Repetitive strain injury

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"Gamer's thumb" redirects here. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_0

It is not to be confused with Gamekeeper's thumb. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_1

Repetitive strain injury_table_infobox_0

Repetitive strain injuryRepetitive strain injury_header_cell_0_0_0
Other namesRepetitive strain injury_header_cell_0_1_0 Cumulative trauma disorders, repetitive stress injuries, repetitive motion injuries or disorders, occupational or sports overuse syndromesRepetitive strain injury_cell_0_1_1
SpecialtyRepetitive strain injury_header_cell_0_2_0 Sports medicine, Performing Arts Medicine, orthopedicsRepetitive strain injury_cell_0_2_1
SymptomsRepetitive strain injury_header_cell_0_3_0 Sore wrists, aching, pulsing pain, tingling, extremity weaknessRepetitive strain injury_cell_0_3_1
ComplicationsRepetitive strain injury_header_cell_0_4_0 Torn ligamentsRepetitive strain injury_cell_0_4_1
CausesRepetitive strain injury_header_cell_0_5_0 Repetitive actions, poor techniqueRepetitive strain injury_cell_0_5_1
Risk factorsRepetitive strain injury_header_cell_0_6_0 Sedentary lifestyle, smoking, alcohol consumptionRepetitive strain injury_cell_0_6_1
PreventionRepetitive strain injury_header_cell_0_7_0 Proper technique, regular rests, regular exerciseRepetitive strain injury_cell_0_7_1

A repetitive strain injury (RSI) is an injury to part of the musculoskeletal or nervous system caused by repetitive use, vibrations, compression or long periods in a fixed position. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_2

Other common names include repetitive stress disorders, cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs), and overuse syndrome. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_3

Signs and symptoms Repetitive strain injury_section_0

Some examples of symptoms experienced by patients with RSI are aching, pulsing pain, tingling and extremity weakness, initially presenting with intermittent discomfort and then with a higher degree of frequency. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_4

Definition Repetitive strain injury_section_1

Repetitive strain injury (RSI) and associative trauma orders are umbrella terms used to refer to several discrete conditions that can be associated with repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression, sustained or awkward positions, or repetitive eccentric contractions. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_5

The exact terminology is controversial, but the terms now used by the United States Department of Labor and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and work-related muscular skeletal disorders (WMDs). Repetitive strain injury_sentence_6

Examples of conditions that may sometimes be attributed to such causes include tendinosis (or less often tendinitis), carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, De Quervain syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, intersection syndrome, golfer's elbow (medial epicondylitis), tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis), trigger finger (so-called stenosing tenosynovitis), radial tunnel syndrome, ulnar tunnel syndrome, and focal dystonia. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_7

A general worldwide increase since the 1970s in RSIs of the arms, hands, neck, and shoulder has been attributed to the widespread use in the workplace of keyboard entry devices, such as typewriters and computers, which require long periods of repetitive motions in a fixed posture. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_8

Extreme temperatures have also been reported as risk factor for RSI. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_9

Risk factors Repetitive strain injury_section_2

Occupational risk factors Repetitive strain injury_section_3

Workers in certain fields are at risk of repetitive strains. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_10

Most occupational injuries are musculoskeletal disorders, and many of these are caused by cumulative trauma rather than a single event. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_11

Miners and poultry workers, for example, must make repeated motions which can cause tendon, muscular, and skeletal injuries. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_12

Jobs that involve repeated motion patterns or prolonged posture within a work cycle, or both, may be repetitive. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_13

Young athletes are predisposed to RSIs due to an underdeveloped musculoskeletal system. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_14

Psychosocial factors Repetitive strain injury_section_4

Factors such as personality differences to work-place organization problems. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_15

Certain workers may negatively perceive their work organization due to excessive work rate, long work hours, limited job control, and low social support. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_16

Previous studies shown elevated urinary catecholamines (stress-related chemicals) in workers with RSI. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_17

Pain related to RSI may evolve into chronic pain syndrome particularly for workers who do not have supports from co-workers and supervisors. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_18

