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This article is about the band. R.E.M._sentence_0

For other uses, see Rem (disambiguation). R.E.M._sentence_1


Background informationR.E.M._header_cell_0_1_0
Also known asR.E.M._header_cell_0_2_0 R.E.M._cell_0_2_1
OriginR.E.M._header_cell_0_3_0 Athens, Georgia, U.S.R.E.M._cell_0_3_1
GenresR.E.M._header_cell_0_4_0 R.E.M._cell_0_4_1
Years activeR.E.M._header_cell_0_5_0 1980–2011R.E.M._cell_0_5_1
LabelsR.E.M._header_cell_0_6_0 R.E.M._cell_0_6_1
Associated actsR.E.M._header_cell_0_7_0 R.E.M._cell_0_7_1
WebsiteR.E.M._header_cell_0_8_0 R.E.M._cell_0_8_1
Past membersR.E.M._header_cell_0_10_0 Non-musical members:R.E.M._cell_0_10_1

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_2

was an American rock band from Athens, Georgia, formed in 1980 by drummer Bill Berry, guitarist Peter Buck, bassist Mike Mills, and lead vocalist Michael Stipe who were students at the University of Georgia. R.E.M._sentence_3

Liner notes from some of the band's albums list attorney Bertis Downs and manager Jefferson Holt as non-musical members. R.E.M._sentence_4

One of the first alternative rock bands, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_5

was noted for Buck's ringing, arpeggiated guitar style; Stipe's distinctive vocal quality, unique stage presence, and obscure lyrics; Mills's melodic bass lines and backing vocals; and Berry's tight, economical drumming style. R.E.M._sentence_6

In the early 1990s, other alternative rock acts such as Nirvana and Pavement viewed R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_7

as a pioneer of the genre. R.E.M._sentence_8

After Berry left the band in 1997, the band continued its career in the 2000s with mixed critical and commercial success. R.E.M._sentence_9

The band broke up amicably in 2011 with members devoting time to solo projects after having sold more than 85 million albums worldwide and becoming one of the world's best-selling music artists. R.E.M._sentence_10

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_11

released its first single, "Radio Free Europe", in 1981 on the independent record label Hib-Tone. R.E.M._sentence_12

It was followed by the Chronic Town EP in 1982, the band's first release on I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_13 Records. R.E.M._sentence_14

In 1983, the group released its critically acclaimed debut album, Murmur, and built its reputation over the next few years through releases every year from 1984 to 1988: Reckoning, Fables of the Reconstruction, Lifes Rich Pageant, Document and Green, including an intermittent b-side compilation Dead Letter Office. R.E.M._sentence_15

Don Dixon and Mitch Easter produced their first two albums, Joe Boyd handled production on Fables of the Reconstruction and Don Gehman produced Life's Rich Pageant. R.E.M._sentence_16

Thereafter, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_17

settled on Scott Litt as producer for the next 10 years during the band's most successful period of their career. R.E.M._sentence_18

They also started co-producing their material and playing other instruments in the studio apart from the main ones they play. R.E.M._sentence_19

With constant touring, and the support of college radio following years of underground success, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_20

achieved a mainstream hit with the 1987 single "The One I Love". R.E.M._sentence_21

The group signed to Warner Bros. Records in 1988, and began to espouse political and environmental concerns while playing large arenas worldwide. R.E.M._sentence_22

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_23

's most commercially successful albums, Out of Time (1991) and Automatic for the People (1992), put them in the vanguard of alternative rock just as it was becoming mainstream. R.E.M._sentence_24

Out of Time received seven nominations at the 34th Annual Grammy Awards, and lead single "Losing My Religion", was R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_25

's highest-charting and best-selling hit. R.E.M._sentence_26

Monster (1994) continued its run of success. R.E.M._sentence_27

The band began its first tour in six years to support the album; the tour was marred by medical emergencies suffered by three of the band members. R.E.M._sentence_28

In 1996, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_29

re-signed with Warner Bros. for a reported US$80 million, at the time the most expensive recording contract ever. R.E.M._sentence_30

The tour was productive and the band recorded the following album mostly during soundchecks. R.E.M._sentence_31

The resulting record, New Adventures in Hi-Fi (1996), is hailed as the band's last great album and the members' favorite, growing in cult status over the years. R.E.M._sentence_32

Berry left the band the following year, and Stipe, Buck, and Mills continued as a musical trio, supplemented by studio and live musicians, such as multi-instrumentalists Scott McCaughey and Ken Stringfellow and drummers Joey Waronker and Bill Rieflin. R.E.M._sentence_33

They also parted ways with their longtime manager Jefferson Holt and band's attorney Bertis Downs assumed managerial duties. R.E.M._sentence_34

Seeking to also renovate their sound, the band stopped working with Scott Litt, co-producer and contributor to six of their studio albums and hired Pat McCarthy as co-producer, who had participated before that as mixer and engineer on their last two albums. R.E.M._sentence_35

After the electronic experimental direction of Up (1998) that was commercially unsuccessful, Reveal (2001) was referred to as "a conscious return to their classic sound" which received general acclaim. R.E.M._sentence_36

In 2007, the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in its first year of eligibility and Berry reunited with the band for the ceremony and to record a cover of John Lennon's "#9 Dream" for the compilation album Instant Karma: The Amnesty International Campaign to Save Darfur to benefit Amnesty International's campaign to alleviate the Darfur conflict. R.E.M._sentence_37

Looking for a change of sound after lukewarm reception for Around the Sun (2004), the band collaborated with co-producer Jacknife Lee on their last two studio albums—the well-received Accelerate (2008) and Collapse into Now (2011)—as well as their first live albums after decades of touring. R.E.M._sentence_38

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_39

disbanded amicably in September 2011, with former members having continued with various musical projects, and several live and archival albums have since been released. R.E.M._sentence_40

History R.E.M._section_0

1980–1982: Formation and first releases R.E.M._section_1

In January 1980, Peter Buck met Michael Stipe in Wuxtry Records, the Athens record store where Buck worked. R.E.M._sentence_41

The pair discovered that they shared similar tastes in music, particularly in punk rock and protopunk artists like Patti Smith, Television, and the Velvet Underground. R.E.M._sentence_42

Stipe said, "It turns out that I was buying all the records that [Buck] was saving for himself." R.E.M._sentence_43

