Republican Party (United States)

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"GOP" redirects here. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_0

For other uses, see GOP (disambiguation). Republican Party (United States)_sentence_1

Not to be confused with American Republican Party (1843), Democratic-Republican Party, or National Republican Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_2

Republican Party (United States)_table_infobox_0

Republican PartyRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_0_0
AbbreviationRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_1_0 GOP (Grand Old Party)Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_1_1
ChairpersonRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_2_0 Ronna McDaniel (MI)Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_2_1
U.S. PresidentRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_3_0 Donald Trump (FL)Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_3_1
U.S. Vice PresidentRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_4_0 Mike Pence (IN)Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_4_1
Senate Majority LeaderRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_5_0 Mitch McConnell (KY)Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_5_1
House Minority LeaderRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_6_0 Kevin McCarthy (CA)Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_6_1
FoundersRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_7_0 Horace Greeley

Abraham Lincoln Edwin D. Morgan Henry Jarvis Raymond Amos TuckRepublican Party (United States)_cell_0_7_1

FoundedRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_8_0 March 20, 1854; 166 years ago (1854-03-20)

Ripon, Wisconsin, U.S.Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_8_1

Preceded byRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_9_0 Whig Party

Free Soil Party Liberty Party Anti-Nebraska Party North American PartyRepublican Party (United States)_cell_0_9_1

HeadquartersRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_10_0 310 First Street SE

Washington, D.C. 20003Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_10_1

Student wingRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_11_0 College RepublicansRepublican Party (United States)_cell_0_11_1
Youth wingRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_12_0 Young Republicans

Teen Age RepublicansRepublican Party (United States)_cell_0_12_1

Women's wingRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_13_0 National Federation of Republican WomenRepublican Party (United States)_cell_0_13_1
Overseas wingRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_14_0 Republicans OverseasRepublican Party (United States)_cell_0_14_1
Membership (2020)Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_15_0 35,041,482Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_15_1
IdeologyRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_16_0 Majority:

  Conservatism   Fiscal conservatism   Social conservatism

Factions:   Centrism   Libertarianism   Neoconservatism   Right-wing populismRepublican Party (United States)_cell_0_16_1

European affiliationRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_17_0 European Conservatives and Reformists Party (regional partner)Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_17_1
International affiliationRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_18_0 International Democrat UnionRepublican Party (United States)_cell_0_18_1
Regional affiliationRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_19_0 Asia Pacific Democrat UnionRepublican Party (United States)_cell_0_19_1
ColorsRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_20_0 RedRepublican Party (United States)_cell_0_20_1
SenateRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_21_0 52 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_21_1
House of RepresentativesRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_22_0 196 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_22_1
State GovernorshipsRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_23_0 26 / 50Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_23_1
State Upper ChambersRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_24_0 1,080 / 1,972Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_24_1
State Lower ChambersRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_25_0 2,773 / 5,411Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_25_1
Territorial GovernorshipsRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_26_0 2 / 6Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_26_1
Territorial Upper ChambersRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_27_0 12 / 97Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_27_1
Territorial Lower ChambersRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_28_0 14 / 91Republican Party (United States)_cell_0_28_1
Election symbolRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_29_0
WebsiteRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_0_30_0

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (Grand Old Party), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main, historic rival, the Democratic Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_3

The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which allowed for the potential expansion of slavery into the western territories. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_4

The party supported classical liberalism, opposed the expansion of slavery, and supported economic reform. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_5

Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_6

Under the leadership of Lincoln and a Republican Congress, slavery was banned in the United States in 1865. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_7

The Party was generally dominant during the Third Party System and the Fourth Party System. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_8

After 1912, the Party underwent a social ideological shift to the right. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_9

Following the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_10

The party's 21st-century base of support includes people living in rural areas, men, the Silent Generation, and white evangelical Christians. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_11

The 21st-century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which incorporates both economic policies and social values. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_12

The GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, restrictions on immigration, increased military spending, gun rights, restrictions on abortion, deregulation and restrictions on labor unions. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_13

After the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party opposed abortion in its party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_14

The GOP was strongly committed to protectionism and tariffs at its founding but grew more supportive of free trade in the 20th century. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_15

There have been 19 Republican presidents (including incumbent president Donald Trump, who was elected in 2016), the most from any one political party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_16

As of 2020, the GOP controls the presidency, a majority in the U.S. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_17 Senate, a majority of state governorships, a majority (29) of state legislatures, and 21 state government trifectas (governorship and both legislative chambers). Republican Party (United States)_sentence_18

Six of the nine sitting U.S. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_19 Supreme Court justices were nominated by Republican presidents. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_20

History Republican Party (United States)_section_0

Main article: History of the United States Republican Party Republican Party (United States)_sentence_21

19th century Republican Party (United States)_section_1

Further information: Third Party System Republican Party (United States)_sentence_22

The Republican Party emerged from the great political realignment of the mid-1850s. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_23

William Gienapp argues that the great realignment of the 1850s began before the Whig party collapse, and was caused not by politicians but by voters at the local level. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_24

The central forces were ethno-cultural, involving tensions between pietistic Protestants versus liturgical Catholics, Lutherans and Episcopalians regarding Catholicism, prohibition, and nativism. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_25

Anti-slavery did play a role but it was less important at first. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_26

The Know-Nothing party embodied the social forces at work, but its weak leadership was unable to solidify its organization, and the Republicans picked it apart. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_27

Nativism was so powerful that the Republicans could not avoid it, but they did minimize it and turn voter wrath against the threat that slave owners would buy up the good farm lands wherever slavery was allowed. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_28

The realignment was a powerful because it forced voters to switch parties, as typified by the rise and fall of the Know-Nothings, the rise of the Republican Party, and the splits in the Democratic Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_29

The Republican Party was founded in the Northern states in 1854 by forces opposed to the expansion of slavery, ex-Whigs, and ex-Free Soilers. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_30

The Republican Party quickly became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the briefly popular Know Nothing Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_31

The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_32

The Republicans called for economic and social modernization. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_33

They denounced the expansion of slavery as a great evil, but did not call for ending it in the Southern states. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_34

The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was proposed, was held on March 20, 1854 at the Little White Schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_35

The name was partly chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_36

The first official party convention was held on July 6, 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_37

At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U.S. territories. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_38

While Republican candidate John C. Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_39

The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected president. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_40

In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket; Lincoln won re-election. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_41

Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; it was ratified in December 1865. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_42

The party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_43

Those who believed that Reconstruction had been accomplished, and was continued mostly to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency in 1872 on the Liberal Republican Party line. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_44

The Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_45

The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883; the bill was signed into law by Republican President Chester A. Arthur. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_46

The Republican Party supported hard money (i.e. the gold standard), high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, and (after 1893) the annexation of Hawaii. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_47

The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for prohibition. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_48

As the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, railroads, mines, fast-growing cities, and prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_49

The GOP was usually dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System (1850s–1890s). Republican Party (United States)_sentence_50

However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_51

The high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections, even defeating McKinley himself. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_52

The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_53

The election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted (except for 1912 and 1916) until 1932. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_54

McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Panic of 1893 and that Republicans would guarantee a sort of pluralism in which all groups would benefit. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_55

The Republican Civil War era program included free homestead farms, a federally subsidized transcontinental railroad, a national banking system, a large national debt, land grants for higher education, a new national banking system, a wartime income tax and permanent high tariffs to promote industrial growth and high wages. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_56

By the 1870s, they had adopted as well a hard money system based on the gold standard and fought off efforts to promote inflation through Free Silver. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_57

They created the foundations of the modern welfare state through an extensive program of pensions for Union veterans. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_58

Foreign-policy issues were rarely a matter of partisan dispute, but briefly in the 1893–1904 period the GOP supported imperialistic expansion regarding Hawaii, the Philippines and the Panama Canal. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_59

20th century Republican Party (United States)_section_2

Further information: Fourth Party System and Progressive Era Republican Party (United States)_sentence_60

The 1896 realignment cemented the Republicans as the party of big businesses while Theodore Roosevelt added more small business support by his embrace of trust busting. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_61

He handpicked his successor William Howard Taft in 1908, but they became enemies as the party split down the middle. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_62

Taft defeated Roosevelt for the 1912 nomination and Roosevelt ran on the ticket of his new Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_63

He called for social reforms, many of which were later championed by New Deal Democrats in the 1930s. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_64

He lost and when most of his supporters returned to the GOP they found they did not agree with the new conservative economic thinking, leading to an ideological shift to the right in the Republican Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_65

The Republicans returned to the White House throughout the 1920s, running on platforms of normalcy, business-oriented efficiency and high tariffs. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_66

The national party platform avoided mention of prohibition, instead issuing a vague commitment to law and order. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_67

Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover were resoundingly elected in 1920, 1924 and 1928, respectively. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_68

