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For other uses, see Rave (disambiguation). Rave_sentence_0


General InformationRave_header_cell_0_0_0
LocationRave_header_cell_0_1_0 WorldwideRave_cell_0_1_1
Types of street rave danceRave_header_cell_0_2_0 Rave_cell_0_2_1
EventsRave_header_cell_0_3_0 Rave_cell_0_3_1
TopicsRave_header_cell_0_4_0 Rave_cell_0_4_1
OriginRave_header_cell_0_5_0 Rave_cell_0_5_1
HistoryRave_header_cell_0_6_0 Rave_cell_0_6_1

A rave (from the verb: ) is an organised dance party at a warehouse, forest, cave or other private property or public space, typically featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music. Rave_sentence_1

The word also means excellent, great, or brilliant, and can be used to describe any genre of music and entertainment. Rave_sentence_2

DJs at rave events play electronic dance music on vinyl, CDs and digital audio from a wide range of genres, including techno, hardcore, house, dubstep, and alternative dance. Rave_sentence_3

Occasionally live musicians have been known to perform at raves, in addition to other types of performance artists such as go-go dancers and fire dancers. Rave_sentence_4

The music is amplified with a large, powerful sound reinforcement system, typically with large subwoofers to produce a deep bass sound. Rave_sentence_5

The music is often accompanied by laser light shows, projected coloured images, visual effects and fog machines. Rave_sentence_6

While some raves may be small parties held at nightclubs or private homes, some raves have grown to immense size, such as the large festivals and events featuring multiple DJs and dance areas (e.g., the Castlemorton Common Festival in 1992). Rave_sentence_7

Some electronic dance music festivals have features of raves, but on a larger, often commercial scale. Rave_sentence_8

Raves may last for a long time, with some events continuing for twenty-four hours, and lasting all through the night. Rave_sentence_9

Law enforcement raids and anti-rave laws have presented a challenge to the rave scene in many countries. Rave_sentence_10

This is due to the association of illegal drugs such as MDMA (often referred to as a "club drug" or "party drug" along with MDA), amphetamine, LSD, GHB, ketamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, and cannabis. Rave_sentence_11

In addition to drugs, raves often make use of non-authorized, secret venues, such as squat parties at unoccupied homes, unused warehouses, or aircraft hangars. Rave_sentence_12

These concerns are often attributed to a type of moral panic surrounding rave culture. Rave_sentence_13

History Rave_section_0

Origin of 'rave' (1950s–1970s) Rave_section_1

In the late 1950s in London, England the term "rave" was used to describe the "wild bohemian parties" of the Soho beatnik set. Rave_sentence_14

Jazz musician Mick Mulligan, known for indulging in such excesses, had the nickname "king of the ravers". Rave_sentence_15

In 1958, Buddy Holly recorded the hit "Rave On", citing the madness and frenzy of a feeling and the desire for it never to end. Rave_sentence_16

The word "rave" was later used in the burgeoning mod youth culture of the early 1960s as the way to describe any wild party in general. Rave_sentence_17

People who were gregarious party animals were described as "ravers". Rave_sentence_18

Pop musicians such as Steve Marriott of Small Faces and Keith Moon of The Who were self-described "ravers". Rave_sentence_19

Presaging the word's subsequent 1980s association with electronic music, the word "rave" was a common term used regarding the music of mid-1960s garage rock and psychedelia bands (most notably The Yardbirds, who released an album in the United States called Having a Rave Up). Rave_sentence_20

Along with being an alternative term for partying at such garage events in general, the "rave-up" referred to a specific crescendo moment near the end of a song where the music was played faster, more heavily and with intense soloing or elements of controlled feedback. Rave_sentence_21

It was later part of the title of an electronic music performance event held on 28 January 1967 at London's Roundhouse titled the "Million Volt Light and Sound Rave". Rave_sentence_22

The event featured the only known public airing of an experimental sound collage created for the occasion by Paul McCartney of The Beatles – the legendary "Carnival of Light" recording. Rave_sentence_23

With the rapid change of British pop culture from the mod era of 1963–1966 to the hippie era of 1967 and beyond, the term fell out of popular usage. Rave_sentence_24

The Northern soul movement is cited by many as being a significant step towards the creation of contemporary club culture and of the superstar DJ culture of the 2000s. Rave_sentence_25

As in contemporary club culture, Northern soul DJs built up a following based on satisfying the crowd's desires for music that they could not hear anywhere else. Rave_sentence_26

Many argue that Northern soul was instrumental in creating a network of clubs, DJs, record collectors and dealers in the UK, and was the first music scene to provide the British charts with records that sold entirely on the strength of club play. Rave_sentence_27

A technique employed by northern soul DJs in common with their later counterparts was the sequencing of records to create euphoric highs and lows for the crowd. Rave_sentence_28

