Quran

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Quran_table_infobox_0

QuranQuran_header_cell_0_0_0
InformationQuran_header_cell_0_1_0
ReligionQuran_header_cell_0_2_0 IslamQuran_cell_0_2_1
LanguageQuran_header_cell_0_3_0 Classical ArabicQuran_cell_0_3_1
PeriodQuran_header_cell_0_4_0 609–632Quran_cell_0_4_1
ChaptersQuran_header_cell_0_5_0 114 (list)Quran_cell_0_5_1

The Quran (/kʊˈrɑːn/, kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآن‎, romanized: al-Qurʼān, lit. Quran_sentence_0

'the recitation', Arabic pronunciation: [alqurˈʔaːn), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation from God (Allah). Quran_sentence_1

It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature. Quran_sentence_2

It is organized in 114 chapters (surah (سور‎; singular: سورة‎, sūrah), which consist of verses (āyāt (آيات‎; singular: آية‎, āyah)). Quran_sentence_3

Muslims believe that the Quran was orally revealed by God to the final prophet, Muhammad, through the archangel Gabriel (Jibril), incrementally over a period of some 23 years, beginning in the month of Ramadan, when Muhammad was 40; and concluding in 632, the year of his death. Quran_sentence_4

Muslims regard the Quran as Muhammad's most important miracle; a proof of his prophethood; and the culmination of a series of divine messages starting with those revealed to Adam, including the Tawrah (Torah), the Zabur ("Psalms") and the Injil ("Gospel"). Quran_sentence_5

The word Quran occurs some 70 times in the text itself, and other names and words are also said to refer to the Quran. Quran_sentence_6

The Quran is thought by Muslims to be not simply divinely inspired, but the literal word of God. Quran_sentence_7

Muhammad did not write it as he did not know how to write. Quran_sentence_8

According to tradition, several of Muhammad's companions served as scribes, recording the revelations. Quran_sentence_9

Shortly after the prophet's death, the Quran was compiled by the companions, who had written down or memorized parts of it. Quran_sentence_10

Caliph Uthman established a standard version, now known as the Uthmanic codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran known today. Quran_sentence_11

There are, however, variant readings, with mostly minor differences in meaning. Quran_sentence_12

The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical and apocryphal scriptures. Quran_sentence_13

It summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events. Quran_sentence_14

The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance for mankind (). Quran_sentence_15

It sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, and it often emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence. Quran_sentence_16

Supplementing the Quran with explanations for some cryptic Quranic narratives, and rulings that also provide the basis for sharia (Islamic law) in most denominations of Islam, are hadiths—oral and written traditions believed to describe words and actions of Muhammad. Quran_sentence_17

During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic. Quran_sentence_18

Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz ('memorizer'). Quran_sentence_19

An ayah (Quranic verse) is sometimes recited with a special kind of elocution reserved for this purpose, called tajwid. Quran_sentence_20

During the month of Ramadan, Muslims typically complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers. Quran_sentence_21

In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on exegesis, or commentary (tafsir). Quran_sentence_22

Etymology and meaning Quran_section_0

The word qurʼān appears about 70 times in the Quran itself, assuming various meanings. Quran_sentence_23

It is a verbal noun (maṣdar) of the Arabic verb qaraʼa (قرأ) meaning 'he read' or 'he recited'. Quran_sentence_24

The Syriac equivalent is qeryānā (ܩܪܝܢܐ), which refers to 'scripture reading' or 'lesson'. Quran_sentence_25

While some Western scholars consider the word to be derived from the Syriac, the majority of Muslim authorities hold the origin of the word is qaraʼa itself. Quran_sentence_26

Regardless, it had become an Arabic term by Muhammad's lifetime. Quran_sentence_27

An important meaning of the word is the 'act of reciting', as reflected in an early Quranic passage: "It is for Us to collect it and to recite it (qurʼānahu)." Quran_sentence_28

In other verses, the word refers to 'an individual passage recited [by Muhammad]'. Quran_sentence_29

Its liturgical context is seen in a number of passages, for example: "So when al-qurʼān is recited, listen to it and keep silent." Quran_sentence_30

The word may also assume the meaning of a codified scripture when mentioned with other scriptures such as the Torah and Gospel. Quran_sentence_31

The term also has closely related synonyms that are employed throughout the Quran. Quran_sentence_32

Each synonym possesses its own distinct meaning, but its use may converge with that of qurʼān in certain contexts. Quran_sentence_33

Such terms include kitāb ('book'), āyah ('sign'), and sūrah ('scripture'); the latter two terms also denote units of revelation. Quran_sentence_34

In the large majority of contexts, usually with a definite article (al-), the word is referred to as the waḥy ('revelation'), that which has been "sent down" (tanzīl) at intervals. Quran_sentence_35

Other related words include: dhikr ('remembrance'), used to refer to the Quran in the sense of a reminder and warning; and ḥikmah ('wisdom'), sometimes referring to the revelation or part of it. Quran_sentence_36

The Quran describes itself as "the discernment" (al-furqān), "the mother book" (umm al-kitāb), "the guide" (huda), "the wisdom" (hikmah), "the remembrance" (dhikr), and "the revelation" (tanzīl; something sent down, signifying the descent of an object from a higher place to lower place). Quran_sentence_37

Another term is al-kitāb ('The Book'), though it is also used in the Arabic language for other scriptures, such as the Torah and the Gospels. Quran_sentence_38

The term mus'haf ('written work') is often used to refer to particular Quranic manuscripts but is also used in the Quran to identify earlier revealed books. Quran_sentence_39

History Quran_section_1

Main article: History of the Quran Quran_sentence_40

Prophetic era Quran_section_2

Compilation Quran_section_3

See also: Sanaa manuscript and Birmingham Quran manuscript Quran_sentence_41

Following Muhammad's death in 632, a number of his companions who knew the Quran by heart were killed in the Battle of Yamama by Musaylimah. Quran_sentence_42

The first caliph, Abu Bakr (d. 634), subsequently decided to collect the book in one volume so that it could be preserved. Quran_sentence_43

Zayd ibn Thabit (d. 655) was the person to collect the Quran since "he used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Apostle". Quran_sentence_44

Thus, a group of scribes, most importantly Zayd, collected the verses and produced a hand-written manuscript of the complete book. Quran_sentence_45

The manuscript according to Zayd remained with Abu Bakr until he died. Quran_sentence_46

Zayd's reaction to the task and the difficulties in collecting the Quranic material from parchments, palm-leaf stalks, thin stones (collectively known as suhuf) and from men who knew it by heart is recorded in earlier narratives. Quran_sentence_47

After Abu Bakr, in 644, Hafsa bint Umar, Muhammad's widow, was entrusted with the manuscript until the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, has requested the standard copy from Hafsa bint Umar in about 650. Quran_sentence_48

In about 650, the third Caliph Uthman ibn Affan (d. 656) began noticing slight differences in pronunciation of the Quran as Islam expanded beyond the Arabian Peninsula into Persia, the Levant, and North Africa. Quran_sentence_49