The Teapot Dome scandal threatened to hurt the party, but Harding died and the opposition splintered in 1924. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_69

The pro-business policies of the decade seemed to produce an unprecedented prosperity until the Wall Street Crash of 1929 heralded the Great Depression. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_70

New Deal era Republican Party (United States)_section_3

Main articles: Old Right (United States), Fifth Party System, and History of the United States Republican Party § Fighting the New Deal Coalition: 1932–1980 Republican Party (United States)_sentence_71

The New Deal coalition of Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt controlled American politics for most of the next three decades, excluding the two-term presidency of Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_72

After Roosevelt took office in 1933, New Deal legislation sailed through Congress and the economy moved sharply upward from its nadir in early 1933. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_73

However, long-term unemployment remained a drag until 1940. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_74

In the 1934 midterm elections, 10 Republican senators went down to defeat, leaving the GOP with only 25 senators against 71 Democrats. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_75

The House of Representatives likewise had overwhelming Democratic majorities. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_76

The Republican Party factionalized into a majority "Old Right" (based in the Midwest) and a liberal wing based in the Northeast that supported much of the New Deal. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_77

The Old Right sharply attacked the "Second New Deal" and said it represented class warfare and socialism. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_78

Roosevelt was re-elected in a landslide in 1936; however, as his second term began, the economy declined, strikes soared, and he failed to take control of the Supreme Court or to purge the Southern conservatives from the Democratic Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_79

Republicans made a major comeback in the 1938 elections and had new rising stars such as Robert A. Taft of Ohio on the right and Thomas E. Dewey of New York on the left. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_80

Southern conservatives joined with most Republicans to form the conservative coalition, which dominated domestic issues in Congress until 1964. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_81

Both parties split on foreign policy issues, with the anti-war isolationists dominant in the Republican Party and the interventionists who wanted to stop Adolf Hitler dominant in the Democratic Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_82

Roosevelt won a third and fourth term in 1940 and 1944, respectively. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_83

Conservatives abolished most of the New Deal during the war, but they did not attempt to reverse Social Security or the agencies that regulated business. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_84

Historian George H. Nash argues: Republican Party (United States)_sentence_85

After 1945, the internationalist wing of the GOP cooperated with Harry S. Truman's Cold War foreign policy, funded the Marshall Plan and supported NATO, despite the continued isolationism of the Old Right. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_86

The second half of the 20th century saw the election or succession of Republican presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_87

Eisenhower had defeated conservative leader Senator Robert A. Taft for the 1952 nomination, but conservatives dominated the domestic policies of the Eisenhower administration. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_88

Voters liked Eisenhower much more than they liked the GOP and he proved unable to shift the party to a more moderate position. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_89

Since 1976, liberalism has virtually faded out of the Republican Party, apart from a few Northeastern holdouts. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_90

The presidency of Reagan, lasting from 1981 to 1989, constituted what is known as the "Reagan Revolution". Republican Party (United States)_sentence_91

It was seen as a fundamental shift from the stagflation of the 1970s before it, with the introduction of Reaganomics intended to cut taxes, prioritize government deregulation, and shift funding from the domestic sphere into the military to combat the Soviet Union by utilizing deterrence theory. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_92

A defining moment in Reagan's term of office was his speech in then-West Berlin where he demanded Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "[t]ear down this wall", referring to the Berlin Wall constructed to separate West and East Berlin. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_93

Since he left office in 1989, Reagan has been an iconic conservative Republican and Republican presidential candidates frequently claim to share his views and aim to establish themselves and their policies as the more appropriate heir to his legacy. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_94

In the Republican Revolution of 1994, the party—led by House Minority Whip Newt Gingrich, who campaigned on the "Contract with America"—won majorities in both Houses of Congress. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_95

However, as House Speaker, Gingrich was unable to deliver on many of its promises, including a balanced-budget amendment and term limits for members of Congress. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_96

During the impeachment and acquittal of President Bill Clinton, Republicans suffered surprise losses in the 1998 midterm elections. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_97

Gingrich's popularity sank to 17%; he resigned the speakership and later resigned from Congress altogether. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_98

For most of the post-World War II era, Republicans had little presence at the state legislative level. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_99

This trend began to reverse in the late 1990s, with Republicans increasing their state legislative presence and taking control of state legislatures in the South. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_100

From 2004 to 2014, the Republican State Leadership Committee (RSLC) raised over $140 million targeted to state legislature races, while the Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee (DLSC) raised less than half that during that time period. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_101

Following the 2014 midterm elections, Republicans controlled 68 of 98 partisan state legislative houses (the most in the party's history) and controlled both the executive and legislative branches of government in 24 states (Democrats had control of only seven). Republican Party (United States)_sentence_102

21st century Republican Party (United States)_section_4

A Republican ticket of George W. Bush and Dick Cheney won the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_103

With the inauguration of Bush as president, the Republican Party remained fairly cohesive for much of the 2000s as both strong economic libertarians and social conservatives opposed the Democrats, whom they saw as the party of bloated, secular, and liberal government. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_104

The Bush-era rise of what were known as "pro-government conservatives"—a core part of the President's base—meant that a considerable group of the Republicans advocated for increased government spending and greater regulations covering both the economy and people's personal lives as well as for an activist, interventionist foreign policy. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_105

Survey groups such as the Pew Research Center found that social conservatives and free market advocates remained the other two main groups within the party's coalition of support, with all three being roughly equal in number. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_106

However, libertarians and libertarian-leaning conservatives increasingly found fault with what they saw as Republicans' restricting of vital civil liberties while corporate welfare and the national debt hiked considerably under Bush's tenure. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_107

In contrast, some social conservatives expressed dissatisfaction with the party's support for economic policies that conflicted with their moral values. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_108

Bush campaigned as a "compassionate conservative" in 2000, wanting to better appeal to immigrants and minority voters. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_109

The goal was to prioritize drug rehabilitation programs and aide for prisoner reentry into society, a move intended to capitalize on President Clinton's tougher crime initiatives such as the 1994 crime bill passed under his administration. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_110

The platform failed to gain much traction among members of the party during his presidency. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_111

The Republican Party lost its Senate majority in 2001 when the Senate became split evenly; nevertheless, the Republicans maintained control of the Senate due to the tie-breaking vote of Republican Vice President Dick Cheney. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_112

Democrats gained control of the Senate on June 6, 2001, when Republican Sen. Jim Jeffords switched his party affiliation to Democrat. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_113

The Republicans regained the Senate majority in the 2002 elections. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_114

Republican majorities in the House and Senate were held until the Democrats regained control in the mid-term elections of 2006. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_115

In the presidential election of 2008, the John McCain-Sarah Palin ticket was defeated by Senators Barack Obama and Joe Biden. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_116

The Republicans experienced electoral success in the wave election of 2010, which coincided with the ascendancy of the Tea Party movement. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_117

(The Tea Party movement is an American fiscally conservative political movement. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_118

Members of the movement called for lower taxes, and for a reduction of the national debt of the United States and federal budget deficit through decreased government spending. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_119

The Tea Party movement has been described as a popular constitutional movement composed of a mixture of libertarian, right-wing populist, and conservative activism.) Republican Party (United States)_sentence_120

That success began with the upset win of Scott Brown in the Massachusetts special Senate election for a seat that had been held for decades by the Democratic Kennedy brothers. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_121

In the November elections, Republicans recaptured control of the House, increased their number of seats in the Senate and gained a majority of governorships. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_122

When Obama and Biden won re-election in 2012, defeating a Mitt Romney-Paul Ryan ticket, the Republicans lost seven seats in the House in the November congressional elections, but still retained control of that chamber. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_123

However, Republicans were not able to gain control of the Senate, continuing their minority status with a net loss of two seats. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_124

In the aftermath of the loss, some prominent Republicans spoke out against their own party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_125

A post-2012 post-mortem report by the Republican Party concluded that the party needed to do more on the national level to attract votes from minorities and young voters. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_126

In March 2013, National Committee Chairman Reince Priebus gave a stinging report on the party's electoral failures in 2012, calling on Republicans to reinvent themselves and officially endorse immigration reform. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_127

He said: "There's no one reason we lost. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_128

Our message was weak; our ground game was insufficient; we weren't inclusive; we were behind in both data and digital, and our primary and debate process needed improvement." Republican Party (United States)_sentence_129

He proposed 219 reforms that included a $10 million marketing campaign to reach women, minorities and gays as well as setting a shorter, more controlled primary season and creating better data collection facilities. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_130

A March 2013 poll found that a majority of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents under the age of 49 supported legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_131

Former House Speaker Newt Gingrich remarked that the "[p]arty is going to be torn on this issue". Republican Party (United States)_sentence_132

