For other uses, see Rave (disambiguation).
|Types of street rave dance|
A rave (from the verb: ) is an organised dance party at a warehouse, forest, cave or other private property or public space, typically featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music.
The word also means excellent, great, or brilliant, and can be used to describe any genre of music and entertainment.
While some raves may be small parties held at nightclubs or private homes, some raves have grown to immense size, such as the large festivals and events featuring multiple DJs and dance areas (e.g., the Castlemorton Common Festival in 1992).
Some electronic dance music festivals have features of raves, but on a larger, often commercial scale.
Raves may last for a long time, with some events continuing for twenty-four hours, and lasting all through the night.
Law enforcement raids and anti-rave laws have presented a challenge to the rave scene in many countries.
This is due to the association of illegal drugs such as MDMA (often referred to as a "club drug" or "party drug" along with MDA), amphetamine, LSD, GHB, ketamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, and cannabis.
In addition to drugs, raves often make use of non-authorized, secret venues, such as squat parties at unoccupied homes, unused warehouses, or aircraft hangars.
These concerns are often attributed to a type of moral panic surrounding rave culture.
Origin of 'rave' (1950s–1970s)
Jazz musician Mick Mulligan, known for indulging in such excesses, had the nickname "king of the ravers".
In 1958, Buddy Holly recorded the hit "Rave On", citing the madness and frenzy of a feeling and the desire for it never to end.
The word "rave" was later used in the burgeoning mod youth culture of the early 1960s as the way to describe any wild party in general.
People who were gregarious party animals were described as "ravers".
Presaging the word's subsequent 1980s association with electronic music, the word "rave" was a common term used regarding the music of mid-1960s garage rock and psychedelia bands (most notably The Yardbirds, who released an album in the United States called Having a Rave Up).
Along with being an alternative term for partying at such garage events in general, the "rave-up" referred to a specific crescendo moment near the end of a song where the music was played faster, more heavily and with intense soloing or elements of controlled feedback.
With the rapid change of British pop culture from the mod era of 1963–1966 to the hippie era of 1967 and beyond, the term fell out of popular usage.
As in contemporary club culture, Northern soul DJs built up a following based on satisfying the crowd's desires for music that they could not hear anywhere else.
Many argue that Northern soul was instrumental in creating a network of clubs, DJs, record collectors and dealers in the UK, and was the first music scene to provide the British charts with records that sold entirely on the strength of club play.
A technique employed by northern soul DJs in common with their later counterparts was the sequencing of records to create euphoric highs and lows for the crowd.
DJ, Laurence 'Larry' Proxton being known for this method.
During the 1970s and early 1980s until its resurrection, the term was not in vogue, one notable exception being in the lyrics of the song "Drive-In Saturday" by David Bowie (from his 1973 album Aladdin Sane) which includes the line, "It's a crash course for the ravers."
Its use during that era would have been perceived as a quaint or ironic use of bygone slang: part of the dated 1960s lexicon along with words such as "groovy".
The perception of the word "rave" changed again in the late 1980s when the term was revived and adopted by a new youth culture, possibly inspired by the use of the term in Jamaica.
Birth of acid house (1980s)
In the mid to late 1980s, a wave of psychedelic and other electronic dance music, most notably acid house music, emerged from acid house music parties in the mid-to-late 1980s in the Chicago area in the United States.
After Chicago acid house artists began experiencing overseas success, acid house quickly spread and caught on in the United Kingdom within clubs, warehouses and free-parties, first in Manchester in the mid-1980s and then later in London.
In the late 1980s, the word "rave" was adopted to describe the subculture that grew out of the acid house movement.
Activities were related to the party atmosphere of Ibiza, a Mediterranean island in Spain, frequented by British, Italian, Greek, Irish and German youth on vacation, who would hold raves and dance parties.
Growth of the scene (1990s–present)
There were mainstream events which attracted thousands of people (up to 25,000 instead of the 4,000 that came to earlier warehouse parties).
