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This article is about the European Renaissance of the 15th and 16th centuries. Renaissance_sentence_0

For the earlier European Renaissance, see Renaissance of the 12th century. Renaissance_sentence_1

For other uses, see Renaissance (disambiguation). Renaissance_sentence_2

The Renaissance (UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/ rin-AY-sənss, US: /ˈrɛnəsɑːns/ (listen) REN-ə-sahnss) was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries. Renaissance_sentence_3

It occurred after the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages and was associated with great social change. Renaissance_sentence_4

In addition to the standard periodization, proponents of a long Renaissance put its beginning in the 14th century and its end in the 17th century. Renaissance_sentence_5

The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the Middle Ages. Renaissance_sentence_6

The intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "man is the measure of all things." Renaissance_sentence_7

This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. Renaissance_sentence_8

Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the revived knowledge of how to make concrete. Renaissance_sentence_9

Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniform across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto. Renaissance_sentence_10

As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch; the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting; and gradual but widespread educational reform. Renaissance_sentence_11

In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, and in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Renaissance_sentence_12

Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man". Renaissance_sentence_13

The Renaissance began in the 14th century in Florence, Italy. Renaissance_sentence_14

Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, and the migration of Greek scholars and their texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks which inherited from the Timurid Renaissance. Renaissance_sentence_15

Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy or Belgian cities such as Bruges, Ghent, Brussels, Leuven or Antwerp. Renaissance_sentence_16

The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual cultural heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation. Renaissance_sentence_17

The art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": Renaissance_sentence_18

Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians, especially of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties". Renaissance_sentence_19

The term rinascita ('rebirth') first appeared in Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists (c. 1550), anglicized as the Renaissance in the 1830s. Renaissance_sentence_20

The word has also been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance (8th and 9th centuries), Ottonian Renaissance (10th and 11th century), and the Renaissance of the 12th century. Renaissance_sentence_21

Overview Renaissance_section_0

The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Renaissance_sentence_22

Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in art, architecture, philosophy, literature, music, science and technology, politics, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance_sentence_23

Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance_sentence_24

Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary, historical, and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople (1453) generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West. Renaissance_sentence_25

It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. Renaissance_sentence_26

In the revival of neoplatonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity; quite the contrary, many of the greatest works of the Renaissance were devoted to it, and the Church patronized many works of Renaissance art. Renaissance_sentence_27

However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. Renaissance_sentence_28

In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity. Renaissance_sentence_29

This new engagement with Greek Christian works, and particularly the return to the original Greek of the New Testament promoted by humanists Lorenzo Valla and Erasmus, would help pave the way for the Protestant Reformation. Renaissance_sentence_30

Well after the first artistic return to classicism had been exemplified in the sculpture of Nicola Pisano, Florentine painters led by Masaccio strove to portray the human form realistically, developing techniques to render perspective and light more naturally. Renaissance_sentence_31

Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe political life as it really was, that is to understand it rationally. Renaissance_sentence_32

A critical contribution to Italian Renaissance humanism, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola wrote the famous text De hominis dignitate (Oration on the Dignity of Man, 1486), which consists of a series of theses on philosophy, natural thought, faith and magic defended against any opponent on the grounds of reason. Renaissance_sentence_33

In addition to studying classical Latin and Greek, Renaissance authors also began increasingly to use vernacular languages; combined with the introduction of the printing press, this would allow many more people access to books, especially the Bible. Renaissance_sentence_34

In all, the Renaissance could be viewed as an attempt by intellectuals to study and improve the secular and worldly, both through the revival of ideas from antiquity, and through novel approaches to thought. Renaissance_sentence_35

Some scholars, such as Rodney Stark, play down the Renaissance in favour of the earlier innovations of the Italian city-states in the High Middle Ages, which married responsive government, Christianity and the birth of capitalism. Renaissance_sentence_36

This analysis argues that, whereas the great European states (France and Spain) were absolutist monarchies, and others were under direct Church control, the independent city republics of Italy took over the principles of capitalism invented on monastic estates and set off a vast unprecedented commercial revolution that preceded and financed the Renaissance. Renaissance_sentence_37

Origins Renaissance_section_1

Main article: Italian Renaissance Renaissance_sentence_38

Many argue that the ideas characterizing the Renaissance had their origin in late 13th-century Florence, in particular with the writings of Dante Alighieri (1265–1321) and Petrarch (1304–1374), as well as the paintings of Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337). Renaissance_sentence_39

Some writers date the Renaissance quite precisely; one proposed starting point is 1401, when the rival geniuses Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi competed for the contract to build the bronze doors for the Baptistery of the Florence Cathedral (Ghiberti won). Renaissance_sentence_40

Others see more general competition between artists and polymaths such as Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Donatello, and Masaccio for artistic commissions as sparking the creativity of the Renaissance. Renaissance_sentence_41

Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, and why it began when it did. Renaissance_sentence_42

Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. Renaissance_sentence_43

During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand. Renaissance_sentence_44

Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent. Renaissance_sentence_45

Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia and Europe. Renaissance_sentence_46

Silver mining in Tyrol increased the flow of money. Renaissance_sentence_47

Luxuries from the Muslim world, brought home during the Crusades, increased the prosperity of Genoa and Venice. Renaissance_sentence_48

Jules Michelet defined the 16th-century Renaissance in France as a period in Europe's cultural history that represented a break from the Middle Ages, creating a modern understanding of humanity and its place in the world. Renaissance_sentence_49

Latin and Greek phases of Renaissance humanism Renaissance_section_2

See also: Greek scholars in the Renaissance and Transmission of the Greek Classics Renaissance_sentence_50

In stark contrast to the High Middle Ages, when Latin scholars focused almost entirely on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural science, philosophy and mathematics. Renaissance_sentence_51

Renaissance scholars were most interested in recovering and studying Latin and Greek literary, historical, and oratorical texts. Renaissance_sentence_52

Broadly speaking, this began in the 14th century with a Latin phase, when Renaissance scholars such as Petrarch, Coluccio Salutati (1331–1406), Niccolò de' Niccoli (1364–1437) and Poggio Bracciolini (1380–1459) scoured the libraries of Europe in search of works by such Latin authors as Cicero, Lucretius, Livy and Seneca. Renaissance_sentence_53

By the early 15th century, the bulk of the surviving such Latin literature had been recovered; the Greek phase of Renaissance humanism was under way, as Western European scholars turned to recovering ancient Greek literary, historical, oratorical and theological texts. Renaissance_sentence_54

Unlike with Latin texts, which had been preserved and studied in Western Europe since late antiquity, the study of ancient Greek texts was very limited in medieval Western Europe. Renaissance_sentence_55

Ancient Greek works on science, maths and philosophy had been studied since the High Middle Ages in Western Europe and in the Islamic Golden Age (normally in translation), but Greek literary, oratorical and historical works (such as Homer, the Greek dramatists, Demosthenes and Thucydides) were not studied in either the Latin or medieval Islamic worlds; in the Middle Ages these sorts of texts were only studied by Byzantine scholars. Renaissance_sentence_56

Some argues that the Timurid Renaissance in Samarkand was linked with Ottoman Empire whose conquests led the migration of Greek scholars in Italian cities. Renaissance_sentence_57

One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity. Renaissance_sentence_58

Muslim logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Renaissance_sentence_59

Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Iberia and Sicily, which became important centers for this transmission of ideas. Renaissance_sentence_60

From the 11th to the 13th century, many schools dedicated to the translation of philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic to Medieval Latin were established in Iberia, most notably the Toledo School of Translators. Renaissance_sentence_61

