Recording Industry Association of America

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Recording Industry Association of America_table_infobox_0

Recording Industry Association of AmericaRecording Industry Association of America_table_caption_0
AbbreviationRecording Industry Association of America_header_cell_0_0_0 RIAARecording Industry Association of America_cell_0_0_1
MottoRecording Industry Association of America_header_cell_0_1_0 "For Music"Recording Industry Association of America_cell_0_1_1
FormationRecording Industry Association of America_header_cell_0_2_0 1952; 68 years ago (1952)Recording Industry Association of America_cell_0_2_1
TypeRecording Industry Association of America_header_cell_0_3_0 Licensing and royalties, technical standardsRecording Industry Association of America_cell_0_3_1
HeadquartersRecording Industry Association of America_header_cell_0_4_0 Washington, D.C., U.S.Recording Industry Association of America_cell_0_4_1
LocationRecording Industry Association of America_header_cell_0_5_0 Recording Industry Association of America_cell_0_5_1
Chairman and CEORecording Industry Association of America_header_cell_0_6_0 Mitch GlazierRecording Industry Association of America_cell_0_6_1
WebsiteRecording Industry Association of America_header_cell_0_7_0 Recording Industry Association of America_cell_0_7_1

The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization that represents the recording industry in the United States. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_0

Its members consist of record labels and distributors, which the RIAA says "create, manufacture, and/or distribute approximately 85% of all legally sold recorded music in the United States". Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_1

The RIAA headquarters is in Washington, D.C. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_2

The RIAA was formed in 1952. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_3

Its original mission was to administer recording copyright fees and problems, work with trade unions, and do research relating to the record industry and government regulations. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_4

Early RIAA standards included the RIAA equalization curve, the format of the stereophonic record groove and the dimensions of 33 1/3, 45, and 78 rpm records. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_5

The RIAA says its current mission includes: Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_6

Recording Industry Association of America_ordered_list_0

  1. to protect intellectual property rights and the First Amendment rights of artistsRecording Industry Association of America_item_0_0
  2. to perform research about the music industryRecording Industry Association of America_item_0_1
  3. to monitor and review relevant laws, regulations, and policiesRecording Industry Association of America_item_0_2

Since 2001, the RIAA has spent upwards of $6 million annually on lobbying in the United States. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_7

The RIAA also participates in the collective rights management of sound recordings, and it is responsible for certifying gold and platinum albums and singles in the United States. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_8

Company structure and sales Recording Industry Association of America_section_0

Mitch Glazier has been the RIAA's chairman and CEO since 2019. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_9

Glazier joined the RIAA 20 years ago and has played a vital role in the music industry's transition to streaming and "anywhere, anytime" access to music. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_10

He was the RIAA's senior executive vice president from 2011 to 2019 and served as executive vice president for public policy and industry relations from 2000 to 2011. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_11

The 25-member board of directors is composed of these record executives: Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_12

Recording Industry Association of America_unordered_list_1

  • Mitch Glazier (Recording Industry Association of America)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_3
  • Michele Ballantyne (Recording Industry Association of America)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_4
  • Michele Anthony (Universal Music Group)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_5
  • Glen Barros (Exceleration Music)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_6
  • Michael L. Nash (Universal Music Group)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_7
  • Eric Berman (Universal Music Group)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_8
  • David Bither (Nonesuch Records)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_9
  • Ken Bunt (Disney Music Group)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_10
  • John Esposito (Warner Music Nashville)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_11
  • Victor Gonzalez (Universal Music Latin Entertainment)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_12
  • Camille Hackney (Atlantic Records)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_13
  • Rani Hancock (Sire Records)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_14
  • Jeff Harleston (Universal Music Group)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_15
  • Terry Hemmings (Provident Music Group/Sony Music Entertainment)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_16
  • Kevin Kelleher (Sony Music Entertainment)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_17
  • Sheldra Khahaifa (Sony Music Entertainment)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_18
  • Dennis Kooker (Sony Music Entertainment)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_19
  • Annie Lee (Interscope Geffen A&M)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_20
  • Gabriela Maartinez (Warner Music Latina)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_21
  • Deirdre McDonald (Sony Music Entertainment)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_22
  • Paul Robinson (Warner Music Group)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_23
  • Tom Silverman (Tommy Boy Entertainment)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_24
  • Julie Swidler (Sony Music Entertainment)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_25
  • Will Tanous (Universal Music Group)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_26
  • Zena White (Partisan Records)Recording Industry Association of America_item_1_27

The RIAA represents over 1,600 member labels, which are private corporate entities such as record labels and distributors, and collectively create and distribute about 90% of recorded music sold in the United States. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_13

The largest and most influential of the members are the "Big Three": Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_14

Recording Industry Association of America_unordered_list_2

The RIAA also represents other major record labels such as Atlantic, Capitol, RCA, Warner Bros., Columbia, and Motown. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_15

