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This article is about the concept of region in geography. Region_sentence_0

For other uses, see Region (disambiguation). Region_sentence_1

In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Region_sentence_2

Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, and sometimes transitory boundaries, except in human geography, where jurisdiction areas such as national borders are defined in law. Region_sentence_3

Apart from the global continental regions, there are also hydrospheric and atmospheric regions that cover the oceans, and discrete climates above the land and water masses of the planet. Region_sentence_4

The land and water global regions are divided into subregions geographically bounded by large geological features that influence large-scale ecologies, such as plains and features. Region_sentence_5

As a way of describing spatial areas, the concept of regions is important and widely used among the many branches of geography, each of which can describe areas in regional terms. Region_sentence_6

For example, ecoregion is a term used in environmental geography, cultural region in cultural geography, bioregion in biogeography, and so on. Region_sentence_7

The field of geography that studies regions themselves is called regional geography. Region_sentence_8

In the fields of physical geography, ecology, biogeography, zoogeography, and environmental geography, regions tend to be based on natural features such as ecosystems or biotopes, biomes, drainage basins, natural regions, mountain ranges, soil types. Region_sentence_9

Where human geography is concerned, the regions and subregions are described by the discipline of ethnography. Region_sentence_10

A region has its own nature that could not be moved. Region_sentence_11

The first nature is its natural environment (landform, climate, etc.). Region_sentence_12

The second nature is its physical elements complex that was built by people in the past. Region_sentence_13

The third nature is its socio-cultural context that could not be replaced by new immigrants. Region_sentence_14

Globalization Region_section_0

Global regions distinguishable from space, and are therefore clearly distinguished by the two basic terrestrial environments, land and water. Region_sentence_15

However, they have been generally recognized as such much earlier by terrestrial cartography because of their impact on human geography. Region_sentence_16

They are divided into the largest of land regions, known as continents and the largest of water regions known as oceans. Region_sentence_17

There are also significant regions that do not belong to either classification, such as archipelago regions that are littoral regions, or earthquake regions that are defined in geology. Region_sentence_18

Continental regions Region_section_1

Continental regions are usually based on broad experiences in human history and attempt to reduce very large areas to more manageable regionalization for the purpose of the study. Region_sentence_19

As such they are conceptual constructs, usually lacking distinct boundaries. Region_sentence_20

The oceanic division into maritime regions is used in conjunction with the relationship to the central area of the continent, using directions of the compass. Region_sentence_21

Some continental regions are defined by the major continental feature of their identity, such as the Amazon basin, or the Sahara, which both occupy a significant percentage of their respective continental land area. Region_sentence_22

To a large extent, major continental regions are mental constructs created by considering an efficient way to define large areas of the continents. Region_sentence_23

For the most part, the images of the world are derived as much from academic studies, from all types of media, or from personal experience of global exploration. Region_sentence_24

They are a matter of collective human knowledge of their own planet and are attempts to better understand their environments. Region_sentence_25

Regional geography Region_section_2

Regional geography is a branch of geography that studies regions of all sizes across the Earth. Region_sentence_26

It has a prevailing descriptive character. Region_sentence_27

The main aim is to understand or define the uniqueness or character of a particular region, which consists of natural as well as human elements. Region_sentence_28

Attention is paid also to regionalization, which covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions. Region_sentence_29

Regional geography is also considered as a certain approach to study in geographical sciences (similar to quantitative or critical geographies; for more information, see history of geography). Region_sentence_30

Human geography Region_section_3

Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with various discrete environments. Region_sentence_31

It encompasses human, political, cultural, social, and economic aspects among others that are often clearly delineated. Region_sentence_32

While the major focus of human geography is not the physical landscape of the Earth (see physical geography), it is hardly possible to discuss human geography without referring to the physical landscape on which human activities are being played out, and environmental geography is emerging as a link between the two. Region_sentence_33

Regions of human geography can be divided into many broad categories: Region_sentence_34


Historical regions Region_section_4

Main article: Historical region Region_sentence_35

The field of historical geography involves the study of human history as it relates to places and regions or the study of how places and regions have changed over time. Region_sentence_36

D. Region_sentence_37 W. Meinig, a historical geographer of America, describes many historical regions in his book The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History. Region_sentence_38

For example, in identifying European "source regions" in early American colonization efforts, he defines and describes the Northwest European Atlantic Protestant Region, which includes sub-regions such as the "Western Channel Community", which itself is made of sub-regions such as the English West Country of Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, and Dorset. Region_sentence_39

In describing historic regions of America, Meinig writes of "The Great Fishery" off the coast of Newfoundland and New England, an oceanic region that includes the Grand Banks. Region_sentence_40

He rejects regions traditionally used in describing American history, like New France, "West Indies", the Middle Colonies, and the individual colonies themselves (Province of Maryland, for example). Region_sentence_41

