Race and ethnicity in the United States Census

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Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are the self-identified categories of race or races and ethnicity chosen by residents, with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories for ethnicity). Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_0

The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_1

OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_2

The race categories include both racial and national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_3

Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_4

Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino". Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_5

However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_6

In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_7

OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_8

The development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_9

Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_10

Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_11

How data on race and ethnicity are used Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_0

The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census (i.e., promoting equal employment opportunities; assessing racial disparities in health and environmental risks). Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_12

Race data are also critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_13

States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_14

The data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_15

"Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes (i.e., enforcing bilingual election rules under the Voting Rights Act; monitoring and enforcing equal employment opportunities under the Civil Rights Act). Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_16

Data on Ethnic Groups are also needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements (i.e., identifying segments of the population who may not be receiving medical services under the Public Health Act; evaluating whether financial institutions are meeting the credit needs of minority populations under the Community Reinvestment Act)." Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_17

Brief overview of race and ethnicity in the US Census's history Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_1

Further information: Race and ethnicity in the United States Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_18

Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_table_infobox_0

External imageRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_0_0_0

Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_2

1790 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_3

The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_19

The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_20

"The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in two of the most public places within each jurisdiction, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned, and that 'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president." Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_21

This law along with U.S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_22

Loss of data Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_4

Approximately one third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_23

The data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont, Delaware, Georgia, New Jersey, and Virginia; however, the census was proven factual and the existence of most of these data can be confirmed in many secondary sources pertaining to the first census. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_24

Data Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_5

Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age (to assess the country's industrial and military potential), free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons (reported by sex and color), and slaves. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_25

Thomas Jefferson, then the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states (Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Virginia), and from the Southwest Territory. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_26

The census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_27

Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_table_general_1

DistrictRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_1_0_0 Free white males at least 16 years of age, including heads of families.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_1_0_1 Free white males under 16 years.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_1_0_2 Free white females, including heads of families.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_1_0_3 All other free persons.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_1_0_4 Slaves.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_1_0_5 Total.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_1_0_6
VermontRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_1_0 22,435Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_1_1 22,328Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_1_2 40,505Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_1_3 271Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_1_4 0Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_1_5 85,539Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_1_6
New HampshireRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_2_0 36,086Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_2_1 34,851Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_2_2 70,160Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_2_3 630Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_2_4 158Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_2_5 141,885Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_2_6
MaineRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_3_0 24,384Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_3_1 24,748Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_3_2 46,870Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_3_3 538Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_3_4 0Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_3_5 96,540Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_3_6
MassachusettsRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_4_0 95,453Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_4_1 87,289Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_4_2 190,582Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_4_3 5,463Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_4_4 0Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_4_5 378,787Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_4_6
Rhode IslandRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_5_0 16,019Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_5_1 15,799Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_5_2 32,652Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_5_3 3,407Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_5_4 948Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_5_5 68,825Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_5_6
ConnecticutRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_6_0 60,523Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_6_1 54,403Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_6_2 117,448Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_6_3 2,808Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_6_4 2,764Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_6_5 237,946Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_6_6
New YorkRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_7_0 83,700Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_7_1 78,122Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_7_2 152,320Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_7_3 4,654Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_7_4 21,324Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_7_5 340,120Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_7_6
New JerseyRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_8_0 45,251Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_8_1 41,416Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_8_2 83,287Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_8_3 2,762Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_8_4 11,423Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_8_5 184,139Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_8_6
PennsylvaniaRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_9_0 110,788Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_9_1 106,948Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_9_2 206,363Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_9_3 6,537Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_9_4 3,737Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_9_5 434,373Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_9_6
DelawareRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_10_0 11,783Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_10_1 12,143Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_10_2 22,384Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_10_3 3,899Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_10_4 8,887Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_10_5 59,094Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_10_6
MarylandRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_11_0 55,915Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_11_1 51,339Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_11_2 101,395Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_11_3 8,043Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_11_4 103,036Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_11_5 319,728Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_11_6
VirginiaRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_12_0 110,936Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_12_1 116,135Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_12_2 215,046Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_12_3 12,866Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_12_4 292,627Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_12_5 747,610Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_12_6
KentuckyRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_13_0 15,154Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_13_1 17,057Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_13_2 28,922Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_13_3 114Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_13_4 12,430Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_13_5 73,677Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_13_6
North CarolinaRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_14_0 69,988Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_14_1 77,506Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_14_2 140,710Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_14_3 4,975Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_14_4 100,572Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_14_5 393,751Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_14_6
South CarolinaRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_15_0 35,576Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_15_1 37,722Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_15_2 66,880Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_15_3 1,801Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_15_4 107,094Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_15_5 249,073Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_15_6
GeorgiaRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_16_0 13,103Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_16_1 14,044Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_16_2 25,739Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_16_3 398Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_16_4 29,264Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_16_5 82,548Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_16_6
TotalRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_17_0 807,094Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_17_1 791,850Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_17_2 1,541,263Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_17_3 59,150Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_17_4 694,280Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_17_5 3,893,635Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_1_17_6
Contemporary perception Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_6