Through mutual friend Kathleen O'Brien, Stipe and Buck then met fellow University of Georgia students Bill Berry and Mike Mills, who had played music together since high school and lived together in Georgia. R.E.M._sentence_44

The quartet agreed to collaborate on several songs; Stipe later commented that "there was never any grand plan behind any of it". R.E.M._sentence_45

Their still-unnamed band spent a few months rehearsing in a deconsecrated Episcopal church in Athens, and played its first show on April 5, 1980, supporting the Side Effects at O'Brien's birthday party held in the same church, performing a mix of originals and 1960s and 1970s covers. R.E.M._sentence_46

After considering names such as Cans of Piss, Negro Eyes, and Twisted Kites, the band settled on "R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_47

", which Stipe selected at random from a dictionary. R.E.M._sentence_48

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_49

is well known as an initialism for rapid eye movement, the dream stage of sleep; however, sleep researcher Dr. Rafael Pelayo reports that when his colleague Dr. William Dement, the sleep scientist who coined the term REM, reached out to the band, Dr. Dement was told that the band was named "not after REM sleep". R.E.M._sentence_50

The band members eventually dropped out of school to focus on their developing group. R.E.M._sentence_51

They found a manager in Jefferson Holt, a record store clerk who was so impressed by an R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_52

performance in his hometown of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, that he moved to Athens. R.E.M._sentence_53

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_54

's success was almost immediate in Athens and surrounding areas; the band drew progressively larger crowds for shows, which caused some resentment in the Athens music scene. R.E.M._sentence_55

Over the next year and a half, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_56

toured throughout the Southern United States. R.E.M._sentence_57

Touring was arduous because a touring circuit for alternative rock bands did not then exist. R.E.M._sentence_58

The group toured in an old blue van driven by Holt, and lived on a food allowance of $2 each per day. R.E.M._sentence_59

During April 1981, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_60

recorded its first single, "Radio Free Europe", at producer Mitch Easter's Drive-In Studios in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. R.E.M._sentence_61

Initially distributing it as a four-track demo tape to clubs, record labels and magazines, the single was released in July 1981 on the local independent record label Hib-Tone with an initial pressing of 1,000 copies—600 of which were sent out as promotional copies. R.E.M._sentence_62

The single quickly sold out, and another 6,000 copies were pressed due to popular demand, despite the original pressing leaving off the record label's contact details. R.E.M._sentence_63

Despite its limited pressing, the single garnered critical acclaim, and was listed as one of the ten best singles of the year by The New York Times. R.E.M._sentence_64

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_65

recorded the Chronic Town EP with Mitch Easter in October 1981, and planned to release it on a new indie label named Dasht Hopes. R.E.M._sentence_66

However, I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_67 Records acquired a demo of the band's first recording session with Easter that had been circulating for months. R.E.M._sentence_68

The band turned down the advances of major label RCA Records in favor of I.R.S., with whom it signed a contract in May 1982. R.E.M._sentence_69

I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_70

released Chronic Town that August as its first American release. R.E.M._sentence_71

A positive review of the EP by NME praised the songs' auras of mystery, and concluded, "R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_72

ring true, and it's great to hear something as unforced and cunning as this." R.E.M._sentence_73

1982–1988: I.R.S. Records and cult success R.E.M._section_2

I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_74

first paired R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_75

with producer Stephen Hague to record its debut album. R.E.M._sentence_76

Hague's emphasis on technical perfection left the band unsatisfied, and the band members asked the label to let them record with Easter. R.E.M._sentence_77

I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_78

agreed to a "tryout" session, allowing the band to return to North Carolina and record the song "Pilgrimage" with Easter and producing partner Don Dixon. R.E.M._sentence_79

After hearing the track, I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_80

permitted the group to record the album with Dixon and Easter. R.E.M._sentence_81

Because of its bad experience with Hague, the band recorded the album via a process of negation, refusing to incorporate rock music clichés such as guitar solos or then-popular synthesizers, in order to give its music a timeless feel. R.E.M._sentence_82

The completed album, Murmur, was greeted with critical acclaim upon its release in 1983, with Rolling Stone listing the album as its record of the year. R.E.M._sentence_83

The album reached number 36 on the Billboard album chart. R.E.M._sentence_84

A re-recorded version of "Radio Free Europe" was the album's lead single and reached number 78 on the Billboard singles chart in 1983. R.E.M._sentence_85

Despite the acclaim awarded the album, Murmur sold only about 200,000 copies, which I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_86

's Jay Boberg felt was below expectations. R.E.M._sentence_87

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_88

made its first national television appearance on Late Night with David Letterman in October 1983, during which the group performed a new, unnamed song. R.E.M._sentence_89

The piece, eventually titled "So. R.E.M._sentence_90 Central Rain (I'm Sorry)", became the first single from the band's second album, Reckoning (1984), which was also recorded with Easter and Dixon. R.E.M._sentence_91

The album met with critical acclaim; NME's Mat Snow wrote that Reckoning "confirms R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_92

as one of the most beautifully exciting groups on the planet". R.E.M._sentence_93

While Reckoning peaked at number 27 on the US album charts—an unusually high chart placing for a college rock band at the time—scant airplay and poor distribution overseas resulted in it charting no higher than number 91 in Britain. R.E.M._sentence_94

The band's third album, Fables of the Reconstruction (1985), demonstrated a change in direction. R.E.M._sentence_95

Instead of Dixon and Easter, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_96

chose producer Joe Boyd, who had worked with Fairport Convention and Nick Drake, to record the album in England. R.E.M._sentence_97

The band members found the sessions unexpectedly difficult, and were miserable due to the cold winter weather and what they considered to be poor food; the situation brought the band to the verge of break-up. R.E.M._sentence_98

The gloominess surrounding the sessions worked its way into the context for the album's themes. R.E.M._sentence_99

Lyrically, Stipe began to create storylines in the mode of Southern mythology, noting in a 1985 interview that he was inspired by "the whole idea of the old men sitting around the fire, passing on ... legends and fables to the grandchildren". R.E.M._sentence_100

They toured Canada in July and August 1985, and Europe in October of that year, including the Netherlands, England (including one concert at London's Hammersmith Palais), Ireland, Scotland, France, Switzerland, Belgium and West Germany. R.E.M._sentence_101

On October 2, 1985, the group played a concert in Bochum, West Germany, for the German TV show Rockpalast. R.E.M._sentence_102