A Reuters/Ipsos survey from April 2015 found that 68% of Americans overall would attend the same-sex wedding of a loved one, with 56% of Republicans agreeing. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_133

Reuters journalist Jeff Mason remarked that "Republicans who stake out strong opposition to gay marriage could be on shaky political ground if their ultimate goal is to win the White House" given the divide between the social conservative stalwarts and the rest of the United States that opposes them. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_134

In 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled bans on same-sex marriage to be unconstitutional, thus legalizing same-sex marriage nationwide. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_135

In 2016, after being elected president, Republican Donald Trump stated that he was "fine" with same-sex marriage. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_136

Following the 2014 midterm elections, the Republican Party took control of the Senate by gaining nine seats. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_137

With a final total of 247 seats (57%) in the House and 54 seats in the Senate, the Republicans ultimately achieved their largest majority in the Congress since the 71st Congress in 1929. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_138

The election of Republican Donald Trump to the presidency in 2016 marked a populist shift in the Republican Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_139

Trump's defeat of Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton was unexpected, as polls had shown Clinton leading the race. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_140

Trump's victory was fueled by narrow victories in three states—Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin—that traditionally vote for Democratic presidential candidates. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_141

According to NBC News, "Trump’s power famously came from his 'silent majority'—working-class white voters who felt mocked and ignored by an establishment loosely defined by special interests in Washington, news outlets in New York and tastemakers in Hollywood. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_142

He built trust within that base by abandoning Republican establishment orthodoxy on issues like trade and government spending in favor of a broader nationalist message". Republican Party (United States)_sentence_143

After the 2016 elections, Republicans maintained a majority in the Senate, House, state governorships and wielded newly acquired executive power with the ascenion of Trump to the presidency. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_144

The Republican Party controlled 69 of 99 state legislative chambers in 2017, the most it had held in history; and at least 33 governorships, the most it had held since 1922. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_145

The party had total control of government (legislative chambers and governorship) in 25 states, the most since 1952; the opposing Democratic Party had full control in only five states. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_146

Following the results of the 2018 midterm elections, the Republicans lost control of the House yet maintained hold of the Senate. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_147

In the course of his term of office, Trump appointed three justices to the Supreme Court: Neil Gorsuch replacing Antonin Scalia, Brett Kavanaugh replacing Anthony Kennedy, and Amy Coney Barrett replacing Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_148

The most appointments of any president in a single term since fellow Republican Richard Nixon, Trump's was seen as solidifying a 6–3 conservative majority. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_149

Trump was impeached on December 18, 2019, on charges of abuse of power and obstruction of Congress. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_150

He was acquitted by the Senate on February 5, 2020. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_151

195 of the 197 Republicans within the House voted against the charges with none voting in favor, the two abstaining Republicans were due to external reasons unrelated to the impeachment itself. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_152

52 of the 53 Republicans within the Senate voted against the charges as well, successfully acquitting Trump as a result, with only Senator Mitt Romney of Utah dissenting and voting in favor of one of the charges (abuse of power) Republican Party (United States)_sentence_153

In the 2020 Elections, the Republican president Donald Trump lost the White House to Democratic challenger Joe Biden. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_154

This happened despite gaining seats in the House of Representatives and gaining the New Hampshire State Senate and New Hampshire State House. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_155

Control of the Senate currently remains unclear. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_156

Name and symbols Republican Party (United States)_section_5

The party's founding members chose the name Republican Party in the mid-1850s as homage to the values of republicanism promoted by Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_157

The idea for the name came from an editorial by the party's leading publicist, Horace Greeley, who called for "some simple name like 'Republican' [that] would more fitly designate those who had united to restore the Union to its true mission of champion and promulgator of Liberty rather than propagandist of slavery". Republican Party (United States)_sentence_158

The name reflects the 1776 republican values of civic virtue and opposition to aristocracy and corruption. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_159

It is important to note that "republican" has a variety of meanings around the world and the Republican Party has evolved such that the meanings no longer always align. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_160

The term "Grand Old Party" is a traditional nickname for the Republican Party and the abbreviation "GOP" is a commonly used designation. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_161

The term originated in 1875 in the Congressional Record, referring to the party associated with the successful military defense of the Union as "this gallant old party." Republican Party (United States)_sentence_162

The following year in an article in the Cincinnati Commercial, the term was modified to "grand old party." Republican Party (United States)_sentence_163

The first use of the abbreviation is dated 1884. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_164

The traditional mascot of the party is the elephant. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_165

A political cartoon by Thomas Nast, published in Harper's Weekly on November 7, 1874, is considered the first important use of the symbol. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_166

An alternate symbol of the Republican Party in states such as Indiana, New York and Ohio is the bald eagle as opposed to the Democratic rooster or the Democratic five-pointed star. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_167

In Kentucky, the log cabin is a symbol of the Republican Party (not related to the gay Log Cabin Republicans organization). Republican Party (United States)_sentence_168

Traditionally the party had no consistent color identity. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_169

After the 2000 election, the color red became associated with Republicans. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_170

During and after the election, the major broadcast networks used the same color scheme for the electoral map: states won by Republican nominee George W. Bush were colored red and states won by Democratic nominee Al Gore were colored blue. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_171

Due to the weeks-long dispute over the election results, these color associations became firmly ingrained, persisting in subsequent years. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_172

Although the assignment of colors to political parties is unofficial and informal, the media has come to represent the respective political parties using these colors. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_173

The party and its candidates have also come to embrace the color red. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_174

Political positions Republican Party (United States)_section_6

Main article: Political positions of the Republican Party Republican Party (United States)_sentence_175

Economic policies Republican Party (United States)_section_7

Republicans believe that free markets and individual achievement are the primary factors behind economic prosperity. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_176

Republicans frequently advocate in favor of fiscal conservatism during Democratic administrations; however, they have shown themselves willing to increase federal debt when they are in charge of the government (the implementation of the Bush tax cuts, Medicare Part D and the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 are examples of this willingness). Republican Party (United States)_sentence_177

Despite pledges to roll back government spending, Republican administrations have, since the late 1960s, sustained or increased previous levels of government spending. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_178

Modern Republicans advocate the theory of supply side economics, which holds that lower tax rates increase economic growth. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_179

Many Republicans oppose higher tax rates for higher earners, which they believe are unfairly targeted at those who create jobs and wealth. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_180

They believe private spending is more efficient than government spending. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_181

Republican lawmakers have also sought to limit funding for tax enforcement and tax collection. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_182

Republicans believe individuals should take responsibility for their own circumstances. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_183

They also believe the private sector is more effective in helping the poor through charity than the government is through welfare programs and that social assistance programs often cause government dependency. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_184

Republicans believe corporations should be able to establish their own employment practices, including benefits and wages, with the free market deciding the price of work. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_185

Since the 1920s, Republicans have generally been opposed by labor union organizations and members. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_186

At the national level, Republicans supported the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, which gives workers the right not to participate in unions. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_187

Modern Republicans at the state level generally support various right-to-work laws, which prohibit union security agreements requiring all workers in a unionized workplace to pay dues or a fair-share fee, regardless of if they are members of the union or not. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_188

Most Republicans oppose increases in the minimum wage, believing that such increases hurt businesses by forcing them to cut and outsource jobs while passing on costs to consumers. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_189

The party opposes a single-payer health care system, describing it as socialized medicine. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_190

The Republican Party has a mixed record of supporting the historically popular Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid programs. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_191

Environmental policies Republican Party (United States)_section_8

Main article: Political positions of the Republican Party § Environmental policies Republican Party (United States)_sentence_192

Historically, progressive leaders in the Republican Party supported environmental protection. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_193

Republican President Theodore Roosevelt was a prominent conservationist whose policies eventually led to the creation of the National Park Service. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_194

While Republican President Richard Nixon was not an environmentalist, he signed legislation to create the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 and had a comprehensive environmental program. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_195

However, this position has changed since the 1980s and the administration of President Ronald Reagan, who labeled environmental regulations a burden on the economy. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_196

Since then, Republicans have increasingly taken positions against environmental regulation, with some Republicans rejecting the scientific consensus on climate change. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_197

In 2006, then-California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger broke from Republican orthodoxy to sign several bills imposing caps on carbon emissions in California. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_198

Then-President George W. Bush opposed mandatory caps at a national level. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_199

Bush's decision not to regulate carbon dioxide as a pollutant was challenged in the Supreme Court by 12 states, with the court ruling against the Bush administration in 2007. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_200

Bush also publicly opposed ratification of the Kyoto Protocols which sought to limit greenhouse gas emissions and thereby combat climate change; his position was heavily criticized by climate scientists. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_201

The Republican Party rejects cap-and-trade policy to limit carbon emissions. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_202

In the 2000s, Senator John McCain proposed bills (such as the McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship Act) that would have regulated carbon emissions, but his position on climate change was unusual among high-ranking party members. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_203