In order to preserve the sanctity of the text, he ordered a committee headed by Zayd to use Abu Bakr's copy and prepare a standard copy of the Quran. Quran_sentence_50

Thus, within 20 years of Muhammad's death, the Quran was committed to written form. Quran_sentence_51

That text became the model from which copies were made and promulgated throughout the urban centers of the Muslim world, and other versions are believed to have been destroyed. Quran_sentence_52

The present form of the Quran text is accepted by Muslim scholars to be the original version compiled by Abu Bakr. Quran_sentence_53

According to Shia, Ali ibn Abi Talib (d. 661) compiled a complete version of the Quran shortly after Muhammad's death. Quran_sentence_54

The order of this text differed from that gathered later during Uthman's era in that this version had been collected in chronological order. Quran_sentence_55

Despite this, he made no objection against the standardized Quran and accepted the Quran in circulation. Quran_sentence_56

Other personal copies of the Quran might have existed including Ibn Mas'ud's and Ubay ibn Ka'b's codex, none of which exist today. Quran_sentence_57

The Quran most likely existed in scattered written form during Muhammad's lifetime. Quran_sentence_58

Several sources indicate that during Muhammad's lifetime a large number of his companions had memorized the revelations. Quran_sentence_59

Early commentaries and Islamic historical sources support the above-mentioned understanding of the Quran's early development. Quran_sentence_60

The Quran in its present form is generally considered by academic scholars to record the words spoken by Muhammad because the search for variants has not yielded any differences of great significance. Quran_sentence_61

University of Chicago professor Fred Donner states that: Quran_sentence_62

Although most variant readings of the text of the Quran have ceased to be transmitted, some still are. Quran_sentence_63

There has been no critical text produced on which a scholarly reconstruction of the Quranic text could be based. Quran_sentence_64

Historically, controversy over the Quran's content has rarely become an issue, although debates continue on the subject. Quran_sentence_65

In 1972, in a mosque in the city of Sana'a, Yemen, manuscripts were discovered that were later proved to be the most ancient Quranic text known to exist at the time. Quran_sentence_66

The Sana'a manuscripts contain palimpsests, a manuscript page from which the text has been washed off to make the parchment reusable again—a practice which was common in ancient times due to scarcity of writing material. Quran_sentence_67

However, the faint washed-off underlying text (scriptio inferior) is still barely visible and believed to be "pre-Uthmanic" Quranic content, while the text written on top (scriptio superior) is believed to belong to Uthmanic time. Quran_sentence_68

Studies using radiocarbon dating indicate that the parchments are dated to the period before 671 CE with a 99 percent probability. Quran_sentence_69

The German scholar Gerd R. Puin has been investigating these Quran fragments for years. Quran_sentence_70

His research team made 35,000 microfilm photographs of the manuscripts, which he dated to early part of the 8th century. Quran_sentence_71

Puin has not published the entirety of his work, but noted unconventional verse orderings, minor textual variations, and rare styles of orthography. Quran_sentence_72

He also suggested that some of the parchments were palimpsests which had been reused. Quran_sentence_73

Puin believed that this implied an evolving text as opposed to a fixed one. Quran_sentence_74

In 2015, fragments of a very early Quran, dating back to 1370 years earlier, were discovered in the library of the University of Birmingham, England. Quran_sentence_75

According to the tests carried out by Oxford University Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, "with a probability of more than 95%, the parchment was from between 568 and 645". Quran_sentence_76

The manuscript is written in Hijazi script, an early form of written Arabic. Quran_sentence_77

This is possibly the earliest extant exemplar of the Quran, but as the tests allow a range of possible dates, it cannot be said with certainty which of the existing versions is the oldest. Quran_sentence_78

Saudi scholar Saud al-Sarhan has expressed doubt over the age of the fragments as they contain dots and chapter separators that are believed to have originated later. Quran_sentence_79

However Joseph E. B. Lumbard of Brandeis University has written in the Huffington Post in support of the dates proposed by the Birmingham scholars. Quran_sentence_80

Lumbard notes that the discovery of a Quranic text that may be confirmed by radiocarbon dating as having been written in the first decades of the Islamic era, while presenting a text substantially in conformity with that traditionally accepted, reinforces a growing academic consensus that many Western sceptical and 'revisionist' theories of Quranic origins are now untenable in the light of empirical findings—whereas, on the other hand, counterpart accounts of Quranic origins within classical Islamic traditions stand up well in the light of ongoing scientific discoveries. Quran_sentence_81

Significance in Islam Quran_section_4

Muslims believe the Quran to be God's final revelation to humanity, a work of divine guidance revealed to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. Quran_sentence_82

Revered by pious Muslims as "the holy of holies," whose sound moves some to "tears and ecstasy", it is the physical symbol of the faith, the text often used as a charm on occasions of birth, death, marriage. Quran_sentence_83

Consequently, Quran_sentence_84

Traditionally great emphasis was put on children memorizing the 6200+ verses of the Quran, those succeeding being honored with the title Hafiz. Quran_sentence_85

"Millions and millions" of Muslims "refer to the Koran daily to explain their actions and to justify their aspirations," and in recent years many consider it the source of scientific knowledge. Quran_sentence_86

Revelation in Islamic and Quranic contexts means the act of God addressing an individual, conveying a message for a greater number of recipients. Quran_sentence_87

The process by which the divine message comes to the heart of a messenger of God is tanzil (to send down) or nuzūl (to come down). Quran_sentence_88

As the Quran says, "With the truth we (God) have sent it down and with the truth it has come down." Quran_sentence_89

The Quran frequently asserts in its text that it is divinely ordained. Quran_sentence_90

Some verses in the Quran seem to imply that even those who do not speak Arabic would understand the Quran if it were recited to them. Quran_sentence_91

The Quran refers to a written pre-text, "the preserved tablet," that records God's speech even before it was sent down. Quran_sentence_92

Muslims believe that the present wording of the Quran corresponds to that revealed to Muhammad, and according to their interpretation of Quran , it is protected from corruption ("Indeed, it is We who sent down the Quran and indeed, We will be its guardian."). Quran_sentence_93

Muslims consider the Quran to be a guide, a sign of the prophethood of Muhammad and the truth of the religion. Quran_sentence_94

The Shīa believe that the Quran was gathered and compiled by Muhammad during his lifetime, rather than being compiled by Uthman ibn Affan. Quran_sentence_95

There are other differences in the way Shias interpret the text. Quran_sentence_96

Muslims do not agree over whether the Quran was created by God or is eternal and "uncreated." Quran_sentence_97

Sunnis (who make up about 85-90% of Muslims) hold that the Quran is uncreated—a doctrine that has been unchallenged among them for many centuries. Quran_sentence_98

Shia Twelvers and Zaydi, and the Kharijites—believe the Quran was created. Quran_sentence_99

Sufi philosophers view the question as artificial or wrongly framed. Quran_sentence_100

Inimitability Quran_section_5

Main article: I'jaz Quran_sentence_101

Inimitability of the Quran (or "I'jaz") is the belief that no human speech can match the Quran in its content and form. Quran_sentence_102

The Quran is considered an inimitable miracle by Muslims, effective until the Day of Resurrection—and, thereby, the central proof granted to Muhammad in authentication of his prophetic status. Quran_sentence_103

