_453

Energy Quebec_section_32

See also: List of generating stations in Quebec and Hydro-Québec Quebec_sentence_454

Quebec has been described as a potential clean energy superpower. Quebec_sentence_455

The energy balance of Quebec has undergone a large shift over the past 30 years. Quebec_sentence_456

In 2008, electricity ranked as the main form of energy used in Quebec (41.6%), followed by oil (38.2%) and natural gas (10.7%). Quebec_sentence_457

Quebec is the fourth largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world after China, Brazil and the United States and relies almost exclusively (96% in 2008) on this source of renewable energy for its electricity needs. Quebec_sentence_458

Culture Quebec_section_33

Main article: Culture of Quebec Quebec_sentence_459

Quebec is at the centre of French-speaking culture in North America. Quebec_sentence_460

Its culture is a symbol of a distinct perspective. Quebec_sentence_461

Quebec nationalism has been one expression of this perspective. Quebec_sentence_462

Quebec's culture blends its historic roots with its aboriginal heritage and the contributions of recent immigrants, as well as receiving a strong influence from English-speaking North America. Quebec_sentence_463

Montreal's cabarets rose to the forefront of the city's cultural life during the Prohibition era of Canada and the United States in the 1920s. Quebec_sentence_464

The cabarets radically transformed the artistic scene, greatly influencing the live entertainment industry of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_465

The Quartier Latin (English: Latin Quarter) of Montreal, and Vieux-Québec (English: Old Quebec) in Quebec City, are two hubs of activity for today's artists. Quebec_sentence_466

Life in the cafés and "terrasses" (outdoor restaurant terraces) reveals a Latin influence in Quebec's culture, with the théâtre Saint-Denis in Montréal and the Capitole de Québec theatre in Quebec City being among the principal attractions. Quebec_sentence_467

A number of governmental and non-government organizations support cultural activity in Quebec. Quebec_sentence_468

The Conseil des arts et des lettres du Québec (CALQ) is an initiative of the Ministry of Culture and Communications (Quebec). Quebec_sentence_469

It supports creation, innovation, production, and international exhibits for all cultural fields of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_470

The Société de développement des entreprises culturelles (SODEC) works to promote and fund individuals working in the cultural industry. Quebec_sentence_471

The Prix du Québec is an award given by the government to confer the highest distinction and honour to individuals demonstrating exceptional achievement in their respective cultural field. Quebec_sentence_472

Society Quebec_section_34

On February 8, 2007, Quebec Premier Jean Charest announced the setting up of a Commission tasked with consulting Quebec Society on the matter of arrangements regarding cultural diversity. Quebec_sentence_473

The Premier's press release reasserted the three fundamental values of Quebec society: Quebec_sentence_474

Furthermore, Quebec is a free and democratic society that abides by the rule of law. Quebec_sentence_475

Quebec society bases its cohesion and specificity on a set of statements, a few notable examples of which include: Quebec_sentence_476


Music and dance Quebec_section_35

Main articles: Music of Quebec and Dance of Quebec Quebec_sentence_477

Traditional music is imbued with many dances, such as the jig, the quadrille, the reel and line dancing, which developed in the festivities since the early days of colonization. Quebec_sentence_478

Various instruments are more popular in Quebec's culture: harmonica (music-of-mouth or lip-destruction), fiddle, spoons, jaw harp and accordion. Quebec_sentence_479

The podorythmie is a characteristic of traditional Quebec music and means giving the rhythm with the feet. Quebec_sentence_480

Quebec traditional music is currently provided by various contemporary groups seen mostly during Christmas and New Year's Eve celebrations, Quebec National Holiday and many local festivals. Quebec_sentence_481

Being a modern cosmopolitan society, today, all types of music can be found in Quebec. Quebec_sentence_482

From folk music to hip-hop, music has always played an important role in Quebercers culture. Quebec_sentence_483

From La Bolduc in the 1920s–1930s to the contemporary artists, the music in Quebec has announced multiple songwriters and performers, pop singers and crooners, music groups and many more. Quebec_sentence_484

Quebec's most popular artists of the last century include the singers Félix Leclerc (1950s), Gilles Vigneault (1960s–present), Kate and Anna McGarrigle (1970s–present) and Céline Dion (1980s–present). Quebec_sentence_485