DJ, Laurence 'Larry' Proxton being known for this method. Rave_sentence_29

DJ personalities and their followers involved in the original Northern soul movement went on to become important figures in the house and dance music scenes. Rave_sentence_30

During the 1970s and early 1980s until its resurrection, the term was not in vogue, one notable exception being in the lyrics of the song "Drive-In Saturday" by David Bowie (from his 1973 album Aladdin Sane) which includes the line, "It's a crash course for the ravers." Rave_sentence_31

Its use during that era would have been perceived as a quaint or ironic use of bygone slang: part of the dated 1960s lexicon along with words such as "groovy". Rave_sentence_32

The perception of the word "rave" changed again in the late 1980s when the term was revived and adopted by a new youth culture, possibly inspired by the use of the term in Jamaica. Rave_sentence_33

Birth of acid house (1980s) Rave_section_2

In the mid to late 1980s, a wave of psychedelic and other electronic dance music, most notably acid house music, emerged from acid house music parties in the mid-to-late 1980s in the Chicago area in the United States. Rave_sentence_34

After Chicago acid house artists began experiencing overseas success, acid house quickly spread and caught on in the United Kingdom within clubs, warehouses and free-parties, first in Manchester in the mid-1980s and then later in London. Rave_sentence_35

In the late 1980s, the word "rave" was adopted to describe the subculture that grew out of the acid house movement. Rave_sentence_36

Activities were related to the party atmosphere of Ibiza, a Mediterranean island in Spain, frequented by British, Italian, Greek, Irish and German youth on vacation, who would hold raves and dance parties. Rave_sentence_37

Growth of the scene (1990s–present) Rave_section_3

See also: List of electronic dance music festivals and Doof Rave_sentence_38

By the 1990s, genres such as acid, breakbeat hardcore, hardcore, happy hardcore, gabber, post-industrial and electronica were all being featured at raves, both large and small. Rave_sentence_39

There were mainstream events which attracted thousands of people (up to 25,000 instead of the 4,000 that came to earlier warehouse parties). Rave_sentence_40

Acid house music parties were first re-branded "rave parties" in the media, during the summer of 1989 by Genesis P-Orridge (Neil Andrew Megson) during a television interview; however, the ambience of the rave was not fully formed until the early 1990s. Rave_sentence_41

In 1990, raves were held "underground" in several cities, such as Berlin, Milan and Patras, in basements, warehouses and forests. Rave_sentence_42

British politicians responded with hostility to the emerging rave party trend. Rave_sentence_43

Politicians spoke out against raves and began to fine promoters who held unauthorised parties. Rave_sentence_44

Police crackdowns on these often unauthorised parties drove the rave scene into the countryside. Rave_sentence_45

The word "rave" somehow caught on in the UK to describe common semi-spontaneous weekend parties occurring at various locations linked by the brand new M25 London orbital motorway that ringed London and the Home Counties. Rave_sentence_46

(It was this that gave the band Orbital their name.) Rave_sentence_47

These ranged from former warehouses and industrial sites in London, to fields and country clubs in the countryside. Rave_sentence_48

Characteristics Rave_section_4

Rave music Rave_section_5

Rave music may either refer to the late 1980s/early 1990s genres of house, new beat, breakbeat, acid house, techno and hardcore techno, which were the first genres of music to be played at rave parties, or to any other genre of electronic dance music (EDM) that may be played at a rave. Rave_sentence_49

The genre "rave", also known as hardcore by early ravers, first appeared amongst the UK "acid" movement during the late 1980s at warehouse parties and other underground venues, as well as on UK pirate radio stations. Rave_sentence_50

The genre would develop into oldschool hardcore, which lead onto newer forms of rave music such as drum and bass and 2-step, as well as other hardcore techno genres, such as gabber, hardstyle and happy hardcore. Rave_sentence_51

Rave music is usually presented in a DJ mix set, although live performances are not uncommon. Rave_sentence_52

