Rhythm and blues

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For other uses, see Rhythm and blues (disambiguation). Rhythm and blues_sentence_0

"R&B" and "RnB" redirect here. Rhythm and blues_sentence_1

For the modern style of music also called "R&B", see Contemporary R&B. Rhythm and blues_sentence_2

For the Japanese television station that uses the abbreviation RNB, see Nankai Broadcasting. Rhythm and blues_sentence_3

Rhythm and blues_table_infobox_0

Rhythm and bluesRhythm and blues_header_cell_0_0_0
Stylistic originsRhythm and blues_header_cell_0_1_0 Rhythm and blues_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsRhythm and blues_header_cell_0_2_0 1940s–1950s, U.S.Rhythm and blues_cell_0_2_1
Derivative formsRhythm and blues_header_cell_0_3_0 Rhythm and blues_cell_0_3_1
SubgenresRhythm and blues_header_cell_0_4_0
Local scenesRhythm and blues_header_cell_0_5_0

Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African-American communities in the 1940s. Rhythm and blues_sentence_4

The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. Rhythm and blues_sentence_5

In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands usually consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass, drums, one or more saxophones, and sometimes background vocalists. Rhythm and blues_sentence_6

R&B lyrical themes often encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy, as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships, economics, and aspirations. Rhythm and blues_sentence_7

The term "rhythm and blues" has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. Rhythm and blues_sentence_8

In the early 1950s, it was frequently applied to blues records. Rhythm and blues_sentence_9

Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music. Rhythm and blues_sentence_10

In the 1960s, several British rock bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Who and the Animals were referred to and promoted as being R&B bands; posters for the Who's residency at the Marquee Club in 1964 contained the slogan, "Maximum R&B". Rhythm and blues_sentence_11

Their mix of rock and roll and R&B is now known as "British rhythm and blues". Rhythm and blues_sentence_12

By the end of the 1970s, the term "rhythm and blues" had changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. Rhythm and blues_sentence_13

In the late 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed, becoming known as "contemporary R&B". Rhythm and blues_sentence_14

It combines rhythm and blues with elements of pop, soul, funk, disco, hip hop, and electronic music. Rhythm and blues_sentence_15

Etymology, definitions and description Rhythm and blues_section_0

Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term "rhythm and blues" as a musical term in the United States in 1948, the term was used in Billboard as early as 1943. Rhythm and blues_sentence_16

It replaced the term "race music", which originally came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. Rhythm and blues_sentence_17

The term "rhythm and blues" was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, when its "Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles" chart was renamed as "Best Selling Soul Singles". Rhythm and blues_sentence_18

Before the "Rhythm and Blues" name was instated, various record companies had already begun replacing the term "race music" with "sepia series". Rhythm and blues_sentence_19

Writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as "a catchall term referring to any music that was made by and for black Americans". Rhythm and blues_sentence_20

He has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues. Rhythm and blues_sentence_21

However, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of R&B's stronger gospel influences. Rhythm and blues_sentence_22

Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that "rhythm and blues" was an umbrella term invented for industry convenience. Rhythm and blues_sentence_23

According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts. Rhythm and blues_sentence_24

Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use (in some contexts) to categorize music made by black musicians, as distinct from styles of music made by other musicians. Rhythm and blues_sentence_25

In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands usually consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass, drums, and saxophone. Rhythm and blues_sentence_26

Arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Rhythm and blues_sentence_27

Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow, lilting, and often hypnotic textures while calling attention to no individual sound. Rhythm and blues_sentence_28

While singers are emotionally engaged with the lyrics, often intensely so, they remain cool, relaxed, and in control. Rhythm and blues_sentence_29

The bands dressed in suits, and even uniforms, a practice associated with the modern popular music that rhythm and blues performers aspired to dominate. Rhythm and blues_sentence_30

Lyrics often seemed fatalistic, and the music typically followed predictable patterns of chords and structure. Rhythm and blues_sentence_31

History Rhythm and blues_section_1

Precursors Rhythm and blues_section_2

The migration of African Americans to the urban industrial centers of Chicago, Detroit, New York City, Los Angeles and elsewhere in the 1920s and 1930s created a new market for jazz, blues, and related genres of music. Rhythm and blues_sentence_32

These genres of music were often performed by full-time musicians, either working alone or in small groups. Rhythm and blues_sentence_33