Stipe had bleached his hair blond during this time. R.E.M._sentence_103

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_104

invited California punk band Minutemen to open for them on part of the US tour, and organized a benefit for the family of Minutemen frontman D Boon who died in a December 1985 car crash shortly after the tour's conclusion. R.E.M._sentence_105

Fables of the Reconstruction performed poorly in Europe and its critical reception was mixed, with some critics regarding it as dreary and poorly recorded. R.E.M._sentence_106

As with the previous records, the singles from Fables of the Reconstruction were mostly ignored by mainstream radio. R.E.M._sentence_107

Meanwhile, I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_108

was becoming frustrated with the band's reluctance to achieve mainstream success. R.E.M._sentence_109

For its fourth album, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_110

enlisted John Mellencamp's producer Don Gehman. R.E.M._sentence_111

The result, Lifes Rich Pageant (1986), featured Stipe's vocals closer to the forefront of the music. R.E.M._sentence_112

In a 1986 interview with the Chicago Tribune, Peter Buck related, "Michael is getting better at what he's doing, and he's getting more confident at it. R.E.M._sentence_113

And I think that shows up in the projection of his voice." R.E.M._sentence_114

The album improved markedly upon the sales of Fables of the Reconstruction and reached number 21 on the Billboard album chart. R.E.M._sentence_115

The single "Fall on Me" also picked up support on commercial radio. R.E.M._sentence_116

The album was the band's first to be certified gold for selling 500,000 copies. R.E.M._sentence_117

While American college radio remained R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_118

's core support, the band was beginning to chart hits on mainstream rock formats; however, the music still encountered resistance from Top 40 radio. R.E.M._sentence_119

Following the success of Lifes Rich Pageant, I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_120

issued Dead Letter Office, a compilation of tracks recorded by the band during their album sessions, many of which had either been issued as B-sides or left unreleased altogether. R.E.M._sentence_121

Shortly thereafter, I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_122

compiled R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_123

's music video catalog (except "Wolves, Lower") as the band's first video release, Succumbs. R.E.M._sentence_124

Don Gehman was unable to produce R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_125

's fifth album, so he suggested the group work with Scott Litt. R.E.M._sentence_126

Litt would be the producer for the band's next five albums. R.E.M._sentence_127

Document (1987) featured some of Stipe's most openly political lyrics, particularly on "Welcome to the Occupation" and "Exhuming McCarthy", which were reactions to the conservative political environment of the 1980s under American President Ronald Reagan. R.E.M._sentence_128

Jon Pareles of The New York Times wrote in his review of the album, "'Document' is both confident and defiant; if R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_129

is about to move from cult-band status to mass popularity, the album decrees that the band will get there on its own terms." R.E.M._sentence_130

Document was R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_131

's breakthrough album, and the first single "The One I Love" charted in the Top 20 in the US, UK, and Canada. R.E.M._sentence_132

By January 1988, Document had become the group's first album to sell a million copies. R.E.M._sentence_133

In light of the band's breakthrough, the December 1987 cover of Rolling Stone declared R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_134

"America's Best Rock & Roll Band". R.E.M._sentence_135

1988–1997: International breakout and alternative rock stardom R.E.M._section_3

Frustrated that its records did not see satisfactory overseas distribution, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_136

left I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_137

when its contract expired and signed with the major label Warner Bros. Records. R.E.M._sentence_138

Though other labels offered more money, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_139

ultimately signed with Warner Bros.—reportedly for an amount between $6 million and $12 million—due to the company's assurance of total creative freedom. R.E.M._sentence_140

(Jay Boberg claimed that R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_141

's deal with Warner Bros. was for $22 million, which Peter Buck disputed as "definitely wrong".) R.E.M._sentence_142

In the aftermath of the group's departure, I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_143

released the 1988 "best of" compilation Eponymous (assembled with input from the band members) to capitalize on assets the company still possessed. R.E.M._sentence_144

The band's 1988 Warner Bros. debut, Green, was recorded in Memphis, Tennessee, and showcased the group experimenting with its sound. R.E.M._sentence_145

The record's tracks ranged from the upbeat first single "Stand" (a hit in the United States), to more political material, like the rock-oriented "Orange Crush" and "World Leader Pretend", which address the Vietnam War and the Cold War, respectively. R.E.M._sentence_146

Green has gone on to sell four million copies worldwide. R.E.M._sentence_147

The band supported the album with its biggest and most visually developed tour to date, featuring back-projections and art films playing on the stage. R.E.M._sentence_148

After the Green tour, the band members unofficially decided to take the following year off, the first extended break in the band's career. R.E.M._sentence_149

In 1990 Warner Bros. issued the music video compilation Pop Screen to collect clips from the Document and Green albums, followed a few months later by the video album Tourfilm featuring live performances filmed during the Green World Tour. R.E.M._sentence_150

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_151

reconvened in mid-1990 to record its seventh album, Out of Time. R.E.M._sentence_152

In a departure from Green, the band members often wrote the music with non-traditional rock instrumentation including mandolin, organ, and acoustic guitar instead of adding them as overdubs later in the creative process. R.E.M._sentence_153

Released in March 1991, Out of Time was the band's first album to top both the US and UK charts. R.E.M._sentence_154

The record eventually sold 4.2 million copies in the US alone, and about 12 million copies worldwide by 1996. R.E.M._sentence_155

The album's lead single "Losing My Religion" was a worldwide hit that received heavy rotation on radio, as did the music video on MTV and VH1. R.E.M._sentence_156

"Losing My Religion" was R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_157

's highest-charting single in the US, reaching number four on the Billboard charts. R.E.M._sentence_158

"There've been very few life-changing events in our career because our career has been so gradual," Mills said years later. R.E.M._sentence_159

"If you want to talk about life changing, I think 'Losing My Religion' is the closest it gets". R.E.M._sentence_160

The album's second single, "Shiny Happy People" (one of three songs on the record to feature vocals from Kate Pierson of fellow Athens band the B-52's), was also a major hit, reaching number 10 in the US and number six in the UK. R.E.M._sentence_161

Out of Time garnered R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_162

seven nominations at the 1992 Grammy Awards, the most nominations of any artist that year. R.E.M._sentence_163

The band won three awards: one for Best Alternative Music Album and two for "Losing My Religion", Best Short Form Music Video and Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal. R.E.M._sentence_164