The First Nations and the Inuit of Quebec also have their own traditional music. Quebec_sentence_486

From Quebec's musical repertoire, the song A La Claire Fontaine was the anthem of the New France, Patriots and French Canadian, then replaced by O Canada. Quebec_sentence_487

Currently, the song Gens du pays is by far preferred by many Quebecers to be the national anthem of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_488

The Association québécoise de l'industrie du disque, du spectacle et de la vidéo (ADISQ) was created in 1978 to promote the music industry in Quebec. Quebec_sentence_489

The Orchestre symphonique de Québec and the Orchestre symphonique de Montréal are respectively associated with the Opéra de Québec and the Opéra de Montreal whose performances are presented at the Grand Théâtre de Québec and at Place des Arts. Quebec_sentence_490

The Ballets Jazz de Montreal, the Grands Ballets and La La La Human Steps are three important professional troupes of contemporary dance. Quebec_sentence_491

Film, television, and radio Quebec_section_36

Main articles: Cinema of Quebec and Television in Quebec Quebec_sentence_492

The Cinémathèque québécoise has a mandate to promote the film and television heritage of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_493

Similarly, the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), a federal Crown corporation, provides for the same mission in Canada. Quebec_sentence_494

In a similar way, the Association of Film and Television in Quebec (APFTQ) promotes independent production in film and television. Quebec_sentence_495

While the Association of Producers and Directors of Quebec (APDQ) represents the business of filmmaking and television, the Association of Community Radio Broadcasters of Quebec (ARCQ) (French acronym) represents the independent radio stations. Quebec_sentence_496

Several movie theatres across Quebec ensure the dissemination of Quebec cinema. Quebec_sentence_497

With its cinematic installations, such as the Cité du cinéma and Mel's studios, the city of Montreal is home to the filming of various productions. Quebec_sentence_498

The State corporation Télé-Québec, the federal Crown corporation CBC, general and specialized private channels, networks, independent and community radio stations broadcast the various Quebec téléromans, the national and regional news, interactive and spoken programmations, etc. Les Rendez-vous du cinéma québécois is a festival surrounding the ceremony of the Jutra Awards Night that rewards work and personalities of Quebec cinema. Quebec_sentence_499

The Artis and the Gemini Awards gala recognize the personalities of television and radio industry in Quebec and French Canada. Quebec_sentence_500

The Film Festival of the 3 Americas, Quebec City, the Festival of International Short Film, Saguenay, the World Film Festival and the Festival of New Cinema, Montreal, are other annual events surrounding the film industry in Quebec. Quebec_sentence_501

Literature and theatre Quebec_section_37

Main article: Literature of Quebec Quebec_sentence_502

From New France, Quebec literature was first developed in the travel accounts of explorers such as Jacques Cartier, Jean de Brébeuf, the Baron de La Hontan and Nicolas Perrot, describing their relations with indigenous peoples. Quebec_sentence_503

The Moulin à paroles traces the great texts that have shaped the history of Quebec since its foundation in 1534 until the era of modernity. Quebec_sentence_504

The first to write the history of Quebec, since its discovery, was the historian François-Xavier Garneau. Quebec_sentence_505

This author will be part of the current of patriotic literature (also known as the "poets of the country" and literary identity) that will arise after the Patriots Rebellion of 1837–1838. Quebec_sentence_506

Various tales and stories are told through oral tradition, such as, among many more, the legends of the Bogeyman, the Chasse-galerie, the Black Horse of Trois-Pistoles, the Complainte de Cadieux, the Corriveau, the dancing devil of Saint-Ambroise, the Giant Beaupré, the monsters of the lakes Pohénégamook and Memphremagog, of Quebec Bridge (called the Devil's Bridge), the Rocher Percé and of Rose Latulipe, for example. Quebec_sentence_507

Many Quebec poets and prominent authors marked their era and today remain anchored in the collective imagination, like, among others, Philippe Aubert de Gaspé, Octave Crémazie, Honoré Beaugrand, Émile Nelligan, Lionel Groulx, Gabrielle Roy, Hubert Aquin, Michel Tremblay, Marie Laberge, Fred Pellerin and Gaston Miron. Quebec_sentence_508

The regional novel from Quebec is called Terroir novel and is a literary tradition specific to the province. Quebec_sentence_509

