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For other uses, see Queer (disambiguation). Queer_sentence_0

Queer is an umbrella term for sexual and gender minorities who are not heterosexual or are not cisgender. Queer_sentence_1

Originally meaning "strange" or "peculiar", queer came to be used pejoratively against those with same-sex desires or relationships in the late 19th century. Queer_sentence_2

Beginning in the late 1980s, queer activists, such as the members of Queer Nation, began to reclaim the word as a deliberately provocative and politically radical alternative to the more assimilationist branches of the LGBT community. Queer_sentence_3

In the 2000s and on, queer became increasingly used to describe a broad spectrum of non-normative sexual and gender identities and politics. Queer_sentence_4

Academic disciplines such as queer theory and queer studies share a general opposition to binarism, normativity, and a perceived lack of intersectionality, some of them only tangentially connected to the LGBT movement. Queer_sentence_5

Queer arts, queer cultural groups, and queer political groups are examples of modern expressions of queer identities. Queer_sentence_6

Critics of the use of the term include members of the LGBT community who associate the term more with its colloquial, derogatory usage, those who wish to dissociate themselves from queer radicalism, and those who see it as amorphous and trendy. Queer_sentence_7

The expansion of queer to include queer heterosexuality has been criticized by those who argue that the term can only be reclaimed by those it has been used to oppress. Queer_sentence_8

Origins and early use Queer_section_0

Entering the English language in the 16th century, queer originally meant "strange", "odd", "peculiar", or "eccentric." Queer_sentence_9

It might refer to something suspicious or "not quite right", or to a person with mild derangement or who exhibits socially inappropriate behaviour. Queer_sentence_10

The Northern English expression "", meaning "there is nothing as strange as people", employs this meaning. Queer_sentence_11

Related meanings of queer include a feeling of unwellness or something that is questionable or suspicious. Queer_sentence_12

The expression "in Queer Street" is used in the United Kingdom for someone in financial trouble. Queer_sentence_13

Over time, queer acquired a number of meanings related to sexuality and gender, from narrowly meaning "gay or lesbian" to referring to those who are "not heterosexual" to referring to those who are either not heterosexual or not cisgender (those who are LGBT+). Queer_sentence_14

Early pejorative use Queer_section_1

By the late 19th century, queer was beginning to gain a connotation of sexual deviance, used to refer to feminine men or men who were thought to have engaged in same-sex relationships. Queer_sentence_15

An early recorded usage of the word in this sense was in an 1894 letter by John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry. Queer_sentence_16

Queer was used in mainstream society by the 20th century, along with fairy and faggot, as a pejorative term to refer to men who were perceived as flamboyant. Queer_sentence_17

This was, as historian George Chauncey notes, "the predominant image of all queers within the straight mind". Queer_sentence_18

Starting in the underground gay bar scene in the 1950s, then moving more into the open in the 1960s and 1970s, the homophile identity was gradually displaced by a more radicalized gay identity. Queer_sentence_19

At that time gay was generally an umbrella term including lesbians, as well as gay-identified bisexuals and transsexuals; gender-nonconformity, which had always been an indicator of gayness, also became more open during this time. Queer_sentence_20

During the endonymic shifts from invert to homophile to gay, queer was usually pejoratively applied to men who were believed to engage in receptive or passive anal or oral sex with other men as well as those who exhibited non-normative gender expressions. Queer_sentence_21

Early 20th century queer identity Queer_section_2

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, queer, fairy, trade, and gay signified distinct social categories within the gay male subculture. Queer_sentence_22

Queer was used among gay men in order to claim or self-identify with perceived normative masculine status. Queer_sentence_23

Many queer-identified men at the time were, according to Chauncey, "repelled by the style of the fairy and his loss of manly status, and almost all were careful to distinguish themselves from such men", especially because the dominant straight culture did not acknowledge such distinctions. Queer_sentence_24

Trade referred to straight men who would engage in same-sex activity; Chauncey describes trade as "the 'normal men' [queers] claimed to be." Queer_sentence_25

In contrast to the terms used within the subculture, medical practitioners and police officers tended to use pathological terms like "invert", "pervert", "degenerate", and "homosexual". Queer_sentence_26

None of the terms, whether inside or outside of the subculture, equated to the general concept of a homosexual identity, which only emerged with the ascension of a binary (heterosexual/homosexual) understanding of sexual orientation in the 1930s and 1940s. Queer_sentence_27

As this binary became embedded into the social fabric, queer began to decline as an acceptable identity in the subculture. Queer_sentence_28

Similar to the earlier use of queer, gay was adopted among assimilationist men in the mid-20th century as a means of asserting their normative status and rejecting any associations with effeminacy. Queer_sentence_29