There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_28

The potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, and restraints of current technology. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_29

Data availability Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_7

No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_30

1800 and 1810 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_8

In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_31

1820 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_9

The 1820 census built on the questions asked in 1810 by asking age questions about slaves. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_32

Also the term "colored" entered the census nomenclature. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_33

In addition, a question stating "Number of foreigners not naturalized" was included. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_34

1830 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_10

In the 1830 census, a new question which stated "The number of White persons who were foreigners not naturalized" was included. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_35

1850 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_11

The 1850 census saw a dramatic shift in the way information about residents was collected. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_36

For the first time, free persons were listed individually instead of by head of household. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_37

There were two questionnaires: one for free inhabitants and one for slaves. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_38

The question on the free inhabitants schedule about color was a column that was to be left blank if a person was white, marked "B" if a person was black, and marked "M" if a person was mulatto. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_39

Slaves were listed by owner, and classified by gender and age, not individually, and the question about color was a column that was to be marked with a "B" if the slave was black and an "M" if mulatto. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_40

1890 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_12

For 1890, the Census Office changed the design of the population questionnaire. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_41

Residents were still listed individually, but a new questionnaire sheet was used for each family. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_42

Additionally, this was the first year that the census distinguished among different Asian ethnic groups, such as Japanese and Chinese, due to increased immigration. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_43

This census also marked the beginning of the term "race" in the questionnaires. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_44

Enumerators were instructed to write "White", "Black", "Mulatto", "Quadroon", "Octoroon", "Chinese", "Japanese", or "Indian". Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_45

1900 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_13

During 1900, the "Color or Race" question was slightly modified, removing the term "Mulatto". Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_46

Also, there was an inclusion of an "Indian Population Schedule" in which "enumerators were instructed to use a special expanded questionnaire for American Indians living on reservations or in family groups off of reservations." Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_47

This expanded version included the question "Fraction of person's lineage that is white." Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_48

Twentieth century Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_14

1910 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_15

The 1910 census was similar to that of 1900, but it included a reinsertion of "Mulatto" and a question about the "mother tongue" of foreign-born individuals and individuals with foreign-born parents. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_49

"Ot" was also added to signify "other races", with space for a race to be written in. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_50

This decade's version of the Indian Population Schedule featured questions asking the individual's proportion of white, black, or American Indian lineage. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_51

1920 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_16

The 1920 census questionnaire was similar to 1910, but excluded a separate schedule for American Indians. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_52

"Hin", "Kor", and "Fil" were also added to the "Color or Race" question, signifying Hindustani (South Asia Indian), Korean, and Filipino, respectively. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_53

1930 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_17

The biggest change in this census was in racial classification. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_54

Enumerators were instructed to no longer use the "Mulatto" classification. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_55

Instead, they were given special instructions for reporting the race of interracial persons. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_56