The concept of inimitability originates in the Quran where in five different verses opponents are challenged to produce something like the Quran: "If men and jinn banded together to produce the like of this Quran they would never produce its like not though they backed one another." Quran_sentence_104

From the ninth century, numerous works appeared which studied the Quran and examined its style and content. Quran_sentence_105

Medieval Muslim scholars including al-Jurjani (d. 1078) and al-Baqillani (d. 1013) have written treatises on the subject, discussed its various aspects, and used linguistic approaches to study the Quran. Quran_sentence_106

Others argue that the Quran contains noble ideas, has inner meanings, maintained its freshness through the ages and has caused great transformations at the individual level and in history. Quran_sentence_107

Some scholars state that the Quran contains scientific information that agrees with modern science. Quran_sentence_108

The doctrine of the miraculousness of the Quran is further emphasized by Muhammad's illiteracy since the unlettered prophet could not have been suspected of composing the Quran. Quran_sentence_109

In worship Quran_section_6

See also: Salah Quran_sentence_110

The first surah of the Quran is repeated in daily prayers and on other occasions. Quran_sentence_111

This surah, which consists of seven verses, is the most often recited surah of the Quran: Quran_sentence_112

Other sections of the Quran of choice are also read in daily prayers. Quran_sentence_113

Respect for the written text of the Quran is an important element of religious faith by many Muslims, and the Quran is treated with reverence. Quran_sentence_114

Based on tradition and a literal interpretation of Quran ("none shall touch but those who are clean"), some Muslims believe that they must perform a ritual cleansing with water (Wudu or Ghusl) before touching a copy of the Quran, although this view is not universal. Quran_sentence_115

Worn-out copies of the Quran are wrapped in a cloth and stored indefinitely in a safe place, buried in a mosque or a Muslim cemetery, or burned and the ashes buried or scattered over water. Quran_sentence_116

In Islam, most intellectual disciplines, including Islamic theology, philosophy, mysticism and jurisprudence, have been concerned with the Quran or have their foundation in its teachings. Quran_sentence_117

Muslims believe that the preaching or reading of the Quran is rewarded with divine rewards variously called ajr, thawab, or hasanat. Quran_sentence_118

In Islamic art Quran_section_7

The Quran also inspired Islamic arts and specifically the so-called Quranic arts of calligraphy and illumination. Quran_sentence_119

The Quran is never decorated with figurative images, but many Qurans have been highly decorated with decorative patterns in the margins of the page, or between the lines or at the start of suras. Quran_sentence_120

Islamic verses appear in many other media, on buildings and on objects of all sizes, such as mosque lamps, metal work, pottery and single pages of calligraphy for muraqqas or albums. Quran_sentence_121

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Text and arrangement Quran_section_8

Main articles: Surah and Āyah Quran_sentence_122

The Quran consists of 114 chapters of varying lengths, each known as a sūrah. Quran_sentence_123

Chapters are classified as Meccan or Medinan, depending on whether the verses were revealed before or after the migration of Muhammad to the city of Medina. Quran_sentence_124

However, a sūrah classified as Medinan may contain Meccan verses in it and vice versa. Quran_sentence_125

Sūrah titles are derived from a name or quality discussed in the text, or from the first letters or words of the sūrah. Quran_sentence_126

Chapters are not arranged in chronological order, rather the chapters appear to be arranged roughly in order of decreasing size. Quran_sentence_127

Some scholars argue the sūrahs are arranged according to a certain pattern. Quran_sentence_128

Each sūrah except the ninth starts with the Bismillah (بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم), an Arabic phrase meaning "In the name of God." Quran_sentence_129

There are, however, still 114 occurrences of the Bismillah in the Quran, due to its presence in Quran as the opening of Solomon's letter to the Queen of Sheba. Quran_sentence_130

Each sūrah consists of several verses, known as āyāt, which originally means a "sign" or "evidence" sent by God. Quran_sentence_131

The number of verses differs from sūrah to sūrah. Quran_sentence_132

An individual verse may be just a few letters or several lines. Quran_sentence_133

The total number of verses in the most popular Hafs Quran is 6,236; however, the number varies if the bismillahs are counted separately. Quran_sentence_134

In addition to and independent of the division into chapters, there are various ways of dividing the Quran into parts of approximately equal length for convenience in reading. Quran_sentence_135

The 30 juz' (plural ajzāʼ) can be used to read through the entire Quran in a month. Quran_sentence_136

Some of these parts are known by names—which are the first few words by which the juzʼ begins. Quran_sentence_137

A juz' is sometimes further divided into two ḥizb (plural aḥzāb), and each hizb subdivided into four rubʻ al-ahzab. Quran_sentence_138

The Quran is also divided into seven approximately equal parts, manzil (plural manāzil), for it to be recited in a week. Quran_sentence_139

A different structure is provided by semantic units resembling paragraphs and comprising roughly ten āyāt each. Quran_sentence_140

Such a section is called a rukū`. Quran_sentence_141

The Muqattaʿat (Arabic: حروف مقطعات‎, ḥurūf muqaṭṭaʿāt, 'disjoined letters, disconnected letters'; also 'mysterious letters') are combinations of between one and five Arabic letters figuring at the beginning of 29 out of the 114 chapters of the Quran just after the basmala. Quran_sentence_142

The letters are also known as fawātih (فواتح), or 'openers', as they form the opening verse of their respective suras. Quran_sentence_143

Four surahs are named for their muqatta'at: Ṭāʾ-Hāʾ, Yāʾ-Sīn, Ṣād, and Qāf. Quran_sentence_144

The original significance of the letters is unknown. Quran_sentence_145

Tafsir (exegesis) has interpreted them as abbreviations for either names or qualities of God or for the names or content of the respective surahs. Quran_sentence_146

According to one estimate the Quran consists of 77,430 words, 18,994 unique words, 12,183 stems, 3,382 lemmas and 1,685 roots. Quran_sentence_147

Contents Quran_section_9

Main articles: God in Islam, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic attitudes towards science, Biblical and Quranic narratives, and Historical reliability of the Quran Quran_sentence_148

The Quranic content is concerned with basic Islamic beliefs including the existence of God and the resurrection. Quran_sentence_149

Narratives of the early prophets, ethical and legal subjects, historical events of Muhammad's time, charity and prayer also appear in the Quran. Quran_sentence_150

The Quranic verses contain general exhortations regarding right and wrong and historical events are related to outline general moral lessons. Quran_sentence_151

Verses pertaining to natural phenomena have been interpreted by Muslims as an indication of the authenticity of the Quranic message. Quran_sentence_152

The style of the Quran has been called "allusive," with commentaries needed to explain what is being referred to—"events are referred to, but not narrated; disagreements are debated without being explained; people and places are mentioned, but rarely named." Quran_sentence_153

Monotheism Quran_section_10

The central theme of the Quran is monotheism. Quran_sentence_154

God is depicted as living, eternal, omniscient and omnipotent (see, e.g., Quran , , ). Quran_sentence_155