This work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history. Renaissance_sentence_62

The movement to reintegrate the regular study of Greek literary, historical, oratorical and theological texts back into the Western European curriculum is usually dated to the 1396 invitation from Coluccio Salutati to the Byzantine diplomat and scholar Manuel Chrysoloras (c. 1355–1415) to teach Greek in Florence. Renaissance_sentence_63

This legacy was continued by a number of expatriate Greek scholars, from Basilios Bessarion to Leo Allatius. Renaissance_sentence_64

Social and political structures in Italy Renaissance_section_3

The unique political structures of late Middle Ages Italy have led some to theorize that its unusual social climate allowed the emergence of a rare cultural efflorescence. Renaissance_sentence_65

Italy did not exist as a political entity in the early modern period. Renaissance_sentence_66

Instead, it was divided into smaller city states and territories: the Kingdom of Naples controlled the south, the Republic of Florence and the Papal States at the center, the Milanese and the Genoese to the north and west respectively, and the Venetians to the east. Renaissance_sentence_67

Fifteenth-century Italy was one of the most urbanised areas in Europe. Renaissance_sentence_68

Many of its cities stood among the ruins of ancient Roman buildings; it seems likely that the classical nature of the Renaissance was linked to its origin in the Roman Empire's heartland. Renaissance_sentence_69

Historian and political philosopher Quentin Skinner points out that Otto of Freising (c. 1114–1158), a German bishop visiting north Italy during the 12th century, noticed a widespread new form of political and social organization, observing that Italy appeared to have exited from Feudalism so that its society was based on merchants and commerce. Renaissance_sentence_70

Linked to this was anti-monarchical thinking, represented in the famous early Renaissance fresco cycle The Allegory of Good and Bad Government by Ambrogio Lorenzetti (painted 1338–1340), whose strong message is about the virtues of fairness, justice, republicanism and good administration. Renaissance_sentence_71

Holding both Church and Empire at bay, these city republics were devoted to notions of liberty. Renaissance_sentence_72

Skinner reports that there were many defences of liberty such as the Matteo Palmieri (1406–1475) celebration of Florentine genius not only in art, sculpture and architecture, but "the remarkable efflorescence of moral, social and political philosophy that occurred in Florence at the same time". Renaissance_sentence_73

Even cities and states beyond central Italy, such as the Republic of Florence at this time, were also notable for their merchant Republics, especially the Republic of Venice. Renaissance_sentence_74

Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracy, they did have democratic features and were responsive states, with forms of participation in governance and belief in liberty. Renaissance_sentence_75

The relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement. Renaissance_sentence_76

Likewise, the position of Italian cities such as Venice as great trading centres made them intellectual crossroads. Renaissance_sentence_77

Merchants brought with them ideas from far corners of the globe, particularly the Levant. Renaissance_sentence_78

Venice was Europe's gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of textiles. Renaissance_sentence_79

The wealth such business brought to Italy meant large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned and individuals had more leisure time for study. Renaissance_sentence_80

Black Death Renaissance_section_4

Main article: Black Death Renaissance_sentence_81

One theory that has been advanced is that the devastation in Florence caused by the Black Death, which hit Europe between 1348 and 1350, resulted in a shift in the world view of people in 14th century Italy. Renaissance_sentence_82

Italy was particularly badly hit by the plague, and it has been speculated that the resulting familiarity with death caused thinkers to dwell more on their lives on Earth, rather than on spirituality and the afterlife. Renaissance_sentence_83

It has also been argued that the Black Death prompted a new wave of piety, manifested in the sponsorship of religious works of art. Renaissance_sentence_84

However, this does not fully explain why the Renaissance occurred specifically in Italy in the 14th century. Renaissance_sentence_85

The Black Death was a pandemic that affected all of Europe in the ways described, not only Italy. Renaissance_sentence_86

The Renaissance's emergence in Italy was most likely the result of the complex interaction of the above factors. Renaissance_sentence_87

The plague was carried by fleas on sailing vessels returning from the ports of Asia, spreading quickly due to lack of proper sanitation: the population of England, then about 4.2 million, lost 1.4 million people to the bubonic plague. Renaissance_sentence_88

Florence's population was nearly halved in the year 1347. Renaissance_sentence_89

As a result of the decimation in the populace the value of the working class increased, and commoners came to enjoy more freedom. Renaissance_sentence_90

To answer the increased need for labor, workers traveled in search of the most favorable position economically. Renaissance_sentence_91

The demographic decline due to the plague had economic consequences: the prices of food dropped and land values declined by 30–40% in most parts of Europe between 1350 and 1400. Renaissance_sentence_92

Landholders faced a great loss, but for ordinary men and women it was a windfall. Renaissance_sentence_93

The survivors of the plague found not only that the prices of food were cheaper but also that lands were more abundant, and many of them inherited property from their dead relatives. Renaissance_sentence_94

The spread of disease was significantly more rampant in areas of poverty. Renaissance_sentence_95

Epidemics ravaged cities, particularly children. Renaissance_sentence_96

Plagues were easily spread by lice, unsanitary drinking water, armies, or by poor sanitation. Renaissance_sentence_97

Children were hit the hardest because many diseases, such as typhus and syphilis, target the immune system, leaving young children without a fighting chance. Renaissance_sentence_98

Children in city dwellings were more affected by the spread of disease than the children of the wealthy. Renaissance_sentence_99

The Black Death caused greater upheaval to Florence's social and political structure than later epidemics. Renaissance_sentence_100

Despite a significant number of deaths among members of the ruling classes, the government of Florence continued to function during this period. Renaissance_sentence_101

Formal meetings of elected representatives were suspended during the height of the epidemic due to the chaotic conditions in the city, but a small group of officials was appointed to conduct the affairs of the city, which ensured continuity of government. Renaissance_sentence_102

Cultural conditions in Florence Renaissance_section_5

It has long been a matter of debate why the Renaissance began in Florence, and not elsewhere in Italy. Renaissance_sentence_103

Scholars have noted several features unique to Florentine cultural life that may have caused such a cultural movement. Renaissance_sentence_104

Many have emphasized the role played by the Medici, a banking family and later ducal ruling house, in patronizing and stimulating the arts. Renaissance_sentence_105

Lorenzo de' Medici (1449–1492) was the catalyst for an enormous amount of arts patronage, encouraging his countrymen to commission works from the leading artists of Florence, including Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and Michelangelo Buonarroti. Renaissance_sentence_106

Works by Neri di Bicci, Botticelli, da Vinci and Filippino Lippi had been commissioned additionally by the Convent of San Donato in Scopeto in Florence. Renaissance_sentence_107

The Renaissance was certainly underway before Lorenzo de' Medici came to power – indeed, before the Medici family itself achieved hegemony in Florentine society. Renaissance_sentence_108

Some historians have postulated that Florence was the birthplace of the Renaissance as a result of luck, i.e., because "Great Men" were born there by chance: Leonardo da Vinci, Botticelli and Michelangelo were all born in Tuscany. Renaissance_sentence_109

Arguing that such chance seems improbable, other historians have contended that these "Great Men" were only able to rise to prominence because of the prevailing cultural conditions at the time. Renaissance_sentence_110

Characteristics Renaissance_section_6

Humanism Renaissance_section_7

Main articles: Renaissance humanism, Renaissance humanism in Northern Europe, and List of Renaissance humanists Renaissance_sentence_111

In some ways, Renaissance humanism was not a philosophy but a method of learning. Renaissance_sentence_112