The precursors of rhythm and blues came from jazz and blues, which overlapped in the late-1920s and 1930s through the work of musicians such as the Harlem Hamfats, with their 1936 hit "Oh Red", as well as Lonnie Johnson, Leroy Carr, Cab Calloway, Count Basie, and T-Bone Walker. Rhythm and blues_sentence_34

There was also increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophone. Rhythm and blues_sentence_35

Late 1940s Rhythm and blues_section_3

In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name "Blues and Rhythm". Rhythm and blues_sentence_36

In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the top five listings of the R&B charts with three songs, and two of the top five songs were based on the boogie-woogie rhythms that had come to prominence during the 1940s. Rhythm and blues_sentence_37

Jordan's band, the Tympany Five (formed in 1938), consisted of him on saxophone and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor saxophone, piano, bass and drums. Rhythm and blues_sentence_38

Lawrence Cohn described the music as "grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues". Rhythm and blues_sentence_39

Robert Palmer described it as "urbane, rocking, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat". Rhythm and blues_sentence_40

Jordan's music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, and Wynonie Harris, is now also referred to as jump blues. Rhythm and blues_sentence_41

Already Paul Gayten, Roy Brown, and others had had hits in the style now referred to as rhythm and blues. Rhythm and blues_sentence_42

In 1948, Wynonie Harris' remake of Brown's 1947 recording "Good Rockin' Tonight" reached number two on the charts, following band leader Sonny Thompson's "Long Gone" at number one. Rhythm and blues_sentence_43

In 1949, the term "Rhythm and Blues" replaced the Billboard category Harlem Hit Parade. Rhythm and blues_sentence_44

Also in that year, "The Huckle-Buck", recorded by band leader and saxophonist Paul Williams, was the number one R&B tune, remaining on top of the charts for nearly the entire year. Rhythm and blues_sentence_45

Written by musician and arranger Andy Gibson, the song was described as a "dirty boogie" because it was risque and raunchy. Rhythm and blues_sentence_46

Paul Williams and His Hucklebuckers' concerts were sweaty riotous affairs that got shut down on more than one occasion. Rhythm and blues_sentence_47

Their lyrics, by Roy Alfred (who later co-wrote the 1955 hit "(The) Rock and Roll Waltz"), were mildly sexually suggestive, and one teenager from Philadelphia said "That Hucklebuck was a very nasty dance". Rhythm and blues_sentence_48

Also in 1949, a new version of a 1920s blues song, "Ain't Nobody's Business" was a number four hit for Jimmy Witherspoon, and Louis Jordan and the Tympany Five once again made the top five with "Saturday Night Fish Fry". Rhythm and blues_sentence_49

Many of these hit records were issued on new independent record labels, such as Savoy (founded 1942), King (founded 1943), Imperial (founded 1945), Specialty (founded 1946), Chess (founded 1947), and Atlantic (founded 1948). Rhythm and blues_sentence_50

Afro-Cuban rhythmic influence Rhythm and blues_section_4

African American music began incorporating Afro-Cuban rhythmic motifs in the 1800s with the popularity of the Cuban contradanza (known outside of Cuba as the habanera). Rhythm and blues_sentence_51

The habanera rhythm can be thought of as a combination of tresillo and the backbeat. Rhythm and blues_sentence_52

For the more than a quarter-century in which the cakewalk, ragtime and proto-jazz were forming and developing, the Cuban genre habanera exerted a constant presence in African American popular music. Rhythm and blues_sentence_53

Jazz pioneer Jelly Roll Morton considered the tresillo/habanera rhythm (which he called the Spanish tinge) to be an essential ingredient of jazz. Rhythm and blues_sentence_54

There are examples of tresillo-like rhythms in some African American folk music such as the hand-clapping and foot-stomping patterns in ring shout, post-Civil War drum and fife music, and New Orleans second line music. Rhythm and blues_sentence_55

Wynton Marsalis considers tresillo to be the New Orleans "clave" (although technically, the pattern is only half a clave). Rhythm and blues_sentence_56

Tresillo is the most basic duple-pulse rhythmic cell in Sub-Saharan African music traditions, and its use in African American music is one of the clearest examples of African rhythmic retention in the United States. Rhythm and blues_sentence_57

The use of tresillo was continuously reinforced by the consecutive waves of Cuban music, which were adopted into North American popular culture. Rhythm and blues_sentence_58