The RIAA reports that total retail value of recordings sold by their members was $10.4 billion at the end of 2007, a decline from $14.6 billion in 1999. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_16

Estimated retail revenues from recorded music in the United States grew 11.4% in 2016 to $7.7 billion. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_17

Sales certification Recording Industry Association of America_section_1

Main article: RIAA certification Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_18

The RIAA operates an award program for albums that sell a large number of copies. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_19

The program originally began in 1958, with a "Gold Award" for singles and albums that reach $1,000,000 in sales. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_20

The criterion was changed in 1975 to the number of copies sold, with albums selling 500,000 copies awarded the Gold Award. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_21

In 1976, a "Platinum Award" was added for one million sales. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_22

In 1989, new criteria were introduced, with a "Gold Award" for singles that reach 500,000 in sales and a "Platinum Award" for singles that reach 1,000,000 in sales; and in 1999, a "Diamond Award" for 10 million sales was introduced. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_23

The awards are open to both RIAA members and nonmembers. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_24

Since 2000, the RIAA also operates a similar program for Latin music sales, called Los Premios de Oro y De Platino. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_25

Currently, a "Disco De Oro" (Gold) is awarded for 30,000 units and a "Disco De Platino" is awarded for 60,000 units, with "Album Multi-Platino" at 120,000 and "Diamante" for 10 times "Platino" (600,000). Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_26

The RIAA defines "Latin music" as a type of release with 51% or more of its content recorded in Spanish. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_27

"Digital" single certification Recording Industry Association of America_section_2

In 2004, the RIAA added a branch of certification for what it calls "digital" recordings, meaning roughly "recordings transferred to the recipient over a network" (such as those sold via the iTunes Store), and excluding other obviously digital media such as those on CD, DAT, or MiniDisc. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_28

In 2006, "digital ringtones" were added to this branch of certification. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_29

Starting in 2013, streaming from audio and video streaming services such as Spotify and YouTube also began to be counted towards the certification using the formula of 100 streams being the equivalent of one download, RIAA certification for singles, therefore, no longer represents true sales. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_30

In the same year, the RIAA introduced the Latin Digital Award for digital recordings in Spanish. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_31

As of 2016, the certification criteria for these recordings are: Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_32

Digital awards: Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_33

Recording Industry Association of America_unordered_list_3

  • Gold: 500,000 unitsRecording Industry Association of America_item_3_31
  • Platinum: 1,000,000 unitsRecording Industry Association of America_item_3_32
  • Multi-Platinum: 2,000,000 units (increments of 1,000,000 thereafter)Recording Industry Association of America_item_3_33
  • Diamond: 10,000,000 unitsRecording Industry Association of America_item_3_34

The units are defined as: Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_34

Recording Industry Association of America_ordered_list_4

  1. A permanent digital download counts as 1 unitRecording Industry Association of America_item_4_35
  2. 150 on-demand audio and/or video streams count as 1 unitRecording Industry Association of America_item_4_36

Latin digital awards: Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_35

Recording Industry Association of America_unordered_list_5

  • Disco de Oro (Gold): 30,000 copiesRecording Industry Association of America_item_5_37
  • Disco de Platino (Platinum): 60,000 copiesRecording Industry Association of America_item_5_38
  • Disco de Multi-Platino (Multi-Platinum): 120,000 copiesRecording Industry Association of America_item_5_39

Album certification Recording Industry Association of America_section_3

In February 2016, RIAA updated its certification criteria for album to include streaming and track sales using the formula for album-equivalent unit. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_36

Recording Industry Association of America_unordered_list_6

  • Gold: 500,000 unitsRecording Industry Association of America_item_6_40
  • Platinum: 1,000,000 unitsRecording Industry Association of America_item_6_41
  • Multi-Platinum: 2,000,000 units (increments of 1,000,000 thereafter)Recording Industry Association of America_item_6_42
  • Diamond: 10,000,000 unitsRecording Industry Association of America_item_6_43

For certification purposes, each unit may be one of: Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_37

Recording Industry Association of America_ordered_list_7

  1. sale of a digital album or physical albumRecording Industry Association of America_item_7_44
  2. 10 track downloads from the albumRecording Industry Association of America_item_7_45
  3. 1,500 on-demand audio and/or video streams from the albumRecording Industry Association of America_item_7_46

Video longform certification Recording Industry Association of America_section_4

Along with albums, digital albums, and singles, another classification of music release is called "video longform". Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_38

This release format includes DVD and VHS releases, and certain live albums and compilation albums. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_39

The certification criteria are slightly different from other styles. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_40

Recording Industry Association of America_unordered_list_8

  • Gold: 50,000 copiesRecording Industry Association of America_item_8_47
  • Platinum: 100,000 copiesRecording Industry Association of America_item_8_48
  • Multi-Platinum: 200,000 copiesRecording Industry Association of America_item_8_49