God's omnipotence appears above all in his power to create. Quran_sentence_156

He is the creator of everything, of the heavens and the earth and what is between them (see, e.g., Quran ,,, etc.). Quran_sentence_157

All human beings are equal in their utter dependence upon God, and their well-being depends upon their acknowledging that fact and living accordingly. Quran_sentence_158

The Quran uses cosmological and contingency arguments in various verses without referring to the terms to prove the existence of God. Quran_sentence_159

Therefore, the universe is originated and needs an originator, and whatever exists must have a sufficient cause for its existence. Quran_sentence_160

Besides, the design of the universe is frequently referred to as a point of contemplation: "It is He who has created seven heavens in harmony. Quran_sentence_161

You cannot see any fault in God's creation; then look again: Can you see any flaw?" Quran_sentence_162

Eschatology Quran_section_11

Main article: Islamic eschatology Quran_sentence_163

The doctrine of the last day and eschatology (the final fate of the universe) may be reckoned as the second great doctrine of the Quran. Quran_sentence_164

It is estimated that approximately one-third of the Quran is eschatological, dealing with the afterlife in the next world and with the day of judgment at the end of time. Quran_sentence_165

There is a reference to the afterlife on most pages of the Quran and belief in the afterlife is often referred to in conjunction with belief in God as in the common expression: "Believe in God and the last day." Quran_sentence_166

A number of suras such as 44, 56, 75, 78, 81 and 101 are directly related to the afterlife and its preparations. Quran_sentence_167

Some suras indicate the closeness of the event and warn people to be prepared for the imminent day. Quran_sentence_168

For instance, the first verses of Sura 22, which deal with the mighty earthquake and the situations of people on that day, represent this style of divine address: "O People! Quran_sentence_169

Be respectful to your Lord. Quran_sentence_170

The earthquake of the Hour is a mighty thing." Quran_sentence_171

The Quran is often vivid in its depiction of what will happen at the end time. Quran_sentence_172

Watt describes the Quranic view of End Time: Quran_sentence_173

The Quran does not assert a natural immortality of the human soul, since man's existence is dependent on the will of God: when he wills, he causes man to die; and when he wills, he raises him to life again in a bodily resurrection. Quran_sentence_174

Prophets Quran_section_12

According to the Quran, God communicated with man and made his will known through signs and revelations. Quran_sentence_175

Prophets, or 'Messengers of God', received revelations and delivered them to humanity. Quran_sentence_176

The message has been identical and for all humankind. Quran_sentence_177

"Nothing is said to you that was not said to the messengers before you, that your lord has at his Command forgiveness as well as a most Grievous Penalty." Quran_sentence_178

The revelation does not come directly from God to the prophets. Quran_sentence_179

Angels acting as God's messengers deliver the divine revelation to them. Quran_sentence_180

This comes out in Quran , in which it is stated: "It is not for any mortal that God should speak to them, except by revelation, or from behind a veil, or by sending a messenger to reveal by his permission whatsoever He will." Quran_sentence_181

Ethico-religious concepts Quran_section_13

Belief is a fundamental aspect of morality in the Quran, and scholars have tried to determine the semantic contents of "belief" and "believer" in the Quran. Quran_sentence_182

The ethico-legal concepts and exhortations dealing with righteous conduct are linked to a profound awareness of God, thereby emphasizing the importance of faith, accountability, and the belief in each human's ultimate encounter with God. Quran_sentence_183

People are invited to perform acts of charity, especially for the needy. Quran_sentence_184

Believers who "spend of their wealth by night and by day, in secret and in public" are promised that they "shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve." Quran_sentence_185

It also affirms family life by legislating on matters of marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Quran_sentence_186

A number of practices, such as usury and gambling, are prohibited. Quran_sentence_187

The Quran is one of the fundamental sources of Islamic law (sharia). Quran_sentence_188

Some formal religious practices receive significant attention in the Quran including the formal prayers (salat) and fasting in the month of Ramadan. Quran_sentence_189

As for the manner in which the prayer is to be conducted, the Quran refers to prostration. Quran_sentence_190

The term for charity, zakat, literally means purification. Quran_sentence_191

Charity, according to the Quran, is a means of self-purification. Quran_sentence_192

Encouragement for the sciences Quran_section_14

The astrophysicist Nidhal Guessoum, while being highly critical of pseudo-scientific claims made about the Quran, has highlighted the encouragement for sciences that the Quran provides by developing "the concept of knowledge." Quran_sentence_193

He writes: Quran_sentence_194

Guessoum cites Ghaleb Hasan on the definition of "proof" according to the Quran being "clear and strong... convincing evidence or argument." Quran_sentence_195

Also, such a proof cannot rely on an argument from authority, citing verse 5:104. Quran_sentence_196

Lastly, both assertions and rejections require a proof, according to verse 4:174. Quran_sentence_197

Ismail al-Faruqi and Taha Jabir Alalwani are of the view that any reawakening of the Muslim civilization must start with the Quran; however, the biggest obstacle on this route is the "centuries old heritage of tafseer (exegesis) and other classical disciplines" which inhibit a "universal, epidemiological and systematic conception" of the Quran's message. Quran_sentence_198

The philosopher Muhammad Iqbal, considered the Quran's methodology and epistemology to be empirical and rational. Quran_sentence_199

There are around 750 verses in the Quran dealing with natural phenomena. Quran_sentence_200

In many of these verses the study of nature is "encouraged and highly recommended", and historical Islamic scientists like Al-Biruni and Al-Battani derived their inspiration from verses of the Quran. Quran_sentence_201

Mohammad Hashim Kamali has stated that "scientific observation, experimental knowledge and rationality" are the primary tools with which humanity can achieve the goals laid out for it in the Quran. Quran_sentence_202

Ziauddin Sardar built a case for Muslims having developed the foundations of modern science, by highlighting the repeated calls of the Quran to observe and reflect upon natural phenomenon. Quran_sentence_203

The physicist Abdus Salam, in his Nobel Prize banquet address, quoted a well known verse from the Quran (67:3–4) and then stated: "This in effect is the faith of all physicists: the deeper we seek, the more is our wonder excited, the more is the dazzlement of our gaze." Quran_sentence_204

One of Salam's core beliefs was that there is no contradiction between Islam and the discoveries that science allows humanity to make about nature and the universe. Quran_sentence_205

Salam also held the opinion that the Quran and the Islamic spirit of study and rational reflection was the source of extraordinary civilizational development. Quran_sentence_206

Salam highlights, in particular, the work of Ibn al-Haytham and Al-Biruni as the pioneers of empiricism who introduced the experimental approach, breaking with Aristotle's influence and thus giving birth to modern science. Quran_sentence_207

Salam was also careful to differentiate between metaphysics and physics, and advised against empirically probing certain matters on which "physics is silent and will remain so," such as the doctrine of "creation from nothing" which in Salam's view is outside the limits of science and thus "gives way" to religious considerations. Quran_sentence_208

Literary style Quran_section_15

The Quran's message is conveyed with various literary structures and devices. Quran_sentence_209

In the original Arabic, the suras and verses employ phonetic and thematic structures that assist the audience's efforts to recall the message of the text. Quran_sentence_210