It includes such works as The Old Canadians, Maria Chapdelaine, Un homme et son péché, Le Survenant, etc. Quebec_sentence_510

There are also many successful plays from this literary category, such as Les Belles-sœurs and Broue (Brew). Quebec_sentence_511

Among the theatre troupes are the Compagnie Jean-Duceppe, the Théâtre La Rubrique at the Pierrette-Gaudreault venue of the Institut of arts in Saguenay, the Théâtre Le Grenier, etc. Quebec_sentence_512

In addition to the network of cultural centres in Quebec, the venues include the Monument-National and the Rideau Vert (green curtain) Theatre in Montreal, the Trident Theatre in Quebec City, etc. Quebec_sentence_513

The National Theatre School of Canada and the Conservatoire de musique et d'art dramatique du Québec form the future players. Quebec_sentence_514

Popular French-language contemporary writers include Louis Caron, Suzanne Jacob, Yves Beauchemin, and Gilles Archambault. Quebec_sentence_515

Mavis Gallant, born in Quebec, lived in Paris from the 1950s onward. Quebec_sentence_516

Well-known English-language writers from Quebec include Leonard Cohen, Mordecai Richler, and Neil Bissoondath. Quebec_sentence_517


  • Quebec_item_4_9
  • Quebec_item_4_10

Fine arts Quebec_section_38

First influenced since the days of New France by Catholicism, with works from Frère Luc (Brother Luke) and more recently from Ozias Leduc and Guido Nincheri, art of Quebec has developed around the specific characteristics of its landscapes and cultural, historical, social and political representations. Quebec_sentence_518

Thus, the development of Quebec masterpieces in painting, printmaking and sculpture is marked by the contribution of artists such as Louis-Philippe Hébert, Cornelius Krieghoff, Alfred Laliberté, Marc-Aurèle Fortin, Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté, Jean Paul Lemieux, Clarence Gagnon, Adrien Dufresne, Alfred Pellan, Jean-Philippe Dallaire, Charles Daudelin, Arthur Villeneuve, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Paul-Émile Borduas and Marcelle Ferron. Quebec_sentence_519

The Fine arts of Quebec are displayed at the Quebec National Museum of Fine Arts, the Montreal Museum of Contemporary Art, the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, the Quebec Salon des métiers d'art and in many art galleries. Quebec_sentence_520

While many works decorate the public areas of Quebec, others are displayed in foreign countries such as the sculpture Embâcle (Jam) by Charles Daudelin on Québec Place in Paris and the statue Québec Libre! Quebec_sentence_521

(free Quebec!) Quebec_sentence_522

by Armand Vaillancourt in San Francisco. Quebec_sentence_523

The Montreal School of Fine Arts forms the painters, printmakers and sculptors of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_524

Various buildings reflect the architectural heritage that characterizes Quebec, such as religious buildings, city halls, houses of large estates, and other locations throughout the province. Quebec_sentence_525

Circus and street art Quebec_section_39

Several circus troupes were created in recent decades, the most important being without any doubt the Cirque du Soleil. Quebec_sentence_526

Among these troops are contemporary, travelling and on-horseback circuses, such as Les 7 Doigts de la Main, Cirque Éloize, Cavalia, Kosmogonia, Saka and Cirque Akya. Quebec_sentence_527

Presented outdoors under a tent or in venues similar to the Montreal Casino, the circuses attract large crowds both in Quebec and abroad. Quebec_sentence_528

In the manner of touring companies of the Renaissance, the clowns, street performers, minstrels, or troubadours travel from city to city to play their comedies. Quebec_sentence_529

Although they may appear randomly from time to time during the year, they are always visible in the cultural events such as the Winterlude in Gatineau, the Quebec Winter Carnival, the Gatineau Hot Air Balloon Festival, the Quebec City Summer Festival, the Just for Laughs Festival in Montreal and the Festival of New France in Quebec. Quebec_sentence_530

The National Circus School and the École de cirque de Québec were created to train future Contemporary circus artists. Quebec_sentence_531

For its part, Tohu, la Cité des Arts du Cirque was founded in 2004 to disseminate the circus arts. Quebec_sentence_532

Heritage Quebec_section_40

Main articles: Répertoire du patrimoine culturel du Québec and Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec Quebec_sentence_533