In 1940 Bob Zurke released "Rhumboogie," a boogie-woogie with a tresillo bass line, and lyrics proudly declaring the adoption of Cuban rhythm: Rhythm and blues_sentence_59

Although originating in the metropolis at the mouth of the Mississippi River, New Orleans blues, with its Afro-Caribbean rhythmic traits, is distinct from the sound of the Mississippi Delta blues. Rhythm and blues_sentence_60

In the late 1940s, New Orleans musicians were especially receptive to Cuban influences precisely at the time when R&B was first forming. Rhythm and blues_sentence_61

The first use of tresillo in R&B occurred in New Orleans. Rhythm and blues_sentence_62

Robert Palmer recalls: Rhythm and blues_sentence_63

In a 1988 interview with Palmer, Bartholomew (who had the first R&B studio band), revealed how he initially superimposed tresillo over swing rhythm: Rhythm and blues_sentence_64

Bartholomew referred to the Cuban son by the misnomer rumba, a common practice of that time. Rhythm and blues_sentence_65

Fats Domino's "Blue Monday," produced by Bartholomew, is another example of this now classic use of tresillo in R&B. Rhythm and blues_sentence_66

Bartholomew's 1949 tresillo-based "Oh Cubanas" is an attempt to blend African American and Afro-Cuban music. Rhythm and blues_sentence_67

The word mambo, larger than any of the other text, is placed prominently on the record label. Rhythm and blues_sentence_68

In his composition "Misery," New Orleans pianist Professor Longhair plays a habanera-like figure in his left hand. Rhythm and blues_sentence_69

The deft use of triplets is a characteristic of Longhair's style. Rhythm and blues_sentence_70

Rhythm and blues_description_list_0

  • Rhythm and blues_item_0_0

Gerhard Kubik notes that with the exception of New Orleans, early blues lacked complex polyrhythms, and there was a "very specific absence of asymmetric time-line patterns (key patterns) in virtually all early-twentieth-century African American music ... only in some New Orleans genres does a hint of simple time line patterns occasionally appear in the form of transient so-called 'stomp' patterns or stop-time chorus. Rhythm and blues_sentence_71

These do not function in the same way as African timelines." Rhythm and blues_sentence_72

In the late 1940s, this changed somewhat when the two-celled time line structure was brought into the blues. Rhythm and blues_sentence_73

New Orleans musicians such as Bartholomew and Longhair incorporated Cuban instruments, as well as the clave pattern and related two-celled figures in songs such as "Carnival Day," (Bartholomew 1949) and "Mardi Gras In New Orleans" (Longhair 1949). Rhythm and blues_sentence_74

While some of these early experiments were awkward fusions, the Afro-Cuban elements were eventually integrated fully into the New Orleans sound. Rhythm and blues_sentence_75

Robert Palmer reports that, in the 1940s, Professor Longhair listened to and played with musicians from the islands and "fell under the spell of Perez Prado's mambo records." Rhythm and blues_sentence_76

He was especially enamored with Afro-Cuban music. Rhythm and blues_sentence_77

Michael Campbell states: "Professor Longhair's influence was ... far-reaching. Rhythm and blues_sentence_78

In several of his early recordings, Professor Longhair blended Afro-Cuban rhythms with rhythm and blues. Rhythm and blues_sentence_79

The most explicit is 'Longhair's Blues Rhumba,' where he overlays a straightforward blues with a clave rhythm." Rhythm and blues_sentence_80

Longhair's particular style was known locally as rumba-boogie. Rhythm and blues_sentence_81

In his "Mardi Gras in New Orleans," the pianist employs the 2–3 clave onbeat/offbeat motif in a rumba boogie "guajeo". Rhythm and blues_sentence_82

The syncopated, but straight subdivision feel of Cuban music (as opposed to swung subdivisions) took root in New Orleans R&B during this time. Rhythm and blues_sentence_83

Alexander Stewart states that the popular feel was passed along from "New Orleans—through James Brown's music, to the popular music of the 1970s," adding: "The singular style of rhythm & blues that emerged from New Orleans in the years after World War II played an important role in the development of funk. Rhythm and blues_sentence_84

In a related development, the underlying rhythms of American popular music underwent a basic, yet the generally unacknowledged transition from triplet or shuffle feel to even or straight eighth notes. Rhythm and blues_sentence_85