Acid house music parties were first re-branded "rave parties" in the media, during the summer of 1989 by Genesis P-Orridge (Neil Andrew Megson) during a television interview; however, the ambience of the rave was not fully formed until the early 1990s.
British politicians responded with hostility to the emerging rave party trend.
Politicians spoke out against raves and began to fine promoters who held unauthorised parties.
Police crackdowns on these often unauthorised parties drove the rave scene into the countryside.
The word "rave" somehow caught on in the UK to describe common semi-spontaneous weekend parties occurring at various locations linked by the brand new M25 London orbital motorway that ringed London and the Home Counties.
(It was this that gave the band Orbital their name.)
These ranged from former warehouses and industrial sites in London, to fields and country clubs in the countryside.
Rave music may either refer to the late 1980s/early 1990s genres of house, new beat, breakbeat, acid house, techno and hardcore techno, which were the first genres of music to be played at rave parties, or to any other genre of electronic dance music (EDM) that may be played at a rave.
The genre "rave", also known as hardcore by early ravers, first appeared amongst the UK "acid" movement during the late 1980s at warehouse parties and other underground venues, as well as on UK pirate radio stations.
The genre would develop into oldschool hardcore, which lead onto newer forms of rave music such as drum and bass and 2-step, as well as other hardcore techno genres, such as gabber, hardstyle and happy hardcore.
Rave music is usually presented in a DJ mix set, although live performances are not uncommon.
Styles of music include:
- House music: House music, especially acid house, is the first genre of music to be played at the earliest raves, during the Second Summer of Love. House is a genre of electronic dance music that originated out of the 1980s African-American and Latino disco scene in Chicago. House music uses a constant bass drum on every beat, electronic drum machine hi-hats and synth basslines. There are many subgenres of house music (found below). Since house was originally club music, there are many forms of it, some more appropriate to be played at raves than others. In the UK, subgenres such as UK funky, speed garage and dubstep emerged from garage house. Many "pop house" club music producers branded themselves as "house music", however, so in rave culture it is often disputed whether pop house should be considered as a subgenre of house. "Rave house" is a subgenre label of house music that originated from the styles of house that were typically played in the rave scene of the 1993–1999 period. It is a term used by the general population who do not follow the house or trance scene specifically, but identify certain house records as "rave music". It is a loose term that generally identifies progressive house, hard house or trance house styles (often instrumental with no words) that one would imagine being played at a large rave.
- Trance music: Trance music in its most popular and modern form is an offshoot of house music that originated from the acid house movement and rave scene in the late 1980s. The history of trance music is complicated to refer to, as multiple generations of listeners and musicians have influenced the genre. The term "trance" was (and still to this day by many) used interchangeably with "progressive house" in the early rave years (1990–1994).
- Breakbeat: Breakbeat music (or breaks for short) refers to any form of rave music with breakbeats, this may range from breakbeat hardcore and nu skool breaks to drum and bass, some genres such as hardstep and breakcore cross over into the hardcore techno sound. Fusions of house and trance also exist but the drum 'n' bass still remains the most popular form of breakbeat played at rave parties.
- Electro music: Electro and techno are two genres which largely featured psychedelic sounds and are largely considered the earliest forms of electronic dance music genres to use the term "rave music" in respect to its modern terminological use. Techno sometimes crosses boundaries with house music, hence the genres trance and acid techno. Miami bass and crunk is sometimes included as "electro".
- Hardcore techno: Any hard dance genre that was influenced by the rave genre, usually these genres have a distorted kick drum, and a 4/4 rhythm. Happy hardcore blended the Dutch hardcore sound with Eurodance and bubblegum pop, the genre (also known as "happycore" for short) featured pitched-up vocals and a less distorted 4/4 beat. Trancecore also exists and is a less vocal fusion of happy hardcore with trance music, however hardstyle is a more pure form of the trance/hardcore genre since it retains the hardcore sound.