Styles of music include: Rave_sentence_53


  • House music: House music, especially acid house, is the first genre of music to be played at the earliest raves, during the Second Summer of Love. House is a genre of electronic dance music that originated out of the 1980s African-American and Latino disco scene in Chicago. House music uses a constant bass drum on every beat, electronic drum machine hi-hats and synth basslines. There are many subgenres of house music (found below). Since house was originally club music, there are many forms of it, some more appropriate to be played at raves than others. In the UK, subgenres such as UK funky, speed garage and dubstep emerged from garage house. Many "pop house" club music producers branded themselves as "house music", however, so in rave culture it is often disputed whether pop house should be considered as a subgenre of house. "Rave house" is a subgenre label of house music that originated from the styles of house that were typically played in the rave scene of the 1993–1999 period. It is a term used by the general population who do not follow the house or trance scene specifically, but identify certain house records as "rave music". It is a loose term that generally identifies progressive house, hard house or trance house styles (often instrumental with no words) that one would imagine being played at a large rave.Rave_item_0_0
  • Trance music: Trance music in its most popular and modern form is an offshoot of house music that originated from the acid house movement and rave scene in the late 1980s. The history of trance music is complicated to refer to, as multiple generations of listeners and musicians have influenced the genre. The term "trance" was (and still to this day by many) used interchangeably with "progressive house" in the early rave years (1990–1994).Rave_item_0_1
  • Breakbeat: Breakbeat music (or breaks for short) refers to any form of rave music with breakbeats, this may range from breakbeat hardcore and nu skool breaks to drum and bass, some genres such as hardstep and breakcore cross over into the hardcore techno sound. Fusions of house and trance also exist but the drum 'n' bass still remains the most popular form of breakbeat played at rave parties.Rave_item_0_2
  • Electro music: Electro and techno are two genres which largely featured psychedelic sounds and are largely considered the earliest forms of electronic dance music genres to use the term "rave music" in respect to its modern terminological use. Techno sometimes crosses boundaries with house music, hence the genres trance and acid techno. Miami bass and crunk is sometimes included as "electro".Rave_item_0_3
  • Hardcore techno: Any hard dance genre that was influenced by the rave genre, usually these genres have a distorted kick drum, and a 4/4 rhythm. Happy hardcore blended the Dutch hardcore sound with Eurodance and bubblegum pop, the genre (also known as "happycore" for short) featured pitched-up vocals and a less distorted 4/4 beat. Trancecore also exists and is a less vocal fusion of happy hardcore with trance music, however hardstyle is a more pure form of the trance/hardcore genre since it retains the hardcore sound.Rave_item_0_4
  • Industrial dance: Industrial is a goth/rock/punk related genre. While the genre is not usually considered rave music in itself, it is often fused with rave music genres. Industrial is the origin of many sounds found in rave music; it is one of the first genres that took the sounds that are now popular in rave music such as "acid" as its musical backdrop. Industrial music fans are usually considered rivetheads and do not tend to call themselves ravers.Rave_item_0_5
  • Free tekno: This style of electronic music started in the early 1990s and was mostly played in illegal parties hosted by Sound System, such as Spiral Tribe, Desert Storm, Hekate, Heretik, in warehouse, dismissed buildings, or even illegal open air festivals, called Teknivals. It takes inspiration from various other genres, and mainly focuses on quick beats, 170/200 bpm, acid bassline, mentals sounds, and often samples taken from movies, popular songs or many other different media sources.Rave_item_0_6

Downtempo and less dance oriented styles which are sometimes called chill-out music, that might be heard in a rave "chill-out" room or at a rave that plays slower electronic music includes: Rave_sentence_54


Location Rave_section_6

Raves have historically referred to grassroots organised, anti-establishment and unlicensed all‐night dance parties. Rave_sentence_55

Prior to the commercialisation of the rave scene, when large legal venues became the norm for these events, the location of the rave was kept secret until the night of the event, usually being communicated through answering machine messages, mobile messaging, secret flyers, and websites. Rave_sentence_56

This level of secrecy, necessary for avoiding any interference by the police, also on account of the illicit drug use, enabled the ravers to use locations they could stay in for ten hours at a time. Rave_sentence_57

It promoted the sense of deviance and removal from social control. Rave_sentence_58

In the 2000s, this level of secrecy still exists in the underground rave scene. Rave_sentence_59

However "after-hours" clubs, as well as large outdoor events, create a similar type of alternate atmosphere, but focus much more on vibrant visual effects, such as props and décor. Rave_sentence_60

In more recent years, large commercial events are held at the same locations year after year with similar reoccurring themes every year. Rave_sentence_61

Events like Electric Daisy Carnival and Tomorrowland are typically held at the same venue that holds mass numbers of people. Rave_sentence_62

Some raves make use of pagan symbolism. Rave_sentence_63

Modern raving venues attempt to immerse the raver in a fantasy-like world. Rave_sentence_64

Indigenous imagery and spirituality can be characteristic in the Raving ethos. Rave_sentence_65

In both the New Moon and Gateway collectives, "pagan altars are set up, sacred images from primitive cultures decorate the walls, and rituals of cleansing are performed over the turntables and the dance floor" This type of spatial strategy is an integral part of the raving experience because it sets the initial "vibe" in which the ravers will immerse themselves. Rave_sentence_66

This said "vibe" is a concept in the raver ethos that represents the allure and receptiveness of an environment's portrayed and or innate energy. Rave_sentence_67

The landscape is an integral feature in the composition of rave, much like it is in pagan rituals. Rave_sentence_68

For example, The Numic Ghost Dancers rituals were held on specific geographical sites, considered to hold powerful natural flows of energy. Rave_sentence_69

These sites were later represented in the rhythmic dances, to achieve a greater level of connectivity. Rave_sentence_70

Notable venues Rave_section_7

See also: :Category:Electronic dance music venues Rave_sentence_71

The following is an incomplete list of venues associated with the rave subculture: Rave_sentence_72