Efforts against alleged infringement of members' copyrights Recording Industry Association of America_section_5

Efforts against file sharing Recording Industry Association of America_section_6

Main article: Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_41

The RIAA opposes unauthorized sharing of its music. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_42

Studies conducted since the association began its campaign against peer-to-peer file-sharing have concluded that losses incurred per download range from negligible to moderate. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_43

The association has commenced high-profile lawsuits against file-sharing service providers. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_44

It has also commenced a series of lawsuits against individuals suspected of file sharing, notably college students and parents of file-sharing children. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_45

It is accused of employing techniques such as peer-to-peer "decoying" and "spoofing" to combat file sharing. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_46

In late 2008, they announced they would stop their lawsuits, and instead attempt to work with ISPs to persuade them to use a three-strike system for file sharing involving issuing two warnings and then cutting off Internet service after the third strike. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_47

Selection of defendants Recording Industry Association of America_section_7

The RIAA names defendants based on ISP identification of the subscriber associated with an IP address, and as such do not know any additional information about a person before they sue. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_48

After an Internet subscriber's identity is discovered, but before an individual lawsuit is filed, the subscriber is typically offered an opportunity to settle. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_49

The standard settlement is a payment to the RIAA and an agreement not to engage in file sharing of music and is usually on par with statutory damages of $750 per work, with the RIAA choosing the number of works it deems "reasonable". Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_50

For cases that do not settle at this amount, the RIAA has gone to trial, seeking statutory damages from the jury, written into The Digital Theft Deterrence and Copyright Damages Improvement Act of 1999 as between $750 and $30,000 per work or $750 and $150,000 per work if "willful". Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_51

The Electronic Frontier Foundation and Public Citizen oppose the ability of the RIAA and other companies to "strip Internet users of anonymity without allowing them to challenge the order in court". Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_52

The RIAA's methods of identifying individual users had, in some rare cases, led to the issuing of subpoena to a recently deceased 83-year-old woman, an elderly computer novice, and a family reportedly without any computer at all. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_53

Settlement programs Recording Industry Association of America_section_8

In February 2007, the RIAA began sending letters accusing Internet users of sharing files and directing them to web site P2PLAWSUITS.COM, where they can make "discount" settlements payable by credit card. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_54

The letters go on to say that anyone not settling will have lawsuits brought against them. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_55

Typical settlements are between $3,000 and $12,000. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_56

This new strategy was formed because the RIAA's legal fees were cutting into the income from settlements. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_57

In 2008, RIAA sued 19-year-old Ciara Sauro for allegedly sharing 10 songs online. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_58

The RIAA also launched an "early settlement program" directed to ISPs and to colleges and universities, urging them to pass along letters to subscribers and students offering early settlements, prior to the disclosure of their identities. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_59

The settlement letters urged ISPs to preserve evidence for the benefit of the RIAA and invited the students and subscribers to visit an RIAA website for the purpose of entering into a "discount settlement" payable by credit card. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_60

By March 2007, the focus had shifted from ISPs to colleges and universities. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_61

In October 1998, the RIAA filed a lawsuit in the Ninth U.S. Court of Appeals in San Francisco claiming the Diamond Multimedia Rio PMP300 player violated the 1992 Audio Home Recording Act. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_62

The Rio PMP300 was significant because it was the second portable consumer MP3 digital audio player released on the market. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_63

The three-judge panel ruled in favor of Diamond, paving the way for the development of the portable digital player market. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_64

In 2003, the RIAA sued college student developers of LAN search engines Phynd and Flatlan, describing them as "a sophisticated network designed to enable widespread music thievery". Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_65

In September 2003, the RIAA filed suit in civil court against several private individuals who had shared large numbers of files with Kazaa. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_66

Most of these suits were settled with monetary payments averaging $3,000. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_67

Kazaa publisher Sharman Networks responded with a lawsuit against the RIAA, alleging that the terms of use of the network were violated and that unauthorized client software was used in the investigation to track down the individual file sharers (such as Kazaa Lite). Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_68

An effort to throw out this suit was denied in January 2004, but that suit was settled in 2006. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_69

Sharman Networks agreed to a global settlement of litigation brought against it by the Motion Picture Association of America, the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, and the RIAA. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_70

The creators of the popular Kazaa file-sharing network will pay $115 million to the RIAA, unspecified future amounts to the MPAA and the software industry, and install filters on its networks to prevent users from sharing copyrighted works on its network. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_71

RIAA has also filed suit in 2006 to enjoin digital XM Satellite Radio from enabling its subscribers from playing songs it has recorded from its satellite broadcasts. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_72

It is also suing several Internet radio stations. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_73