- Industrial dance: Industrial is a goth/rock/punk related genre. While the genre is not usually considered rave music in itself, it is often fused with rave music genres. Industrial is the origin of many sounds found in rave music; it is one of the first genres that took the sounds that are now popular in rave music such as "acid" as its musical backdrop. Industrial music fans are usually considered rivetheads and do not tend to call themselves ravers.
- Free tekno: This style of electronic music started in the early 1990s and was mostly played in illegal parties hosted by Sound System, such as Spiral Tribe, Desert Storm, Hekate, Heretik, in warehouse, dismissed buildings, or even illegal open air festivals, called Teknivals. It takes inspiration from various other genres, and mainly focuses on quick beats, 170/200 bpm, acid bassline, mentals sounds, and often samples taken from movies, popular songs or many other different media sources.
- Ambient, minimalist & computer music – Brian Eno, Mike Oldfield, Harold Budd, ATB, The Orb, Biosphere
- Dubstep & breakstep – Magnetic Man, Eskmo, Icicle, Loefah, Phaeleh & Burial
- Electro, glitch, techno, experimental hip hop & industrial hip hop – Flying Lotus, Juan Atkins, MARRS, Dopplereffekt, Egyptian Lover, Afrika Bambaataa, Techno Animal, Coldcut, The Glitch Mob & Kraftwerk
- IDM – Aphex Twin, Autechre & Boards of Canada
- UK garage & grime – Todd Edwards, So Solid Crew, Roll Deep, Dizzee Rascal, Wiley, Plastician, Mis-Teeq
Raves have historically referred to grassroots organised, anti-establishment and unlicensed all‐night dance parties.
Prior to the commercialisation of the rave scene, when large legal venues became the norm for these events, the location of the rave was kept secret until the night of the event, usually being communicated through answering machine messages, mobile messaging, secret flyers, and websites.
This level of secrecy, necessary for avoiding any interference by the police, also on account of the illicit drug use, enabled the ravers to use locations they could stay in for ten hours at a time.
It promoted the sense of deviance and removal from social control.
In the 2000s, this level of secrecy still exists in the underground rave scene.
However "after-hours" clubs, as well as large outdoor events, create a similar type of alternate atmosphere, but focus much more on vibrant visual effects, such as props and décor.
In more recent years, large commercial events are held at the same locations year after year with similar reoccurring themes every year.
Some raves make use of pagan symbolism.
Modern raving venues attempt to immerse the raver in a fantasy-like world.
Indigenous imagery and spirituality can be characteristic in the Raving ethos.
In both the New Moon and Gateway collectives, "pagan altars are set up, sacred images from primitive cultures decorate the walls, and rituals of cleansing are performed over the turntables and the dance floor" This type of spatial strategy is an integral part of the raving experience because it sets the initial "vibe" in which the ravers will immerse themselves.
This said "vibe" is a concept in the raver ethos that represents the allure and receptiveness of an environment's portrayed and or innate energy.
The landscape is an integral feature in the composition of rave, much like it is in pagan rituals.
For example, The Numic Ghost Dancers rituals were held on specific geographical sites, considered to hold powerful natural flows of energy.
These sites were later represented in the rhythmic dances, to achieve a greater level of connectivity.
See also: :Category:Electronic dance music venues
The following is an incomplete list of venues associated with the rave subculture:
See also: Street dance
A sense of participation in a group event is among the chief appeals of rave music and dancing to pulsating beats is its immediate outlet.
Raving in itself is a syllabus-free dance, whereby the movements are not predefined and the dance is performed randomly, dancers take immediate inspiration from the music, their mood and watching other people dancing.
Thus, the electronic, rave and club dances refer to the street dance styles that evolved alongside electronic music culture.
Such dances are street dances since they evolved alongside the underground rave and club movements, without the intervention of dance studios.
These dances were originated in some 'scenes' around the world, becoming known only to ravers or clubgoers who attempt to these locations.