The Cultural Heritage Fund is a program of the Quebec government for the conservation and development of Quebec's heritage, together with various laws. Quebec_sentence_534

Several organizations ensure that same mission, both in the social and cultural traditions in the countryside and heritage buildings, including the Commission des biens culturels du Québec, the Quebec Heritage Fondation, the Conservation Centre of Quebec, the Centre for development of living heritage, the Quebec Council of living heri tage, the Quebec Association of heritage interpretation, etc. Quebec_sentence_535

Several sites, houses and historical works reflect the cultural heritage of Quebec, such as the Village Québécois d'Antan, the historical village of Val-Jalbert, the Fort Chambly, the national home of the Patriots, the Chicoutimi pulp mill (Pulperie de Chicoutimi), the Lachine Canal and the Victoria Bridge. Quebec_sentence_536

Strongly influenced by the presence of the Catholic Church, the development of the religious history of Quebec is provided by organizations like the Council of the religious heritage of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_537

Since 2007, the government promotes, with the various players in the field, the conclusion of agreements on the use of property belonging to episcopal factories and corporations to establish "partnerships in financing the restoration and renovation of religious buildings". Quebec_sentence_538

As of December 2011, there are 190 National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec. Quebec_sentence_539

These sites were designated as being of national historic significance. Quebec_sentence_540

Various museums tell the cultural history of Quebec, like the Museum of Civilization, the Museum of French America, the McCord Museum or the Montreal Museum of Archaeology and History in Pointe-à-Callière, displaying artifacts, paintings and other remains from the past of Quebec. Quebec_sentence_541

Many literary works reproduce the daily lives of the past, following the social and cultural traditions of Quebec television series reproducing the old days such as the trilogy of Pierre Gauvreau (Le Temps d'une paix, Cormoran and Le Volcan tranquille), La Famille Plouffe, Les Belles Histoires des Pays-d'en-Haut, La Petite Patrie, Entre chien et loup, Les Filles de Caleb, Blanche, Au nom du père et du fils, Marguerite Volant, Nos Étés or Musée Éden, among others. Quebec_sentence_542

Cuisine Quebec_section_41

Main article: Cuisine of Quebec Quebec_sentence_543

The traditional Quebecois cuisine descends from 16th century French cuisine, the fur trade and a history of hunting. Quebec_sentence_544

French settlers populating North America were interested in a new cuisine to confront the climate and the needs arising from the work of colonization. Quebec_sentence_545

It has many similarities with Acadian cuisine. Quebec_sentence_546

Quebec's cuisine has also been influenced by learning from First Nation, by English cuisine and by American cuisine. Quebec_sentence_547

Quebec is most famous for its Tourtière, Pâté Chinois, Poutine, St. Quebec_sentence_548

Catherine's taffy among others. Quebec_sentence_549

"Le temps des sucres" is a period during springtime when many Quebecers go to the cabane à sucre for a traditional meal. Quebec_sentence_550

Traditional dishes are also the star of "Le temps des fêtes", a period which covers the winter holidays. Quebec_sentence_551

Quebec has produced beer since the beginning of colonization especially with the emergence of spruce beer. Quebec_sentence_552

Quebec also produces a great number of high-quality wines including ice wine and ice cider. Quebec_sentence_553

Because of the climate and available resources, it is only since the 1980s that these drinks can be produced in industrial quantities. Quebec_sentence_554

Today there are nearly a hundred breweries and companies, including Unibroue, Molson Coors, Labatt and many others. Quebec_sentence_555

Quebec has produced cheese for centuries. Quebec_sentence_556

Most of the first cheeses were soft cheeses, but after the Conquest of New France, hard cheese began to be created as well. Quebec_sentence_557

The first cheese-making school in North America was established in Saint-Denis-de-Kamouraska in 1893. Quebec_sentence_558

It was at this moment that the monks of La Trappe of Oka began to produce the famous Oka cheese. Quebec_sentence_559

Today there are over 700 different cheeses in Quebec. Quebec_sentence_560

Sports Quebec_section_42

Sports in Quebec constitutes an essential dimension of Quebec culture. Quebec_sentence_561

The practice of sports and outdoor activities in Quebec was influenced largely by its geography and climate. Quebec_sentence_562