Concerning the various funk motifs, Stewart states that this model "... is different from a time line (such as clave and tresillo) in that it is not an exact pattern, but more of a loose organizing principle." Rhythm and blues_sentence_86

Johnny Otis released the R&B mambo "Mambo Boogie" in January 1951, featuring congas, maracas, claves, and mambo saxophone guajeos in a blues progression. Rhythm and blues_sentence_87

Ike Turner recorded "Cubano Jump" (1954) an electric guitar instrumental, which is built around several 2–3 clave figures, adopted from the mambo. Rhythm and blues_sentence_88

The Hawketts, in "Mardi Gras Mambo" (1955) (featuring the vocals of a young Art Neville), make a clear reference to Perez Prado in their use of his trademark "Unhh!" Rhythm and blues_sentence_89

in the break after the introduction. Rhythm and blues_sentence_90

Ned Sublette states: "The electric blues cats were very well aware of Latin music, and there was definitely such a thing as rhumba blues; you can hear Muddy Waters and Howlin' Wolf playing it." Rhythm and blues_sentence_91

He also cites Otis Rush, Ike Turner and Ray Charles, as R&B artists who employed this feel. Rhythm and blues_sentence_92

The use of clave in R&B coincided with the growing dominance of the backbeat, and the rising popularity of Cuban music in the U.S. Rhythm and blues_sentence_93

In a sense, clave can be distilled down to tresillo (three-side) answered by the backbeat (two-side). Rhythm and blues_sentence_94

The "Bo Diddley beat" (1955) is perhaps the first true fusion of 3–2 clave and R&B/rock 'n' roll. Rhythm and blues_sentence_95

Bo Diddley has given different accounts of the riff's origins. Rhythm and blues_sentence_96

Sublette asserts: "In the context of the time, and especially those maracas [heard on the record], 'Bo Diddley' has to be understood as a Latin-tinged record. Rhythm and blues_sentence_97

A rejected cut recorded at the same session was titled only 'Rhumba' on the track sheets." Rhythm and blues_sentence_98

Johnny Otis' "Willie and the Hand Jive" (1958) is another example of this successful blend of 3–2 claves and R&B. Rhythm and blues_sentence_99

Otis used the Cuban instruments claves and maracas on the song. Rhythm and blues_sentence_100

Afro-Cuban music was the conduit by which African American music was "re-Africanized," through the adoption of two-celled figures like clave and Afro-Cuban instruments like the conga drum, bongos, maracas and claves. Rhythm and blues_sentence_101

According to John Storm Roberts, R&B became the vehicle for the return of Cuban elements into mass popular music. Rhythm and blues_sentence_102

Ahmet Ertegun, producer for Atlantic Records, is reported to have said that "Afro-Cuban rhythms added color and excitement to the basic drive of R&B." Rhythm and blues_sentence_103

As Ned Sublette points out though: "By the 1960s, with Cuba the object of a United States embargo that still remains in effect today, the island nation had been forgotten as a source of music. Rhythm and blues_sentence_104

By the time people began to talk about rock and roll as having a history, Cuban music had vanished from North American consciousness." Rhythm and blues_sentence_105

Early to mid-1950s Rhythm and blues_section_5

At first, only African Americans were buying R&B discs. Rhythm and blues_sentence_106

According to Jerry Wexler of Atlantic Records, sales were localized in African-American markets; there was no white sales nor white radio play. Rhythm and blues_sentence_107

During the early 1950s, more white teenagers started to become aware of R&B and to purchase the music. Rhythm and blues_sentence_108

For example, 40% of 1952 sales at Dolphin's of Hollywood record shop, located in an African-American area of Los Angeles, were to whites. Rhythm and blues_sentence_109

Eventually, white teens across the country turned their music taste towards rhythm and blues. Rhythm and blues_sentence_110

Johnny Otis, who had signed with the Newark, New Jersey-based Savoy Records, produced many R&B hits in 1951, including: "Double Crossing Blues", "Mistrustin' Blues" and "Cupid's Boogie", all of which hit number one that year. Rhythm and blues_sentence_111

Otis scored ten top ten hits that year. Rhythm and blues_sentence_112

Other hits include: "Gee Baby", "Mambo Boogie" and "All Nite Long". Rhythm and blues_sentence_113

The Clovers, a quintet consisting of a vocal quartet with accompanying guitarist, sang a distinctive-sounding combination of blues and gospel, had the number five hit of the year with "Don't You Know I Love You" on Atlantic. Rhythm and blues_sentence_114