They were originated at some point that certain moves had begun to be performed to several people at those places, creating a completely freestyle, yet still highly complex set of moves, adaptable to every dancer change and dance whatever they want based on these moves.
Many rave dancing techniques suggest using your body as an extension of the music, to loosen up, and let the music flow through the body to create a unique form of movement.
A common feature shared by all these dances, along with being originated at clubs, raves and music festivals around the world and in different years, is that when YouTube and other social media started to become popular (around 2006), these dances began to be popularised by videos of raves performing them, recording and uploading their videos.
Therefore, they began to be practised outside their places of origin, creating different 'scenes' in several countries.
Furthermore, some of these dances began to evolve, and these dance 'scenes' are not totally related to the club/rave scenes they were originated.
Also, the way of teaching and learning them have changed.
In the past, if someone wanted to learn one of these dances, the person had to go to a club/rave, watch people dancing and try to copy them.
Now, with social media, these dances are mostly taught on video tutorials and the culture spreads and grows inside those social media, like Flogger on Fotolog, Rebolation, Sensualize and Free Step on Orkut and Cutting Shapes on Instagram.
Due to the lack of studies dedicated to those dances, combined with poor and inaccurate information of them available on the Internet, it is hard to find reliable information.
|Year (or closest estimate) of origin||BPM range and preferable music styles|
|Brisbane Stomp||Brisbane, Australia||2000–2003||130–180 | Hardcore, Happy hardcore, UK hardcore, Hard House|
|Melbourne Shuffle||Melbourne, Australia||1988–1992||120–160 | Hardstyle, Hard trance, Hard House, Hard dance, , Trance, Techno, Electro-House, Progressive house|
|Muzza||Melbourne and Sydney||2005||120–180 | Hardstyle, Trance, Psy Trance, Happy hardcore, UK hardcore|
|Liquid||New York City||1991–1992||100–160 | Trance, Hard trance, Acid trance, Progressive house|
|Gloving||1992–1993||110–150 | Trance, Progressive house, Dubstep, Glitch hop, Trap, Hardstyle|
|Nordictrack (Candywalk)||United States of America||1992–1993||100–160 | Trance, Hard trance, Acid trance, Techno|
|Drum 'N Bass Step (X-Outing)||Hungary||2008||130–160 | Drum 'N Bass and its variations|
|Flogger||Argentina||2008||120–140 | Electro-House, Progressive house, Dutch House|
|Industrial (Cybergoth) Dance||Ruhr region, Germany||2006||120–160 | Aggrotech, Synthpop, Electro-industrial|
|Cutting Shapes||London, England||2012||120–145 | Deep house, Tech house, Techno, Big room house, Progressive house|
|Tecktonik (Danse électro)||Paris, France||2005||120–140 | Complextro, Electro-House, Progressive house|
|Hakken||Rotterdam, Netherlands||1992||150–230 | Gabberhouse, Hardcore, Hardstyle|
|Jumpstyle||Belgium||2005||140–170 | Jump, Hardstyle, Hardcore|
|Rebolation||Brazil||2006||120–140 | Psy Trance, Progressive house, Electro-House|
|Sensualize||São Paulo, Brazil||2009||120–140 | Electro-House, Progressive house, Dutch house|
|Free Step||2010||120–150 | Complextro, Electro-House, Progressive house|
Since the late 1980s, rave fashion has undergone constant evolution with each new generation of ravers.
Many of the rave fashion trends have appeared internationally, but there were also individual developments from region to region and from scene to scene.
At early rave parties, often costume-like clothes and garments with signal color look such as protective suits, safety vests, dust and gas masks were worn and combined with accessories such as vacuum cleaners, homemade glasses, pacifiers and whistles.
Clothing with slogans such as "Peace, Love, Unity" and smiley-face T-shirts first appeared with the acid house movement of the 1980s.