Dancing Rave_section_8

See also: Street dance Rave_sentence_73

A sense of participation in a group event is among the chief appeals of rave music and dancing to pulsating beats is its immediate outlet. Rave_sentence_74

Raving in itself is a syllabus-free dance, whereby the movements are not predefined and the dance is performed randomly, dancers take immediate inspiration from the music, their mood and watching other people dancing. Rave_sentence_75

Thus, the electronic, rave and club dances refer to the street dance styles that evolved alongside electronic music culture. Rave_sentence_76

Such dances are street dances since they evolved alongside the underground rave and club movements, without the intervention of dance studios. Rave_sentence_77

These dances were originated in some 'scenes' around the world, becoming known only to ravers or clubgoers who attempt to these locations. Rave_sentence_78

They were originated at some point that certain moves had begun to be performed to several people at those places, creating a completely freestyle, yet still highly complex set of moves, adaptable to every dancer change and dance whatever they want based on these moves. Rave_sentence_79

Many rave dancing techniques suggest using your body as an extension of the music, to loosen up, and let the music flow through the body to create a unique form of movement. Rave_sentence_80

A common feature shared by all these dances, along with being originated at clubs, raves and music festivals around the world and in different years, is that when YouTube and other social media started to become popular (around 2006), these dances began to be popularised by videos of raves performing them, recording and uploading their videos. Rave_sentence_81

Therefore, they began to be practised outside their places of origin, creating different 'scenes' in several countries. Rave_sentence_82

Furthermore, some of these dances began to evolve, and these dance 'scenes' are not totally related to the club/rave scenes they were originated. Rave_sentence_83

Also, the way of teaching and learning them have changed. Rave_sentence_84

In the past, if someone wanted to learn one of these dances, the person had to go to a club/rave, watch people dancing and try to copy them. Rave_sentence_85

Now, with social media, these dances are mostly taught on video tutorials and the culture spreads and grows inside those social media, like Flogger on Fotolog, Rebolation, Sensualize and Free Step on Orkut and Cutting Shapes on Instagram. Rave_sentence_86

Due to the lack of studies dedicated to those dances, combined with poor and inaccurate information of them available on the Internet, it is hard to find reliable information. Rave_sentence_87


List of electronic/rave/club dancesRave_table_caption_1
NameRave_header_cell_1_0_0 City/country of


Year (or closest estimate) of originRave_header_cell_1_0_2 BPM range and preferable music stylesRave_header_cell_1_0_3
Brisbane StompRave_cell_1_1_0 Brisbane, AustraliaRave_cell_1_1_1 2000–2003Rave_cell_1_1_2 130–180 | Hardcore, Happy hardcore, UK hardcore, Hard HouseRave_cell_1_1_3
Melbourne ShuffleRave_cell_1_2_0 Melbourne, AustraliaRave_cell_1_2_1 1988–1992Rave_cell_1_2_2 120–160 | Hardstyle, Hard trance, Hard House, Hard dance, , Trance, Techno, Electro-House, Progressive houseRave_cell_1_2_3
MuzzaRave_cell_1_3_0 Melbourne and SydneyRave_cell_1_3_1 2005Rave_cell_1_3_2 120–180 | Hardstyle, Trance, Psy Trance, Happy hardcore, UK hardcoreRave_cell_1_3_3
LiquidRave_cell_1_4_0 New York CityRave_cell_1_4_1 1991–1992Rave_cell_1_4_2 100–160 | Trance, Hard trance, Acid trance, Progressive houseRave_cell_1_4_3
GlovingRave_cell_1_6_0 1992–1993Rave_cell_1_6_1 110–150 | Trance, Progressive house, Dubstep, Glitch hop, Trap, HardstyleRave_cell_1_6_2
Nordictrack (Candywalk)Rave_cell_1_7_0 United States of AmericaRave_cell_1_7_1 1992–1993Rave_cell_1_7_2 100–160 | Trance, Hard trance, Acid trance, TechnoRave_cell_1_7_3
Drum 'N Bass Step (X-Outing)Rave_cell_1_8_0 HungaryRave_cell_1_8_1 2008Rave_cell_1_8_2 130–160 | Drum 'N Bass and its variationsRave_cell_1_8_3
FloggerRave_cell_1_9_0 ArgentinaRave_cell_1_9_1 2008Rave_cell_1_9_2 120–140 | Electro-House, Progressive house, Dutch HouseRave_cell_1_9_3
Industrial (Cybergoth) DanceRave_cell_1_10_0 Ruhr region, GermanyRave_cell_1_10_1 2006Rave_cell_1_10_2 120–160 | Aggrotech, Synthpop, Electro-industrialRave_cell_1_10_3
Cutting ShapesRave_cell_1_11_0 London, EnglandRave_cell_1_11_1 2012Rave_cell_1_11_2 120–145 | Deep house, Tech house, Techno, Big room house, Progressive houseRave_cell_1_11_3
Tecktonik (Danse électro)Rave_cell_1_12_0 Paris, FranceRave_cell_1_12_1 2005Rave_cell_1_12_2 120–140 | Complextro, Electro-House, Progressive houseRave_cell_1_12_3
HakkenRave_cell_1_13_0 Rotterdam, NetherlandsRave_cell_1_13_1 1992Rave_cell_1_13_2 150–230 | Gabberhouse, Hardcore, HardstyleRave_cell_1_13_3
JumpstyleRave_cell_1_14_0 BelgiumRave_cell_1_14_1 2005Rave_cell_1_14_2 140–170 | Jump, Hardstyle, HardcoreRave_cell_1_14_3
RebolationRave_cell_1_15_0 BrazilRave_cell_1_15_1 2006Rave_cell_1_15_2 120–140 | Psy Trance, Progressive house, Electro-HouseRave_cell_1_15_3
SensualizeRave_cell_1_16_0 São Paulo, BrazilRave_cell_1_16_1 2009Rave_cell_1_16_2 120–140 | Electro-House, Progressive house, Dutch houseRave_cell_1_16_3
Free StepRave_cell_1_17_0 2010Rave_cell_1_17_1 120–150 | Complextro, Electro-House, Progressive houseRave_cell_1_17_2