In contrast to the medieval scholastic mode, which focused on resolving contradictions between authors, Renaissance humanists would study ancient texts in the original and appraise them through a combination of reasoning and empirical evidence. Renaissance_sentence_113

Humanist education was based on the programme of 'Studia Humanitatis', the study of five humanities: poetry, grammar, history, moral philosophy and rhetoric. Renaissance_sentence_114

Although historians have sometimes struggled to define humanism precisely, most have settled on "a middle of the road definition... the movement to recover, interpret, and assimilate the language, literature, learning and values of ancient Greece and Rome". Renaissance_sentence_115

Above all, humanists asserted "the genius of man ... the unique and extraordinary ability of the human mind". Renaissance_sentence_116

Humanist scholars shaped the intellectual landscape throughout the early modern period. Renaissance_sentence_117

Political philosophers such as Niccolò Machiavelli and Thomas More revived the ideas of Greek and Roman thinkers and applied them in critiques of contemporary government. Renaissance_sentence_118

Pico della Mirandola wrote the "manifesto" of the Renaissance, the Oration on the Dignity of Man, a vibrant defence of thinking. Renaissance_sentence_119

Matteo Palmieri (1406–1475), another humanist, is most known for his work Della vita civile ("On Civic Life"; printed 1528), which advocated civic humanism, and for his influence in refining the Tuscan vernacular to the same level as Latin. Renaissance_sentence_120

Palmieri drew on Roman philosophers and theorists, especially Cicero, who, like Palmieri, lived an active public life as a citizen and official, as well as a theorist and philosopher and also Quintilian. Renaissance_sentence_121

Perhaps the most succinct expression of his perspective on humanism is in a 1465 poetic work La città di vita, but an earlier work, Della vita civile, is more wide-ranging. Renaissance_sentence_122

Composed as a series of dialogues set in a country house in the Mugello countryside outside Florence during the plague of 1430, Palmieri expounds on the qualities of the ideal citizen. Renaissance_sentence_123

The dialogues include ideas about how children develop mentally and physically, how citizens can conduct themselves morally, how citizens and states can ensure probity in public life, and an important debate on the difference between that which is pragmatically useful and that which is honest. Renaissance_sentence_124

The humanists believed that it is important to transcend to the afterlife with a perfect mind and body, which could be attained with education. Renaissance_sentence_125

The purpose of humanism was to create a universal man whose person combined intellectual and physical excellence and who was capable of functioning honorably in virtually any situation. Renaissance_sentence_126

This ideology was referred to as the uomo universale, an ancient Greco-Roman ideal. Renaissance_sentence_127

Education during the Renaissance was mainly composed of ancient literature and history as it was thought that the classics provided moral instruction and an intensive understanding of human behavior. Renaissance_sentence_128

Humanism and libraries Renaissance_section_8

A unique characteristic of some Renaissance libraries is that they were open to the public. Renaissance_sentence_129

These libraries were places where ideas were exchanged and where scholarship and reading were considered both pleasurable and beneficial to the mind and soul. Renaissance_sentence_130

As freethinking was a hallmark of the age, many libraries contained a wide range of writers. Renaissance_sentence_131

Classical texts could be found alongside humanist writings. Renaissance_sentence_132

These informal associations of intellectuals profoundly influenced Renaissance culture. Renaissance_sentence_133

Some of the richest "bibliophiles" built libraries as temples to books and knowledge. Renaissance_sentence_134

A number of libraries appeared as manifestations of immense wealth joined with a love of books. Renaissance_sentence_135

In some cases, cultivated library builders were also committed to offering others the opportunity to use their collections. Renaissance_sentence_136

Prominent aristocrats and princes of the Church created great libraries for the use of their courts, called "court libraries", and were housed in lavishly designed monumental buildings decorated with ornate woodwork, and the walls adorned with frescoes (Murray, Stuart A.P.) Renaissance_sentence_137

Art Renaissance_section_9

Main articles: Renaissance art, Italian Renaissance painting, Themes in Italian Renaissance painting, Early Netherlandish painting, and Renaissance architecture Renaissance_sentence_138

See also: Islamic influences on Western art Renaissance_sentence_139

Renaissance art marks a cultural rebirth at the close of the Middle Ages and rise of the Modern world. Renaissance_sentence_140

One of the distinguishing features of Renaissance art was its development of highly realistic linear perspective. Renaissance_sentence_141

Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337) is credited with first treating a painting as a window into space, but it was not until the demonstrations of architect Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446) and the subsequent writings of Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472) that perspective was formalized as an artistic technique. Renaissance_sentence_142

The development of perspective was part of a wider trend towards realism in the arts. Renaissance_sentence_143

Painters developed other techniques, studying light, shadow, and, famously in the case of Leonardo da Vinci, human anatomy. Renaissance_sentence_144

Underlying these changes in artistic method was a renewed desire to depict the beauty of nature and to unravel the axioms of aesthetics, with the works of Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael representing artistic pinnacles that were much imitated by other artists. Renaissance_sentence_145

Other notable artists include Sandro Botticelli, working for the Medici in Florence, Donatello, another Florentine, and Titian in Venice, among others. Renaissance_sentence_146

In the Netherlands, a particularly vibrant artistic culture developed. Renaissance_sentence_147

The work of Hugo van der Goes and Jan van Eyck was particularly influential on the development of painting in Italy, both technically with the introduction of oil paint and canvas, and stylistically in terms of naturalism in representation. Renaissance_sentence_148

Later, the work of Pieter Brueghel the Elder would inspire artists to depict themes of everyday life. Renaissance_sentence_149

In architecture, Filippo Brunelleschi was foremost in studying the remains of ancient classical buildings. Renaissance_sentence_150

With rediscovered knowledge from the 1st-century writer Vitruvius and the flourishing discipline of mathematics, Brunelleschi formulated the Renaissance style that emulated and improved on classical forms. Renaissance_sentence_151

His major feat of engineering was building the dome of the Florence Cathedral. Renaissance_sentence_152

Another building demonstrating this style is the church of St. Andrew in Mantua, built by Alberti. Renaissance_sentence_153

The outstanding architectural work of the High Renaissance was the rebuilding of St. Renaissance_sentence_154 Peter's Basilica, combining the skills of Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, Sangallo and Maderno. Renaissance_sentence_155

During the Renaissance, architects aimed to use columns, pilasters, and entablatures as an integrated system. Renaissance_sentence_156

The Roman orders types of columns are used: Tuscan and Composite. Renaissance_sentence_157

These can either be structural, supporting an arcade or architrave, or purely decorative, set against a wall in the form of pilasters. Renaissance_sentence_158

One of the first buildings to use pilasters as an integrated system was in the Old Sacristy (1421–1440) by Brunelleschi. Renaissance_sentence_159

Arches, semi-circular or (in the Mannerist style) segmental, are often used in arcades, supported on piers or columns with capitals. Renaissance_sentence_160

There may be a section of entablature between the capital and the springing of the arch. Renaissance_sentence_161

Alberti was one of the first to use the arch on a monumental. Renaissance_sentence_162

Renaissance vaults do not have ribs; they are semi-circular or segmental and on a square plan, unlike the Gothic vault, which is frequently rectangular. Renaissance_sentence_163

Renaissance artists were not pagans, although they admired antiquity and kept some ideas and symbols of the medieval past. Renaissance_sentence_164

Nicola Pisano (c. 1220–c. Renaissance_sentence_165

1278) imitated classical forms by portraying scenes from the Bible. Renaissance_sentence_166