Muslims assert (according to the Quran itself) that the Quranic content and style is inimitable. Quran_sentence_211

The language of the Quran has been described as "rhymed prose" as it partakes of both poetry and prose; however, this description runs the risk of failing to convey the rhythmic quality of Quranic language, which is more poetic in some parts and more prose-like in others. Quran_sentence_212

Rhyme, while found throughout the Quran, is conspicuous in many of the earlier Meccan suras, in which relatively short verses throw the rhyming words into prominence. Quran_sentence_213

The effectiveness of such a form is evident for instance in Sura 81, and there can be no doubt that these passages impressed the conscience of the hearers. Quran_sentence_214

Frequently a change of rhyme from one set of verses to another signals a change in the subject of discussion. Quran_sentence_215

Later sections also preserve this form but the style is more expository. Quran_sentence_216

The Quranic text seems to have no beginning, middle, or end, its nonlinear structure being akin to a web or net. Quran_sentence_217

The textual arrangement is sometimes considered to exhibit lack of continuity, absence of any chronological or thematic order and repetitiousness. Quran_sentence_218

Michael Sells, citing the work of the critic Norman O. Quran_sentence_219 Brown, acknowledges Brown's observation that the seeming disorganization of Quranic literary expression—its scattered or fragmented mode of composition in Sells's phrase—is in fact a literary device capable of delivering profound effects as if the intensity of the prophetic message were shattering the vehicle of human language in which it was being communicated. Quran_sentence_220

Sells also addresses the much-discussed repetitiveness of the Quran, seeing this, too, as a literary device. Quran_sentence_221

A text is self-referential when it speaks about itself and makes reference to itself. Quran_sentence_222

According to Stefan Wild, the Quran demonstrates this metatextuality by explaining, classifying, interpreting and justifying the words to be transmitted. Quran_sentence_223

Self-referentiality is evident in those passages where the Quran refers to itself as revelation (tanzil), remembrance (dhikr), news (naba'), criterion (furqan) in a self-designating manner (explicitly asserting its Divinity, "And this is a blessed Remembrance that We have sent down; so are you now denying it? Quran_sentence_224

"), or in the frequent appearance of the "Say" tags, when Muhammad is commanded to speak (e.g., "Say: 'God's guidance is the true guidance'," "Say: 'Would you then dispute with us concerning God?'"). Quran_sentence_225

According to Wild the Quran is highly self-referential. Quran_sentence_226

The feature is more evident in early Meccan suras. Quran_sentence_227

Interpretation Quran_section_16

Main article: Tafsir Quran_sentence_228

The Quran has sparked a huge body of commentary and explication (tafsir), aimed at explaining the "meanings of the Quranic verses, clarifying their import and finding out their significance." Quran_sentence_229

Tafsir is one of the earliest academic activities of Muslims. Quran_sentence_230

According to the Quran, Muhammad was the first person who described the meanings of verses for early Muslims. Quran_sentence_231

Other early exegetes included a few Companions of Muhammad, such as Abu Bakr, 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, 'Uthman ibn 'Affan, ʻAli ibn Abi Talib, 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ood, ʻAbdullah ibn Abbas, Ubayy ibn Kaʻb, Zayd ibn Thaabit, Abu Moosaa al-Ash’ari, and ‘Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr. Quran_sentence_232

Exegesis in those days was confined to the explanation of literary aspects of the verse, the background of its revelation and, occasionally, interpretation of one verse with the help of the other. Quran_sentence_233

If the verse was about a historical event, then sometimes a few traditions (hadith) of Muhammad were narrated to make its meaning clear. Quran_sentence_234

Because the Quran is spoken in classical Arabic, many of the later converts to Islam (mostly non-Arabs) did not always understand the Quranic Arabic, they did not catch allusions that were clear to early Muslims fluent in Arabic and they were concerned with reconciling apparent conflict of themes in the Quran. Quran_sentence_235

Commentators erudite in Arabic explained the allusions, and perhaps most importantly, explained which Quranic verses had been revealed early in Muhammad's prophetic career, as being appropriate to the very earliest Muslim community, and which had been revealed later, canceling out or "abrogating" (nāsikh) the earlier text (mansūkh). Quran_sentence_236

Other scholars, however, maintain that no abrogation has taken place in the Quran. Quran_sentence_237

There have been several commentaries of the Quran by scholars of all denominations, popular ones include Tafsir ibn Kathir, Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Tafsir Al Kabir, Tafsir al-Tabari. Quran_sentence_238

More modern works of Tafisr include Ma'ariful Qur'an written by Mufti Muhammad Shafi and Risale-i Nur by Bediüzzaman Said Nursi. Quran_sentence_239

Esoteric interpretation Quran_section_17

Main article: Esoteric interpretation of the Quran Quran_sentence_240

Esoteric or Sufi interpretation attempts to unveil the inner meanings of the Quran. Quran_sentence_241

Sufism moves beyond the apparent (zahir) point of the verses and instead relates Quranic verses to the inner or esoteric (batin) and metaphysical dimensions of consciousness and existence. Quran_sentence_242

According to Sands, esoteric interpretations are more suggestive than declarative, they are allusions (isharat) rather than explanations (tafsir). Quran_sentence_243

They indicate possibilities as much as they demonstrate the insights of each writer. Quran_sentence_244

Qadi al-Nu’man, a famous Muslim jurist of the Fatimid period, elucidates in his book The Foundation of Symbolic Interpretation (Asas al-Tawil) that God made the Quran the miracle of Prophet Muhammad and its inner meaning the miracle of the Imams. Quran_sentence_245

Just as no one can replicate the Prophet’s miracle of the Book, no one can produce its inner meanings except for the Imams. Quran_sentence_246

This sacred knowledge is passed down through generations in their lineage and is entrusted to them. Quran_sentence_247

Sufi interpretation, according to Annabel Keeler, also exemplifies the use of the theme of love, as for instance can be seen in Qushayri's interpretation of the Quran: Quran_sentence_248

Moses, in 7:143, comes the way of those who are in love, he asks for a vision but his desire is denied, he is made to suffer by being commanded to look at other than the Beloved while the mountain is able to see God. Quran_sentence_249

The mountain crumbles and Moses faints at the sight of God's manifestation upon the mountain. Quran_sentence_250

In Qushayri's words, Moses came like thousands of men who traveled great distances, and there was nothing left to Moses of Moses. Quran_sentence_251

In that state of annihilation from himself, Moses was granted the unveiling of the realities. Quran_sentence_252

From the Sufi point of view, God is the always the beloved and the wayfarer's longing and suffering lead to realization of the truths. Quran_sentence_253

Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei says that according to the popular explanation among the later exegetes, ta'wil indicates the particular meaning a verse is directed towards. Quran_sentence_254

The meaning of revelation (tanzil), as opposed to ta'wil, is clear in its accordance to the obvious meaning of the words as they were revealed. Quran_sentence_255

But this explanation has become so widespread that, at present, it has become the primary meaning of ta'wil, which originally meant "to return" or "the returning place". Quran_sentence_256