Also in July 1951, Cleveland, Ohio DJ Alan Freed started a late-night radio show called "The Moondog Rock Roll House Party" on WJW (850 AM). Rhythm and blues_sentence_115

Freed's show was sponsored by Fred Mintz, whose R&B record store had a primarily African American clientele. Rhythm and blues_sentence_116

Freed began referring to the rhythm and blues music he played as "rock and roll". Rhythm and blues_sentence_117

In 1951, Little Richard Penniman began recording for RCA Records in the jump blues style of late 1940s stars Roy Brown and Billy Wright. Rhythm and blues_sentence_118

However, it was not until he prepared a demo in 1954, that caught the attention of Specialty Records, that the world would start to hear his new, uptempo, funky rhythm and blues that would catapult him to fame in 1955 and help define the sound of rock 'n' roll. Rhythm and blues_sentence_119

A rapid succession of rhythm and blues hits followed, beginning with "Tutti Frutti" and "Long Tall Sally", which would influence performers such as James Brown, Elvis Presley, and Otis Redding. Rhythm and blues_sentence_120

Ruth Brown on the Atlantic label, placed hits in the top five every year from 1951 through 1954: "Teardrops from My Eyes", "Five, Ten, Fifteen Hours", "(Mama) He Treats Your Daughter Mean" and "What a Dream". Rhythm and blues_sentence_121

Faye Adams's "Shake a Hand" made it to number two in 1952. Rhythm and blues_sentence_122

In 1953, the R&B record-buying public made Willie Mae Thornton's original recording of Leiber and Stoller's "Hound Dog" the number three hit that year. Rhythm and blues_sentence_123

Ruth Brown was very prominent among female R&B stars; her popularity was most likely derived because of "her deeply rooted vocal delivery in African American tradition" That same year The Orioles, a doo-wop group, had the #4 hit of the year with "Crying in the Chapel". Rhythm and blues_sentence_124

Fats Domino made the top 30 of the pop charts in 1952 and 1953, then the top 10 with "Ain't That a Shame". Rhythm and blues_sentence_125

Ray Charles came to national prominence in 1955 with "I Got a Woman". Rhythm and blues_sentence_126

Big Bill Broonzy said of Charles' music: "He's mixing the blues with the spirituals ... Rhythm and blues_sentence_127

I know that's wrong." Rhythm and blues_sentence_128

In 1954 the Chords' "Sh-Boom" became the first hit to cross over from the R&B chart to hit the top 10 early in the year. Rhythm and blues_sentence_129

Late in the year, and into 1955, "Hearts of Stone" by the Charms made the top 20. Rhythm and blues_sentence_130

At Chess Records in the spring of 1955, Bo Diddley's debut record "Bo Diddley"/"I'm a Man" climbed to number two on the R&B charts and popularized Bo Diddley's own original rhythm and blues clave-based vamp that would become a mainstay in rock and roll. Rhythm and blues_sentence_131

At the urging of Leonard Chess at Chess Records, Chuck Berry had reworked a country fiddle tune with a long history, entitled "Ida Red". Rhythm and blues_sentence_132

The resulting "Maybellene" was not only a number three hit on the R&B charts in 1955, but also reached into the top 30 on the pop charts. Rhythm and blues_sentence_133

Alan Freed, who had moved to the much larger market of New York City in 1954, helped the record become popular with white teenagers. Rhythm and blues_sentence_134

Freed had been given part of the writers' credit by Chess in return for his promotional activities; a common practice at the time. Rhythm and blues_sentence_135

Late 1950s Rhythm and blues_section_6

In 1956, an R&B "Top Stars of '56" tour took place, with headliners Al Hibbler, Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers, and Carl Perkins, whose "Blue Suede Shoes" was very popular with R&B music buyers. Rhythm and blues_sentence_136

Some of the performers completing the bill were Chuck Berry, Cathy Carr, Shirley & Lee, Della Reese, Sam "T-Bird" Jensen, the Cleftones, and the Spaniels with Illinois Jacquet's Big Rockin' Rhythm Band. Rhythm and blues_sentence_137

Cities visited by the tour included Columbia, South Carolina, Annapolis, Maryland, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Syracuse, Rochester and Buffalo, New York and other cities. Rhythm and blues_sentence_138