His Annunciation, from the Baptistry at Pisa, demonstrates that classical models influenced Italian art before the Renaissance took root as a literary movement Renaissance_sentence_167

Science Renaissance_section_10

Main articles: History of science in the Renaissance and Renaissance technology Renaissance_sentence_168

See also: Medical Renaissance Renaissance_sentence_169

Applied innovation extended to commerce. Renaissance_sentence_170

At the end of the 15th century Luca Pacioli published the first work on bookkeeping, making him the founder of accounting. Renaissance_sentence_171

The rediscovery of ancient texts and the invention of the printing press democratized learning and allowed a faster propagation of more widely distributed ideas. Renaissance_sentence_172

In the first period of the Italian Renaissance, humanists favoured the study of humanities over natural philosophy or applied mathematics, and their reverence for classical sources further enshrined the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic views of the universe. Renaissance_sentence_173

Writing around 1450, Nicholas Cusanus anticipated the heliocentric worldview of Copernicus, but in a philosophical fashion. Renaissance_sentence_174

Science and art were intermingled in the early Renaissance, with polymath artists such as Leonardo da Vinci making observational drawings of anatomy and nature. Renaissance_sentence_175

Da Vinci set up controlled experiments in water flow, medical dissection, and systematic study of movement and aerodynamics, and he devised principles of research method that led Fritjof Capra to classify him as the "father of modern science". Renaissance_sentence_176

Other examples of Da Vinci's contribution during this period include machines designed to saw marbles and lift monoliths, and new discoveries in acoustics, botany, geology, anatomy, and mechanics. Renaissance_sentence_177

A suitable environment had developed to question scientific doctrine. Renaissance_sentence_178

The discovery in 1492 of the New World by Christopher Columbus challenged the classical worldview. Renaissance_sentence_179

The works of Ptolemy (in geography) and Galen (in medicine) were found to not always match everyday observations. Renaissance_sentence_180

As the Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation clashed, the Northern Renaissance showed a decisive shift in focus from Aristotelean natural philosophy to chemistry and the biological sciences (botany, anatomy, and medicine). Renaissance_sentence_181

The willingness to question previously held truths and search for new answers resulted in a period of major scientific advancements. Renaissance_sentence_182

Some view this as a "scientific revolution", heralding the beginning of the modern age, others as an acceleration of a continuous process stretching from the ancient world to the present day. Renaissance_sentence_183

Significant scientific advances were made during this time by Galileo Galilei, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler. Renaissance_sentence_184

Copernicus, in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres), posited that the Earth moved around the Sun. Renaissance_sentence_185

De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body) by Andreas Vesalius, gave a new confidence to the role of dissection, observation, and the mechanistic view of anatomy. Renaissance_sentence_186

Another important development was in the process for discovery, the scientific method, focusing on empirical evidence and the importance of mathematics, while discarding Aristotelian science. Renaissance_sentence_187

Early and influential proponents of these ideas included Copernicus, Galileo, and Francis Bacon. Renaissance_sentence_188

The new scientific method led to great contributions in the fields of astronomy, physics, biology, and anatomy. Renaissance_sentence_189

Navigation and geography Renaissance_section_11

Further information: Age of Discovery Renaissance_sentence_190

During the Renaissance, extending from 1450 to 1650, every continent was visited and mostly mapped by Europeans, except the south polar continent now known as Antarctica. Renaissance_sentence_191

This development is depicted in the large world map Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Tabula made by the Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu in 1648 to commemorate the Peace of Westphalia. Renaissance_sentence_192

In 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain seeking a direct route to India of the Delhi Sultanate. Renaissance_sentence_193

He accidentally stumbled upon the Americas, but believed he had reached the East Indies. Renaissance_sentence_194

In 1606, the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon sailed from the East Indies in the VOC ship Duyfken and landed in Australia. Renaissance_sentence_195

He charted about 300 km of the west coast of Cape York Peninsula in Queensland. Renaissance_sentence_196

More than thirty Dutch expeditions followed, mapping sections of the north, west and south coasts. Renaissance_sentence_197

In 1642–1643, Abel Tasman circumnavigated the continent, proving that it was not joined to the imagined south polar continent. Renaissance_sentence_198

By 1650, Dutch cartographers had mapped most of the coastline of the continent, which they named New Holland, except the east coast which was charted in 1770 by Captain Cook. Renaissance_sentence_199

The long-imagined south polar continent was eventually sighted in 1820. Renaissance_sentence_200

Throughout the Renaissance it had been known as Terra Australis, or 'Australia' for short. Renaissance_sentence_201

However, after that name was transferred to New Holland in the nineteenth century, the new name of 'Antarctica' was bestowed on the south polar continent. Renaissance_sentence_202

Music Renaissance_section_12

Main article: Renaissance music Renaissance_sentence_203

See also: Renaissance dance Renaissance_sentence_204

From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular the polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish school. Renaissance_sentence_205

The development of printing made distribution of music possible on a wide scale. Renaissance_sentence_206

Demand for music as entertainment and as an activity for educated amateurs increased with the emergence of a bourgeois class. Renaissance_sentence_207

Dissemination of chansons, motets, and masses throughout Europe coincided with the unification of polyphonic practice into the fluid style that culminated in the second half of the sixteenth century in the work of composers such as Palestrina, Lassus, Victoria and William Byrd. Renaissance_sentence_208

Religion Renaissance_section_13

Further information: Renaissance Papacy, Protestant Reformation, and Counter-Reformation Renaissance_sentence_209

The new ideals of humanism, although more secular in some aspects, developed against a Christian backdrop, especially in the Northern Renaissance. Renaissance_sentence_210

Much, if not most, of the new art was commissioned by or in dedication to the Church. Renaissance_sentence_211

However, the Renaissance had a profound effect on contemporary theology, particularly in the way people perceived the relationship between man and God. Renaissance_sentence_212

Many of the period's foremost theologians were followers of the humanist method, including Erasmus, Zwingli, Thomas More, Martin Luther, and John Calvin. Renaissance_sentence_213

The Renaissance began in times of religious turmoil. Renaissance_sentence_214

The late Middle Ages was a period of political intrigue surrounding the Papacy, culminating in the Western Schism, in which three men simultaneously claimed to be true Bishop of Rome. Renaissance_sentence_215

While the schism was resolved by the Council of Constance (1414), a resulting reform movement known as Conciliarism sought to limit the power of the pope. Renaissance_sentence_216

Although the papacy eventually emerged supreme in ecclesiastical matters by the Fifth Council of the Lateran (1511), it was dogged by continued accusations of corruption, most famously in the person of Pope Alexander VI, who was accused variously of simony, nepotism and fathering four children (most of whom were married off, presumably for the consolidation of power) while a cardinal. Renaissance_sentence_217

Churchmen such as Erasmus and Luther proposed reform to the Church, often based on humanist textual criticism of the New Testament. Renaissance_sentence_218

In October 1517 Luther published the 95 Theses, challenging papal authority and criticizing its perceived corruption, particularly with regard to instances of sold indulgences. Renaissance_sentence_219

The 95 Theses led to the Reformation, a break with the Roman Catholic Church that previously claimed hegemony in Western Europe. Renaissance_sentence_220

Humanism and the Renaissance therefore played a direct role in sparking the Reformation, as well as in many other contemporaneous religious debates and conflicts. Renaissance_sentence_221

Pope Paul III came to the papal throne (1534–1549) after the sack of Rome in 1527, with uncertainties prevalent in the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation. Renaissance_sentence_222