A person with both white and black ancestry (termed "blood") was to be recorded as "Negro," no matter the fraction of that lineage (the "one-drop rule"). Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_57

A person of mixed black and American Indian ancestry was also to be recorded as "Neg" (for "Negro") unless he was considered to be "predominantly" American Indian and accepted as such within the community. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_58

A person with both white and American Indian ancestry was to be recorded as an Indian, unless his American Indian ancestry was small, and he was accepted as white within the community. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_59

In all situations in which a person had white and some other racial ancestry, he was to be reported as that other race. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_60

People who had minority interracial ancestry were to be reported as the race of their father. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_61

For the first and only time, "Mexican" was listed as a race. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_62

Enumerators were instructed that all people born in Mexico, or whose parents were born in Mexico, should be listed as Mexicans, and not under any other racial category. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_63

In prior censuses and in 1940, enumerators were instructed to list Mexican Americans as white, perhaps because some of them were of white background (mainly Spanish), many others mixed white and Native American and some of them Native American. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_64

The Supplemental American Indian questionnaire was back, but in abbreviated form. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_65

It featured a question asking if the person was of full or mixed American Indian ancestry. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_66

1940 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_18

President Franklin D. Roosevelt promoted a "good neighbor" policy that sought better relations with Mexico. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_67

In 1935, a federal judge ruled that three Mexican immigrants were ineligible for citizenship because they were not white, as required by federal law. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_68

Mexico protested, and Roosevelt decided to circumvent the decision and make sure the federal government treated Hispanics as white. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_69

The State Department, the Census Bureau, the Labor Department, and other government agencies therefore made sure to uniformly classify people of Mexican descent as white. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_70

This policy encouraged the League of United Latin American Citizens in its quest to minimize discrimination by asserting their whiteness. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_71

The 1940 census was the first to include separate population and housing questionnaires. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_72

The race category of "Mexican" was eliminated in 1940, and the population of Mexican descent was counted with the white population. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_73

1940 census data was used for Japanese American internment. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_74

The Census Bureau's role was denied for decades, but was finally proven in 2007. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_75

1950 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_19

The 1950 census questionnaire removed the word "color" from the racial question, and also removed Hindu and Korean from the race choices. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_76

1960 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_20

The 1960 census re-added the word "color" to the racial question, and changed "Indian" to "American Indian", as well as adding Hawaiian, Part-Hawaiian, Aleut, and Eskimo. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_77

The "Other (print out race)" option was removed. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_78

1970 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_21

This year's census included "Negro or Black", re-added Korean and the Other race option. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_79

East Indians (the term used at that time for people whose ancestry is from the Indian subcontinent) were counted as White. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_80

There was a questionnaire that was asked of only a sample of respondents. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_81

These questions were as follows: Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_82

  1. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_83

1980 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_22

This year added several options to the race question, including Vietnamese, Indian (East), Guamanian, Samoan, and re-added Aleut. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_84

Again, the term "color" was removed from the racial question, and the following questions were asked of a sample of respondents: Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_85

1990 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_23

The racial categories in this year are as they appear in the 2000 and 2010 censuses. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_86

The following questions were asked of a sample of respondents for the 1990 Census: Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_87

The 1990 census was not designed to capture multiple racial responses, and when individuals marked the "'other" race option and provided a multiple write-in, the response was assigned according to the race written first. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_88

"For example, a write-in of "black-white" was assigned a code of "black," while a write-in of "white-black" was assigned a code of "white." Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_89

2000 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_24

Race was asked differently in the 2000 census in several other ways than previously. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_90

Most significantly, respondents were given the option of selecting one or more race categories to indicate racial identities. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_91

Data show that nearly seven million Americans identified as members of two or more races. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_92

Because of these changes, the 2000 census data on race are not directly comparable with data from the 1990 census or earlier censuses. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_93