Some Republican candidates have supported the development of alternative fuels in order to achieve energy independence for the United States. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_204

Some Republicans support increased oil drilling in protected areas such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a position that has drawn criticism from activists. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_205

Many Republicans during the presidency of Barack Obama opposed his administration's new environmental regulations, such as those on carbon emissions from coal. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_206

In particular, many Republicans supported building the Keystone Pipeline; this position was supported by businesses, but opposed by indigenous peoples' groups and environmental activists. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_207

According to the Center for American Progress, a non-profit liberal advocacy group, more than 55% of congressional Republicans were climate change deniers in 2014. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_208

PolitiFact in May 2014 found "relatively few Republican members of Congress ... accept the prevailing scientific conclusion that global warming is both real and man-made." Republican Party (United States)_sentence_209

The group found eight members who acknowledged it, although the group acknowledged there could be more and that not all members of Congress have taken a stance on the issue. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_210

From 2008 to 2017, the Republican Party went from "debating how to combat human-caused climate change to arguing that it does not exist", according to The New York Times. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_211

In January 2015, the Republican-led U.S. Senate voted 98–1 to pass a resolution acknowledging that "climate change is real and is not a hoax"; however, an amendment stating that "human activity significantly contributes to climate change" was supported by only five Republican senators. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_212

Immigration Republican Party (United States)_section_9

See also: Immigration to the United States and Illegal immigration to the United States Republican Party (United States)_sentence_213

In the period 1850–1870, the Republican Party was more opposed to immigration than Democrats, in part because the Republican Party relied on the support of anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant parties, such as the Know-Nothings, at the time. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_214

In the decades following the Civil War, the Republican Party grew more supportive of immigration, as it represented manufacturers in the Northeast (who wanted additional labor) whereas the Democratic Party came to be seen as the party of labor (which wanted fewer laborers to compete with). Republican Party (United States)_sentence_215

Starting in the 1970s, the parties switched places again, as the Democrats grew more supportive of immigration than Republicans. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_216

Republicans are divided on how to confront illegal immigration between a platform that allows for migrant workers and a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants (supported by establishment types), versus a position focused on securing the border and deporting illegal immigrants (supported by populists). Republican Party (United States)_sentence_217

In 2006, the White House supported and Republican-led Senate passed comprehensive immigration reform that would eventually allow millions of illegal immigrants to become citizens, but the House (also led by Republicans) did not advance the bill. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_218

After the defeat in the 2012 presidential election, particularly among Latinos, several Republicans advocated a friendlier approach to immigrants. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_219

However, in 2016 the field of candidates took a sharp position against illegal immigration, with leading candidate Donald Trump proposing building a wall along the southern border. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_220

Proposals calling for immigration reform with a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants have attracted broad Republican support in some polls. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_221

In a 2013 poll, 60% of Republicans supported the pathway concept. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_222

Foreign policy and national defense Republican Party (United States)_section_10

See also: History of foreign policy and national defense in the Republican Party Republican Party (United States)_sentence_223

Some in the Republican Party support unilateralism on issues of national security, believing in the ability and right of the United States to act without external support in matters of its national defense. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_224

In general, Republican thinking on defense and international relations is heavily influenced by the theories of neorealism and realism, characterizing conflicts between nations as struggles between faceless forces of an international structure as opposed to being the result of the ideas and actions of individual leaders. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_225

The realist school's influence shows in Reagan's Evil Empire stance on the Soviet Union and George W. Bush's Axis of evil stance. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_226

Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, many in the party have supported neoconservative policies with regard to the War on Terror, including the 2001 war in Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_227

The George W. Bush administration took the position that the Geneva Conventions do not apply to unlawful combatants, while other prominent Republicans strongly oppose the use of enhanced interrogation techniques, which they view as torture. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_228

Republicans have frequently advocated for restricting foreign aid as a means of asserting the national security and immigration interests of the United States. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_229

The Republican Party generally supports a strong alliance with Israel and efforts to secure peace in the Middle East between Israel and its Arab neighbors. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_230

In recent years, Republicans have begun to move away from the two-state solution approach to resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_231

In a 2014 poll, 59% of Republicans favored doing less abroad and focusing on the country's own problems instead. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_232

According to the 2016 platform, the party's stance on the status of Taiwan is: "We oppose any unilateral steps by either side to alter the status quo in the Taiwan Straits on the principle that all issues regarding the island's future must be resolved peacefully, through dialogue, and be agreeable to the people of Taiwan." Republican Party (United States)_sentence_233

In addition, if "China were to violate those principles, the United States, in accord with the Taiwan Relations Act, will help Taiwan defend itself". Republican Party (United States)_sentence_234

Social policies Republican Party (United States)_section_11

The Republican Party is generally associated with social conservative policies, although it does have dissenting centrist and libertarian factions. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_235

The social conservatives support laws that uphold their traditional values, such as opposition to same-sex marriage, abortion, and marijuana. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_236

Most conservative Republicans also oppose gun control, affirmative action, and illegal immigration. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_237

Abortion and embryonic stem cell research Republican Party (United States)_section_12

A majority of the party's national and state candidates are anti-abortion and oppose elective abortion on religious or moral grounds. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_238

While many advocate exceptions in the case of incest, rape or the mother's life being at risk, in 2012 the party approved a platform advocating banning abortions without exception. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_239

There were not highly polarized differences between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party prior to the Roe v. Wade 1973 Supreme Court ruling (which made prohibitions on abortion rights unconstitutional), but after the Supreme Court ruling, opposition to abortion became an increasingly key national platform for the Republican Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_240

As a result, Evangelicals gravitated towards the Republican Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_241

Most Republicans oppose government funding for abortion providers, notably Planned Parenthood. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_242

This includes support for the Hyde Amendment. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_243

Until its dissolution in 2018, Republican Majority for Choice, an abortion rights PAC, advocated for amending the GOP platform to include pro-abortion rights members. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_244

Although Republicans have voted for increases in government funding of scientific research, members of the Republican Party actively oppose the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research beyond the original lines because it involves the destruction of human embryos. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_245

Civil rights Republican Party (United States)_section_13

Republicans are generally against affirmative action for women and some minorities, often describing it as a "quota system" and believing that it is not meritocratic and that it is counter-productive socially by only further promoting discrimination. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_246

Many Republicans support race-neutral admissions policies in universities, but support taking into account the socioeconomic status of the student. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_247

Gun ownership Republican Party (United States)_section_14

Republicans generally support gun ownership rights and oppose laws regulating guns. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_248

Party members and Republican-leaning independents are twice more likely to own a gun than Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_249

The National Rifle Association, a special interest group in support of gun ownership, has consistently aligned themselves with the Republican Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_250

Following gun control measures under the Clinton administration, such as the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, the Republicans allied with the NRA during the Republican Revolution in 1994. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_251

Since then, the NRA has consistently backed Republican candidates and contributed financial support, such as in the 2013 Colorado recall election which resulted in the ousting of two pro-gun control Democrats for two anti-gun control Republicans. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_252

In contrast, George H. W. Bush, formerly a lifelong NRA member, was highly critical of the organization following their response to the Oklahoma City bombing authored by CEO Wayne LaPierre, and publicly resigned in protest. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_253

Drugs Republican Party (United States)_section_15

See also: Illegal drug trade in the United States Republican Party (United States)_sentence_254

Republicans have historically supported the War on Drugs and oppose the legalization of drugs. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_255

In recent years, the opposition to the legalization of marijuana is not as strong as it used to be, with some Republicans members of Congress advocating for decriminalization or legalization of marijuana, as well as criminal justice reform in the context of drug crimes. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_256

LGBT issues Republican Party (United States)_section_16

Republicans have historically opposed same-sex marriage, while being divided on civil unions and domestic partnerships, with the issue being one that many believe helped George W. Bush win re-election in 2004. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_257

In both 2004 and 2006, President Bush, Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist, and House Majority Leader John Boehner promoted the Federal Marriage Amendment, a proposed constitutional amendment which would legally restrict the definition of marriage to heterosexual couples. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_258

In both attempts, the amendment failed to secure enough votes to invoke cloture and thus ultimately was never passed. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_259

As more states legalized same-sex marriage in the 2010s, Republicans increasingly supported allowing each state to decide its own marriage policy. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_260

As of 2014, most state GOP platforms expressed opposition to same-sex marriage. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_261

The 2016 GOP Platform defined marriage as "natural marriage, the union of one man and one woman," and condemned the Supreme Court's ruling legalizing same-sex marriages. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_262

The 2020 platform retained the 2016 language against same-sex marriage. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_263

However, public opinion on this issue within the party has been changing. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_264

Following his election as president in 2016, Donald Trump stated that he had no objection to same-sex marriage or to the Supreme Court decision in Obergefell v. Hodges. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_265