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_165

did not tour to promote Out of Time; instead the group played a series of one-off shows, including an appearance taped for an episode of MTV Unplugged and released music videos for each song on the video album This Film Is On. R.E.M._sentence_166

The band also performed "Losing My Religion" with members of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra in Madison, Georgia, at as part of MTV's 10th anniversary special. R.E.M._sentence_167

After spending some months off, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_168

returned to the studio in 1991 to record its next album. R.E.M._sentence_169

Late in 1992, the band released Automatic for the People. R.E.M._sentence_170

Though the group had intended to make a harder-rocking album after the softer textures of Out of Time, the somber Automatic for the People "[seemed] to move at an even more agonized crawl", according to Melody Maker. R.E.M._sentence_171

The album dealt with themes of loss and mourning inspired by "that sense of ... turning thirty", according to Buck. R.E.M._sentence_172

Several songs featured string arrangements by former Led Zeppelin bassist John Paul Jones. R.E.M._sentence_173

Considered by a number of critics (as well as by Buck and Mills) to be the band's best album, Automatic for the People reached numbers one and two on UK and US charts, respectively, and generated the American Top 40 hit singles "Drive", "Man on the Moon", and "Everybody Hurts". R.E.M._sentence_174

The album would sell over fifteen million copies worldwide. R.E.M._sentence_175

As with Out of Time, there was no tour in support of the album. R.E.M._sentence_176

The decision to forgo a tour, in conjunction with Stipe's physical appearance, generated rumors that the singer was dying or HIV-positive, which were vehemently denied by the band. R.E.M._sentence_177

After the band released two slow-paced albums in a row, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_178

's 1994 album Monster was, as Buck said, "a 'rock' record, with the rock in quotation marks." R.E.M._sentence_179

In contrast to the sound of its predecessors, the music of Monster consisted of distorted guitar tones, minimal overdubs, and touches of 1970s glam rock. R.E.M._sentence_180

Like Out of Time, Monster topped the charts in both the US and UK. R.E.M._sentence_181

The record sold about nine million copies worldwide. R.E.M._sentence_182

The singles "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?" R.E.M._sentence_183

and "Bang and Blame" were the band's last American Top 40 hits, although all the singles from Monster reached the Top 30 on the British charts. R.E.M._sentence_184

Warner Bros. assembled the music videos from the album as well as those from Automatic for the People for release as Parallel in 1995. R.E.M._sentence_185

In January 1995, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_186

set out on its first tour in six years. R.E.M._sentence_187

The tour was a huge commercial success, but the period was difficult for the group. R.E.M._sentence_188

On March 1, Berry collapsed on stage during a performance in Lausanne, Switzerland, having suffered a brain aneurysm. R.E.M._sentence_189

He had surgery immediately and recovered fully within a month. R.E.M._sentence_190

Berry's aneurysm was only the beginning of a series of health problems that plagued the Monster tour. R.E.M._sentence_191

Mills had to undergo abdominal surgery to remove an intestinal adhesion in July; a month later, Stipe had to have an emergency surgery to repair a hernia. R.E.M._sentence_192

Despite all the problems, the group had recorded the bulk of a new album while on the road. R.E.M._sentence_193

The band brought along eight-track recorders to capture its shows, and used the recordings as the base elements for the album. R.E.M._sentence_194

The final three performances of the tour were filmed at the Omni Coliseum in Atlanta, Georgia and released in home video form as Road Movie. R.E.M._sentence_195

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_196

re-signed with Warner Bros. Records in 1996 for a reported $80 million (a figure the band constantly asserted originated with the media), rumored to be the largest recording contract in history at that point. R.E.M._sentence_197

The group's 1996 album New Adventures in Hi-Fi debuted at number two in the US and number one in the UK. R.E.M._sentence_198

The five million copies of the album sold were a reversal of the group's commercial fortunes of the previous five years. R.E.M._sentence_199

Critical reaction to the album was mostly favorable. R.E.M._sentence_200

In a 2017 retrospective on the band, Consequence of Sound ranked it third out of R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_201

's 15 full-length studio albums. R.E.M._sentence_202

The album is Stipe's favorite from R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_203

and he considers it the band at their peak. R.E.M._sentence_204

Mills says "It usually takes a good few years for me to decide where an album stands in the pantheon of recorded work we've done. R.E.M._sentence_205

This one may be third behind Murmur and Automatic for the People. R.E.M._sentence_206

According to DiscoverMusic: "Arguably less immediate and less accessible[...]New Adventures in Hi-Fi is a sprawling, "White Album"-esque affair clocking in at 65 minutes. R.E.M._sentence_207

However, while it required some time and commitment from the listener, the record's contents were rich, compelling and frequently stunning. R.E.M._sentence_208

Accordingly, the album has continued to lobby for recognition and has long since earned its reputation as R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_209

's most unsung LP." R.E.M._sentence_210

While sales were impressive they were below their previous major label records. R.E.M._sentence_211

Time's writer Christopher John Farley argued that the lesser sales of the album were due to the declining commercial power of alternative rock as a whole. R.E.M._sentence_212

That same year, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_213

parted ways with manager Jefferson Holt, allegedly due to sexual harassment charges levied against him by a member of the band's home office in Athens. R.E.M._sentence_214

The group's lawyer Bertis Downs assumed managerial duties. R.E.M._sentence_215

1997–2006: Continuing as three-piece with mixed success R.E.M._section_4

In April 1997, the band convened at Buck's Kauai vacation home to record demos of material intended for the next album. R.E.M._sentence_216

The band sought to reinvent its sound and intended to incorporate drum loops and percussion experiments. R.E.M._sentence_217

Just as the sessions were due to begin in October, Berry decided, after months of contemplation and discussions with Downs and Mills, to tell the rest of the band that he was quitting. R.E.M._sentence_218

Berry told his bandmates that he would not quit if they would break up as a result, so Stipe, Buck, and Mills agreed to carry on as a three-piece with his blessing. R.E.M._sentence_219

Berry publicly announced his departure three weeks later in October 1997. R.E.M._sentence_220

Berry told the press, "I'm just not as enthusiastic as I have been in the past about doing this anymore . R.E.M._sentence_221

. R.E.M._sentence_222

. R.E.M._sentence_223

I have the best job in the world. R.E.M._sentence_224

But I'm kind of ready to sit back and reflect and maybe not be a pop star anymore." R.E.M._sentence_225