In Tabatabaei's view, what has been rightly called ta'wil, or hermeneutic interpretation of the Quran, is not concerned simply with the denotation of words. Quran_sentence_257

Rather, it is concerned with certain truths and realities that transcend the comprehension of the common run of men; yet it is from these truths and realities that the principles of doctrine and the practical injunctions of the Quran issue forth. Quran_sentence_258

Interpretation is not the meaning of the verse—rather it transpires through that meaning, in a special sort of transpiration. Quran_sentence_259

There is a spiritual reality—which is the main objective of ordaining a law, or the basic aim in describing a divine attribute—and then there is an actual significance that a Quranic story refers to. Quran_sentence_260

According to Shia beliefs, those who are firmly rooted in knowledge like Muhammad and the imams know the secrets of the Quran. Quran_sentence_261

According to Tabatabaei, the statement "none knows its interpretation except God" remains valid, without any opposing or qualifying clause. Quran_sentence_262

Therefore, so far as this verse is concerned, the knowledge of the Quran's interpretation is reserved for God. Quran_sentence_263

But Tabatabaei uses other verses and concludes that those who are purified by God know the interpretation of the Quran to a certain extent. Quran_sentence_264

According to Tabatabaei, there are acceptable and unacceptable esoteric interpretations. Quran_sentence_265

Acceptable ta'wil refers to the meaning of a verse beyond its literal meaning; rather the implicit meaning, which ultimately is known only to God and can't be comprehended directly through human thought alone. Quran_sentence_266

The verses in question here refer to the human qualities of coming, going, sitting, satisfaction, anger and sorrow, which are apparently attributed to God. Quran_sentence_267

Unacceptable ta'wil is where one "transfers" the apparent meaning of a verse to a different meaning by means of a proof; this method is not without obvious inconsistencies. Quran_sentence_268

Although this unacceptable ta'wil has gained considerable acceptance, it is incorrect and cannot be applied to the Quranic verses. Quran_sentence_269

The correct interpretation is that reality a verse refers to. Quran_sentence_270

It is found in all verses, the decisive and the ambiguous alike; it is not a sort of a meaning of the word; it is a fact that is too sublime for words. Quran_sentence_271

God has dressed them with words to bring them a bit nearer to our minds; in this respect they are like proverbs that are used to create a picture in the mind, and thus help the hearer to clearly grasp the intended idea. Quran_sentence_272

History of Sufi commentaries Quran_section_18

One of the notable authors of esoteric interpretation prior to the 12th century is Sulami (d. 1021) without whose work the majority of very early Sufi commentaries would not have been preserved. Quran_sentence_273

Sulami's major commentary is a book named Haqaiq al-Tafsir ('Truths of Exegesis') which is a compilation of commentaries of earlier Sufis. Quran_sentence_274

From the 11th century onwards several other works appear, including commentaries by Qushayri (d. 1074), Daylami (d. 1193), Shirazi (d. 1209) and Suhrawardi (d. 1234). Quran_sentence_275

These works include material from Sulami's books plus the author's contributions. Quran_sentence_276

Many works are written in Persian such as the works of Maybudi (d. 1135) kashf al-asrar ('the unveiling of the secrets'). Quran_sentence_277

Rumi (d. 1273) wrote a vast amount of mystical poetry in his book Mathnawi. Quran_sentence_278

Rumi makes heavy use of the Quran in his poetry, a feature that is sometimes omitted in translations of Rumi's work. Quran_sentence_279

A large number of Quranic passages can be found in Mathnawi, which some consider a kind of Sufi interpretation of the Quran. Quran_sentence_280

Rumi's book is not exceptional for containing citations from and elaboration on the Quran, however, Rumi does mention Quran more frequently. Quran_sentence_281

Simnani (d. 1336) wrote two influential works of esoteric exegesis on the Quran. Quran_sentence_282

He reconciled notions of God's manifestation through and in the physical world with the sentiments of Sunni Islam. Quran_sentence_283

Comprehensive Sufi commentaries appear in the 18th century such as the work of Ismail Hakki Bursevi (d. 1725). Quran_sentence_284

His work ruh al-Bayan ('the Spirit of Elucidation') is a voluminous exegesis. Quran_sentence_285

Written in Arabic, it combines the author's own ideas with those of his predecessors (notably Ibn Arabi and Ghazali). Quran_sentence_286

Levels of meaning Quran_section_19

Unlike the Salafis and Zahiri, Shias and Sufis as well as some other Muslim philosophers believe the meaning of the Quran is not restricted to the literal aspect. Quran_sentence_287

For them, it is an essential idea that the Quran also has inward aspects. Quran_sentence_288

Henry Corbin narrates a hadith that goes back to Muhammad: Quran_sentence_289

According to this view, it has also become evident that the inner meaning of the Quran does not eradicate or invalidate its outward meaning. Quran_sentence_290

Rather, it is like the soul, which gives life to the body. Quran_sentence_291

Corbin considers the Quran to play a part in Islamic philosophy, because gnosiology itself goes hand in hand with prophetology. Quran_sentence_292

Commentaries dealing with the zahir ('outward aspects') of the text are called tafsir, and hermeneutic and esoteric commentaries dealing with the batin are called ta'wil ('interpretation' or 'explanation'), which involves taking the text back to its beginning. Quran_sentence_293

Commentators with an esoteric slant believe that the ultimate meaning of the Quran is known only to God. Quran_sentence_294

In contrast, Quranic literalism, followed by Salafis and Zahiris, is the belief that the Quran should only be taken at its apparent meaning. Quran_sentence_295

Reappropriation Quran_section_20

Reappropriation is the name of the hermeneutical style of some ex-Muslims who have converted to Christianity. Quran_sentence_296

Their style or reinterpretation can sometimes be geared towards apologetics, with less reference to the Islamic scholarly tradition that contextualizes and systematizes the reading (e.g., by identifying some verses as abrogated). Quran_sentence_297

This tradition of interpretation draws on the following practices: grammatical renegotiation, renegotiation of textual preference, retrieval, and concession. Quran_sentence_298

Translations Quran_section_21

Main article: Quran translations Quran_sentence_299

See also: List of translations of the Quran Quran_sentence_300

Translating the Quran has always been problematic and difficult. Quran_sentence_301

Many argue that the Quranic text cannot be reproduced in another language or form. Quran_sentence_302

Furthermore, an Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on the context, making an accurate translation even more difficult. Quran_sentence_303

Nevertheless, the Quran has been translated into most African, Asian, and European languages. Quran_sentence_304

The first translator of the Quran was Salman the Persian, who translated surat al-Fatiha into Persian during the seventh century. Quran_sentence_305

Another translation of the Quran was completed in 884 in Alwar (Sindh, India, now Pakistan) by the orders of Abdullah bin Umar bin Abdul Aziz on the request of the Hindu Raja Mehruk. Quran_sentence_306

The first fully attested complete translations of the Quran were done between the 10th and 12th centuries in Persian. Quran_sentence_307

The Samanid king, Mansur I (961–976), ordered a group of scholars from Khorasan to translate the Tafsir al-Tabari, originally in Arabic, into Persian. Quran_sentence_308