In office, Trump was the first sitting Republican president to recognize LGBT Pride Month. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_266

Conversely, the Trump administration banned transgender individuals from service in the United States military and rolled back other protections for transgender people which had been enacted during the previous Democratic presidency. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_267

The Republican Party platform previously opposed the inclusion of gay people in the military and opposed adding sexual orientation to the list of protected classes since 1992. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_268

The Republican Party opposed the inclusion of sexual preference in anti-discrimination statutes from 1992 to 2004. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_269

The 2008 and 2012 Republican Party platform supported anti-discrimination statutes based on sex, race, age, religion, creed, disability, or national origin, but both platforms were silent on sexual orientation and gender identity. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_270

The 2016 platform was opposed to sex discrimination statutes that included the phrase "sexual orientation." Republican Party (United States)_sentence_271

The Log Cabin Republicans is a group within the Republican Party that represents LGBT conservatives & allies and advocates for LGBT rights and equality. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_272

Voting rights Republican Party (United States)_section_17

Virtually all restrictions on voting have in recent years been implemented by Republicans. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_273

Republicans, mainly at the state level, argue that the restrictions (such as purging voter rolls, limiting voting locations, and prosecuting double voting) are vital to prevent voter fraud, claiming that voter fraud is an underestimated issue in elections. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_274

However, research has indicated that voter fraud is very uncommon, as civil and voting rights organizations often accuse Republicans of enacting restrictions to influence elections in the party's favor. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_275

Many laws or regulations restricting voting enacted by Republicans have been successfully challenged in court, with court rulings striking down such regulations and accusing Republicans of establishing them with partisan purpose. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_276

Democracy Republican Party (United States)_section_18

Towards the end of the 1990s and in the early 21st century, the Republican Party increasingly resorted to "constitutional hardball" practices. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_277

A number of scholars have asserted that the House speakership of Republican Newt Gingrich played a key role in undermining democratic norms in the United States, hastening political polarization, and increasing partisan prejudice. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_278

According to Harvard University political scientists Daniel Ziblatt and Steven Levitsky, Gingrich's speakership had a profound and lasting impact on American politics and the health of American democracy. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_279

They argue that Gingrich instilled a "combative" approach in the Republican Party, where hateful language and hyper-partisanship became commonplace, and where democratic norms were abandoned. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_280

Gingrich frequently questioned the patriotism of Democrats, called them corrupt, compared them to fascists, and accused them of wanting to destroy the United States. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_281

Gingrich was also involved in several major government shutdowns. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_282

Scholars have also characterized Mitch McConnell's tenure as Senate Minority Leader and Senate Majority Leader during the Obama presidency as one where obstructionism reached all-time highs. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_283

Political scientists have referred to McConnell's use of the filibuster as "constitutional hardball", referring to the misuse of procedural tools in a way that undermines democracy. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_284

McConnell delayed and obstructed health care reform and banking reform, which were two landmark pieces of legislation that Democrats sought to pass (and in fact did pass) early in Obama's tenure. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_285

By delaying Democratic priority legislation, McConnell stymied the output of Congress. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_286

Political scientists Eric Schickler and Gregory J. Wawro write, "by slowing action even on measures supported by many Republicans, McConnell capitalized on the scarcity of floor time, forcing Democratic leaders into difficult trade-offs concerning which measures were worth pursuing. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_287

That is, given that Democrats had just two years with sizeable majorities to enact as much of their agenda as possible, slowing the Senate's ability to process even routine measures limited the sheer volume of liberal bills that could be adopted." Republican Party (United States)_sentence_288

McConnell's refusal to hold hearings on Supreme Court nominee Merrick Garland during the final year of Obama's presidency was described by political scientists and legal scholars as "unprecedented", a "culmination of this confrontational style", a "blatant abuse of constitutional norms", and a "classic example of constitutional hardball." Republican Party (United States)_sentence_289

Senate Republicans justified this move by pointing to a 1992 speech from then-Senate Judiciary Committee Chair Joe Biden; in that speech, Biden argued that hearings on any potential Supreme Court nominee that year should be postponed until after Election Day. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_290

Biden contested this interpretation of his 1992 speech. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_291

Democrats were further angered when McConnell seemed to switch his position in the later confirmation case of Amy Coney Barrett, who Senate Republicans confirmed on the basis that they had control of both the presidency and Senate at the time. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_292

After the US Presidential Election 2020 was declared for Biden, President Donald Trump's refusal to concede and demands of Republican state legislatures and officials to ignore the popular vote of the states was described as "unparalleled" in American history and "profoundly antidemocratic". Republican Party (United States)_sentence_293

Composition Republican Party (United States)_section_19

In the Party's early decades, its base consisted of Northern white Protestants and African Americans nationwide. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_294

Its first presidential candidate, John C. Frémont, received almost no votes in the South. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_295

This trend continued into the 20th century. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_296

Following the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Southern states became more reliably Republican in presidential politics, while Northeastern states became more reliably Democratic. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_297

Studies show that Southern whites shifted to the Republican Party due to racial conservatism. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_298

While scholars agree that a racial backlash played a central role in the racial realignment of the two parties, there is a dispute as to the extent in which the racial realignment was a top-driven elite process or a bottom-up process. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_299

The "Southern Strategy" refers primarily to "top-down" narratives of the political realignment of the South which suggest that Republican leaders consciously appealed to many white Southerners' racial grievances in order to gain their support. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_300

This top-down narrative of the Southern Strategy is generally believed to be the primary force that transformed Southern politics following the civil rights era. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_301

Scholar Matthew Lassiter argues that "demographic change played a more important role than racial demagoguery in the emergence of a two-party system in the American South". Republican Party (United States)_sentence_302

Historians such as Matthew Lassiter, Kevin M. Kruse and Joseph Crespino, have presented an alternative, "bottom-up" narrative, which Lassiter has called the "suburban strategy." Republican Party (United States)_sentence_303

This narrative recognizes the centrality of racial backlash to the political realignment of the South, but suggests that this backlash took the form of a defense of de facto segregation in the suburbs rather than overt resistance to racial integration and that the story of this backlash is a national rather than a strictly Southern one. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_304

The Party's 21st-century base consists of groups such as older white men; white, married Protestants; rural residents; and non-union workers without college degrees, with urban residents, ethnic minorities, the unmarried and union workers having shifted to the Democratic Party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_305

The suburbs have become a major battleground. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_306

According to a 2015 Gallup poll, 25% of Americans identify as Republican and 16% identify as leaning Republican. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_307

In comparison, 30% identify as Democratic and 16% identify as leaning Democratic. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_308

The Democratic Party has typically held an overall edge in party identification since Gallup began polling on the issue in 1991. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_309

In 2016, The New York Times noted that the Republican Party was strong in the South, the Great Plains, and the Mountain States. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_310

The 21st century Republican Party also draws strength from rural areas of the United States. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_311

Ideology and factions Republican Party (United States)_section_20

Main article: Factions in the Republican Party (United States) Republican Party (United States)_sentence_312

In 2018, Gallup polling found that 69% of Republicans described themselves as "conservative", while 25% opted for the term "moderate", and another 5% self-identified as "liberal". Republican Party (United States)_sentence_313

When ideology is separated into social and economic issues, a 2020 Gallup poll found that 61% of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents called themselves "socially conservative", 28% chose the label "socially moderate", and 10% called themselves "socially liberal". Republican Party (United States)_sentence_314

On economic issues, the same 2020 poll revealed that 65% of Republicans (and Republican leaners) chose the label "economic conservative" to describe their views on fiscal policy, while 26% selected the label "economic moderate", and 7% opted for the "economic liberal" label. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_315

The modern Republican Party includes conservatives, centrists, fiscal conservatives, libertarians, neoconservatives, paleoconservatives, right-wing populists, and social conservatives. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_316

In addition to splits over ideology, the 21st-century Republican Party can be broadly divided into establishment and anti-establishment wings. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_317

Nationwide polls of Republican voters in 2014 by the Pew Center identified a growing split in the Republican coalition, between "business conservatives" or "establishment conservatives" on one side and "steadfast conservatives" or "populist conservatives" on the other. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_318

Talk radio Republican Party (United States)_section_21

In the 21st century, conservatives on talk radio and Fox News, as well as online media outlets such as the Daily Caller and Breitbart News, became a powerful influence on shaping the information received and judgments made by rank-and-file Republicans. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_319

They include Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity, Larry Elder, Glenn Beck, Mark Levin, Dana Loesch, Hugh Hewitt, Mike Gallagher, Neal Boortz, Laura Ingraham, Dennis Prager, Michael Reagan, Howie Carr and Michael Savage, as well as many local commentators who support Republican causes while vocally opposing the left. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_320