Stipe admitted that the band would be different without a major contributor: "For me, Mike, and Peter, as R.E.M., are we still R.E.M.? R.E.M._sentence_226

I guess a three-legged dog is still a dog. R.E.M._sentence_227

It just has to learn to run differently." R.E.M._sentence_228

The band cancelled its scheduled recording sessions as a result of Berry's departure. R.E.M._sentence_229

"Without Bill it was different, confusing", Mills later said. R.E.M._sentence_230

"We didn't know exactly what to do. R.E.M._sentence_231

We couldn't rehearse without a drummer." R.E.M._sentence_232

The remaining members of R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_233

resumed work on the album in February 1998 at Toast Studios in San Francisco. R.E.M._sentence_234

The band ended its decade-long collaboration with Scott Litt and hired Pat McCarthy to produce the record. R.E.M._sentence_235

Nigel Godrich was taken on as assistant producer, and drafted in Screaming Trees member Barrett Martin and Beck's touring drummer Joey Waronker. R.E.M._sentence_236

The recording process was plagued with tension, and the group came close to disbanding. R.E.M._sentence_237

Bertis Downs called an emergency meeting where the band members sorted out their problems and agreed to continue as a group. R.E.M._sentence_238

Led off by the single "Daysleeper", Up (1998) debuted in the top ten in the US and UK. R.E.M._sentence_239

However, the album was a relative failure, selling 900,000 copies in the US by mid-1999 and eventually selling just over two million copies worldwide. R.E.M._sentence_240

While R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_241

's American sales were declining, the group's commercial base was shifting to the UK, where more R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_242

records were sold per capita than any other country and the band's singles regularly entered the Top 20. R.E.M._sentence_243

A year after Up's release, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_244

wrote the instrumental score to the Andy Kaufman biographical film Man on the Moon, a first for the group. R.E.M._sentence_245

The film took its title from the Automatic for the People song of the same name. R.E.M._sentence_246

The song "The Great Beyond" was released as a single from the Man on the Moon soundtrack album. R.E.M._sentence_247

"The Great Beyond" only reached number 57 on the American pop charts, but was the band's highest-charting single ever in the UK, reaching number three in 2000. R.E.M._sentence_248

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_249

recorded the majority of its twelfth album Reveal (2001) in Canada and Ireland from May to October 2000. R.E.M._sentence_250

Reveal shared the "lugubrious pace" of Up, and featured drumming by Joey Waronker, as well as contributions by Scott McCaughey (a co-founder of the band the Minus 5 with Buck), and Ken Stringfellow (founder of the Posies). R.E.M._sentence_251

Global sales of the album were over four million, but in the United States Reveal sold about the same number of copies as Up. R.E.M._sentence_252

The album was led by the single "Imitation of Life", which reached number six in the UK. R.E.M._sentence_253

Writing for Rock's Backpages, The Rev. R.E.M._sentence_254

Al Friston described the album as "loaded with golden loveliness at every twist and turn", in comparison to the group's "essentially unconvincing work on New Adventures in Hi-Fi and Up." R.E.M._sentence_255

Similarly, Rob Sheffield of Rolling Stone called Reveal "a spiritual renewal rooted in a musical one" and praised its "ceaselessly astonishing beauty." R.E.M._sentence_256

In 2003, Warner Bros. released the compilation album and DVD In Time: The Best of R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_257 1988–2003 and In View: The Best of R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_258 1988–2003, which featured two new songs, "Bad Day" and "Animal". R.E.M._sentence_259

At a 2003 concert in Raleigh, North Carolina, Berry made a surprise appearance, performing backing vocals on "Radio Free Europe". R.E.M._sentence_260

He then sat behind the drum kit for a performance of the early R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_261

song "Permanent Vacation", marking his first performance with the band since his retirement. R.E.M._sentence_262

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_263

released Around the Sun in 2004. R.E.M._sentence_264

During production of the album in 2002, Stipe said, "[The album] sounds like it's taking off from the last couple of records into unchartered R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_265

territory. R.E.M._sentence_266

Kind of primitive and howling". R.E.M._sentence_267

After the album's release, Mills said, "I think, honestly, it turned out a little slower than we intended for it to, just in terms of the overall speed of songs." R.E.M._sentence_268

Around the Sun received a mixed critical reception, and peaked at number 13 on the Billboard charts. R.E.M._sentence_269

The first single from the album, "Leaving New York", was a Top 5 hit in the UK. R.E.M._sentence_270

For the record and subsequent tour, the band hired a new full-time touring drummer, Bill Rieflin, who had previously been a member of several industrial music acts such as Ministry and Pigface, and remained in that role for the duration of the band's active years. R.E.M._sentence_271

The video album Perfect Square was released that same year. R.E.M._sentence_272

2006–2011: Last albums, recognition and breakup R.E.M._section_5

EMI released a compilation album covering R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_273

's work during its tenure on I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_274

in 2006 called And I Feel Fine... R.E.M._sentence_275 The Best of the I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_276 Years 1982–1987 along with the video album When the Light Is Mine: The Best of the I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_277 Years 1982–1987—the label had previously released the compilations The Best of R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_278

(1991), R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_279 : Singles Collected (1994), and R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_280 : In the Attic – Alternative Recordings 1985–1989 (1997). R.E.M._sentence_281

That same month, all four original band members performed during the ceremony for their induction into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame. R.E.M._sentence_282

While rehearsing for the ceremony, the band recorded a cover of John Lennon's "#9 Dream" for Instant Karma: The Amnesty International Campaign to Save Darfur, a tribute album benefiting Amnesty International. R.E.M._sentence_283

The song—released as a single for the album and the campaign—featured Bill Berry's first studio recording with the band since his departure almost a decade earlier. R.E.M._sentence_284

In October 2006, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_285

was nominated for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in its first year of eligibility. R.E.M._sentence_286

The band was one of five nominees accepted into the Hall that year, and the induction ceremony took place in March 2007 at New York's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. R.E.M._sentence_287

The group—which was inducted by Pearl Jam lead singer Eddie Vedder—performed three songs with Bill Berry; "Gardening at Night," "Man on the Moon" and "Begin the Begin" as well as a cover of "I Wanna Be Your Dog." R.E.M._sentence_288