Non-occupational factors Repetitive strain injury_section_5

Age and gender are important risk factors for RSIs. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_19

The risk of RSI increases with age. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_20

Women are more likely affected than men because of their smaller frame, lower muscle mass and strength, and due to endocrine influences. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_21

In addition, lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption are recognizable risk factors for RSI. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_22

Recent scientific findings indicate that obesity and diabetes may predispose an individual to RSIs by creating a chronic low grade inflammatory response that prevents the body from effectively healing damaged tissues. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_23

Diagnosis Repetitive strain injury_section_6

RSIs are assessed using a number of objective clinical measures. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_24

These include effort-based tests such as grip and pinch strength, diagnostic tests such as Finkelstein's test for De Quervain's tendinitis, Phalen's contortion, Tinel's percussion for carpal tunnel syndrome, and nerve conduction velocity tests that show nerve compression in the wrist. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_25

Various imaging techniques can also be used to show nerve compression such as x-ray for the wrist, and MRI for the thoracic outlet and cervico-brachial areas. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_26

Utilization of routine imaging  is useful in early detection and treatment of overuse injuries in at risk populations, which is important in preventing long term adverse effects. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_27

Treatment Repetitive strain injury_section_7

There are no quick fixes for RSI. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_28

Early diagnosis is critical to limiting damage. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_29

The RICE treatment is used as the first treatment for many muscle strains, ligament sprains, or other bruises and injuries. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_30

RICE is used immediately after an injury happens and for the first 24 to 48 hours after the injury. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_31

These modalities can help reduce the swelling and pain. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_32

Commonly prescribed treatments for early-stage RSIs include analgesics, myofeedback, biofeedback, physical therapy, relaxation, and ultrasound therapy. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_33

Low-grade RSIs can sometimes resolve themselves if treatments begin shortly after the onset of symptoms. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_34

However, some RSIs may require more aggressive intervention including surgery and can persist for years. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_35

Although there are no "quick fixes" for RSI, there are effective approaches to its treatment and prevention. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_36

One is that of ergonomics, the changing of one's environment (especially workplace equipment) to minimize repetitive strain. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_37

Another is specific massage techniques such as trigger point therapy and related techniques such as the Alexander Technique. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_38

Licensed massage therapists specializing in RSI, as well as physical therapists and chiropractors, generally provide hands-on therapy, but also expect that the patient supplement and reinforce the office-visit therapy sessions with daily (or several times daily) exercises, self-massage, and stretching as prescribed by the practitioner. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_39

General exercise has been shown to decrease the risk of developing RSI. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_40

Doctors sometimes recommend that RSI sufferers engage in specific strengthening exercises, for example to improve sitting posture, reduce excessive kyphosis, and potentially thoracic outlet syndrome. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_41

Modifications of posture and arm use are often recommended. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_42

History Repetitive strain injury_section_8

Although seemingly a modern phenomenon, RSIs have long been documented in the medical literature. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_43

In 1700, the Italian physician Bernardino Ramazzini first described RSI in more than 20 categories of industrial workers in Italy, including musicians and clerks. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_44

Carpal tunnel syndrome was first identified by the British surgeon James Paget in 1854. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_45

The April 1875 issue of The Graphic describes "telegraphic paralysis." Repetitive strain injury_sentence_46

The Swiss surgeon Fritz de Quervain first identified De Quervain’s tendinitis in Swiss factory workers in 1895. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_47

The French neurologist Jules Tinel (1879–1952) developed his percussion test for compression of the median nerve in 1900. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_48

The American surgeon George Phalen improved the understanding of the aetiology of carpal tunnel syndrome with his clinical experience of several hundred patients during the 1950s and 1960s. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_49

Society Repetitive strain injury_section_9

Specific sources of discomfort have been popularly referred to by terms such as Blackberry thumb, PlayStation thumb, Rubik's wrist or "cuber's thumb", stylus finger, and raver's wrist, and Emacs pinky. Repetitive strain injury_sentence_50

See also Repetitive strain injury_section_10

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Repetitive strain injury.