Vice President Mike Pence also had an early career in conservative talk radio, hosting The Mike Pence Show in the late 1990s before successfully running for Congress in 2000. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_321

Business community Republican Party (United States)_section_22

The Republican Party has traditionally been a pro-business party. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_322

It garners major support from a wide variety of industries from the financial sector to small businesses. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_323

Republicans are about 50 percent more likely to be self-employed and are more likely to work in management. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_324

A survey cited by The Washington Post in 2012 stated that 61 percent of small business owners planned to vote for Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_325

Small business became a major theme of the 2012 Republican National Convention. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_326

Demographics Republican Party (United States)_section_23

In 2006, Republicans won 38% of the voters aged 18–29. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_327

In a 2018 study, members of the Silent and Boomer generations were more likely to express approval of Trump's presidency than those of Generation X and Millennials. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_328

Low-income voters are more likely to identify as Democrats while high-income voters are more likely to identify as Republicans. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_329

In 2012, Obama won 60% of voters with income under $50,000 and 45% of those with incomes higher than that. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_330

Bush won 41% of the poorest 20% of voters in 2004, 55% of the richest twenty percent and 53% of those in between. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_331

In the 2006 House races, the voters with incomes over $50,000 were 49% Republican while those with incomes under that amount were 38% Republican. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_332

Gender Republican Party (United States)_section_24

Since 1980, a "gender gap" has seen stronger support for the Republican Party among men than among women. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_333

Unmarried and divorced women were far more likely to vote for Democrat John Kerry than for Republican George W. Bush in the 2004 presidential election. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_334

In 2006 House races, 43% of women voted Republican while 47% of men did so. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_335

In the 2010 midterms, the "gender gap" was reduced, with women supporting Republican and Democratic candidates equally (49%-49%). Republican Party (United States)_sentence_336

Exit polls from the 2012 elections revealed a continued weakness among unmarried women for the GOP, a large and growing portion of the electorate. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_337

Although women supported Obama over Mitt Romney by a margin of 55–44% in 2012, Romney prevailed amongst married women, 53–46%. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_338

Obama won unmarried women 67–31%. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_339

According to a December 2019 study, "white women are the only group of female voters who support Republican Party candidates for president. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_340

They have done so by a majority in all but 2 of the last 18 elections". Republican Party (United States)_sentence_341

Education Republican Party (United States)_section_25

In 2012, the Pew Research Center conducted a study of registered voters with a 35–28, Democrat-to-Republican gap. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_342

They found that self-described Democrats had a +8 advantage over Republicans among college graduates, +14 of all post-graduates polled. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_343

Republicans were +11 among white men with college degrees, Democrats +10 among women with degrees. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_344

Democrats accounted for 36% of all respondents with an education of high school or less and Republicans were 28%. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_345

When isolating just white registered voters polled, Republicans had a +6 advantage overall and were +9 of those with a high school education or less. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_346

Following the 2016 presidential election, exit polls indicated that "Donald Trump attracted a large share of the vote from whites without a college degree, receiving 72 percent of the white non-college male vote and 62 percent of the white non-college female vote." Republican Party (United States)_sentence_347

Overall, 52% of voters with college degrees voted for Hillary Clinton in 2016, while 52% of voters without college degrees voted for Trump. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_348

Ethnicity Republican Party (United States)_section_26

Republicans have been winning under 15% of the black vote in recent national elections (1980 to 2016). Republican Party (United States)_sentence_349

The party abolished slavery under Abraham Lincoln, defeated the Slave Power, and gave blacks the legal right to vote during Reconstruction in the late 1860s. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_350

Until the New Deal of the 1930s, blacks supported the Republican Party by large margins. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_351

Black delegates were a sizable share of Southern delegates to the national Republican convention from Reconstruction until the start of the 20th century when their share began to decline. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_352

Black voters began shifting away from the Republican Party after the close of Reconstruction through the early 20th century, with the rise of the southern-Republican lily-white movement. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_353

Blacks shifted in large margins to the Democratic Party in the 1930s, when major Democratic figures such as Eleanor Roosevelt began to support civil rights and the New Deal offered them employment opportunities. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_354

They became one of the core components of the New Deal coalition. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_355

In the South, after the Voting Rights Act to prohibit racial discrimination in elections was passed by a bipartisan coalition in 1965, blacks were able to vote again and ever since have formed a significant portion (20–50%) of the Democratic vote in that region. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_356

In the 2010 elections, two African-American Republicans—Tim Scott and Allen West—were elected to the House of Representatives. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_357

In recent decades, Republicans have been moderately successful in gaining support from Hispanic and Asian American voters. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_358

George W. Bush, who campaigned energetically for Hispanic votes, received 35% of their vote in 2000 and 44% in 2004. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_359

The party's strong anti-communist stance has made it popular among some minority groups from current and former Communist states, in particular Cuban Americans, Korean Americans, Chinese Americans and Vietnamese Americans. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_360

The 2007 election of Bobby Jindal as Governor of Louisiana was hailed as pathbreaking. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_361

Jindal became the first elected minority governor in Louisiana and the first state governor of Indian descent. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_362

According to John Avlon, in 2013, the Republican party was more ethnically diverse at the statewide elected official level than the Democratic Party was; GOP statewide elected officials included Latino Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval and African-American U.S. senator Tim Scott of South Carolina. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_363

In 2012, 88% of Romney voters were white while 56% of Obama voters were white. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_364

In the 2008 presidential election, John McCain won 55% of white votes, 35% of Asian votes, 31% of Hispanic votes and 4% of African American votes. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_365

In the 2010 House election, Republicans won 60% of the white votes, 38% of Hispanic votes and 9% of the African American vote. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_366

As of 2020, Republican candidates had lost the popular vote in seven out of the last eight presidential elections. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_367

Since 1992, the only time they won the popular vote in a presidential election is the 2004 United States presidential election. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_368

Demographers have pointed to the steady decline (as a percentage of the eligible voters) of its core base of older, less educated men. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_369

Religious beliefs Republican Party (United States)_section_27

Religion has always played a major role for both parties, but in the course of a century, the parties' religious compositions have changed. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_370

Religion was a major dividing line between the parties before 1960, with Catholics, Jews, and Southern Protestants heavily Democratic and Northeastern Protestants heavily Republican. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_371

Most of the old differences faded away after the realignment of the 1970s and 1980s that undercut the New Deal coalition. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_372

Voters who attend church weekly gave 61% of their votes to Bush in 2004 and those who attend occasionally gave him only 47% while those who never attend gave him 36%. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_373

Fifty-nine percent of Protestants voted for Bush, along with 52% of Catholics (even though John Kerry was Catholic). Republican Party (United States)_sentence_374

Since 1980, a large majority of evangelicals have voted Republican; 70–80% voted for Bush in 2000 and 2004 and 70% for Republican House candidates in 2006. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_375

Jews continue to vote 70–80% Democratic. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_376

Democrats have close links with the African American churches, especially the National Baptists, while their historic dominance among Catholic voters has eroded to 54–46 in the 2010 midterms. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_377

The mainline traditional Protestants (Methodists, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Episcopalians and Disciples) have dropped to about 55% Republican (in contrast to 75% before 1968). Republican Party (United States)_sentence_378

Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in Utah and neighboring states voted 75% or more for George W. Bush in 2000. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_379

Members of the Mormon faith had a mixed relationship with Donald Trump during his tenure, despite them majorly voting for him in 2016 at 67% and supporting his presidency in 2018 at 56%, disapproving of his personal behavior such as that shown during the Access Hollywood controversy. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_380

Their opinion on Trump hadn't affected their party affiliation, however, as 76% of Mormons in 2018 expressed preference for generic Republican congressional candidates. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_381

While Catholic Republican leaders try to stay in line with the teachings of the Catholic Church on subjects such as abortion, euthanasia, embryonic stem cell research and same-sex marriage, they differ on the death penalty and contraception. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_382

Pope Francis' 2015 encyclical Laudato si' sparked a discussion on the positions of Catholic Republicans in relation to the positions of the Church. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_383

The Pope's encyclical on behalf of the Catholic Church officially acknowledges a man-made climate change caused by burning fossil fuels. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_384

The Pope says the warming of the planet is rooted in a throwaway culture and the developed world's indifference to the destruction of the planet in pursuit of short-term economic gains. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_385

According to The New York Times, Laudato si' put pressure on the Catholic candidates in the 2016 election: Jeb Bush, Bobby Jindal, Marco Rubio and Rick Santorum. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_386

With leading Democrats praising the encyclical, James Bretzke, a professor of moral theology at Boston College, has said that both sides were being disingenuous: "I think it shows that both the Republicans and the Democrats ... like to use religious authority and, in this case, the Pope to support positions they have arrived at independently ... Republican Party (United States)_sentence_387