Attire Rave_section_9

See also: Rivethead, Phat pants, and Fluffy (footwear) Rave_sentence_88

Since the late 1980s, rave fashion has undergone constant evolution with each new generation of ravers. Rave_sentence_89

Many of the rave fashion trends have appeared internationally, but there were also individual developments from region to region and from scene to scene. Rave_sentence_90

At early rave parties, often costume-like clothes and garments with signal color look such as protective suits, safety vests, dust and gas masks were worn and combined with accessories such as vacuum cleaners, homemade glasses, pacifiers and whistles. Rave_sentence_91

Clothing with slogans such as "Peace, Love, Unity" and smiley-face T-shirts first appeared with the acid house movement of the 1980s. Rave_sentence_92

Further popular themes of the early rave scene were plastic aesthetics, various fetish styles, DIY, 1970s, second-hand optics, retro sportswear (such as Adidas tracksuits), sex (showing much skin and nudity, e.g. wearing transparent or crop tops), war (e.g. in the form of combat boots or camouflage trousers), and science fiction. Rave_sentence_93

Common fashion styles of the 1990s include tight-fitting nylon shirts, tight nylon quilted vests, bell-bottoms, neoprene jackets, studded belts, platform shoes, jackets, scarves and bags made of flokati fur, fluffy boots and phat pants, often in bright and neon colours. Rave_sentence_94

Also gaudy coloured hair, dreadlocks, tattoos and piercings came into fashion with ravers. Rave_sentence_95

Widespread accessories were wristbands and collars, rings and glow sticks, as well as record bags made of truck tarpaulins. Rave_sentence_96

In the early 1990s the first commercial rave fashion trends developed from this, which were quickly taken up by the fashion industry and marketed under the term clubwear. Rave_sentence_97

Different dress codes also evolved in the various sub-scenes of the rave culture. Rave_sentence_98

For example, the typical gabber or psytrance raver dressed significantly different from "normal" ravers, but common basic features remained recognisable. Rave_sentence_99

Since the 2000s, the clothing style of the rave culture remains heterogeneous, as do its followers. Rave_sentence_100

Particularly in North America, rave fashion continues to be characterised by colourful clothing and accessories, most notably the "kandi" jewellery that fluoresces under ultraviolet light. Rave_sentence_101

They contain words or phrases that are unique to the raver and that they can choose to trade with each other using "PLUR" (Peace, Love, Unity, Respect). Rave_sentence_102

This style of attire was again taken up by the fashion industry and marketed as "rave fashion" or "festival fashion", now includling all kinds of accessories to create unique looks depending on event. Rave_sentence_103

In contrast to this and starting at Berlin techno clubs like Berghain in the 2000s, a strictly black style, partly borrowed from the dark scene, has established itself within parts of the techno scene. Rave_sentence_104

Certain rave events such as Sensation also have a strict minimalistic dress policy, either all white or black attire. Rave_sentence_105

Light shows Rave_section_10

See also: Gloving, Glowsticking, Holographic show, and Laser show Rave_sentence_106

Some ravers participate in one of four light-oriented dances, called glowsticking, glowstringing, gloving, and lightshows. Rave_sentence_107

Of the four types of light-orientated dances, gloving in particular has evolved beyond and outside of the rave culture. Rave_sentence_108

Other types of light-related dancing include LED lights, flash-lights and blinking strobe lights. Rave_sentence_109

LEDs come in various colours with different settings. Rave_sentence_110

Gloving has evolved into a separate dance form that has grown exponentially in the last couple of years. Rave_sentence_111

Since then the culture has extended to all ages, ranging from kids in their early teens to college students and more. Rave_sentence_112