Nicolaus Copernicus dedicated De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) to Paul III, who became the grandfather of Alessandro Farnese (cardinal), who had paintings by Titian, Michelangelo, and Raphael, as well as an important collection of drawings, and who commissioned the masterpiece of Giulio Clovio, arguably the last major illuminated manuscript, the Farnese Hours. Renaissance_sentence_223

Self-awareness Renaissance_section_14

By the 15th century, writers, artists, and architects in Italy were well aware of the transformations that were taking place and were using phrases such as modi antichi (in the antique manner) or alle romana et alla antica (in the manner of the Romans and the ancients) to describe their work. Renaissance_sentence_224

In the 1330s Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua (ancient) and to the Christian period as nova (new). Renaissance_sentence_225

From Petrarch's Italian perspective, this new period (which included his own time) was an age of national eclipse. Renaissance_sentence_226

Leonardo Bruni was the first to use tripartite periodization in his History of the Florentine People (1442). Renaissance_sentence_227

Bruni's first two periods were based on those of Petrarch, but he added a third period because he believed that Italy was no longer in a state of decline. Renaissance_sentence_228

Flavio Biondo used a similar framework in Decades of History from the Deterioration of the Roman Empire (1439–1453). Renaissance_sentence_229

Humanist historians argued that contemporary scholarship restored direct links to the classical period, thus bypassing the Medieval period, which they then named for the first time the "Middle Ages". Renaissance_sentence_230

The term first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas (middle times). Renaissance_sentence_231

The term rinascita (rebirth) first appeared, however, in its broad sense in Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists, 1550, revised 1568. Renaissance_sentence_232

Vasari divides the age into three phases: the first phase contains Cimabue, Giotto, and Arnolfo di Cambio; the second phase contains Masaccio, Brunelleschi, and Donatello; the third centers on Leonardo da Vinci and culminates with Michelangelo. Renaissance_sentence_233

It was not just the growing awareness of classical antiquity that drove this development, according to Vasari, but also the growing desire to study and imitate nature. Renaissance_sentence_234

Spread Renaissance_section_15

In the 15th century, the Renaissance spread rapidly from its birthplace in Florence to the rest of Italy and soon to the rest of Europe. Renaissance_sentence_235

The invention of the printing press by German printer Johannes Gutenberg allowed the rapid transmission of these new ideas. Renaissance_sentence_236

As it spread, its ideas diversified and changed, being adapted to local culture. Renaissance_sentence_237

In the 20th century, scholars began to break the Renaissance into regional and national movements. Renaissance_sentence_238

England Renaissance_section_16

Main article: English Renaissance Renaissance_sentence_239

In England, the sixteenth century marked the beginning of the English Renaissance with the work of writers William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Sir Thomas More, Francis Bacon, Sir Philip Sidney, as well as great artists, architects (such as Inigo Jones who introduced Italianate architecture to England), and composers such as Thomas Tallis, John Taverner, and William Byrd. Renaissance_sentence_240

France Renaissance_section_17

Main articles: French Renaissance and French Renaissance architecture Renaissance_sentence_241

The word "Renaissance" is borrowed from the French language, where it means "re-birth". Renaissance_sentence_242

It was first used in the eighteenth century and was later popularized by French historian Jules Michelet (1798–1874) in his 1855 work, Histoire de France (History of France). Renaissance_sentence_243

In 1495 the Italian Renaissance arrived in France, imported by King Charles VIII after his invasion of Italy. Renaissance_sentence_244

A factor that promoted the spread of secularism was the inability of the Church to offer assistance against the Black Death. Renaissance_sentence_245

Francis I imported Italian art and artists, including Leonardo da Vinci, and built ornate palaces at great expense. Renaissance_sentence_246

Writers such as François Rabelais, Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Michel de Montaigne, painters such as Jean Clouet, and musicians such as Jean Mouton also borrowed from the spirit of the Renaissance. Renaissance_sentence_247

In 1533, a fourteen-year-old Caterina de' Medici (1519–1589), born in Florence to Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino and Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne, married Henry II of France, second son of King Francis I and Queen Claude. Renaissance_sentence_248

Though she became famous and infamous for her role in France's religious wars, she made a direct contribution in bringing arts, sciences and music (including the origins of ballet) to the French court from her native Florence. Renaissance_sentence_249

Germany Renaissance_section_18

Main articles: German Renaissance and Weser Renaissance Renaissance_sentence_250

In the second half of the 15th century, the Renaissance spirit spread to Germany and the Low Countries, where the development of the printing press (ca. 1450) and Renaissance artists such as Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528) predated the influence from Italy. Renaissance_sentence_251

In the early Protestant areas of the country humanism became closely linked to the turmoil of the Protestant Reformation, and the art and writing of the German Renaissance frequently reflected this dispute. Renaissance_sentence_252

However, the Gothic style and medieval scholastic philosophy remained exclusively until the turn of the 16th century. Renaissance_sentence_253

Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg (ruling 1493–1519) was the first truly Renaissance monarch of the Holy Roman Empire. Renaissance_sentence_254

Hungary Renaissance_section_19

Further information: Renaissance architecture in Central and Eastern Europe Renaissance_sentence_255

After Italy, Hungary was the first European country where the Renaissance appeared. Renaissance_sentence_256

The Renaissance style came directly from Italy during the Quattrocento to Hungary first in the Central European region, thanks to the development of early Hungarian-Italian relationships—not only in dynastic connections, but also in cultural, humanistic and commercial relations—growing in strength from the 14th century. Renaissance_sentence_257

The relationship between Hungarian and Italian Gothic styles was a second reason—exaggerated breakthrough of walls is avoided, preferring clean and light structures. Renaissance_sentence_258

Large-scale building schemes provided ample and long term work for the artists, for example, the building of the Friss (New) Castle in Buda, the castles of Visegrád, Tata and Várpalota. Renaissance_sentence_259

In Sigismund's court there were patrons such as Pipo Spano, a descendant of the Scolari family of Florence, who invited Manetto Ammanatini and Masolino da Pannicale to Hungary. Renaissance_sentence_260

The new Italian trend combined with existing national traditions to create a particular local Renaissance art. Renaissance_sentence_261

Acceptance of Renaissance art was furthered by the continuous arrival of humanist thought in the country. Renaissance_sentence_262

Many young Hungarians studying at Italian universities came closer to the Florentine humanist center, so a direct connection with Florence evolved. Renaissance_sentence_263

The growing number of Italian traders moving to Hungary, specially to Buda, helped this process. Renaissance_sentence_264

New thoughts were carried by the humanist prelates, among them Vitéz János, archbishop of Esztergom, one of the founders of Hungarian humanism. Renaissance_sentence_265

During the long reign of emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg the Royal Castle of Buda became probably the largest Gothic palace of the late Middle Ages. Renaissance_sentence_266

King Matthias Corvinus (r. 1458–1490) rebuilt the palace in early Renaissance style and further expanded it. Renaissance_sentence_267

After the marriage in 1476 of King Matthias to Beatrice of Naples, Buda became one of the most important artistic centres of the Renaissance north of the Alps. Renaissance_sentence_268

The most important humanists living in Matthias' court were Antonio Bonfini and the famous Hungarian poet Janus Pannonius. Renaissance_sentence_269

András Hess set up a printing press in Buda in 1472. Renaissance_sentence_270

Matthias Corvinus's library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was Europe's greatest collections of secular books: historical chronicles, philosophic and scientific works in the 15th century. Renaissance_sentence_271

His library was second only in size to the Vatican Library. Renaissance_sentence_272

(However, the Vatican Library mainly contained Bibles and religious materials.) Renaissance_sentence_273