Later in the 11th century, one of the students of Abu Mansur Abdullah al-Ansari wrote a complete tafsir of the Quran in Persian. Quran_sentence_309

In the 12th century, Najm al-Din Abu Hafs al-Nasafi translated the Quran into Persian. Quran_sentence_310

The manuscripts of all three books have survived and have been published several times. Quran_sentence_311

Islamic tradition also holds that translations were made for Emperor Negus of Abyssinia and Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, as both received letters by Muhammad containing verses from the Quran. Quran_sentence_312

In early centuries, the permissibility of translations was not an issue, but whether one could use translations in prayer. Quran_sentence_313

In 1936, translations in 102 languages were known. Quran_sentence_314

In 2010, the Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review reported that the Quran was presented in 112 languages at the 18th International Quran Exhibition in Tehran. Quran_sentence_315

Robert of Ketton's 1143 translation of the Quran for Peter the Venerable, Lex Mahumet pseudoprophete, was the first into a Western language (Latin). Quran_sentence_316

Alexander Ross offered the first English version in 1649, from the French translation of L'Alcoran de Mahomet (1647) by Andre du Ryer. Quran_sentence_317

In 1734, George Sale produced the first scholarly translation of the Quran into English; another was produced by Richard Bell in 1937, and yet another by Arthur John Arberry in 1955. Quran_sentence_318

All these translators were non-Muslims. Quran_sentence_319

There have been numerous translations by Muslims. Quran_sentence_320

Popular modern English translations by Muslims include The Oxford World Classic's translation by Muhammad Abdel Haleem, The Clear Quran by Dr Mustafa Khattab, Sahih International's translation, among various others. Quran_sentence_321

As with translations of the Bible, the English translators have sometimes favored archaic English words and constructions over their more modern or conventional equivalents; for example, two widely read translators, Abdullah Yusuf Ali and Marmaduke Pickthall, use the plural and singular "ye" and "thou" instead of the more common "you." Quran_sentence_322

The oldest Gurmukhi translation of the Quran Sharif has been found in village Lande of Moga district of Punjab which was printed in 1911. Quran_sentence_323

Quran_unordered_list_1

  • Quran_item_1_7
  • Quran_item_1_8
  • Quran_item_1_9
  • Quran_item_1_10

Recitation Quran_section_22

Rules of recitation Quran_section_23

See also: Tajwid Quran_sentence_324

The proper recitation of the Quran is the subject of a separate discipline named tajwid which determines in detail how the Quran should be recited, how each individual syllable is to be pronounced, the need to pay attention to the places where there should be a pause, to elisions, where the pronunciation should be long or short, where letters should be sounded together and where they should be kept separate, etc. Quran_sentence_325

It may be said that this discipline studies the laws and methods of the proper recitation of the Quran and covers three main areas: the proper pronunciation of consonants and vowels (the articulation of the Quranic phonemes), the rules of pause in recitation and of resumption of recitation, and the musical and melodious features of recitation. Quran_sentence_326

In order to avoid incorrect pronunciation, reciters follow a program of training with a qualified teacher. Quran_sentence_327

The two most popular texts used as references for tajwid rules are Matn al-Jazariyyah by Ibn al-Jazari and Tuhfat al-Atfal by Sulayman al-Jamzuri. Quran_sentence_328

The recitations of a few Egyptian reciters, like El Minshawy, Al-Hussary, Abdul Basit, Mustafa Ismail, were highly influential in the development of current styles of recitation. Quran_sentence_329

Southeast Asia is well known for world-class recitation, evidenced in the popularity of the woman reciters such as Maria Ulfah of Jakarta. Quran_sentence_330

There are two types of recitation: Quran_sentence_331

Quran_ordered_list_2

  1. Murattal is at a slower pace, used for study and practice.Quran_item_2_11
  2. Mujawwad refers to a slow recitation that deploys heightened technical artistry and melodic modulation, as in public performances by trained experts. It is directed to and dependent upon an audience for the mujawwad reciter seeks to involve the listeners.Quran_item_2_12

Variant readings Quran_section_24

See also: Qira'at Quran_sentence_332

Vocalization markers indicating specific vowel sounds (tashkeel) were introduced into the text of the Qur'an during the lifetimes of the last Sahabah. Quran_sentence_333

The first Quranic manuscripts lacked these marks, enabling multiple possible recitations to be conveyed by the same written text. Quran_sentence_334

The 10th-century Muslim scholar from Baghdad, Ibn Mujāhid, is famous for establishing seven acceptable textual readings of the Quran. Quran_sentence_335

He studied various readings and their trustworthiness and chose seven 8th-century readers from the cities of Mecca, Medina, Kufa, Basra and Damascus. Quran_sentence_336

Ibn Mujahid did not explain why he chose seven readers, rather than six or ten, but this may be related to a prophetic tradition (Muhammad's saying) reporting that the Quran had been revealed in seven ahruf (meaning seven letters or modes). Quran_sentence_337

Today, the most popular readings are those transmitted by Ḥafṣ (d. 796) and Warsh (d. 812) which are according to two of Ibn Mujahid's reciters, Aasim ibn Abi al-Najud (Kufa, d. 745) and Nafi‘ al-Madani (Medina, d. 785), respectively. Quran_sentence_338

The influential standard Quran of Cairo uses an elaborate system of modified vowel-signs and a set of additional symbols for minute details and is based on ʻAsim's recitation, the 8th-century recitation of Kufa. Quran_sentence_339

This edition has become the standard for modern printings of the Quran. Quran_sentence_340

The variant readings of the Quran are one type of textual variant. Quran_sentence_341

According to Melchert (2008), the majority of disagreements have to do with vowels to supply, most of them in turn not conceivably reflecting dialectal differences and about one in eight disagreements has to do with whether to place dots above or below the line. Quran_sentence_342

Nasser categorizes variant readings into various subtypes, including internal vowels, long vowels, gemination (shaddah), assimilation and alternation. Quran_sentence_343

Occasionally, an early Quran shows compatibility with a particular reading. Quran_sentence_344

A Syrian manuscript from the 8th century is shown to have been written according to the reading of Ibn Amir ad-Dimashqi. Quran_sentence_345

Another study suggests that this manuscript bears the vocalization of himsi region. Quran_sentence_346

Writing and printing Quran_section_25

Writing Quran_section_26

Main article: Islamic calligraphy Quran_sentence_347

Before printing was widely adopted in the 19th century, the Quran was transmitted in manuscripts made by calligraphers and copyists. Quran_sentence_348

The earliest manuscripts were written in Ḥijāzī-typescript. Quran_sentence_349

The Hijazi style manuscripts nevertheless confirm that transmission of the Quran in writing began at an early stage. Quran_sentence_350

Probably in the ninth century, scripts began to feature thicker strokes, which are traditionally known as Kufic scripts. Quran_sentence_351

Toward the end of the ninth century, new scripts began to appear in copies of the Quran and replace earlier scripts. Quran_sentence_352

The reason for discontinuation in the use of the earlier style was that it took too long to produce and the demand for copies was increasing. Quran_sentence_353