There is a certain insincerity, hypocrisy I think, on both sides". Republican Party (United States)_sentence_388

While a Pew Research poll indicates Catholics are more likely to believe the Earth is warming than non-Catholics, 51% of Catholic Republicans believe in global warming (less than the general population) and only 24% of Catholic Republicans believe global warming is caused by human activity. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_389

In 2016, a slim majority of Orthodox Jews voted for the Republican Party, following years of growing Orthodox Jewish support for the party due to its social conservatism and increasingly pro-Israel foreign policy stance. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_390

An exit poll conducted by the Associated Press for 2020 found 35% of Muslims voted for Donald Trump. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_391

Republican presidents Republican Party (United States)_section_28

As of 2020, there have been a total of 19 Republican presidents. Republican Party (United States)_sentence_392

Republican Party (United States)_table_general_1

#Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_1_0_0 PresidentRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_1_0_1 PortraitRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_1_0_2 StateRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_1_0_3 Presidency

start dateRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_1_0_4

Presidency

end dateRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_1_0_5

Time in officeRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_1_0_6
16Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_1_0 Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_1_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_1_2 IllinoisRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_1_3 March 4, 1861Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_1_4 April 15, 1865Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_1_5 4 years, 42 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_1_6
18Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_2_0 Ulysses S. Grant (1822–1885)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_2_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_2_2 IllinoisRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_2_3 March 4, 1869Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_2_4 March 4, 1877Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_2_5 8 years, 0 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_2_6
19Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_3_0 Rutherford B. Hayes (1822–1893)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_3_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_3_2 OhioRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_3_3 March 4, 1877Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_3_4 March 4, 1881Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_3_5 4 years, 0 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_3_6
20Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_4_0 James A. Garfield (1831–1881)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_4_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_4_2 OhioRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_4_3 March 4, 1881Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_4_4 September 19, 1881Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_4_5 199 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_4_6
21Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_5_0 Chester A. Arthur (1829–1886)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_5_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_5_2 New YorkRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_5_3 September 19, 1881Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_5_4 March 4, 1885Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_5_5 3 years, 166 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_5_6
23Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_6_0 Benjamin Harrison (1833–1901)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_6_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_6_2 IndianaRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_6_3 March 4, 1889Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_6_4 March 4, 1893Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_6_5 4 years, 0 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_6_6
25Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_7_0 William McKinley (1843–1901)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_7_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_7_2 OhioRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_7_3 March 4, 1897Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_7_4 September 14, 1901Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_7_5 4 years, 194 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_7_6
26Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_8_0 Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_8_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_8_2 New YorkRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_8_3 September 14, 1901Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_8_4 March 4, 1909Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_8_5 7 years, 171 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_8_6
27Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_9_0 William Howard Taft (1857–1930)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_9_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_9_2 OhioRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_9_3 March 4, 1909Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_9_4 March 4, 1913Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_9_5 4 years, 0 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_9_6
29Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_10_0 Warren G. Harding (1865–1923)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_10_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_10_2 OhioRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_10_3 March 4, 1921Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_10_4 August 2, 1923Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_10_5 2 years, 151 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_10_6
30Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_11_0 Calvin Coolidge (1872–1933)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_11_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_11_2 MassachusettsRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_11_3 August 2, 1923Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_11_4 March 4, 1929Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_11_5 5 years, 214 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_11_6
31Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_12_0 Herbert Hoover (1874–1964)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_12_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_12_2 CaliforniaRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_12_3 March 4, 1929Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_12_4 March 4, 1933Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_12_5 4 years, 0 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_12_6
34Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_13_0 Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890–1969)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_13_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_13_2 KansasRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_13_3 January 20, 1953Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_13_4 January 20, 1961Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_13_5 8 years, 0 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_13_6
37Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_14_0 Richard Nixon (1913–1994)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_14_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_14_2 CaliforniaRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_14_3 January 20, 1969Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_14_4 August 9, 1974Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_14_5 5 years, 201 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_14_6
38Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_15_0 Gerald Ford (1913–2006)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_15_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_15_2 MichiganRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_15_3 August 9, 1974Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_15_4 January 20, 1977Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_15_5 2 years, 164 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_15_6
40Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_16_0 Ronald Reagan (1911–2004)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_16_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_16_2 CaliforniaRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_16_3 January 20, 1981Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_16_4 January 20, 1989Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_16_5 8 years, 0 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_16_6
41Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_17_0 George H. W. Bush (1924–2018)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_17_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_17_2 TexasRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_17_3 January 20, 1989Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_17_4 January 20, 1993Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_17_5 4 years, 0 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_17_6
43Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_18_0 George W. Bush (born 1946)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_18_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_18_2 TexasRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_18_3 January 20, 2001Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_18_4 January 20, 2009Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_18_5 8 years, 0 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_18_6
45Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_19_0 Donald Trump (born 1946)Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_19_1 Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_19_2 New YorkRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_19_3 January 20, 2017Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_19_4 January 20, 2021Republican Party (United States)_cell_1_19_5 3 years, 328 daysRepublican Party (United States)_cell_1_19_6

Electoral history Republican Party (United States)_section_29

In congressional elections: 1950–present Republican Party (United States)_section_30

See also: Party divisions of United States Congresses Republican Party (United States)_sentence_393

Republican Party (United States)_table_general_2

United States Congressional ElectionsRepublican Party (United States)_table_caption_2
House Election yearRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_0_0 No. of

overall House seats wonRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_0_1

+/–Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_0_2 PresidencyRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_0_3 No. of

overall Senate seats wonRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_0_4

+/–Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_0_5 Senate Election yearRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_0_6
1950Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_1_0 199 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_1_1 28Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_1_2 Harry S. TrumanRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_1_3 47 / 96Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_1_4 5Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_1_5 1950Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_1_6
1952Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_2_0 221 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_2_1 22Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_2_2 Dwight D. EisenhowerRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_2_3 49 / 96Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_2_4 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_2_5 1952Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_2_6
1954Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_3_0 203 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_3_1 18Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_3_2 47 / 96Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_3_3 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_3_4 1954Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_3_5
1956Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_4_0 201 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_4_1 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_4_2 47 / 96Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_4_3 0Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_4_4 1956Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_4_5
1958Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_5_0 153 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_5_1 48Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_5_2 34 / 98Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_5_3 13Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_5_4 1958Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_5_5
1960Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_6_0 175 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_6_1 22Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_6_2 John F. KennedyRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_6_3 35 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_6_4 1Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_6_5 1960Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_6_6
1962Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_7_0 176 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_7_1 1Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_7_2 34 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_7_3 3Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_7_4 1962Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_7_5
1964Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_8_0 140 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_8_1 36Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_8_2 Lyndon B. JohnsonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_8_3 32 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_8_4 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_8_5 1964Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_8_6
1966Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_9_0 187 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_9_1 47Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_9_2 38 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_9_3 3Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_9_4 1966Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_9_5
1968Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_10_0 192 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_10_1 5Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_10_2 Richard NixonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_10_3 42 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_10_4 5Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_10_5 1968Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_10_6
1970Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_11_0 180 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_11_1 12Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_11_2 44 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_11_3 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_11_4 1970Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_11_5
1972Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_12_0 192 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_12_1 12Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_12_2 41 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_12_3 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_12_4 1972Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_12_5
1974Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_13_0 144 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_13_1 48Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_13_2 Gerald FordRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_13_3 38 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_13_4 3Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_13_5 1974Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_13_6
1976Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_14_0 143 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_14_1 1Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_14_2 Jimmy CarterRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_14_3 38 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_14_4 1Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_14_5 1976Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_14_6
1978Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_15_0 158 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_15_1 15Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_15_2 41 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_15_3 3Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_15_4 1978Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_15_5
1980Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_16_0 192 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_16_1 34Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_16_2 Ronald ReaganRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_16_3 53 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_16_4 12Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_16_5 1980Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_16_6
1982Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_17_0 166 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_17_1 26Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_17_2 54 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_17_3 0Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_17_4 1982Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_17_5
1984Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_18_0 182 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_18_1 16Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_18_2 53 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_18_3 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_18_4 1984Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_18_5
1986Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_19_0 177 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_19_1 5Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_19_2 45 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_19_3 8Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_19_4 1986Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_19_5
1988Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_20_0 175 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_20_1 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_20_2 George H. W. BushRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_20_3 45 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_20_4 1Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_20_5 1988Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_20_6
1990Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_21_0 167 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_21_1 8Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_21_2 44 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_21_3 1Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_21_4 1990Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_21_5
1992Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_22_0 176 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_22_1 9Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_22_2 Bill ClintonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_22_3 43 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_22_4 0Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_22_5 1992Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_22_6
1994Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_23_0 230 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_23_1 54Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_23_2 53 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_23_3 8Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_23_4 1994Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_23_5
1996Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_24_0 227 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_24_1 3Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_24_2 55 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_24_3 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_24_4 1996Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_24_5
1998Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_25_0 223 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_25_1 4Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_25_2 55 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_25_3 0Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_25_4 1998Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_25_5
2000Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_26_0 221 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_26_1 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_26_2 George W. BushRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_26_3 50 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_26_4 4Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_26_5 2000Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_26_6
2002Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_27_0 229 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_27_1 8Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_27_2 51 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_27_3 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_27_4 2002Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_27_5
2004Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_28_0 232 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_28_1 3Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_28_2 55 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_28_3 4Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_28_4 2004Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_28_5
2006Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_29_0 202 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_29_1 30Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_29_2 49 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_29_3 6Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_29_4 2006Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_29_5
2008Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_30_0 178 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_30_1 21Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_30_2 Barack ObamaRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_30_3 41 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_30_4 8Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_30_5 2008Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_30_6
2010Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_31_0 242 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_31_1 63Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_31_2 47 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_31_3 6Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_31_4 2010Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_31_5
2012Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_32_0 234 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_32_1 8Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_32_2 45 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_32_3 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_32_4 2012Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_32_5
2014Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_33_0 247 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_33_1 13Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_33_2 54 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_33_3 9Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_33_4 2014Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_33_5
2016Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_34_0 241 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_34_1 6Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_34_2 Donald TrumpRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_34_3 52 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_34_4 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_34_5 2016Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_34_6
2018Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_35_0 200 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_35_1 41Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_35_2 53 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_35_3 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_35_4 2018Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_35_5
2020Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_36_0 213 / 435Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_36_1 TBDRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_36_2 Joe BidenRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_36_3 50 / 100Republican Party (United States)_cell_2_36_4 TBDRepublican Party (United States)_cell_2_36_5 2020Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_2_36_6