In 1489, Bartolomeo della Fonte of Florence wrote that Lorenzo de' Medici founded his own Greek-Latin library encouraged by the example of the Hungarian king. Renaissance_sentence_274

Corvinus's library is part of UNESCO World Heritage. Renaissance_sentence_275

Matthias started at least two major building projects. Renaissance_sentence_276

The works in Buda and Visegrád began in about 1479. Renaissance_sentence_277

Two new wings and a hanging garden were built at the royal castle of Buda, and the palace at Visegrád was rebuilt in Renaissance style. Renaissance_sentence_278

Matthias appointed the Italian Chimenti Camicia and the Dalmatian Giovanni Dalmata to direct these projects. Renaissance_sentence_279

Matthias commissioned the leading Italian artists of his age to embellish his palaces: for instance, the sculptor Benedetto da Majano and the painters Filippino Lippi and Andrea Mantegna worked for him. Renaissance_sentence_280

A copy of Mantegna's portrait of Matthias survived. Renaissance_sentence_281

Matthias also hired the Italian military engineer Aristotele Fioravanti to direct the rebuilding of the forts along the southern frontier. Renaissance_sentence_282

He had new monasteries built in Late Gothic style for the Franciscans in Kolozsvár, Szeged and Hunyad, and for the Paulines in Fejéregyháza. Renaissance_sentence_283

In the spring of 1485, Leonardo da Vinci travelled to Hungary on behalf of Sforza to meet king Matthias Corvinus, and was commissioned by him to paint a Madonna. Renaissance_sentence_284

Matthias enjoyed the company of Humanists and had lively discussions on various topics with them. Renaissance_sentence_285

The fame of his magnanimity encouraged many scholars—mostly Italian—to settle in Buda. Renaissance_sentence_286

Antonio Bonfini, Pietro Ranzano, Bartolomeo Fonzio, and Francesco Bandini spent many years in Matthias's court. Renaissance_sentence_287

This circle of educated men introduced the ideas of Neoplatonism to Hungary. Renaissance_sentence_288

Like all intellectuals of his age, Matthias was convinced that the movements and combinations of the stars and planets exercised influence on individuals' life and on the history of nations. Renaissance_sentence_289

Galeotto Marzio described him as "king and astrologer", and Antonio Bonfini said Matthias "never did anything without consulting the stars". Renaissance_sentence_290

Upon his request, the famous astronomers of the age, Johannes Regiomontanus and Marcin Bylica, set up an observatory in Buda and installed it with astrolabes and celestial globes. Renaissance_sentence_291

Regiomontanus dedicated his book on navigation that was used by Christopher Columbus to Matthias. Renaissance_sentence_292

Other important figures of Hungarian Renaissance include Bálint Balassi (poet), Sebestyén Tinódi Lantos (poet), Bálint Bakfark (composer and lutenist), and Master MS (fresco painter). Renaissance_sentence_293

Renaissance in the Low countries Renaissance_section_20

Main articles: Renaissance in the Netherlands and Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting Renaissance_sentence_294

Culture in the Netherlands at the end of the 15th century was influenced by the Italian Renaissance through trade via Bruges, which made Flanders wealthy. Renaissance_sentence_295

Its nobles commissioned artists who became known across Europe. Renaissance_sentence_296

In science, the anatomist Andreas Vesalius led the way; in cartography, Gerardus Mercator's map assisted explorers and navigators. Renaissance_sentence_297

In art, Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting ranged from the strange work of Hieronymus Bosch to the everyday life depictions of Pieter Brueghel the Elder. Renaissance_sentence_298

Northern Europe Renaissance_section_21

Main article: Northern Renaissance Renaissance_sentence_299

The Renaissance in Northern Europe has been termed the "Northern Renaissance". Renaissance_sentence_300

While Renaissance ideas were moving north from Italy, there was a simultaneous southward spread of some areas of innovation, particularly in music. Renaissance_sentence_301

The music of the 15th-century Burgundian School defined the beginning of the Renaissance in music, and the polyphony of the Netherlanders, as it moved with the musicians themselves into Italy, formed the core of the first true international style in music since the standardization of Gregorian Chant in the 9th century. Renaissance_sentence_302

The culmination of the Netherlandish school was in the music of the Italian composer Palestrina. Renaissance_sentence_303

At the end of the 16th century Italy again became a center of musical innovation, with the development of the polychoral style of the Venetian School, which spread northward into Germany around 1600. Renaissance_sentence_304

The paintings of the Italian Renaissance differed from those of the Northern Renaissance. Renaissance_sentence_305

Italian Renaissance artists were among the first to paint secular scenes, breaking away from the purely religious art of medieval painters. Renaissance_sentence_306

Northern Renaissance artists initially remained focused on religious subjects, such as the contemporary religious upheaval portrayed by Albrecht Dürer. Renaissance_sentence_307

Later, the works of Pieter Bruegel influenced artists to paint scenes of daily life rather than religious or classical themes. Renaissance_sentence_308

It was also during the Northern Renaissance that Flemish brothers Hubert and Jan van Eyck perfected the oil painting technique, which enabled artists to produce strong colors on a hard surface that could survive for centuries. Renaissance_sentence_309

A feature of the Northern Renaissance was its use of the vernacular in place of Latin or Greek, which allowed greater freedom of expression. Renaissance_sentence_310

This movement had started in Italy with the decisive influence of Dante Alighieri on the development of vernacular languages; in fact the focus on writing in Italian has neglected a major source of Florentine ideas expressed in Latin. Renaissance_sentence_311

The spread of the printing press technology boosted the Renaissance in Northern Europe as elsewhere, with Venice becoming a world center of printing. Renaissance_sentence_312

Poland Renaissance_section_22

Main article: Renaissance in Poland Renaissance_sentence_313

An early Italian humanist who came to Poland in the mid-15th century was Filippo Buonaccorsi. Renaissance_sentence_314

Many Italian artists came to Poland with Bona Sforza of Milan, when she married King Sigismund I the Old in 1518. Renaissance_sentence_315

This was supported by temporarily strengthened monarchies in both areas, as well as by newly established universities. Renaissance_sentence_316

The Polish Renaissance lasted from the late 15th to the late 16th century and was the Golden Age of Polish culture. Renaissance_sentence_317

Ruled by the Jagiellon dynasty, the Kingdom of Poland (from 1569 known as the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) actively participated in the broad European Renaissance. Renaissance_sentence_318

The multi-national Polish state experienced a substantial period of cultural growth thanks in part to a century without major wars – aside from conflicts in the sparsely populated eastern and southern borderlands. Renaissance_sentence_319

The Reformation spread peacefully throughout the country (giving rise to the Polish Brethren), while living conditions improved, cities grew, and exports of agricultural products enriched the population, especially the nobility (szlachta) who gained dominance in the new political system of Golden Liberty. Renaissance_sentence_320

The Polish Renaissance architecture has three periods of development. Renaissance_sentence_321

The greatest monument of this style in the territory of the former Duchy of Pomerania is the Ducal Castle in Szczecin. Renaissance_sentence_322

Portugal Renaissance_section_23

Main article: Portuguese Renaissance Renaissance_sentence_323

Although Italian Renaissance had a modest impact in Portuguese arts, Portugal was influential in broadening the European worldview, stimulating humanist inquiry. Renaissance_sentence_324

Renaissance arrived through the influence of wealthy Italian and Flemish merchants who invested in the profitable commerce overseas. Renaissance_sentence_325