Work on the group's fourteenth album commenced in early 2007. R.E.M._sentence_289

The band recorded with producer Jacknife Lee in Vancouver and Dublin, where it played five nights in the Olympia Theatre between June 30 and July 5 as part of a "working rehearsal". R.E.M._sentence_290

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_291 Live, the band's first live album (featuring songs from a 2005 Dublin show), was released in October 2007. R.E.M._sentence_292

The group followed this with the 2009 live album Live at The Olympia, which features performances from its 2007 residency. R.E.M._sentence_293

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_294

released Accelerate in early 2008. R.E.M._sentence_295

The album debuted at number two on the Billboard charts, and became the band's eighth album to top the British album charts. R.E.M._sentence_296

Rolling Stone reviewer David Fricke considered Accelerate an improvement over the band's previous post-Berry albums, calling it "one of the best records R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_297

have ever made." R.E.M._sentence_298

In 2010, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_299

released the video album R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_300 Live from Austin, TX—a concert recorded for Austin City Limits in 2008. R.E.M._sentence_301

The group recorded its fifteenth album, Collapse into Now (2011), with Jacknife Lee in locales including Berlin, Nashville, and New Orleans. R.E.M._sentence_302

For the album, the band aimed for a more expansive sound than the intentionally short and speedy approach implemented on Accelerate. R.E.M._sentence_303

The album debuted at number five on the Billboard 200, becoming the group's tenth album to reach the top ten of the chart. R.E.M._sentence_304

This release fulfilled R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_305

's contractual obligations to Warner Bros., and the band began recording material without a contract a few months later with the possible intention of self-releasing the work. R.E.M._sentence_306

On September 21, 2011, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_307

announced via its website that it was "calling it a day as a band". R.E.M._sentence_308

Stipe said that he hoped fans realized it "wasn't an easy decision": "All things must end, and we wanted to do it right, to do it our way." R.E.M._sentence_309

Long-time associate and former Warner Bros. Senior Vice President of Emerging Technology Ethan Kaplan has speculated that shake-ups at the record label influenced the group's decision to disband. R.E.M._sentence_310

The group discussed breaking up for several years, but was encouraged to continue after the lackluster critical and commercial performance of Around the Sun; according to Mills, "We needed to prove, not only to our fans and critics but to ourselves, that we could still make great records." R.E.M._sentence_311

They were also uninterested in the business end of recording as R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_312

The band members finished their collaboration by assembling the compilation album Part Lies, Part Heart, Part Truth, Part Garbage 1982–2011, which was released in November 2011. R.E.M._sentence_313

The album is the first to collect songs from R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_314

's I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_315

and Warner Bros. tenures, as well as three songs from the group's final studio recordings from post-Collapse into Now sessions. R.E.M._sentence_316

In November, Mills and Stipe did a brief span of promotional appearances in British media, ruling out the option of the group ever reuniting. R.E.M._sentence_317

2011–present: Post-breakup releases and events R.E.M._section_6

In 2014, Unplugged: The Complete 1991 and 2001 Sessions was released for Record Store Day. R.E.M._sentence_318

Digital download collections of I.R.S. R.E.M._sentence_319

and Warner Bros. rarities followed. R.E.M._sentence_320

Later in the year, the band compiled the video album box set REMTV, which collected their two Unplugged performances along with several other documentaries and live shows, while their record label released the box set 7IN—83–88, made up of 7-inch vinyl singles. R.E.M._sentence_321

In December 2015, the band members agreed to a distribution deal with Concord Bicycle Music to re-release their Warner Bros. albums. R.E.M._sentence_322

Continuing to maintain their copyright and intellectual property legacies, in March 2016, the band signed a new music publishing administration deal with Universal Music Publishing Group, and a year later, the band members left Broadcast Music, Inc., who had represented their performance rights for their entire career, and joined SESAC. R.E.M._sentence_323

The first release after their new publishing status was the 2018 box set R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_324 at the BBC. R.E.M._sentence_325

Live at the Borderline 1991 followed for 2019's Record Store Day. R.E.M._sentence_326

On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_327

among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. R.E.M._sentence_328

On March 24, 2020, session and touring drummer Bill Rieflin, who contributed on the band's last three records, died of cancer after years of battling the disease. R.E.M._sentence_329

Musical style R.E.M._section_7

In a 1988 interview, Peter Buck described R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_330

songs as typically, "Minor key, mid-tempo, enigmatic, semi-folk-rock-balladish things. R.E.M._sentence_331

That's what everyone thinks and to a certain degree, that's true." R.E.M._sentence_332

All songwriting is credited to the entire band, even though individual members are sometimes responsible for writing the majority of a particular song. R.E.M._sentence_333

Each member is given an equal vote in the songwriting process; however, Buck has conceded that Stipe, as the band's lyricist, can rarely be persuaded to follow an idea he does not favor. R.E.M._sentence_334

Among the original line-up, there were divisions of labor in the songwriting process: Stipe would write lyrics and devise melodies, Buck would edge the band in new musical directions, and Mills and Berry would fine-tune the compositions due to their greater musical experience. R.E.M._sentence_335

Michael Stipe sings in what R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_336

biographer David Buckley described as "wailing, keening, arching vocal figures". R.E.M._sentence_337

Stipe often harmonizes with Mills in songs; in the chorus for "Stand", Mills and Stipe alternate singing lyrics, creating a dialogue. R.E.M._sentence_338

Early articles about the band focused on Stipe's singing style (described as "mumbling" by The Washington Post), which often rendered his lyrics indecipherable. R.E.M._sentence_339

Creem writer John Morthland wrote in his review of Murmur, "I still have no idea what these songs are about, because neither me nor anyone else I know has ever been able to discern R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_340

's lyrics." R.E.M._sentence_341

Stipe commented in 1984, "It's just the way I sing. R.E.M._sentence_342

If I tried to control it, it would be pretty false." R.E.M._sentence_343

Producer Joe Boyd convinced Stipe to begin singing more clearly during the recording of Fables of the Reconstruction. R.E.M._sentence_344

Stipe later called chorus lyrics of "Sitting Still" from R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_345

debut album, Murmur, "nonsense", saying in a 1994 online chat, "You all know there aren't words, per se, to a lot of the early stuff. R.E.M._sentence_346

