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For other uses, see Redan (disambiguation). Redan_sentence_0

Redan (a French word for "projection", "salient") is a feature of fortifications. Redan_sentence_1

It is a work in a V-shaped salient angle towards an expected attack. Redan_sentence_2

It can be made from earthworks or other material. Redan_sentence_3

The redan developed from the lunette, originally a half-moon-shaped outwork; with shorter flanks it became a redan. Redan_sentence_4

History Redan_section_0

Redans were a common feature in the coastal batteries built in Malta between 1715 and the end of the 18th century. Redan_sentence_5

Surviving batteries with redans include Mistra Battery and Saint Anthony's Battery. Redan_sentence_6

The Russians used redans on their left at the Battle of Borodino against Napoleon. Redan_sentence_7

A small redan whose faces make an obtuse angle with a vertex toward the enemy is called a flèche (arrow in French). Redan_sentence_8

The Bagration flèches were three redans backwards in echelon. Redan_sentence_9

The Shevardino Redoubt (another redan) was erected as an early warning post a mile in front of the Bagration flèches. Redan_sentence_10

The "Redan hole" in golf Redan_section_1

A Redan hole or Redan is an aspect of golf course architecture commonly associated with golf architect Charles B. Macdonald. Redan_sentence_11

The term alludes to the "Redan" type of fortification. Redan_sentence_12

Specifically, a Redan hole has a green which slopes downwards and away from the point of entrance, typically the front right portion of the green. Redan_sentence_13

Links golf is played on the ground as much as in the air and, consequently, the green slopes away from the golfer playing to the green from the tee or fairway. Redan_sentence_14

Thus, it is often played in an indirect manner; that is, the player plays somewhat away from the target and then allows contours to direct the golf ball to its final resting point. Redan_sentence_15

Macdonald's oft-quoted description from Scotland's Gift: Golf is as follows: Redan_sentence_16

This definition serves well to explain the basic concept. Redan_sentence_17

Macdonald built his original American Redan as the fourth hole at the National Golf Links of America, commonly known as NGLA. Redan_sentence_18

He and his design cohorts, Seth Raynor and Charles "Steamshovel" Banks built a Redan or a reverse version of it at nearly every course that they constructed. Redan_sentence_19

It is a design element that has been copied by modern architects frequently - most notably the husband & wife team of Pete and Alice Dye, and Tom Doak. Redan_sentence_20

The design element can be used as a green complex of any "par" hole - a par 3 most commonly, but it may also be used as a par 4 or par 5 green complex. Redan_sentence_21

Many Redan holes are flanked by a variety of deep bunkers, in the typical arrangement one fronts on the left side. Redan_sentence_22

The original "Redan" is the 15th hole on the West Links of North Berwick. Redan_sentence_23

A frequent feature is a somewhat raised portion of ground, often called a kick mound or kick plate,with or without a bunker to the right (in a traditional Redan) side of the green which can be skillfully used to propel the ball onto the green and nearer the hole by the more skilled golfer. Redan_sentence_24

Redan holes in which the green is visible from the tee can produce a particular excitement for the golfer as the ball tracks its way to the hole. Redan_sentence_25

At the original Redan design in North Berwick, Scotland, the green is invisible (or blind) from the tee. Redan_sentence_26

The NGLA version, more the inspiration for modern copies than the original hole, introduced this concept of green visibility to the design. Redan_sentence_27

Many golf architecture connoisseurs feel that the NGLA hole is the perhaps the greatest example of this design, exceeding the original. Redan_sentence_28

Place names Redan_section_2

In Aldershot, once 'Home of the British Army', Redan Road leads from the High Street to the top of a hill where a redan was constructed for training soldiers in Victorian times. Redan_sentence_29

The redan was restored by the local council and a replica cannon is installed there above a glacis. Redan_sentence_30

At the time of the Crimean War, several public houses in Britain adopted the name. Redan_sentence_31

The Redan Inn (now The Quarterdeck) in North Berwick shared its name with the famous hole on the golf course, while there is also a Redan Inn in Chilcompton, Somerset. Redan_sentence_32

A street in Shepherd's Bush, London is named Redan Street, and there is a street in Ipswich named Redan Street; the pub on the corner of Queensway and Westbourne Grove, London W2, was named The Redan. Redan_sentence_33

Its sign carried an illustration purportedly from a Napoleonic era battle, but it was more likely a Crimean War scene. Redan_sentence_34

The flag carried was British, but the defenders appeared to be wearing Russian uniform of the mid 19th century. Redan_sentence_35

Any engagement between Russians and Napoleonic armies would not have featured a British flag. Redan_sentence_36

Pub names like this and the Alma came into prominence after the Crimean War. Redan_sentence_37

The Redan public house on Thorpe Road in Norwich (now closed) was originally named The Hero of the Redan, in reference to Major-General Charles Ashe Windham who took part in the storming of the Redan at Sevastopol during the Crimean campaign in 1855. Redan_sentence_38

An area of Maryhill, Glasgow was known as 'The Redan' for many years and there is a closed-down pub called 'The Redan' close to this area on Maryhill Road, Glasgow. Redan_sentence_39

There was also a beerhouse called The Redan at the junction of Blue Ball Road and Cross Wells Road, Soyland, near Ripponden, West Yorkshire. Redan_sentence_40

It opened in 1890 and closed in 1937. Redan_sentence_41

Unfortunately, the pub was later demolished. Redan_sentence_42

As at November 2018, CAMRA's WhatPub website lists only two extant pubs called the Redan: one in Wokingham, Berkshire and one in Chilcompton, near Bath. Redan_sentence_43

The census-designated place of Redan, Georgia was likely named for the redans built in the area during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. Redan_sentence_44

Redan is also a southern suburb of the regional city of Ballarat in central western Victoria, Australia. Redan_sentence_45

It was named for the fortifications used during the battle at Sevastopol in the Ukraine during the Crimean War. Redan_sentence_46

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