As the pioneer headquarters of European exploration, Lisbon flourished in the late 15th century, attracting experts who made several breakthroughs in mathematics, astronomy and naval technology, including Pedro Nunes, João de Castro, Abraham Zacuto and Martin Behaim. Renaissance_sentence_326

Cartographers Pedro Reinel, Lopo Homem, Estêvão Gomes and Diogo Ribeiro made crucial advances in mapping the world. Renaissance_sentence_327

Apothecary Tomé Pires and physicians Garcia de Orta and Cristóvão da Costa collected and published works on plants and medicines, soon translated by Flemish pioneer botanist Carolus Clusius. Renaissance_sentence_328

In architecture, the huge profits of the spice trade financed a sumptuous composite style in the first decades of the 16th century, the Manueline, incorporating maritime elements. Renaissance_sentence_329

The primary painters were Nuno Gonçalves, Gregório Lopes and Vasco Fernandes. Renaissance_sentence_330

In music, Pedro de Escobar and Duarte Lobo produced four songbooks, including the Cancioneiro de Elvas. Renaissance_sentence_331

In literature, Sá de Miranda introduced Italian forms of verse. Renaissance_sentence_332

Bernardim Ribeiro developed pastoral romance, plays by Gil Vicente fused it with popular culture, reporting the changing times, and Luís de Camões inscribed the Portuguese feats overseas in the epic poem Os Lusíadas. Renaissance_sentence_333

Travel literature especially flourished: João de Barros, Castanheda, António Galvão, Gaspar Correia, Duarte Barbosa, and Fernão Mendes Pinto, among others, described new lands and were translated and spread with the new printing press. Renaissance_sentence_334

After joining the Portuguese exploration of Brazil in 1500, Amerigo Vespucci coined the term New World, in his letters to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici. Renaissance_sentence_335

The intense international exchange produced several cosmopolitan humanist scholars, including Francisco de Holanda, André de Resende and Damião de Góis, a friend of Erasmus who wrote with rare independence on the reign of King Manuel I. Renaissance_sentence_336

Diogo and André de Gouveia made relevant teaching reforms via France. Renaissance_sentence_337

Foreign news and products in the Portuguese factory in Antwerp attracted the interest of Thomas More and Albrecht Dürer to the wider world. Renaissance_sentence_338

There, profits and know-how helped nurture the Dutch Renaissance and Golden Age, especially after the arrival of the wealthy cultured Jewish community expelled from Portugal. Renaissance_sentence_339

Russia Renaissance_section_24

Renaissance trends from Italy and Central Europe influenced Russia in many ways. Renaissance_sentence_340

Their influence was rather limited, however, due to the large distances between Russia and the main European cultural centers and the strong adherence of Russians to their Orthodox traditions and Byzantine legacy. Renaissance_sentence_341

Prince Ivan III introduced Renaissance architecture to Russia by inviting a number of architects from Italy, who brought new construction techniques and some Renaissance style elements with them, while in general following the traditional designs of Russian architecture. Renaissance_sentence_342

In 1475 the Bolognese architect Aristotele Fioravanti came to rebuild the Cathedral of the Dormition in the Moscow Kremlin, which had been damaged in an earthquake. Renaissance_sentence_343

Fioravanti was given the 12th-century Vladimir Cathedral as a model, and he produced a design combining traditional Russian style with a Renaissance sense of spaciousness, proportion and symmetry. Renaissance_sentence_344

In 1485 Ivan III commissioned the building of the royal residence, Terem Palace, within the Kremlin, with Aloisio da Milano as the architect of the first three floors. Renaissance_sentence_345

He and other Italian architects also contributed to the construction of the Kremlin walls and towers. Renaissance_sentence_346

The small banquet hall of the Russian Tsars, called the Palace of Facets because of its facetted upper story, is the work of two Italians, Marco Ruffo and Pietro Solario, and shows a more Italian style. Renaissance_sentence_347

In 1505, an Italian known in Russia as Aleviz Novyi or Aleviz Fryazin arrived in Moscow. Renaissance_sentence_348

He may have been the Venetian sculptor, Alevisio Lamberti da Montagne. Renaissance_sentence_349

He built twelve churches for Ivan III, including the Cathedral of the Archangel, a building remarkable for the successful blending of Russian tradition, Orthodox requirements and Renaissance style. Renaissance_sentence_350

It is believed that the Cathedral of the Metropolitan Peter in Vysokopetrovsky Monastery, another work of Aleviz Novyi, later served as an inspiration for the so-called octagon-on-tetragon architectural form in the Moscow Baroque of the late 17th century. Renaissance_sentence_351

Between the early 16th and the late 17th centuries, an original tradition of stone tented roof architecture developed in Russia. Renaissance_sentence_352

It was quite unique and different from the contemporary Renaissance architecture elsewhere in Europe, though some research terms the style 'Russian Gothic' and compares it with the European Gothic architecture of the earlier period. Renaissance_sentence_353

The Italians, with their advanced technology, may have influenced the invention of the stone tented roof (the wooden tents were known in Russia and Europe long before). Renaissance_sentence_354

According to one hypothesis, an Italian architect called Petrok Maly may have been an author of the Ascension Church in Kolomenskoye, one of the earliest and most prominent tented roof churches. Renaissance_sentence_355

By the 17th century the influence of Renaissance painting resulted in Russian icons becoming slightly more realistic, while still following most of the old icon painting canons, as seen in the works of Bogdan Saltanov, Simon Ushakov, Gury Nikitin, Karp Zolotaryov and other Russian artists of the era. Renaissance_sentence_356

Gradually the new type of secular portrait painting appeared, called parsúna (from "persona" – person), which was transitional style between abstract iconographics and real paintings. Renaissance_sentence_357

In the mid 16th-century Russians adopted printing from Central Europe, with Ivan Fyodorov being the first known Russian printer. Renaissance_sentence_358

In the 17th century printing became widespread, and woodcuts became especially popular. Renaissance_sentence_359

That led to the development of a special form of folk art known as lubok printing, which persisted in Russia well into the 19th century. Renaissance_sentence_360

A number of technologies from the European Renaissance period were adopted by Russia rather early and subsequently perfected to become a part of a strong domestic tradition. Renaissance_sentence_361

Mostly these were military technologies, such as cannon casting adopted by at least the 15th century. Renaissance_sentence_362

The Tsar Cannon, which is the world's largest bombard by caliber, is a masterpiece of Russian cannon making. Renaissance_sentence_363

It was cast in 1586 by Andrey Chokhov and is notable for its rich, decorative relief. Renaissance_sentence_364

Another technology, that according to one hypothesis originally was brought from Europe by the Italians, resulted in the development of vodka, the national beverage of Russia. Renaissance_sentence_365

As early as 1386 Genoese ambassadors brought the first aqua vitae ("water of life") to Moscow and presented it to Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy. Renaissance_sentence_366

The Genoese likely developed this beverage with the help of the alchemists of Provence, who used an Arab-invented distillation apparatus to convert grape must into alcohol. Renaissance_sentence_367

A Moscovite monk called Isidore used this technology to produce the first original Russian vodka c. 1430. Renaissance_sentence_368

Spain Renaissance_section_25

Main article: Spanish Renaissance Renaissance_sentence_369

See also: Spanish Renaissance architecture Renaissance_sentence_370

The Renaissance arrived in the Iberian peninsula through the Mediterranean possessions of the Aragonese Crown and the city of Valencia. Renaissance_sentence_371

Many early Spanish Renaissance writers come from the Kingdom of Aragon, including Ausiàs March and Joanot Martorell. Renaissance_sentence_372