I can't even remember them." R.E.M._sentence_347

In truth, Stipe carefully crafted the lyrics to many early R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_348

songs. R.E.M._sentence_349

Stipe explained in 1984 that when he started writing lyrics they were like "simple pictures", but after a year he grew tired of the approach and "started experimenting with lyrics that didn't make exact linear sense, and it's just gone from there." R.E.M._sentence_350

In the mid-1980s, as Stipe's pronunciation while singing became clearer, the band decided that its lyrics should convey ideas on a more literal level. R.E.M._sentence_351

Mills explained, "After you've made three records and you've written several songs and they've gotten better and better lyrically the next step would be to have somebody question you and say, are you saying anything? R.E.M._sentence_352

And Michael had the confidence at that point to say yes . R.E.M._sentence_353

. R.E.M._sentence_354

." R.E.M._sentence_355

Songs like "Cuyahoga" and "Fall on Me" on Lifes Rich Pageant dealt with such concerns as pollution. R.E.M._sentence_356

Stipe incorporated more politically oriented concerns into his lyrics on Document and Green. R.E.M._sentence_357

"Our political activism and the content of the songs was just a reaction to where we were, and what we were surrounded by, which was just abject horror," Stipe said later. R.E.M._sentence_358

"In 1987 and '88 there was nothing to do but be active." R.E.M._sentence_359

Stipe has since explored other lyrical topics. R.E.M._sentence_360

Automatic for the People dealt with "mortality and dying. R.E.M._sentence_361

Pretty turgid stuff", according to Stipe, while Monster critiqued love and mass culture. R.E.M._sentence_362

Musically, Stipe stated that bands like T. R.E.M._sentence_363 Rex and Mott the Hoople "really impacted me". R.E.M._sentence_364

Peter Buck's style of playing guitar has been singled out by many as the most distinctive aspect of R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_365

's music. R.E.M._sentence_366

During the 1980s, Buck's "economical, arpeggiated, poetic" style reminded British music journalists of 1960s American folk rock band the Byrds. R.E.M._sentence_367

Buck has stated "[Byrds guitarist] Roger McGuinn was a big influence on me as a guitar player", but said it was Byrds-influenced bands, including Big Star and the Soft Boys, that inspired him more. R.E.M._sentence_368

Comparisons were also made with the guitar playing of Johnny Marr of alternative rock contemporaries the Smiths. R.E.M._sentence_369

While Buck professed being a fan of the group, he admitted he initially criticized the band simply because he was tired of fans asking him if he was influenced by Marr, whose band had in fact made their debut after R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_370

Buck generally eschews guitar solos; he explained in 2002, "I know that when guitarists rip into this hot solo, people go nuts, but I don't write songs that suit that, and I am not interested in that. R.E.M._sentence_371

I can do it if I have to, but I don't like it." R.E.M._sentence_372

Mike Mills' melodic approach to bass playing is inspired by Paul McCartney of the Beatles and Chris Squire of Yes; Mills has said, "I always played a melodic bass, like a piano bass in some ways . R.E.M._sentence_373

. R.E.M._sentence_374

. R.E.M._sentence_375

I never wanted to play the traditional locked into the kick drum, root note bass work." R.E.M._sentence_376

Mills has more musical training than his bandmates, which he has said "made it easier to turn abstract musical ideas into reality." R.E.M._sentence_377

Legacy R.E.M._section_8

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_378

was pivotal in the creation and development of the alternative rock genre. R.E.M._sentence_379

AllMusic stated, "R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_380

mark the point when post-punk turned into alternative rock." R.E.M._sentence_381

In the early 1980s, the musical style of R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_382

stood in contrast to the post-punk and new wave genres that had preceded it. R.E.M._sentence_383

Music journalist Simon Reynolds noted that the post-punk movement of the late 1970s and early 1980s "had taken whole swaths of music off the menu", particularly that of the 1960s, and that "After postpunk's demystification and New Pop's schematics, it felt liberating to listen to music rooted in mystical awe and blissed-out surrender." R.E.M._sentence_384

Reynolds declared R.E.M., a band that recalled the music of the 1960s with its "plangent guitar chimes and folk-styled vocals" and who "wistfully and abstractly conjured visions and new frontiers for America", one of "the two most important alt-rock bands of the day." R.E.M._sentence_385

With the release of Murmur, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_386

had the most impact musically and commercially of the developing alternative genre's early groups, leaving in its wake a number of jangle pop followers. R.E.M._sentence_387

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_388

's early breakthrough success served as an inspiration for other alternative bands. R.E.M._sentence_389

Spin referred to the "R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_390

model"—career decisions that R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_391

made which set guidelines for other underground artists to follow in their own careers. R.E.M._sentence_392

Spin's Charles Aaron wrote that by 1985, "They'd shown how far an underground, punk-inspired rock band could go within the industry without whoring out its artistic integrity in any obvious way. R.E.M._sentence_393

They'd figured out how to buy in, not sellout-in other words, they'd achieved the American Bohemian Dream." R.E.M._sentence_394

Steve Wynn of Dream Syndicate said, "They invented a whole new ballgame for all of the other bands to follow whether it was Sonic Youth or the Replacements or Nirvana or Butthole Surfers. R.E.M._sentence_395

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_396

staked the claim. R.E.M._sentence_397

Musically, the bands did different things, but R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_398

was first to show us you can be big and still be cool." R.E.M._sentence_399

Biographer David Buckley stated that between 1991 and 1994, a period that saw the band sell an estimated 30 million albums, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_400

"asserted themselves as rivals to U2 for the title of biggest rock band in the world." R.E.M._sentence_401

Over the course of its career, the band has sold over 85 million records worldwide. R.E.M._sentence_402

Alternative bands such as Nirvana, Pavement, Radiohead, Coldplay, Pearl Jam (the band's vocalist Eddie Vedder inducted R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_403

into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame), Live,, Stone Temple Pilots, Collective Soul, Alice in Chains, Hootie and the Blowfish and Pwr Bttm have drawn inspiration from R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_404

's music. R.E.M._sentence_405

"When I was 15 years old in Richmond, Virginia, they were a very important part of my life," Pavement's Bob Nastanovich said, "as they were for all the members of our band." R.E.M._sentence_406

Pavement's contribution to the No Alternative compilation (1993) was "Unseen Power of the Picket Fence", a song about R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_407