Further popular themes of the early rave scene were plastic aesthetics, various fetish styles, DIY, 1970s, second-hand optics, retro sportswear (such as Adidas tracksuits), sex (showing much skin and nudity, e.g. wearing transparent or crop tops), war (e.g. in the form of combat boots or camouflage trousers), and science fiction.
Common fashion styles of the 1990s include tight-fitting nylon shirts, tight nylon quilted vests, bell-bottoms, neoprene jackets, studded belts, platform shoes, jackets, scarves and bags made of flokati fur, fluffy boots and phat pants, often in bright and neon colours.
Also gaudy coloured hair, dreadlocks, tattoos and piercings came into fashion with ravers.
Widespread accessories were wristbands and collars, rings and glow sticks, as well as record bags made of truck tarpaulins.
In the early 1990s the first commercial rave fashion trends developed from this, which were quickly taken up by the fashion industry and marketed under the term clubwear.
Different dress codes also evolved in the various sub-scenes of the rave culture.
Since the 2000s, the clothing style of the rave culture remains heterogeneous, as do its followers.
Particularly in North America, rave fashion continues to be characterised by colourful clothing and accessories, most notably the "kandi" jewellery that fluoresces under ultraviolet light.
They contain words or phrases that are unique to the raver and that they can choose to trade with each other using "PLUR" (Peace, Love, Unity, Respect).
This style of attire was again taken up by the fashion industry and marketed as "rave fashion" or "festival fashion", now includling all kinds of accessories to create unique looks depending on event.
In contrast to this and starting at Berlin techno clubs like Berghain in the 2000s, a strictly black style, partly borrowed from the dark scene, has established itself within parts of the techno scene.
Certain rave events such as Sensation also have a strict minimalistic dress policy, either all white or black attire.
Some ravers participate in one of four light-oriented dances, called glowsticking, glowstringing, gloving, and lightshows.
Of the four types of light-orientated dances, gloving in particular has evolved beyond and outside of the rave culture.
Other types of light-related dancing include LED lights, flash-lights and blinking strobe lights.
LEDs come in various colours with different settings.
Gloving has evolved into a separate dance form that has grown exponentially in the last couple of years.
Since then the culture has extended to all ages, ranging from kids in their early teens to college students and more.
The traditional Rav'n lights are limited now, but many stores have developed newer, brighter, and more advanced version of lights with a plethora of colours and modes—modes include solid, stribbon, strobe, dops, hyper flash, and other variations.
Among the various elements of 1970s disco subculture that ravers drew on, in addition to basing their scene around dance music mixed by DJs, ravers also inherited the positive attitude towards using club drugs to "enhanc[e]...the sensory experience" of dancing to loud music.
Ecstasy is a result of when various factors harmonise the ego with the other elements such as place and music and you enter in a "one state" where we cannot distinguish what is material or not, where things enter into syntony and constitute a unique moment, precisely the kind sought in mediation.
However, disco dancers and ravers preferred different drugs.
According to the FBI, raves are one of the most popular venues where club drugs are distributed, and as such feature a prominent drug subculture.
Club drugs include MDMA (more commonly known as "ecstasy", "E" or "molly"), 2C-B (more commonly known as "nexus"), amphetamine (commonly referred to as "speed"), GHB (commonly referred to as "fantasy" or "liquid E"), cocaine (commonly referred to as "coke"), DMT and LSD (commonly referred to as "lucy" or "acid").
Nitrites originally came as small glass capsules that were popped open, which led to the nickname "poppers."
The drug became popular in the US first on the disco/club scene of the 1970s and then at dance and rave venues in the 1980s and 1990s.
Groups that have addressed alleged drug use at raves e.g. the Electronic Music Defense and Education Fund (EM:DEF), The Toronto Raver Info Project (Canada), DanceSafe (US and Canada), and Eve & Rave (Germany and Switzerland), all of which advocate harm reduction approaches.