In the Kingdom of Castile, the early Renaissance was heavily influenced by the Italian humanism, starting with writers and poets such as the Marquis of Santillana, who introduced the new Italian poetry to Spain in the early 15th century. Renaissance_sentence_373

Other writers, such as Jorge Manrique, Fernando de Rojas, Juan del Encina, Juan Boscán Almogáver and Garcilaso de la Vega, kept a close resemblance to the Italian canon. Renaissance_sentence_374

Miguel de Cervantes's masterpiece Don Quixote is credited as the first Western novel. Renaissance_sentence_375

Renaissance humanism flourished in the early 16th century, with influential writers such as philosopher Juan Luis Vives, grammarian Antonio de Nebrija and natural historian Pedro de Mexía. Renaissance_sentence_376

Later Spanish Renaissance tended towards religious themes and mysticism, with poets such as fray Luis de León, Teresa of Ávila and John of the Cross, and treated issues related to the exploration of the New World, with chroniclers and writers such as Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Bartolomé de las Casas, giving rise to a body of work, now known as Spanish Renaissance literature. Renaissance_sentence_377

The late Renaissance in Spain produced artists such as El Greco and composers such as Tomás Luis de Victoria and Antonio de Cabezón. Renaissance_sentence_378

Further countries Renaissance_section_26


Historiography Renaissance_section_27

Conception Renaissance_section_28

The Italian artist and critic Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574) first used the term rinascita in his book The Lives of the Artists (published 1550). Renaissance_sentence_379

In the book Vasari attempted to define what he described as a break with the barbarities of Gothic art: the arts (he held) had fallen into decay with the collapse of the Roman Empire and only the Tuscan artists, beginning with Cimabue (1240–1301) and Giotto (1267–1337) began to reverse this decline in the arts. Renaissance_sentence_380

Vasari saw ancient art as central to the rebirth of Italian art. Renaissance_sentence_381

However, only in the 19th century did the French word renaissance achieve popularity in describing the self-conscious cultural movement based on revival of Roman models that began in the late 13th century. Renaissance_sentence_382

French historian Jules Michelet (1798–1874) defined "The Renaissance" in his 1855 work Histoire de France as an entire historical period, whereas previously it had been used in a more limited sense. Renaissance_sentence_383

For Michelet, the Renaissance was more a development in science than in art and culture. Renaissance_sentence_384

He asserted that it spanned the period from Columbus to Copernicus to Galileo; that is, from the end of the 15th century to the middle of the 17th century. Renaissance_sentence_385

Moreover, Michelet distinguished between what he called, "the bizarre and monstrous" quality of the Middle Ages and the democratic values that he, as a vocal Republican, chose to see in its character. Renaissance_sentence_386

A French nationalist, Michelet also sought to claim the Renaissance as a French movement. Renaissance_sentence_387

The Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt (1818–1897) in his The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860), by contrast, defined the Renaissance as the period between Giotto and Michelangelo in Italy, that is, the 14th to mid-16th centuries. Renaissance_sentence_388

He saw in the Renaissance the emergence of the modern spirit of individuality, which the Middle Ages had stifled. Renaissance_sentence_389

His book was widely read and became influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance. Renaissance_sentence_390

However, Buckhardt has been accused of setting forth a linear Whiggish view of history in seeing the Renaissance as the origin of the modern world. Renaissance_sentence_391

More recently, some historians have been much less keen to define the Renaissance as a historical age, or even as a coherent cultural movement. Renaissance_sentence_392

The historian Randolph Starn, of the University of California Berkeley, stated in 1998: Renaissance_sentence_393

Debates about progress Renaissance_section_29

See also: Continuity thesis Renaissance_sentence_394

There is debate about the extent to which the Renaissance improved on the culture of the Middle Ages. Renaissance_sentence_395

Both Michelet and Burckhardt were keen to describe the progress made in the Renaissance towards the modern age. Renaissance_sentence_396

Burckhardt likened the change to a veil being removed from man's eyes, allowing him to see clearly. Renaissance_sentence_397

On the other hand, many historians now point out that most of the negative social factors popularly associated with the medieval period—poverty, warfare, religious and political persecution, for example—seem to have worsened in this era, which saw the rise of Machiavellian politics, the Wars of Religion, the corrupt Borgia Popes, and the intensified witch hunts of the 16th century. Renaissance_sentence_398

Many people who lived during the Renaissance did not view it as the "golden age" imagined by certain 19th-century authors, but were concerned by these social maladies. Renaissance_sentence_399

Significantly, though, the artists, writers, and patrons involved in the cultural movements in question believed they were living in a new era that was a clean break from the Middle Ages. Renaissance_sentence_400

Some Marxist historians prefer to describe the Renaissance in material terms, holding the view that the changes in art, literature, and philosophy were part of a general economic trend from feudalism towards capitalism, resulting in a bourgeois class with leisure time to devote to the arts. Renaissance_sentence_401

Johan Huizinga (1872–1945) acknowledged the existence of the Renaissance but questioned whether it was a positive change. Renaissance_sentence_402

In his book The Autumn of the Middle Ages, he argued that the Renaissance was a period of decline from the High Middle Ages, destroying much that was important. Renaissance_sentence_403

The Latin language, for instance, had evolved greatly from the classical period and was still a living language used in the church and elsewhere. Renaissance_sentence_404

The Renaissance obsession with classical purity halted its further evolution and saw Latin revert to its classical form. Renaissance_sentence_405

Robert S. Lopez has contended that it was a period of deep economic recession. Renaissance_sentence_406

Meanwhile, George Sarton and Lynn Thorndike have both argued that scientific progress was perhaps less original than has traditionally been supposed. Renaissance_sentence_407

Finally, Joan Kelly argued that the Renaissance led to greater gender dichotomy, lessening the agency women had had during the Middle Ages. Renaissance_sentence_408

Some historians have begun to consider the word Renaissance to be unnecessarily loaded, implying an unambiguously positive rebirth from the supposedly more primitive "Dark Ages", the Middle Ages. Renaissance_sentence_409

Most historians now prefer to use the term "early modern" for this period, a more neutral designation that highlights the period as a transitional one between the Middle Ages and the modern era. Renaissance_sentence_410

Others such as Roger Osborne have come to consider the Italian Renaissance as a repository of the myths and ideals of western history in general, and instead of rebirth of ancient ideas as a period of great innovation. Renaissance_sentence_411

Other Renaissances Renaissance_section_30

The term Renaissance has also been used to define periods outside of the 15th and 16th centuries. Renaissance_sentence_412

Charles H. Haskins (1870–1937), for example, made a case for a Renaissance of the 12th century. Renaissance_sentence_413

Other historians have argued for a Carolingian Renaissance in the 8th and 9th centuries, Ottonian Renaissance in the 10th century and for the Timurid Renaissance of the 14th century. Renaissance_sentence_414

The Islamic Golden Age has been also sometimes termed with the Islamic Renaissance. Renaissance_sentence_415

Other periods of cultural rebirth have also been termed "renaissances", such as the Bengal Renaissance, Tamil Renaissance, Nepal Bhasa renaissance, al-Nahda or the Harlem Renaissance. Renaissance_sentence_416

The term can also be used in cinema. Renaissance_sentence_417

In animation, the Disney Renaissance is a period that spanned the years from 1989 to 1999 which saw the studio return to the level of quality not witnessed since their Golden Age or Animation. Renaissance_sentence_418

The San Francisco Renaissance was a vibrant period of exploratory poetry and fiction writing in that city in the mid-20th century. Renaissance_sentence_419

See also Renaissance_section_31


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