's early days. R.E.M._sentence_408

Local H, according to the band's Twitter account, created their name by combining two R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_409

songs: "Oddfellows Local 151" and "Swan Swan H". R.E.M._sentence_410

Kurt Cobain of Nirvana was a fan of R.E.M., and had unfulfilled plans to collaborate on a musical project with Stipe. R.E.M._sentence_411

Cobain told Rolling Stone in an interview earlier that year, "I don’t know how that band does what they do. R.E.M._sentence_412

God, they’re the greatest. R.E.M._sentence_413

They've dealt with their success like saints, and they keep delivering great music." R.E.M._sentence_414

During his show at the 40 Watt Club in October 2018, Johnny Marr said: "As a British musician coming out of the indie scene in the early '80s, which I definitely am and am proud to have been, I can't miss this opportunity to acknowledge and pay my respects and honor the guys who put this town on the map for us in England. R.E.M._sentence_415

I'm talking about my comrades in guitar music, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_416

The Smiths really respected R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_417

We had to keep an eye on what those guys were up to. R.E.M._sentence_418

It's an interesting thing for me, as a British musician, and all those guys as British musicians, to come to this place and play for you guys, knowing that it's the roots of Mike Mills and Bill Berry and Michael Stipe and my good friend Peter Buck." R.E.M._sentence_419

Awards R.E.M._section_9

Main article: List of awards and nominations received by R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_420

Campaigning and activism R.E.M._section_10

Throughout R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_421

's career, its members sought to highlight social and political issues. R.E.M._sentence_422

According to the Los Angeles Times, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_423

was considered to be one of the United States' "most liberal and politically correct rock groups." R.E.M._sentence_424

The band's members were "on the same page" politically, sharing a liberal and progressive outlook. R.E.M._sentence_425

Mills admitted that there was occasionally dissension between band members on what causes they might support, but acknowledged "Out of respect for the people who disagree, those discussions tend to stay in-house, just because we'd rather not let people know where the divisions lie, so people can't exploit them for their own purposes." R.E.M._sentence_426

An example is that in 1990 Buck noted that Stipe was involved with People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, but the rest of the band were not. R.E.M._sentence_427

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_428

helped raise funds for environmental, feminist and human rights causes, and were involved in campaigns to encourage voter registration. R.E.M._sentence_429

During the Green tour, Stipe spoke on stage to the audiences about a variety of socio-political issues. R.E.M._sentence_430

Through the late 1980s and 1990s, the band (particularly Stipe) increasingly used its media coverage on national television to mention a variety of causes it felt were important. R.E.M._sentence_431

One example is during the 1991 MTV Video Music Awards, Stipe wore a half-dozen white shirts emblazoned with slogans including "rainforest", "love knows no colors", and "handgun control now". R.E.M._sentence_432

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_433

helped raise awareness of Aung San Suu Kyi and human rights violations in Myanmar, when they worked with the Freedom Campaign and the US Campaign for Burma. R.E.M._sentence_434

Stipe himself ran ads for the 1988 supporting Democratic presidential candidate and Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis over then-Vice President George H. W. Bush. R.E.M._sentence_435

In 2004, the band participated in the Vote for Change tour that sought to mobilize American voters to support Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry. R.E.M._sentence_436

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_437

's political stance, particularly coming from a wealthy rock band under contract to a label owned by a multinational corporation, received criticism from former Q editor Paul Du Noyer, who criticized the band's "celebrity liberalism", saying, "It's an entirely pain-free form of rebellion that they're adopting. R.E.M._sentence_438

There's no risk involved in it whatsoever, but quite a bit of shoring up of customer loyalty." R.E.M._sentence_439

From the late 1980s, R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_440

was involved in the local politics of its hometown of Athens, Georgia. R.E.M._sentence_441

Buck explained to Sounds in 1987, "Michael always says think local and act local—we have been doing a lot of stuff in our town to try and make it a better place." R.E.M._sentence_442

The band often donated funds to local charities and to help renovate and preserve historic buildings in the town. R.E.M._sentence_443

R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_444

's political clout was credited with the narrow election of Athens mayor Gwen O'Looney twice in the 1990s. R.E.M._sentence_445

The band is a member of the Canadian charity Artists Against Racism. R.E.M._sentence_446

Members R.E.M._section_11

Main members R.E.M._sentence_447


  • Bill Berry – drums, percussion, backing vocals, occasional bass guitar and keyboards (1980–1997; occasional concert appearances with the band 2003–2007)R.E.M._item_0_0
  • Peter Buck – lead guitar, mandolin, banjo, occasional bass guitar and keyboards (1980–2011)R.E.M._item_0_1
  • Mike Mills – bass guitar, keyboards, backing vocals, occasional co-lead vocals and guitar (1980–2011)R.E.M._item_0_2
  • Michael Stipe – lead vocals (1980–2011)R.E.M._item_0_3

Non-musical members R.E.M._sentence_448


  • Several publications made by the band such as album liner notes and fan club mailers list attorney Bertis Downs and manager Jefferson Holt as honorary non-musical members; the two joined up with R.E.M. in 1980/1981 and Holt left in 1996.R.E.M._item_1_4

Touring and session musicians R.E.M._sentence_449


  • Buren Fowler – rhythm guitar (1986–1987)R.E.M._item_2_5
  • Peter Holsapple – rhythm guitar, keyboards (1989–1991)R.E.M._item_2_6
  • Scott McCaughey – rhythm guitar, keyboards, backing vocals, occasional lead guitar (1994–2011)R.E.M._item_2_7
  • Nathan December – rhythm and lead guitar (1994–1995)R.E.M._item_2_8
  • Joey Waronker – drums, percussion (1998–2002)R.E.M._item_2_9
  • Barrett Martin – percussion (1998)R.E.M._item_2_10
  • Ken Stringfellow – keyboards, occasional rhythm guitar, bass guitar, backing vocals (1998–2005)R.E.M._item_2_11
  • Bill Rieflin – drums, percussion, occasional keyboards and guitar (2003–2011)R.E.M._item_2_12

Timeline R.E.M._sentence_450

Production timeline R.E.M._sentence_451

Touring and session members timeline R.E.M._sentence_452

Studio discography R.E.M._section_12

Main articles: R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_453 discography and List of songs recorded by R.E.M. R.E.M._sentence_454

Studio releases R.E.M._sentence_455


See also R.E.M._section_13


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R.E.M..