Instead he writes of "discrete colonization areas," which may be named after colonies but rarely adhere strictly to political boundaries. Region_sentence_42

Historic regions of this type Meinig writes about include "Greater New England" and its major sub-regions of "Plymouth," "New Haven shores" (including parts of Long Island), "Rhode Island" (or "Narragansett Bay"), "the Piscataqua," "Massachusetts Bay," "Connecticut Valley," and to a lesser degree, regions in the sphere of influence of Greater New England, "Acadia" (Nova Scotia), "Newfoundland and The Fishery/The Banks." Region_sentence_43

Other examples of historical regions include Iroquoia, Ohio Country, Illinois Country, and Rupert's Land. Region_sentence_44

Tourism region Region_section_5

Main article: Tourism region Region_sentence_45

A tourism region is a geographical region that has been designated by a governmental organization or tourism bureau as having common cultural or environmental characteristics. Region_sentence_46

These regions are often named after a geographical, former, or current administrative region or may have a name created for tourism purposes. Region_sentence_47

The names often evoke certain positive qualities of the area and suggest a coherent tourism experience to visitors. Region_sentence_48

Countries, states, provinces, and other administrative regions are often carved up into tourism regions to facilitate attracting visitors. Region_sentence_49

Some of the more famous tourism regions based on historical or current administrative regions include Tuscany in Italy and Yucatán in Mexico. Region_sentence_50

Famous examples of regions created by a government or tourism bureau include the United Kingdom's Lake District and California's Wine Country. Region_sentence_51

great plains region Region_sentence_52

Natural resource regions Region_section_6

Natural resources often occur in distinct regions. Region_sentence_53

Natural resource regions can be a topic of physical geography or environmental geography, but also have a strong element of human geography and economic geography. Region_sentence_54

A coal region, for example, is a physical or geomorphological region, but its development and exploitation can make it into an economic and a cultural region. Region_sentence_55

Some examples of natural resource regions include the Rumaila Field, the oil field that lies along the border or Iraq and Kuwait and played a role in the Gulf War; the Coal Region of Pennsylvania, which is a historical region as well as a cultural, physical, and natural resource region; the South Wales Coalfield, which like Pennsylvania's coal region is a historical, cultural, and natural region; the Kuznetsk Basin, a similarly important coal mining region in Russia; Kryvbas, the economic and iron ore mining region of Ukraine; and the James Bay Project, a large region of Quebec where one of the largest hydroelectric systems in the world has been developed. Region_sentence_56

Religious regions Region_section_7

Sometimes a region associated with a religion is given a name, like Christendom, a term with medieval and renaissance connotations of Christianity as a sort of social and political polity. Region_sentence_57

The term Muslim world is sometimes used to refer to the region of the world where Islam is dominant. Region_sentence_58

These broad terms are very vague when used to describe regions. Region_sentence_59

Within some religions there are clearly defined regions. Region_sentence_60

The Roman Catholic Church, the Church of England, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and others, define ecclesiastical regions with names such as diocese, eparchy, ecclesiastical provinces, and parish. Region_sentence_61

For example, the United States is divided into 32 Roman Catholic ecclesiastical provinces. Region_sentence_62

The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod is organized into 33 geographic districts, which are subdivided into circuits (the Atlantic District (LCMS), for example). Region_sentence_63

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints uses regions similar to dioceses and parishes, but uses terms like ward and stake. Region_sentence_64

Political regions Region_section_8

See also: Administrative division Region_sentence_65

In the field of political geography, regions tend to be based on political units such as sovereign states; subnational units such as administrative regions, provinces, states (in the United States), counties, townships, territories, etc.; and multinational groupings, including formally defined units such as the European Union, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and NATO, as well as informally defined regions such as the Third World, Western Europe, and the Middle East. Region_sentence_66

Administrative regions Region_section_9

Further information: Administrative division Region_sentence_67

The word "region" is taken from the Latin regio (derived from regere, to rule), and a number of countries have borrowed the term as the formal name for a type of subnational entity (e.g., the región, used in Chile). Region_sentence_68

In English, the word is also used as the conventional translation for equivalent terms in other languages (e.g., the область (oblast), used in Russia alongside a broader term регион). Region_sentence_69

The following countries use the term "region" (or its cognate) as the name of a type of subnational administrative unit: Region_sentence_70


The Canadian province of Québec also uses the "administrative region" (région administrative). Region_sentence_71

Scotland had local government regions from 1975 to 1996. Region_sentence_72

In Spain the official name of the autonomous community of Murcia is Región de Murcia. Region_sentence_73

Also, some single-province autonomous communities such as Madrid use the term región interchangeably with comunidad autónoma. Region_sentence_74