In presidential elections: 1856–present Republican Party (United States)_section_31

See also: List of United States Republican Party presidential tickets Republican Party (United States)_sentence_394

Republican Party (United States)_table_general_3

ElectionRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_3_0_0 CandidateRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_3_0_1 VotesRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_3_0_2 Vote %Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_3_0_3 Electoral votesRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_3_0_4 +/–Republican Party (United States)_header_cell_3_0_5 ResultRepublican Party (United States)_header_cell_3_0_6
1856Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_1_0 John C. FrémontRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_1_1 1,342,345Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_1_2 33.1Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_1_3 114 / 296Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_1_4 114Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_1_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_1_6
1860Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_2_0 Abraham LincolnRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_2_1 1,865,908Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_2_2 39.8Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_2_3 180 / 303Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_2_4 66Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_2_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_2_6
1864Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_3_0 Abraham LincolnRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_3_1 2,218,388Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_3_2 55.0Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_3_3 212 / 233Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_3_4 32Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_3_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_3_6
1868Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_4_0 Ulysses S. GrantRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_4_1 3,013,421Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_4_2 52.7Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_4_3 214 / 294Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_4_4 2Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_4_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_4_6
1872Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_5_0 Ulysses S. GrantRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_5_1 3,598,235Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_5_2 55.6Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_5_3 286 / 352Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_5_4 72Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_5_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_5_6
1876Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_6_0 Rutherford B. HayesRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_6_1 4,034,311Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_6_2 47.9Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_6_3 185 / 369Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_6_4 134Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_6_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_6_6
1880Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_7_0 James A. GarfieldRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_7_1 4,446,158Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_7_2 48.3Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_7_3 214 / 369Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_7_4 29Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_7_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_7_6
1884Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_8_0 James G. BlaineRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_8_1 4,856,905Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_8_2 48.3Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_8_3 182 / 401Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_8_4 32Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_8_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_8_6
1888Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_9_0 Benjamin HarrisonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_9_1 5,443,892Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_9_2 47.8Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_9_3 233 / 401Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_9_4 51Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_9_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_9_6
1892Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_10_0 Benjamin HarrisonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_10_1 5,176,108Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_10_2 43.0Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_10_3 145 / 444Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_10_4 88Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_10_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_10_6
1896Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_11_0 William McKinleyRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_11_1 7,111,607Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_11_2 51.0Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_11_3 271 / 447Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_11_4 126Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_11_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_11_6
1900Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_12_0 William McKinleyRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_12_1 7,228,864Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_12_2 51.6Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_12_3 292 / 447Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_12_4 21Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_12_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_12_6
1904Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_13_0 Theodore RooseveltRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_13_1 7,630,457Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_13_2 56.4Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_13_3 336 / 476Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_13_4 44Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_13_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_13_6
1908Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_14_0 William Howard TaftRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_14_1 7,678,395Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_14_2 51.6Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_14_3 321 / 483Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_14_4 15Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_14_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_14_6
1912Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_15_0 William Howard TaftRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_15_1 3,486,242Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_15_2 23.2Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_15_3 8 / 531Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_15_4 313Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_15_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_15_6
1916Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_16_0 Charles E. HughesRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_16_1 8,548,728Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_16_2 46.1Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_16_3 254 / 531Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_16_4 246Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_16_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_16_6
1920Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_17_0 Warren G. HardingRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_17_1 16,144,093Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_17_2 60.3Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_17_3 404 / 531Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_17_4 150Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_17_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_17_6
1924Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_18_0 Calvin CoolidgeRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_18_1 15,723,789Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_18_2 54.0Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_18_3 382 / 531Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_18_4 22Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_18_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_18_6
1928Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_19_0 Herbert HooverRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_19_1 21,427,123Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_19_2 58.2Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_19_3 444 / 531Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_19_4 62Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_19_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_19_6
1932Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_20_0 Herbert HooverRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_20_1 15,761,254Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_20_2 39.7Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_20_3 59 / 531Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_20_4 385Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_20_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_20_6
1936Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_21_0 Alf LandonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_21_1 16,679,543Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_21_2 36.5Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_21_3 8 / 531Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_21_4 51Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_21_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_21_6
1940Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_22_0 Wendell WillkieRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_22_1 22,347,744Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_22_2 44.8Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_22_3 82 / 531Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_22_4 74Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_22_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_22_6
1944Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_23_0 Thomas E. DeweyRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_23_1 22,017,929Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_23_2 45.9Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_23_3 99 / 531Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_23_4 17Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_23_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_23_6
1948Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_24_0 Thomas E. DeweyRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_24_1 21,991,292Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_24_2 45.1Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_24_3 189 / 531Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_24_4 90Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_24_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_24_6
1952Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_25_0 Dwight D. EisenhowerRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_25_1 34,075,529Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_25_2 55.2Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_25_3 442 / 531Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_25_4 253Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_25_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_25_6
1956Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_26_0 Dwight D. EisenhowerRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_26_1 35,579,180Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_26_2 57.4Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_26_3 457 / 531Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_26_4 15Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_26_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_26_6
1960Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_27_0 Richard NixonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_27_1 34,108,157Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_27_2 49.6Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_27_3 219 / 537Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_27_4 238Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_27_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_27_6
1964Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_28_0 Barry GoldwaterRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_28_1 27,175,754Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_28_2 38.5Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_28_3 52 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_28_4 167Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_28_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_28_6
1968Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_29_0 Richard NixonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_29_1 31,783,783Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_29_2 43.4Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_29_3 301 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_29_4 249Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_29_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_29_6
1972Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_30_0 Richard NixonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_30_1 47,168,710Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_30_2 60.7Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_30_3 520 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_30_4 219Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_30_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_30_6
1976Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_31_0 Gerald FordRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_31_1 38,148,634Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_31_2 48.0Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_31_3 240 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_31_4 280Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_31_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_31_6
1980Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_32_0 Ronald ReaganRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_32_1 43,903,230Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_32_2 50.7Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_32_3 489 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_32_4 249Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_32_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_32_6
1984Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_33_0 Ronald ReaganRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_33_1 54,455,472Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_33_2 58.8Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_33_3 525 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_33_4 36Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_33_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_33_6
1988Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_34_0 George H. W. BushRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_34_1 48,886,097Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_34_2 53.4Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_34_3 426 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_34_4 99Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_34_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_34_6
1992Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_35_0 George H. W. BushRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_35_1 39,104,550Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_35_2 37.4Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_35_3 168 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_35_4 258Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_35_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_35_6
1996Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_36_0 Bob DoleRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_36_1 39,197,469Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_36_2 40.7Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_36_3 159 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_36_4 9Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_36_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_36_6
2000Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_37_0 George W. BushRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_37_1 50,456,002Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_37_2 47.9Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_37_3 271 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_37_4 112Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_37_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_37_6
2004Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_38_0 George W. BushRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_38_1 62,040,610Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_38_2 50.7Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_38_3 286 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_38_4 15Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_38_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_38_6
2008Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_39_0 John McCainRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_39_1 59,948,323Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_39_2 45.7Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_39_3 173 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_39_4 113Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_39_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_39_6
2012Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_40_0 Mitt RomneyRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_40_1 60,933,500Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_40_2 47.2Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_40_3 206 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_40_4 33Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_40_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_40_6
2016Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_41_0 Donald TrumpRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_41_1 62,984,825Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_41_2 46.1Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_41_3 304 / 538Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_41_4 98Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_41_5 WonRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_41_6
2020Republican Party (United States)_cell_3_42_0 Donald TrumpRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_42_1 TBARepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_42_2 TBARepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_42_3 TBARepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_42_4 TBARepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_42_5 LostRepublican Party (United States)_cell_3_42_6

Groups supporting the Republican Party Republican Party (United States)_section_32

Republican Party (United States)_unordered_list_0

See also Republican Party (United States)_section_33

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republican Party (United States).