In 2005, Antonio Maria Costa, Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, advocated drug testing on highways as a countermeasure against drug use at raves.
Much of the controversy, moral panic and law enforcement attention directed at rave culture and its association with drug use may be due to reports of drug overdoses (particularly MDMA) at raves, concerts and festivals.
History by country
In 2001 Calgary, Alberta became the first major municipality in Canada to pass a bylaw with respect to raves.
The intent of the bylaw was to ensure that raves would be safe for participants, and also not unduly disruptive to adjacent neighbourhoods.
The bylaw was created in consultation with representatives from the municipality, the province of Alberta, and the rave community.
By 1988, acid house was making as significant an impact on popular consciousness in Germany and Central Europe as it had in England.
East German DJ Paul van Dyk has remarked that the Techno-based rave scene was a major force in re-establishing social connections between East and West Germany during the unification period.
In urbanised Germany raves and techno parties often preferred industrial sceneries such as decommissioned power stations, factories, the canalisation or former military properties of the cold war.
In 1991, a number of party venues closed, including Ufo, and the Berlin Techno scene centred itself around three locations close to the foundations of the Berlin Wall: the E-Werk, the Bunker and the now legendary Tresor.
In the same period, German DJs began intensifying the speed and abrasiveness of the sound, as an acid-infused techno began transmuting into hardcore.
This emerging sound was influenced by Dutch gabber and Belgian hardcore.
Across Europe, rave culture was becoming part of a new youth movement.
Indeed, electronic dance music and rave subculture became mass movements.
Since the mid 1990s, raves had tens of thousands of attendees, youth magazines featured styling tips, and television networks launched music magazines on House and Techno music.
The annual Love Parade festivals in Berlin and later the Metropolitan Ruhr area repeatedly attracted more than one million party-goers between 1997 and 2010.
Dozens of other annual technoparades took place in Germany and Central Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s, the largest ones being Union Move, Generation Move, Reincarnation and Vision Parade as well as Street Parade and Lake Parade in Switzerland.
Beyond Berlin, further centers of the techno and rave scene of the 1990s and 2000s in Germany were Frankfurt (famous clubs were Omen, Dorian Gray, Cocoon and U60311) and Munich (Ultraschall, KW – Das Heizkraftwerk, Natraj Temple, Harry Klein and Rote Sonne).
Further popular venues include Stammheim (Aufschwung Ost) in Kassel, Tunnel Club in Hamburg and Distillery in Leipzig.
Since the late 2000s, Berlin is still called the capital of techno and rave, and techno clubs such as Berghain, Tresor, KitKatClub or Watergate and the way to party in barely renovated venues, ruins or wooden shacks such as, among many others, Club der Visionaere, Wilde Renate, Fiese Remise or Bar 25, attracted international media attention.
One movie that portraits the scene of the 2000s is Berlin Calling starring Paul Kalkbrenner.
In the 2010s, there remains a vivid rave and techno scene throughout the country, including numerous festivals and world-class techno clubs also outside of Berlin, such as for example MMA Club and Blitz Club in Munich, Institut für Zukunft in Leipzig or Robert Johnson in Offenbach.
Birth of UK rave scene (1980s–1990s)
The UK was finally recognised for its rave culture in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
The Fantazia party at Castle Donington, July 1992 was an open-air, all-night event.
The Vision at Pophams airfield in August 1992 and Universe's Tribal Gathering in 1993 had a more festival feel.
By the middle of 1992, the scene was slowly changing, with local councils passing by-laws and increasing fees in an effort to prevent or discourage rave organisations from acquiring necessary licences.
This meant that the days of the large one-off parties were numbered.
By the mid-1990s, the scene had also fragmented into many different styles of dance music, making large parties more expensive to set up and more difficult to promote.
Although many ravers left the scene due to the split, promoters such as ESP Dreamscape and Helter Skelter still enjoyed widespread popularity and capacity attendances with multi-arena events catering to the various genres.