The traditional Rav'n lights are limited now, but many stores have developed newer, brighter, and more advanced version of lights with a plethora of colours and modes—modes include solid, stribbon, strobe, dops, hyper flash, and other variations. Rave_sentence_113

Drug use Rave_section_11

See also: Club drug and Party pills Rave_sentence_114

Among the various elements of 1970s disco subculture that ravers drew on, in addition to basing their scene around dance music mixed by DJs, ravers also inherited the positive attitude towards using club drugs to "enhanc[e]...the sensory experience" of dancing to loud music. Rave_sentence_115

Ecstasy is a result of when various factors harmonise the ego with the other elements such as place and music and you enter in a "one state" where we cannot distinguish what is material or not, where things enter into syntony and constitute a unique moment, precisely the kind sought in mediation. Rave_sentence_116

However, disco dancers and ravers preferred different drugs. Rave_sentence_117

Whereas 1970s disco scene members preferred cocaine and the depressant/sedative Quaaludes, ravers preferred MDMA, 2C-B, amphetamine, and other pills. Rave_sentence_118

According to the FBI, raves are one of the most popular venues where club drugs are distributed, and as such feature a prominent drug subculture. Rave_sentence_119

Club drugs include MDMA (more commonly known as "ecstasy", "E" or "molly"), 2C-B (more commonly known as "nexus"), amphetamine (commonly referred to as "speed"), GHB (commonly referred to as "fantasy" or "liquid E"), cocaine (commonly referred to as "coke"), DMT and LSD (commonly referred to as "lucy" or "acid"). Rave_sentence_120

"Poppers" is the street name for alkyl nitrites (the most well-known being amyl nitrite), which are inhaled for their intoxicating effects, notably the "rush" or "high" they can provide. Rave_sentence_121

Nitrites originally came as small glass capsules that were popped open, which led to the nickname "poppers." Rave_sentence_122

The drug became popular in the US first on the disco/club scene of the 1970s and then at dance and rave venues in the 1980s and 1990s. Rave_sentence_123

In the 2000s, synthetic phenethylamines such as 2C-I, 2C-B and DOB have been referred to as club drugs due to their stimulating and psychedelic nature (and their chemical relationship with MDMA). Rave_sentence_124

By late 2012, derivates of the psychedelic 2C-X drugs, the NBOMes and especially 25I-NBOMe, had become common at raves in Europe. Rave_sentence_125

In the U.S., some law enforcement agencies have branded the subculture as a drug-centric culture, as rave attendees have been known to use drugs such as cannabis, 2C-B, and DMT. Rave_sentence_126

Groups that have addressed alleged drug use at raves e.g. the Electronic Music Defense and Education Fund (EM:DEF), The Toronto Raver Info Project (Canada), DanceSafe (US and Canada), and Eve & Rave (Germany and Switzerland), all of which advocate harm reduction approaches. Rave_sentence_127

In 2005, Antonio Maria Costa, Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, advocated drug testing on highways as a countermeasure against drug use at raves. Rave_sentence_128

Much of the controversy, moral panic and law enforcement attention directed at rave culture and its association with drug use may be due to reports of drug overdoses (particularly MDMA) at raves, concerts and festivals. Rave_sentence_129

History by country Rave_section_12

Canada Rave_section_13

In 2001 Calgary, Alberta became the first major municipality in Canada to pass a bylaw with respect to raves. Rave_sentence_130

The intent of the bylaw was to ensure that raves would be safe for participants, and also not unduly disruptive to adjacent neighbourhoods. Rave_sentence_131

The bylaw was created in consultation with representatives from the municipality, the province of Alberta, and the rave community. Rave_sentence_132

Germany Rave_section_14

See also: Love Parade, Technoparade, Techno, Hardcore (electronic dance music), Happy hardcore, Gabber, and Electronic body music Rave_sentence_133

By 1988, acid house was making as significant an impact on popular consciousness in Germany and Central Europe as it had in England. Rave_sentence_134

In 1989 German DJs Westbam and Dr. Motte established the Ufo Club, an illegal party venue, and co-founded the Love Parade. Rave_sentence_135

On 9 November 1989 the Berlin Wall fell, free underground Techno parties mushroomed in East Berlin, and a rave scene comparable to that in the UK was established. Rave_sentence_136

East German DJ Paul van Dyk has remarked that the Techno-based rave scene was a major force in re-establishing social connections between East and West Germany during the unification period. Rave_sentence_137

In urbanised Germany raves and techno parties often preferred industrial sceneries such as decommissioned power stations, factories, the canalisation or former military properties of the cold war. Rave_sentence_138

In 1991, a number of party venues closed, including Ufo, and the Berlin Techno scene centred itself around three locations close to the foundations of the Berlin Wall: the E-Werk, the Bunker and the now legendary Tresor. Rave_sentence_139