In Columbia the concert ended with a near riot as Perkins began his first song as the closing act. Rhythm and blues_sentence_139

Perkins is quoted as saying, "It was dangerous. Rhythm and blues_sentence_140

Lot of kids got hurt.". Rhythm and blues_sentence_141

In Annapolis 70,000 to 50,000 people tried to attend a sold-out performance with 8,000 seats. Rhythm and blues_sentence_142

Roads were clogged for seven hours. Rhythm and blues_sentence_143

Filmmakers took advantage of the popularity of "rhythm and blues" musicians as "rock n roll" musicians beginning in 1956. Rhythm and blues_sentence_144

Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Fats Domino, Big Joe Turner, the Treniers, the Platters, the Flamingos, all made it onto the big screen. Rhythm and blues_sentence_145

Two Elvis Presley records made the R&B top five in 1957: "Jailhouse Rock"/"Treat Me Nice" at number one, and "All Shook Up" at number five, an unprecedented acceptance of a non-African American artist into a music category known for being created by blacks. Rhythm and blues_sentence_146

Nat King Cole, also a jazz pianist who had two hits on the pop charts in the early 1950s ("Mona Lisa" at number two in 1950 and "Too Young" at number one in 1951), had a record in the top five in the R&B charts in 1958, "Looking Back"/"Do I Like It". Rhythm and blues_sentence_147

In 1959, two black-owned record labels, one of which would become hugely successful, made their debut: Sam Cooke's Sar, and Berry Gordy's Motown Records. Rhythm and blues_sentence_148

Brook Benton was at the top of the R&B charts in 1959 and 1960 with one number-one and two number-two hits. Rhythm and blues_sentence_149

Benton had a certain warmth in his voice that attracted a wide variety of listeners, and his ballads led to comparisons with performers such as Nat King Cole, Frank Sinatra and Tony Bennett. Rhythm and blues_sentence_150

Lloyd Price, who in 1952 had a number one hit with "Lawdy Miss Clawdy" regained predominance with a version of "Stagger Lee" at number one and "Personality" at number five for in 1959. Rhythm and blues_sentence_151

The white bandleader of the Bill Black Combo, Bill Black, who had helped start Elvis Presley's career and was Elvis's bassist in the 1950s, was popular with black listeners. Rhythm and blues_sentence_152

Ninety percent of his record sales were from black people, and his "Smokie, Part 2" (1959) rose to the number one position on black music charts. Rhythm and blues_sentence_153

He was once told that "a lot of those stations still think you're a black group because the sound feels funky and black." Rhythm and blues_sentence_154

Hi Records did not feature pictures of the Combo on early records. Rhythm and blues_sentence_155

1960s–1970s Rhythm and blues_section_7

Sam Cooke's number five hit "Chain Gang" is indicative of R&B in 1960, as is pop rocker Chubby Checker's number five hit "The Twist". Rhythm and blues_sentence_156

By the early 1960s, the music industry category previously known as rhythm and blues was being called soul music, and similar music by white artists was labeled blue eyed soul. Rhythm and blues_sentence_157

Motown Records had its first million-selling single in 1960 with the Miracles' "Shop Around", and in 1961, Stax Records had its first hit with Carla Thomas' "Gee Whiz (Look at His Eyes)". Rhythm and blues_sentence_158

Stax's next major hit, The Mar-Keys' instrumental "Last Night" (also released in 1961) introduced the rawer Memphis soul sound for which Stax became known. Rhythm and blues_sentence_159

In Jamaica, R&B influenced the development of ska. Rhythm and blues_sentence_160

In 1969 black culture and rhythm and blues reached another great achievement when the Grammys first added the Rhythm and Blues category, giving academic recognition to the category. Rhythm and blues_sentence_161

By the 1970s, the term "rhythm and blues" was being used as a blanket term for soul, funk, and disco. Rhythm and blues_sentence_162

Around the same time, mods band influenced by R&B The Who played Motown hit "Heat Wave". Rhythm and blues_sentence_163

In the 70s, Philadelphia International (featuring The O'Jays, Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes, Jerry Bell, Archie Bell & The Drells and Billy Paul) and Hi Records (featuring Al Green, O. Rhythm and blues_sentence_164 V. Wright and Ann Peebles) got R&B hits. Rhythm and blues_sentence_165

1980s to present Rhythm and blues_section_8

Main article: Contemporary R&B Rhythm and blues_sentence_166

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhythm and blues.