Two län (counties) in Sweden are officially called 'regions': Skåne and Västra Götaland, and there is currently a controversial proposal to divide the rest of Sweden into large regions, replacing the current counties. Region_sentence_75

The government of the Philippines uses the term "region" (in Filipino, rehiyon) when it's necessary to group provinces, the primary administrative subdivision of the country. Region_sentence_76

This is also the case in Brazil, which groups its primary administrative divisions (estados; "states") into grandes regiões (greater regions) for statistical purposes, while Russia uses экономические районы (economic regions) in a similar way, as does Romania and Venezuela. Region_sentence_77

The government of Singapore makes use of the term "region" for its own administrative purposes. Region_sentence_78

The following countries use an administrative subdivision conventionally referred to as a region in English: Region_sentence_79


  • Bulgaria, which uses the област (oblast)Region_item_2_42
  • Russia, which uses the область (oblast'), and for some regions the край (krai)Region_item_2_43
  • Ukraine, which uses the область (oblast')Region_item_2_44
  • Slovakia (kraj)Region_item_2_45

China has five 自治区 (zìzhìqū) and two 特別行政區 (or 特别行政区; tèbiéxíngzhèngqū), which are translated as "autonomous region" and "special administrative region", respectively. Region_sentence_80

Local administrative regions Region_section_10

There are many relatively small regions based on local government agencies such as districts, agencies, or regions. Region_sentence_81

In general, they are all regions in the general sense of being bounded spatial units. Region_sentence_82

Examples include electoral districts such as Washington's 6th congressional district and Tennessee's 1st congressional district; school districts such as Granite School District and Los Angeles Unified School District; economic districts such as the Reedy Creek Improvement District; metropolitan areas such as the Seattle metropolitan area, and metropolitan districts such as the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, the Las Vegas-Clark County Library District, the Metropolitan Police Service of Greater London, as well as other local districts like the York Rural Sanitary District, the Delaware River Port Authority, the Nassau County Soil and Water Conservation District, and C-TRAN. Region_sentence_83

Traditional or informal regions Region_section_11

The traditional territorial divisions of some countries are also commonly rendered in English as "regions". Region_sentence_84

These informal divisions do not form the basis of the modern administrative divisions of these countries, but still define and delimit local regional identity and sense of belonging. Region_sentence_85

Examples include: Region_sentence_86


Functional regions Region_section_12

Functional regions are usually understood to be the areas organised by the horizontal functional relations (flows, interactions) that are maximised within a region and minimised across its borders so that the principles of internal cohesiveness and external separation regarding spatial interactions are met (see, for instance, Farmer and Fotheringham, 2011; Klapka, Halas, 2016; Smart, 1974). Region_sentence_87

A functional region is not an abstract spatial concept, but to a certain extent it can be regarded as a reflection of the spatial behaviour of individuals in a geographic space. Region_sentence_88

The functional region is conceived as a general concept while its inner structure, inner spatial flows, and interactions need not necessarily show any regular pattern, only selfcontainment. Region_sentence_89

The concept of self-containment remains the only crucial defining characteristic of a functional region. Region_sentence_90

Nodal regions, functional urban regions, daily urban systems, local labour-market areas (LLMAs), or travel-to-work areas (TTWAs) are considered to be special instances of a general functional region that need to fulfil some specific conditions regarding, for instance, the character of the region-organising interaction or the presence of urban cores, (Halas et al., 2015). Region_sentence_91

Military regions Region_section_13

See also: Military district Region_sentence_92

In military usage, a region is shorthand for the name of a military formation larger than an Army Group and smaller than an Army Theater or simply Theater. Region_sentence_93

The full name of the military formation is Army Region. Region_sentence_94

The size of an Army Region can vary widely but is generally somewhere between about 1 million and 3 million soldiers. Region_sentence_95

Two or more Army Regions could make up an Army Theater. Region_sentence_96

An Army Region is typically commanded by a full General (US four stars), a Field Marshal, or General of the Army (US five stars), or Generalissimo (Soviet Union), in the US Armed Forces, an Admiral may also command a region. Region_sentence_97

Due to the large size of this formation, its use is rarely employed. Region_sentence_98

Some of the very few examples of an Army Region are each of the Eastern, Western, and southern (mostly in Italy) fronts in Europe during World War II. Region_sentence_99

The military map unit symbol for this echelon of formation (see Military organization and APP-6A) consists of six Xs. Region_sentence_100

Media geography Region_section_14

Media geography is a spatio-temporal understanding, brought through different gadgets of media, nowadays, media became inevitable at different proportions and everyone supposed to consumed at different gravity. Region_sentence_101

The spatial attributes are studied with the help of media outputs in shape of images which are contested in nature and pattern as well where politics is inseparable. Region_sentence_102

Media geography is giving spatial understanding of mediated image. Region_sentence_103

See also Region_section_15


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