In the same period, German DJs began intensifying the speed and abrasiveness of the sound, as an acid-infused techno began transmuting into hardcore. Rave_sentence_140

This emerging sound was influenced by Dutch gabber and Belgian hardcore. Rave_sentence_141

Other influences on the development of this style were European Electronic Body Music groups of the mid-1980s such as DAF, Front 242, and Nitzer Ebb. Rave_sentence_142

Across Europe, rave culture was becoming part of a new youth movement. Rave_sentence_143

DJs and electronic-music producers such as Westbam proclaimed the existence of a "raving society" and promoted electronic music as legitimate competition for rock and roll. Rave_sentence_144

Indeed, electronic dance music and rave subculture became mass movements. Rave_sentence_145

Since the mid 1990s, raves had tens of thousands of attendees, youth magazines featured styling tips, and television networks launched music magazines on House and Techno music. Rave_sentence_146

The annual Love Parade festivals in Berlin and later the Metropolitan Ruhr area repeatedly attracted more than one million party-goers between 1997 and 2010. Rave_sentence_147

Dozens of other annual technoparades took place in Germany and Central Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s, the largest ones being Union Move, Generation Move, Reincarnation and Vision Parade as well as Street Parade and Lake Parade in Switzerland. Rave_sentence_148

Large commercial raves since the nineties include Mayday, Nature One, Time Warp, SonneMondSterne and Melt!. Rave_sentence_149

Beyond Berlin, further centers of the techno and rave scene of the 1990s and 2000s in Germany were Frankfurt (famous clubs were Omen, Dorian Gray, Cocoon and U60311) and Munich (Ultraschall, KW – Das Heizkraftwerk, Natraj Temple, Harry Klein and Rote Sonne). Rave_sentence_150

Further popular venues include Stammheim (Aufschwung Ost) in Kassel, Tunnel Club in Hamburg and Distillery in Leipzig. Rave_sentence_151

Since the late 2000s, Berlin is still called the capital of techno and rave, and techno clubs such as Berghain, Tresor, KitKatClub or Watergate and the way to party in barely renovated venues, ruins or wooden shacks such as, among many others, Club der Visionaere, Wilde Renate, Fiese Remise or Bar 25, attracted international media attention. Rave_sentence_152

One movie that portraits the scene of the 2000s is Berlin Calling starring Paul Kalkbrenner. Rave_sentence_153

In the 2010s, there remains a vivid rave and techno scene throughout the country, including numerous festivals and world-class techno clubs also outside of Berlin, such as for example MMA Club and Blitz Club in Munich, Institut für Zukunft in Leipzig or Robert Johnson in Offenbach. Rave_sentence_154

United Kingdom Rave_section_15

Birth of UK rave scene (1980s–1990s) Rave_section_16

See also: Second Summer of Love and Acid house party Rave_sentence_155

The UK was finally recognised for its rave culture in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Rave_sentence_156

By 1991, organisations such as Fantazia and Raindance were holding massive legal raves in fields and warehouses around the country. Rave_sentence_157

The Fantazia party at Castle Donington, July 1992 was an open-air, all-night event. Rave_sentence_158

The Vision at Pophams airfield in August 1992 and Universe's Tribal Gathering in 1993 had a more festival feel. Rave_sentence_159

By the middle of 1992, the scene was slowly changing, with local councils passing by-laws and increasing fees in an effort to prevent or discourage rave organisations from acquiring necessary licences. Rave_sentence_160

This meant that the days of the large one-off parties were numbered. Rave_sentence_161

By the mid-1990s, the scene had also fragmented into many different styles of dance music, making large parties more expensive to set up and more difficult to promote. Rave_sentence_162

The sound driving the big raves of the early 1990s had by the end of 1993 split into two distinct and polarising styles, the darker jungle and the faster happy hardcore. Rave_sentence_163

Although many ravers left the scene due to the split, promoters such as ESP Dreamscape and Helter Skelter still enjoyed widespread popularity and capacity attendances with multi-arena events catering to the various genres. Rave_sentence_164

Notable events of this period included ESP's outdoor Dreamscape 20 event on 9 September 1995 at Brafield aerodrome fields, Northants and Helter Skelter's Energy 97 outdoor event on 9 August 1997 at Turweston Aerodrome, Northants. Rave_sentence_165

Free parties and outlawing of raves (1992–1994) Rave_section_17

See also: Free party Rave_sentence_166

The illegal free party scene also reached its zenith for that time after a particularly large festival, when many individual sound systems such as Bedlam, Circus Warp, DIY, and Spiral Tribe set up near Castlemorton Common. Rave_sentence_167

The government acted. Rave_sentence_168

Under the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, the definition of music played at a rave was given as: Rave_sentence_169

Sections 63, 64 & 65 of the Act targeted electronic dance music played at raves. Rave_sentence_170

The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act empowered police to stop a rave in the open air when a hundred or more people are attending, or where two or more are making preparations for a rave. Rave_sentence_171