Notable events of this period included ESP's outdoor Dreamscape 20 event on 9 September 1995 at Brafield aerodrome fields, Northants and Helter Skelter's Energy 97 outdoor event on 9 August 1997 at Turweston Aerodrome, Northants.
Free parties and outlawing of raves (1992–1994)
See also: Free party
The illegal free party scene also reached its zenith for that time after a particularly large festival, when many individual sound systems such as Bedlam, Circus Warp, DIY, and Spiral Tribe set up near Castlemorton Common.
The government acted.
Under the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, the definition of music played at a rave was given as:
Sections 63, 64 & 65 of the Act targeted electronic dance music played at raves.
The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act empowered police to stop a rave in the open air when a hundred or more people are attending, or where two or more are making preparations for a rave.
Section 65 allows any uniformed constable who believes a person is on their way to a rave within a five-mile radius to stop them and direct them away from the area; non-compliant citizens may be subject to a maximum fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale (£1000).
The Act was officially introduced because of the noise and disruption caused by all night parties to nearby residents, and to protect the countryside.
However, some participants in the scene claimed it was an attempt to lure youth culture away from MDMA and back to taxable alcohol.
Legal and underground raves (1994–present)
After 1993, the main outlet for raves in the UK were a number of licensed parties, amongst them Helter Skelter, Life at Bowlers (Trafford Park, Manchester), The Edge (formerly the Eclipse [Coventry]), The Sanctuary (Milton Keynes) and Club Kinetic.
In London, itself, there were a few large clubs that staged raves on a regular basis, most notably "The Laser Dome", "The Fridge", "The Hippodrome", "Club U.K.", and "Trade."
"The Laser Dome" featured two separate dance areas, "Hardcore" and "Garage", as well as over 20 video game machines, a silent-movie screening lounge, replicas of the "Statue of Liberty", "San Francisco Bridge", and a large glass maze.
In Scotland, event promoters Rezerection held large-scale events across the country.
By 1997, the popularity of weekly Superclub nights had taken over from the old Rave format, with a raft of new club-based genres sweeping in (e.g. Trance, Hard House, Speed and UK garage) alongside the more traditional House sound that had regained popularity.
Clubs like Gatecrasher and Cream rose to prominence with dress codes and door policies that were the polar opposite of their rave counterparts; stories of refused entry due to not wearing the right clothing were commonplace, but seemingly did nothing to deter Superclub attendance.
See also: Doof
1980s and 1990s: outdoor raves and the Sydney scene
Rave parties began in Australia as early as the 1980s and continued well into the late 1990s.
They were mobilised versions of the 'warehouse parties', across Britain.
Similar to the United States and Britain, raves in Australia were unlicensed and held in spaces normally used for industrial and manufacturing purposes, such as warehouses, factories and carpet showrooms.
In addition, suburban locations were also used: basketball gymnasiums, train stations and even circus tents were all common venues.
In Sydney, common areas used for outdoor events included Sydney Park, a reclaimed garbage dump in the inner south west of the city, Cataract Park and various other natural, unused locations and bush lands.
The raves placed a heavy emphasis on the connection between humans and the natural environment, thus many raves in Sydney were held outdoors, notably the 'Happy Valley' parties (1991–1994), 'Ecology' (1992) and 'Field of Dreams 4' (6 July 1996).
The mid-late 1990s saw a slight decline in rave attendance, attributed to the death of Anna Wood at a licensed inner-city Sydney venue, which was hosting a rave party known as "Apache".
Wood had taken ecstasy and died in hospital a few days later, leading to extensive media exposure on the correlation of drug culture and its links to the rave scene in Australia.
The tradition continued in Melbourne, with 'Earthcore' parties.
Raves also became less underground as they were in the 1990s, and many were held at licensed venues well into the 2000s.
Despite this, rave parties of 1990s size became less common.
Nonetheless, the rave scene in Australia experienced a resurgence during the 2010s.
