Redoubt

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For other uses, see Redoubt (disambiguation). Redoubt_sentence_0

A redoubt (historically redout) is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort, usually relying on earthworks, although some are constructed of stone or brick. Redoubt_sentence_1

It is meant to protect soldiers outside the main defensive line and can be a permanent structure or a hastily constructed temporary fortification. Redoubt_sentence_2

The word means "a place of retreat". Redoubt_sentence_3

Redoubts were a component of the military strategies of most European empires during the colonial era, especially in the outer works of Vauban-style fortresses made popular during the 17th century, although the concept of redoubts has existed since medieval times. Redoubt_sentence_4

A redoubt differs from a redan in that the redan is open in the rear, whereas the redoubt was considered an enclosed work. Redoubt_sentence_5

The advent of mobile warfare in the 20th century generally diminished the importance of the defence of static positions and siege warfare. Redoubt_sentence_6

Historically important redoubts Redoubt_section_0

English Civil War Redoubt_section_1

During the English Civil War redoubts were frequently built to protect older fortifications from the more effective artillery of the period. Redoubt_sentence_7

Often close to ancient fortifications there were small hills that overlooked the defences, but in previous centuries these had been too far from the fortifications to be a threat. Redoubt_sentence_8

A small hill close to Worcester was used as an artillery platform by the Parliamentarians when they successfully did besiege Worcester in 1646. Redoubt_sentence_9

In 1651 before the Battle of Worcester the hill was turned into a redoubt by the Royalists, (the remains of which can be seen today in Fort Royal Hill Park). Redoubt_sentence_10

During the Battle of Worcester, the Parliamentarians did capture this redoubt and turned its guns on Worcester. Redoubt_sentence_11

In so doing they made the defence of the city untenable. Redoubt_sentence_12

This action effectively ended the battle, the last of the English Civil War. Redoubt_sentence_13

Malta Redoubt_section_2

From 1715 onwards, the Order of Saint John built a number of redoubts in Malta, as part of an effort to improve the coastal fortifications of the islands. Redoubt_sentence_14

They were built in the middle of bays to prevent enemy forces from disembarking and outflanking the coastal batteries. Redoubt_sentence_15

The design of the redoubts was influenced by ones built in the French colonies. Redoubt_sentence_16

In all, eleven pentagonal redoubts and a few semi-circular or rectangular ones were built. Redoubt_sentence_17

Most redoubts have been demolished over the years, but a few still survive, such as Briconet Redoubt, Saint George Redoubt and Ximenes Redoubt. Redoubt_sentence_18

Four tour-reduits were also built. Redoubt_sentence_19

These were redoubts built in the form of a tower, with rows of musketry loopholes. Redoubt_sentence_20

Three were around Marsaxlokk Bay, and one was located in Marsalforn, Gozo. Redoubt_sentence_21

The only one still in existence is Vendôme Tower in Marsaxlokk. Redoubt_sentence_22

During the siege of Malta of 1798–1800, Maltese insurgents built a number of fortifications to bombard French positions and repel a possible counterattack. Redoubt_sentence_23

Most of the fortifications were batteries, but at least two redoubts, Windmill Redoubt and Żabbar Redoubt, were also built. Redoubt_sentence_24

In 1799, British forces also built San Rocco Redoubt and San Lucian Redoubt in Malta. Redoubt_sentence_25

No redoubts from the French blockade survive today. Redoubt_sentence_26

In the late 19th century, the British built a redoubt near Fomm ir-Riħ as part of the Victoria Lines. Redoubt_sentence_27

Other important redoubts Redoubt_section_3

The American Revolution defenses at West Point, New York included several redoubts, forts, and the Great Chain with links weighing more than 100 pounds each that Continental Army military engineers stretched across the Hudson River. Redoubt_sentence_28

The purpose behind the West Point defensive system was to prevent the British Army and Royal Navy from gaining control of the Hudson and splitting New England off from the mid-Atlantic and southern states. Redoubt_sentence_29

The chain blocked the river, the forts were positioned to fire on ships attempting to approach the chain, and outlying redoubts were well placed to defend land routes into West Point. Redoubt_sentence_30

Examples where redoubts played a crucial role in military history: Redoubt_sentence_31

Redoubt_unordered_list_0

National redoubt Redoubt_section_4

Main article: National redoubt Redoubt_sentence_32

A national redoubt is an area to which the remnant forces of a nation can be withdrawn if the main battle has been lost, or beforehand if defeat is considered inevitable. Redoubt_sentence_33

Typically a region is chosen with a geography favouring defence, such as a mountainous area or a peninsula, in order to function as a final hold-out to preserve national independence for the duration of the conflict. Redoubt_sentence_34

See also Redoubt_section_5

Redoubt_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redoubt.