Section 65 allows any uniformed constable who believes a person is on their way to a rave within a five-mile radius to stop them and direct them away from the area; non-compliant citizens may be subject to a maximum fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale (£1000). Rave_sentence_172

The Act was officially introduced because of the noise and disruption caused by all night parties to nearby residents, and to protect the countryside. Rave_sentence_173

However, some participants in the scene claimed it was an attempt to lure youth culture away from MDMA and back to taxable alcohol. Rave_sentence_174

In November 1994, the Zippies staged an act of electronic civil disobedience to protest against the CJB (i.e., Criminal Justice Bill). Rave_sentence_175

Legal and underground raves (1994–present) Rave_section_18

After 1993, the main outlet for raves in the UK were a number of licensed parties, amongst them Helter Skelter, Life at Bowlers (Trafford Park, Manchester), The Edge (formerly the Eclipse [Coventry]), The Sanctuary (Milton Keynes) and Club Kinetic. Rave_sentence_176

In London, itself, there were a few large clubs that staged raves on a regular basis, most notably "The Laser Dome", "The Fridge", "The Hippodrome", "Club U.K.", and "Trade." Rave_sentence_177

"The Laser Dome" featured two separate dance areas, "Hardcore" and "Garage", as well as over 20 video game machines, a silent-movie screening lounge, replicas of the "Statue of Liberty", "San Francisco Bridge", and a large glass maze. Rave_sentence_178

In Scotland, event promoters Rezerection held large-scale events across the country. Rave_sentence_179

By 1997, the popularity of weekly Superclub nights had taken over from the old Rave format, with a raft of new club-based genres sweeping in (e.g. Trance, Hard House, Speed and UK garage) alongside the more traditional House sound that had regained popularity. Rave_sentence_180

Clubs like Gatecrasher and Cream rose to prominence with dress codes and door policies that were the polar opposite of their rave counterparts; stories of refused entry due to not wearing the right clothing were commonplace, but seemingly did nothing to deter Superclub attendance. Rave_sentence_181

United States Rave_section_19

Australia Rave_section_20

See also: Doof Rave_sentence_182

1980s and 1990s: outdoor raves and the Sydney scene Rave_section_21

Rave parties began in Australia as early as the 1980s and continued well into the late 1990s. Rave_sentence_183

They were mobilised versions of the 'warehouse parties', across Britain. Rave_sentence_184

Similar to the United States and Britain, raves in Australia were unlicensed and held in spaces normally used for industrial and manufacturing purposes, such as warehouses, factories and carpet showrooms. Rave_sentence_185

In addition, suburban locations were also used: basketball gymnasiums, train stations and even circus tents were all common venues. Rave_sentence_186

In Sydney, common areas used for outdoor events included Sydney Park, a reclaimed garbage dump in the inner south west of the city, Cataract Park and various other natural, unused locations and bush lands. Rave_sentence_187

The raves placed a heavy emphasis on the connection between humans and the natural environment, thus many raves in Sydney were held outdoors, notably the 'Happy Valley' parties (1991–1994), 'Ecology' (1992) and 'Field of Dreams 4' (6 July 1996). Rave_sentence_188

The mid-late 1990s saw a slight decline in rave attendance, attributed to the death of Anna Wood at a licensed inner-city Sydney venue, which was hosting a rave party known as "Apache". Rave_sentence_189

Wood had taken ecstasy and died in hospital a few days later, leading to extensive media exposure on the correlation of drug culture and its links to the rave scene in Australia. Rave_sentence_190

2000s–present Rave_section_22

The tradition continued in Melbourne, with 'Earthcore' parties. Rave_sentence_191

Raves also became less underground as they were in the 1990s, and many were held at licensed venues well into the 2000s. Rave_sentence_192

Despite this, rave parties of 1990s size became less common. Rave_sentence_193

Nonetheless, the rave scene in Australia experienced a resurgence during the 2010s. Rave_sentence_194

During this period the resurfacing of the "Melbourne Shuffle", a Melbourne club/rave dance style, became a YouTube trend and videos were uploaded. Rave_sentence_195

The rave subculture in Melbourne was strengthened with the opening of clubs such as Bass Station and Hard Candy and the rise of free party groups such as Melbourne Underground. Rave_sentence_196

In Melbourne, warehouse squat party and outdoor raves were frequently held throughout the 2010s, with attendance occasionally entering the thousands. Rave_sentence_197

Notable events Rave_section_23

Main article: List of electronic music festivals Rave_sentence_198

See also: List of trance festivals, List of teknivals, and List of technoparades Rave_sentence_199

The following is an incomplete list of notable raves, particularly smaller raves that may not fit the profile of being an electronic dance music festival: Rave_sentence_200

Notable rave artists Rave_section_24


Notable soundsystems Rave_section_25

The following is an incomplete list of notable sound systems: Rave_sentence_201


See also Rave_section_26


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rave.