The idea that queer was a pejorative term became more prevalent among younger gay men following World War II. Queer_sentence_30

As the gay identity became more widely adopted in the community, some men who preferred to identify as gay began chastising older men who still referred to themselves as queer by the late 1940s: Queer_sentence_31

Reclamation Queer_section_3

General Queer_section_4

Beginning in the late 1980s, the label queer began to be reclaimed from its pejorative use as a neutral or positive self-identifier by LGBT people. Queer_sentence_32

An early example of this usage by the LGBT community was by an organisation called Queer Nation, which was formed in March 1990 and circulated an anonymous flier at the New York Gay Pride Parade in June 1990 titled "Queers Read This". Queer_sentence_33

The flier included a passage explaining their adoption of the label queer: Queer_sentence_34

Queer people, particularly queer people of color, began to reclaim queer in response to a perceived shift in the gay community toward liberal conservatism, catalyzed by Andrew Sullivan's 1989 piece in The New Republic, titled Here Comes the Groom: The Conservative Case for Gay Marriage. Queer_sentence_35

The queer movement rejected causes viewed as assimilationist, such as marriage, military inclusion and adoption. Queer_sentence_36

This radical stance and rejection of U.S. Queer_sentence_37

Imperialism continued the tradition of earlier Lesbian and Gay anti-war activism, and solidarity with a variety of leftist movements, such as seen in the positions taken at the first two National Marches on Washington in 1979 and 1987, the radical direct action of groups like ACT UP, and the historical importance of events like the Stonewall riots. Queer_sentence_38

The radical Queer groups following in this tradition of LGBT activism contrasted firmly with, "the holy trinity of marriage, military service and adoption [which had] become the central preoccupation of a gay movement centered more on obtaining straight privilege than challenging power." Queer_sentence_39

Commentators noted that it was exactly these "revolting queers" (who were now being pushed aside) who had made it safe for the assimilationists to now have the option of assimilation. Queer_sentence_40

Other usage Queer_section_5

The term may be capitalized when referring to an identity or community, rather than as an objective fact describing a person's desires, in a construction similar to the capitalized use of Deaf. Queer_sentence_41

The abbreviation 'Q' has developed from common usage of queer, particularly in the United States. Queer_sentence_42

Criticism Queer_section_6

Reclamation and use of the term queer is not uncontroversial; several people and organizations, both LGBT and non-LGBT, object to some or all uses of the word for various reasons. Queer_sentence_43

Some LGBT people dislike the use of queer as an umbrella term because they associate it with this political radicalism; they say that deliberate use of the epithet queer by political radicals has, in their view, played a role in dividing the LGBT community by political opinion, class, gender, age, and other factors. Queer_sentence_44

The controversy about the word also marks a social and political divide in the LGBT community between those (including civil-rights activists) who perceive themselves as "normal" and who wish to be seen as ordinary members of society and those who see themselves as separate, confrontational and not part of the ordinary social order. Queer_sentence_45

Other LGBT people disapprove of reclaiming or using queer because they consider it offensive, derisive or self-deprecating because use by heterosexuals as a pejorative continues to this day, and some LGBT people avoid queer because they perceive it as faddish slang, or alternatively as academic jargon. Queer_sentence_46

Scope Queer_section_7

Intersex and queer identities Queer_section_8

Further information: Intersex and LGBT Queer_sentence_47

Scholars and activists have proposed different ways in which queer identities apply or do not apply to intersex people. Queer_sentence_48

Sociologist Morgan Holmes describes intersex bodies as queer bodies while documenting a heteronormativity in medical rationales for the surgical normalization of infants and children born with atypical sex development. Queer_sentence_49

Bioethicist Morgan Carpenter also describes intersex bodies as queer bodies. Queer_sentence_50

In "What Can Queer Theory Do for Intersex?" Queer_sentence_51

Iain Morland contrasts queer "hedonic activism" with an experience of insensate post-surgical intersex bodies to claim that "queerness is characterized by the sensory interrelation of pleasure and shame". Queer_sentence_52

Emi Koyama describes a move away from a queer identity model within the intersex movement: Queer_sentence_53

Queer heterosexuality Queer_section_9

Main article: Queer heterosexuality Queer_sentence_54

Queer is sometimes expanded to include any non-normative sexuality, including (cisgender) "queer heterosexuality". Queer_sentence_55

This has been criticized by some LGBT people, who argue that queer can only be reclaimed by those it has been used to oppress: "For someone who is homosexual and queer, a straight person identifying as queer can feel like choosing to appropriate the good bits, the cultural and political cachet, the clothes and the sound of gay culture, without the laugh riot of gay-bashing, teen shame, adult shame, shame-shame, and the internalized homophobia of lived gay experience." Queer_sentence_56