During this period the resurfacing of the "Melbourne Shuffle", a Melbourne club/rave dance style, became a YouTube trend and videos were uploaded.
The rave subculture in Melbourne was strengthened with the opening of clubs such as Bass Station and Hard Candy and the rise of free party groups such as Melbourne Underground.
In Melbourne, warehouse squat party and outdoor raves were frequently held throughout the 2010s, with attendance occasionally entering the thousands.
Main article: List of electronic music festivals
The following is an incomplete list of notable raves, particularly smaller raves that may not fit the profile of being an electronic dance music festival:
Notable rave artists
- Acid house & Acid techno – 808 State, Guru Josh, Brian Dougans, The KLF, Josh Wink, Michele Sainte, Phuture, Luke Vibert, Acidwolf & Lone
- Breakbeat – DJ Icey, Mike & Charlie, Brad Smith, Afco-Skynet, Agent K & Deuce, Sharaz, Dave London, Baby Anne, Faline, Rob E, Mondo, Chase and Status & Huda Hudia.
- Breakbeat hardcore – Acen, Altern-8, Keoki, Brainstorm Crew, Bobs and Sounds, The Chemical Brothers, Little Big, The Prodigy, Shades of Rhythm, Shut Up and Dance, Crystal Method & uberzone.
- Brostep / Dubstep – Rusko, Skrillex, Flux Pavilion, Datsik, Chase & Status, Doctor P, Borgore, TC, Modestep, Feed Me, Kill the Noise & Excision
- Drum and bass / Jungle – Drumsound & Bassline Smith, 4Hero, Logistics, Andy C, Spor, Goldie, DJ Ron, Dieselboy, DJ Fresh, Pendulum, Freq Nasty & Freaky Flow, Shy FX, Rebel MC, Ragga Twins
- Drumstep – Excision, Dirtyphonics, Figure, Knife Party, Kill The Noise, Fonik, Phrenik, Au5 & Fractal, Tristam, locknar, Subvibe and DotEXE
- Goa trance / Psychedelic trance – Alien Project, Electric Universe, Hallucinogen, Infected Mushroom, Astral Projection
- Hardcore techno styles – Happy hardcore, Acidcore, Hardcore house, Gabber, Frenchcore – Punish Yourself, Angerfist, Evil Activities, Dune, Outblast, Scooter, Scot Majestik, Luke Slater, Anthony Acid, Dave Clarke, Darren Styles, Neophyte, Endymion, Tommyknocker, Hellfish & Vagabond, Pastis & Buenri
- Hardstyle & Dubstyle – Technoboy, Showtek, Headhunterz, Wildstylez, Brennan Heart, Frontliner, Code Black, Activator, DHHD, DJ Neo, Southstylers, Pavo, Zany, Donkey Rollers, Luna, DJ Lady Dana, DJ Isaac, Blutonium Boy, Phuture Noize, Endymion, In-Phase & Da Tweekaz
- Moombahton – Dave Nada, Knife Party, Dillon Francis, Munchi, Diplo, Bro Safari, ETC!ETC!, Valentino Khan, Sazon Booya
- Liquid funk – Netsky, High Contrast, Fred V & Grafix, Fox Stevenson, MaxNRG, 2DB, Brookes Brothers, Rudimental & Mediks
- New rave – Klaxons, Hadouken!, Shitdisco, Trash Fashion, New Young Pony Club
- Speed garage & Bassline – Platnum, DJXP, T2 & Double 99
- Free tekno – Crystal Distortion, 69db, Fky, Gotek
- Altern 8
- Channel X
- L.A. Style
- Future Rave - David Guetta, Morten, Shapov
The following is an incomplete list of notable sound systems:
- ArtRave: The Artpop Ball
- New Rave
- Outline of entertainment
- RAVE Act – An American law targeting raves.
- Rave Board Game – 1991 board game based on the UK Rave scene
- Responsible drug use § On festivals
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rave.