Copyists would therefore choose simpler writing styles. Quran_sentence_354

Beginning in the 11th century, the styles of writing employed were primarily the naskh, muhaqqaq, rayḥānī and, on rarer occasions, the thuluth script. Quran_sentence_355

Naskh was in very widespread use. Quran_sentence_356

In North Africa and Iberia, the Maghribī style was popular. Quran_sentence_357

More distinct is the Bihari script which was used solely in the north of India. Quran_sentence_358

Nastaʻlīq style was also rarely used in Persian world. Quran_sentence_359

In the beginning, the Quran was not written with dots or tashkeel. Quran_sentence_360

These features were added to the text during the lifetimes of the last of the Sahabah. Quran_sentence_361

Since it would have been too costly for most Muslims to purchase a manuscript, copies of the Quran were held in mosques in order to make them accessible to people. Quran_sentence_362

These copies frequently took the form of a series of 30 parts or juzʼ. Quran_sentence_363

In terms of productivity, the Ottoman copyists provide the best example. Quran_sentence_364

This was in response to widespread demand, unpopularity of printing methods and for aesthetic reasons. Quran_sentence_365

Quran_unordered_list_3

  • Quran_item_3_13
  • Quran_item_3_14
  • Quran_item_3_15
  • Quran_item_3_16
  • Quran_item_3_17

Printing Quran_section_27

Wood-block printing of extracts from the Quran is on record as early as the 10th century. Quran_sentence_366

Arabic movable type printing was ordered by Pope Julius II (r. 1503–1512) for distribution among Middle Eastern Christians. Quran_sentence_367

The first complete Quran printed with movable type was produced in Venice in 1537/1538 for the Ottoman market by Paganino Paganini and Alessandro Paganini. Quran_sentence_368

But this Quran was not used as it contained a large number of errors. Quran_sentence_369

Two more editions include those published by the pastor Abraham Hinckelmann in Hamburg in 1694, and by Italian priest Ludovico Maracci in Padua in 1698 with Latin translation and commentary. Quran_sentence_370

Printed copies of the Quran during this period met with strong opposition from Muslim legal scholars: printing anything in Arabic was prohibited in the Ottoman empire between 1483 and 1726—initially, even on penalty of death. Quran_sentence_371

The Ottoman ban on printing in Arabic script was lifted in 1726 for non-religious texts only upon the request of Ibrahim Muteferrika, who printed his first book in 1729. Quran_sentence_372

Except for books in Hebrew and European languages, which were unrestricted, very few books, and no religious texts, were printed in the Ottoman Empire for another century. Quran_sentence_373

In 1786, Catherine the Great of Russia, sponsored a printing press for "Tatar and Turkish orthography" in Saint Petersburg, with one Mullah Osman Ismail responsible for producing the Arabic types. Quran_sentence_374

A Quran was printed with this press in 1787, reprinted in 1790 and 1793 in Saint Petersburg, and in 1803 in Kazan. Quran_sentence_375

The first edition printed in Iran appeared in Tehran (1828), a translation in Turkish was printed in Cairo in 1842, and the first officially sanctioned Ottoman edition was finally printed in Constantinople between 1875 and 1877 as a two-volume set, during the First Constitutional Era. Quran_sentence_376

Gustav Flügel published an edition of the Quran in 1834 in Leipzig, which remained authoritative for close to a century, until Cairo's Al-Azhar University published an edition of the Quran in 1924. Quran_sentence_377

This edition was the result of a long preparation, as it standardized Quranic orthography, and it remains the basis of later editions. Quran_sentence_378

Criticism Quran_section_28

Main article: Criticism of the Quran Quran_sentence_379

See also: Sword Verse Quran_sentence_380

Regarding the claim of divine origin, critics refer to preexisting sources, not only taken from the Bible, supposed to be older revelations of God, but also from heretic, apocryphic and talmudic sources, such as The Syriac Infancy Gospel and Gospel of James. Quran_sentence_381

Due to rejection of Crucifixion of Jesus in the Quran, some scholars also suspect Manichaean, a dualistic religion believing in two eternal forces, influences on the Quran. Quran_sentence_382

Christopher Hitchens states that Islam as whole, both hadith and the Quran, are little more than a poorly structured plagiarisms, using earlier sacred works and traditions depending on what the situation seemed to require. Quran_sentence_383

Abrogation (Naskh) is often seen as an acknowledgment of contradicting Quranic verses. Quran_sentence_384

Simultaneously, some scholars regard abrogation as unnecessary and a deficit on scholarly interpretation not of the Quran. Quran_sentence_385

The Tafsir'ilmi believe the Quran predicts scientific knowledge, relating the author to non-human origin. Quran_sentence_386

Critics argue, verses which allegedly explain modern scientific facts, about subjects such as biology, evolution of the earth, and human life, contain fallacies and are unscientific. Quran_sentence_387

Most claims of predictions rely on the ambiguity of the Arabic language, another point of criticism. Quran_sentence_388

Despite calling itself a clear book, the Quranic language lacks clarity. Quran_sentence_389

Other criticisms point at the moral attitude asserted by the Quran, such as commanding to strike disobedient wives, carnality in the afterlife and commandments of warfare. Quran_sentence_390

Relationship with other literature Quran_section_29

Some non-Muslim groups such as Baháʼí and Druze view the Quran as holy. Quran_sentence_391

Unitarian Universalists may also seek inspiration from the Quran. Quran_sentence_392

The Quran has been noted to have certain narratives similarities to the Diatessaron, Protoevangelium of James, Infancy Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew and the Arabic Infancy Gospel. Quran_sentence_393

One scholar has suggested that the Diatessaron, as a gospel harmony, may have led to the conception that the Christian Gospel is one text. Quran_sentence_394

The Bible Quran_section_30

See also: Biblical and Quranic narratives Quran_sentence_395

The Quran attributes its relationship with former books (the Torah and the Gospels) to their unique origin, saying all of them have been revealed by the one God. Quran_sentence_396

According to Christoph Luxenberg (in The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran) the Quran's language was similar to the Syriac language. Quran_sentence_397

The Quran recounts stories of many of the people and events recounted in Jewish and Christian sacred books (Tanakh, Bible) and devotional literature (Apocrypha, Midrash), although it differs in many details. Quran_sentence_398

Adam, Enoch, Noah, Eber, Shelah, Abraham, Lot, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Jethro, David, Solomon, Elijah, Elisha, Jonah, Aaron, Moses, Zechariah, John the Baptist and Jesus are mentioned in the Quran as prophets of God (see Prophets of Islam). Quran_sentence_399

In fact, Moses is mentioned more in the Quran than any other individual. Quran_sentence_400

Jesus is mentioned more often in the Quran than Muhammad (by name — Muhammad is often alluded to as "The Prophet" or "The Apostle"), while Mary is mentioned in the Quran more than the New Testament. Quran_sentence_401

Arab writing Quran_section_31

After the Quran, and the general rise of Islam, the Arabic alphabet developed rapidly into an art form. Quran_sentence_402

Wadad Kadi, Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at University of Chicago, and Mustansir Mir, Professor of Islamic studies at Youngstown State University, state: Quran_sentence_403

See also Quran_section_32

Quran_unordered_list_4


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quran.