Academia Queer_section_10

Main articles: Queer studies and Queer theory Queer_sentence_57

In academia, the term queer and the related verb queering broadly indicate the study of literature, discourse, academic fields, and other social and cultural areas from a non-heteronormative perspective. Queer_sentence_58

It often means studying a subject against the grain from the perspective of gender studies. Queer_sentence_59

Queer studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity usually focusing on LGBT people and cultures. Queer_sentence_60

Originally centered on LGBT history and literary theory, the field has expanded to include the academic study of issues raised in biology, sociology, anthropology, history of science, philosophy, psychology, sexology, political science, ethics, and other fields by an examination of the identity, lives, history, and perception of queer people. Queer_sentence_61

Organizations such as the Irish Queer Archive attempt to collect and preserve history related to queer studies. Queer_sentence_62

Queer theory is a field of post-structuralist critical theory that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of queer studies and women's studies. Queer_sentence_63

Applications of queer theory include queer theology and queer pedagogy. Queer_sentence_64

Queer theorists, including Rod Ferguson, Jasbir Puar, Lisa Duggan, and Chong-suk Han, critique the mainstream gay political movement as allied with neoliberal and imperialistic agendas, including gay tourism, gay and trans military inclusion, and state- and church-sanctioned marriages for monogamous gay couples. Queer_sentence_65

Puar, a queer theorist of color, coined the term homonationalism, which refers to the rise of American exceptionalism, nationalism, white supremacy, and patriarchy within the gay community catalyzed in response to the September 11 attacks. Queer_sentence_66

Many studies have acknowledged the problems that lie within the traditional theory and process of social studies, and so choose to utilise a queer theoretical approach instead. Queer_sentence_67

One such study was conducted in Melbourne in 2016 by Roffee and Waling. Queer_sentence_68

By using queer and feminist theories and approaches the researchers were better equipped to cater for the needs, and be accommodating for the vulnerabilities, of the LGBTIQ participants of the study. Queer_sentence_69

In this case, it was a specifically post-modern queer theory that enabled the researchers to approach the study with a fair perspective, acknowledging all the varieties of narratives and experiences within the LGBTIQ community. Queer_sentence_70

Culture and politics Queer_section_11

Several LGBT social movements around the world use the identifier queer, such as the Queer Cyprus Association in Cyprus and the Queer Youth Network in the United Kingdom. Queer_sentence_71

In India, pride parades include Queer Azaadi Mumbai and the Delhi Queer Pride Parade. Queer_sentence_72

The use of queer and Q is also widespread in Australia, including national counselling and support service Qlife and Q News. Queer_sentence_73

Other social movements exist as offshoots of queer culture or combinations of queer identity with other views. Queer_sentence_74

Adherents of queer nationalism support the notion that the LGBT community forms a distinct people due to their unique culture and customs. Queer_sentence_75

Queercore (originally homocore) is a cultural and social movement that began in the mid-1980s as an offshoot of punk expressed in a do-it-yourself style through zines, music, writing, art and film. Queer_sentence_76

The term queer migration is used to describe the movement of LGBTQ people around the world often to escape discrimination or ill treatment due to their orientation or gender expression. Queer_sentence_77

Organizations such as the Iranian Railroad for Queer Refugees and Rainbow Railroad attempt to assist individuals in such relocations. Queer_sentence_78

Art Queer_section_12

The label queer is often applied to art movements, particularly cinema. Queer_sentence_79

New Queer Cinema was a movement in queer-themed independent filmmaking in the early 1990s. Queer_sentence_80

Modern queer film festivals include the Melbourne Queer Film Festival and Mardi Gras Film Festival (run by Queer Screen) in Australia, the Mumbai Queer Film Festival in India, the Asian Queer Film Festival in Japan, and Queersicht in Switzerland. Queer_sentence_81

Chinese film director Cui Zi'en titled his 2008 documentary about homosexuality in China Queer China, which premiered at the 2009 Beijing Queer Film Festival after previous attempts to hold a queer film festival were shut down by the government. Queer_sentence_82

Multidisciplinary queer arts festivals include the Outburst Queer Arts Festival Belfast in Northern Ireland, the Queer Arts Festival in Canada, and the National Queer Arts Festival in the United States. Queer_sentence_83

Television shows that use queer in their titles include the UK series Queer as Folk and its American-Canadian remake of the same name, Queer Eye, and the cartoon Queer Duck. Queer_sentence_84

See also Queer_section_13


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queer.