Use of caution is therefore recommended when interpreting changes in the racial composition of the US population over time. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_94

The following definitions apply to the 2000 census only. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_95

Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_unordered_list_0

  • White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish, German, English, Scandinavian, Scottish, Near Easterners, Iranian, Lebanese, or Polish.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_item_0_0
  • Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "Black, African Am." or provide written entries such as Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_item_0_1
  • American Indian and Alaska Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_item_0_2
  • Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes "Asian Indian", "Chinese", "Filipino", "Korean", "Japanese", "Vietnamese", and "Other Asian".Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_item_0_3
  • Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It includes people who indicate their race as "Native Hawaiian", "Guamanian or Chamorro", "Samoan", and "Other Pacific Islander".Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_item_0_4
  • Some other race. Includes all other responses not included in the "White", "Black or African American", "American Indian and Alaska Native", "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" race categories described above. Respondents providing write-in entries such as multiracial, mixed, interracial, We-Sort, or a Hispanic/Latino group (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban) in the "Some other race" category are included here.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_item_0_5
  • Two or more races. People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple write-in responses, or by some combination of check boxes and write-in responses.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_item_0_6

The federal government of the United States has mandated that "in data collection and presentation, federal agencies are required to use a minimum of two ethnicities: "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino". Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_96

The Census Bureau defines "Hispanic or Latino" as "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race." Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_97

For discussion of the meaning and scope of the Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, see the Hispanic and Latino Americans and Racial and ethnic demographics of the United States articles. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_98

Use of the word "ethnicity" for Hispanics only is considerably more restricted than its conventional meaning, which covers other distinctions, some of which are covered by the "race" and "ancestry" questions. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_99

The distinct questions accommodate the possibility of Hispanic and Latino Americans' also declaring various racial identities (see also White Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans, and Black Hispanic and Latino Americans). Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_100

In the 2000 census, 12.5% of the US population reported "Hispanic or Latino" ethnicity and 87.5% reported "Not-Hispanic or Latino" ethnicity. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_101

Twenty-first century Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_25

2010 census Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_26

The 2010 US Census included changes designed to more clearly distinguish Hispanic ethnicity as not being a race. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_102

That included adding the sentence: "For this census, Hispanic origins are not races." Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_103

Additionally, the Hispanic terms were modified from "Hispanic or Latino" to "Hispanic, Latino or Spanish origin". Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_104

Although used in the census and the American Community Survey, "Some other race" is not an official race, and the Bureau considered eliminating it prior to the 2000 Census. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_105

As the 2010 census form did not contain the question titled "Ancestry" found in prior censuses, there were campaigns to get non-Hispanic West Indian Americans, Turkish Americans, Armenian Americans, Arab Americans and Iranian Americans to indicate their ethnic or national background through the race question, specifically the "Some other race" category. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_106

The Interagency Committee has suggested that the concept of marking multiple boxes be extended to the Hispanic origin question, thereby freeing individuals from having to choose between their parents' ethnic heritages. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_107

In other words, a respondent could choose both "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino". Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_108

Relation between ethnicity and race in census results Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_27

The Census Bureau warns that data on race in 2000 census are not directly comparable to those collected in previous censuses. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_109

Many residents of the United States consider race and ethnicity to be the same. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_110

Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_table_general_2

Population distribution by race (2000 census)Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_table_caption_2
RaceRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_2_0_0 Hispanic or

LatinoRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_2_0_3

% of

H/LRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_2_0_4

% of

USRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_2_0_5

Not Hispanic

or LatinoRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_2_0_6

% of not

H/LRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_2_0_7

% of

USRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_header_cell_2_0_8

All racesRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_1_0 35,305,818Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_1_3 100Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_1_4 12.5Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_1_5 246,116,088Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_1_6 100Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_1_7 87.5Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_1_8
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_2_0 One raceRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_2_1 33,081,736Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_2_3 93.7Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_2_4 11.8Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_2_5 241,513,942Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_2_6 98.1Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_2_7 85.8Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_2_8
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_3_0 WhiteRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_3_1 16,907,852Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_3_2 47.9Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_3_3 6.0Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_3_4 194,552,774Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_3_5 79.1Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_3_6 69.1Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_3_7
Black or African A.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_4_0 710,353Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_4_1 2.0Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_4_2 0.3Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_4_3 33,947,837Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_4_4 13.8Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_4_5 12.1Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_4_6
A. Indian/Alaska Nat.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_5_0 407,073Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_5_1 1.2Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_5_2 0.1Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_5_3 2,068,883Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_5_4 0.8Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_5_5 0.7Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_5_6
AsianRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_6_0 119,829Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_6_1 0.3Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_6_2 <0.1Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_6_3 10,123,169Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_6_4 4.1Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_6_5 3.6Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_6_6
Hawaiian N. & Pacific Is.Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_7_0 45,326Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_7_1 0.1Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_7_2 <0.1Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_7_3 353,509Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_7_4 0.1Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_7_5 0.1Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_7_6
Some otherRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_8_0 14,891,303Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_8_1 42.2Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_8_2 5.3Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_8_3 467,770Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_8_4 0.2Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_8_5 0.2Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_8_6
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_9_0 2+ racesRace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_9_1 2,224,082Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_9_3 6.3Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_9_4 0.8Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_9_5 4,602,146Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_9_6 1.9Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_9_7 1.6Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_9_8
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_10_0 Some other + W/B/N/ARace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_10_1 1,859,538Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_10_2 5.3Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_10_3 0.7Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_10_4 1,302,875Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_10_5 0.5Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_10_6 0.5Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_10_7
2+ W/B/N/ARace and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_11_0 364,544Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_11_1 1.0Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_11_2 0.1Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_11_3 3,299,271Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_11_4 1.3Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_11_5 1.2Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_cell_2_11_6

In the 2000 census, respondents were tallied in each of the race groups they reported. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_111

Consequently, the total of each racial category exceeds the total population because some people reported more than one race. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_112

According to James P. Allen and Eugene Turner from California State University, Northridge, by some calculations in the 2000 census the largest part white biracial population is white/Native American and Alaskan Native, at 7,015,017, followed by white/black at 737,492, then white/Asian at 727,197, and finally white/Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander at 125,628. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_113

The Census Bureau implemented a Census Quality Survey, gathering data from about 50,000 households to assess the reporting of race and Hispanic origin in the 2000 census with the purpose of creating a way to make comparisons between the 2000 census with previous census racial data. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_114

In September 1997, during the process of revision of racial categories previously declared by OMB directive no. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_115

15, the American Anthropological Association (AAA) recommended that OMB combine the "race" and "ethnicity" categories into one question to appear as "race/ethnicity" for the 2000 census. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_116

The Interagency Committee agreed, stating that "race" and "ethnicity" were not sufficiently defined and "that many respondents conceptualize 'race' and 'ethnicity' as one in the same sic underscor[ing] the need to consolidate these terms into one category, using a term that is more meaningful to the American people." Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_117

The AAA also stated, Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_118

The recommendations of the AAA were not adopted by the Census Bureau for the 2000 or the 2010 censuses. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_119

The OMB definitions of race and ethnicity in Census 2020 will remain consistent with Census 2010.This includes Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin, which will remain an ethnicity, not a race. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_120

While race/ethnicity definitions for 2020 will remain consistent, individuals who identify as White, Black/African American, and/or American Indian or Alaska Native will be asked to specifically identify their racial origins. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_121

Other agencies Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_28

In 2001, the National Institutes of Health adopted the new language to comply with the revisions to Directive 15, as did the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of the United States Department of Labor in 2007. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_122

See Race and ethnicity (EEO). Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_sentence_123

See also Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_section_29

Race and ethnicity in the United States Census_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race and ethnicity in the United States Census.