Ice hockey remains the national sport. Quebec_sentence_563

This sport, which was played for the first time on March 3, 1875, at the Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal and promoted over the years by numerous achievements, including the centenary of the Montreal Canadiens, still raises passions. Quebec_sentence_564

Other major sports include Canadian football with the Montreal Alouettes, soccer with the Montreal Impact, the Grand Prix du Canada Formula 1 racing with drivers such as Gilles Villeneuve and Jacques Villeneuve, and professional baseball with the former Montreal Expos. Quebec_sentence_565

During its history, Quebec has hosted several major sporting events; including the 1976 Summer Olympics, the Fencing World Championships in 1967, track cycling in 1974, and the Transat Québec-Saint-Malo race created for the first time in 1984. Quebec_sentence_566

Québec athletes have performed well at the Winter Olympics over recent years. Quebec_sentence_567

They won 12 of Canada's 29 medals at the most recent Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang (2018); they won 12 of the 27 Canadian medals in Sochi (2014); and 9 of the 26 Canadian medals in Vancouver (2010). Quebec_sentence_568

National symbols Quebec_section_43

Main article: Symbols of Quebec Quebec_sentence_569

In 1939, the government of Quebec unilaterally ratified its coat of arms to reflect Quebec's political history: French rule (gold lily on blue background), British rule (lion on red background) and Canadian rule (maple leaves) and with Quebec's motto below "Je me souviens". Quebec_sentence_570

Je me souviens ("I remember") was first carved under the coat of arms of Quebec's Parliament Building façade in 1883. Quebec_sentence_571

It is an official part of the coat of arms and has been the official licence plate motto since 1978, replacing "La belle province" (the beautiful province). Quebec_sentence_572

The expression La belle province is still used mostly in tourism as a nickname for the province. Quebec_sentence_573

The fleur-de-lis, the ancient symbol of the French monarchy, first arrived on the shores of the Gaspésie in 1534 with Jacques Cartier on his first voyage. Quebec_sentence_574

When Samuel de Champlain founded Québec City in 1608, his ship hoisted the merchant flag of a white cross on a blue background. Quebec_sentence_575

By 1758 at the Battle of Carillon, the Flag of Carillon would become the basis of Quebec's desire to have its own flag. Quebec_sentence_576

By 1903, the parent of today's flag had taken shape, known as the "Fleurdelisé". Quebec_sentence_577

The flag in its present form with its 4 white "fleur-de-lis" lilies on a blue background with a white cross replaced the Union Jack on Quebec's Parliament Building on January 21, 1948. Quebec_sentence_578

Other official symbols Quebec_section_44


  • The floral emblem of Quebec is the Iris versicolor.Quebec_item_5_11
  • Since 1987 the avian emblem of Quebec has been the snowy owl.Quebec_item_5_12
  • An official tree, the yellow birch (bouleau jaune, merisier), symbolizes the importance Quebecers give to the forests. The tree is known for the variety of its uses and commercial value, as well as its autumn colours.Quebec_item_5_13

In 1998 the Montreal Insectarium sponsored a poll to choose an official insect. Quebec_sentence_579

The white admiral butterfly (Limenitis arthemis) won with 32% of the 230 660 votes against the spotted lady beetle (Coleomegilla maculata lengi), the ebony jewelwing damselfly (Calopteryx maculata), a species of bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) and the six-spotted tiger beetle (Cicindela sexguttata sexguttata). Quebec_sentence_580

Fête nationale (National Holiday) Quebec_section_45

Main article: National Holiday (Quebec) Quebec_sentence_581

In 1977, the Quebec Parliament declared June 24 to be Quebec's National Holiday. Quebec_sentence_582

Historically June 24 was a holiday honouring French Canada's patron saint, St. Quebec_sentence_583

John the Baptist, which is why it is commonly known as La Saint-Jean-Baptiste (often shortened to La St-Jean). Quebec_sentence_584

On this day, the song "Gens du pays" by Gilles Vigneault is often heard and commonly regarded as Quebec's unofficial anthem. Quebec_sentence_585

The festivities occur on June 23 and 24 and are celebrated all over Quebec. Quebec_sentence_586

In cities like Québec and Montréal, great shows are organized in the main public places (such as the Abraham plains, Québec, or Maisonneuve Park, Montréal) where several of the most popular Quebec artists relay each others until late at night. Quebec_sentence_587

See also Quebec_section_46


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