On October 12, 2007, the RIAA sued Usenet.com seeking a permanent injunction to prevent the company from "aiding, encouraging, enabling, inducing, causing, materially contributing to, or otherwise facilitating" copyright infringement. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_74

This suit, the first that the RIAA has filed against a Usenet provider, has added another branch to the RIAA's rapidly expanding fight to curb the unauthorized distribution of copyrighted materials. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_75

Unlike many of the RIAA's previous lawsuits, this suit is filed against the provider of a service who has no direct means of removing infringing content. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_76

The RIAA's argument relies heavily on the fact the Usenet.com, the only defendant that has been named currently, promoted their service with slogans and phrases that strongly suggested that the service could be used to obtain free music. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_77

On April 28, 2008, RIAA member labels sued Project Playlist, a web music search site, claiming that most of the sound recordings in the site's index of links are infringing. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_78

Project Playlist's website denies that any of the music is hosted on Project Playlist's own servers. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_79

On June 30, 2009, the RIAA prevailed in its fight against Usenet.com, in a decision, that the U.S. District Judge Harold Baer of the Southern District of New York ruled in favor of the music industry on all its main arguments: that Usenet.com is guilty of direct, contributory, and vicarious infringement. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_80

In addition, and perhaps most importantly for future cases, Baer said that Usenet.com cannot claim protection under the Sony Betamax decision. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_81

That ruling states that companies cannot be held liable for contributory infringement if the device they create is "capable of significant noninfringing uses". Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_82

Furthermore, the parties are now headed to federal court for damage assessments and awards, which could amount to several millions of dollars for the music industry. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_83

On October 26, 2010, RIAA members won a case against LimeWire, a P2P file-sharing network, for illegal distribution of copyrighted works. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_84

On October 29, in retaliation, riaa.org was taken offline via denial-of-service attacks executed by members of Operation Payback and Anonymous. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_85

Advocacy Recording Industry Association of America_section_9

Main article: Copyright Remedy Clarification Act Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_86

RIAA filed briefs in Allen v. Cooper, which was decided in 2020; the Supreme Court of the United States abrogated the Copyright Remedy Clarification Act as unconstitutional, RIAA had argued the opposite view. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_87

The "work made for hire" controversy Recording Industry Association of America_section_10

In 1999, Mitch Glazier, a Congressional staff attorney, inserted, without public notice or comment, substantive language into the final markup of a "technical corrections" section of copyright legislation, classifying many music recordings as "works made for hire", thereby stripping artists of their copyright interests and transferring those interests to their record labels. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_88

Shortly afterwards, Glazier was hired as Senior Vice President of Government Relations and Legislative Counsel for the RIAA, which vigorously defended the change when it came to light. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_89

The battle over the disputed provision led to the formation of the Recording Artists' Coalition, which successfully lobbied for repeal of the change. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_90

GitHub and youtube-dl takedown request Recording Industry Association of America_section_11

On October 23, 2020, the code repository GitHub (owned by Microsoft) released a DMCA request from the RIAA. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_91

This request listed the open-source software project youtube-dl (and forks of the project) as copyright violations. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_92

The request cited the United States law Title 17 U.S.C. §1201. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_93

Critics of this action say that the software library can be used by archivists to download videos of social injustice. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_94

According to Parker Higgins, former Director of Copyright Activism at the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), this takedown request was a "throwback thread" analogous to the DeCSS controversy. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_95

Criticism Recording Industry Association of America_section_12

Main article: Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_96

There is much criticism of the RIAA's policy and method of suing individuals for copyright infringement, notably with Internet-based pressure groups such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Students for Free Culture. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_97

To date, the RIAA has sued more than 20,000 people in the United States suspected of distributing copyrighted works and settled approximately 2,500 of the cases. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_98

Brad Templeton of the Electronic Frontier Foundation has called these types of lawsuits spamigation and implied they are done merely to intimidate people. Recording Industry Association of America_sentence_99

Executive leadership of RIAA Recording Industry Association of America_section_13

Recording Industry Association of America_unordered_list_9

  • Goddard Lieberson 1964–1977 (president)Recording Industry Association of America_item_9_50
  • Stanley Gortikov circa 1985 (president)Recording Industry Association of America_item_9_51
  • Jay Berman circa 1982 (president)Recording Industry Association of America_item_9_52
  • Hilary Rosen 1998–2001 (president)Recording Industry Association of America_item_9_53
  • Mitch Bainwol 2003-2011 (chairman and CEO)Recording Industry Association of America_item_9_54
  • Cary Sherman 2011– 2019 (chairman and CEO)Recording Industry Association of America_item_9_55
  • Mitch Glazier, 2019-present (chairman and CEO)Recording Industry Association of America_item_9_56

See also Recording Industry Association of America_section_14

Recording Industry Association of America_unordered_list_10


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recording Industry Association of America.