Revised Romanization of Korean

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"Revised Romanization" redirects here. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_0

For other uses, see Revised Romanization of Hangeul. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_1

The Revised Romanization of Korean (국어의 로마자 표기법; gugeoui romaja pyogibeop; lit. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_2

"Roman-letter notation of the national language") is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_3

It was developed by the National Academy of the Korean Language from 1995 and was released to the public on 7 July 2000 by South Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Proclamation No. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_4

2000-8. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_5

The new system corrected problems in the McCune–Reischauer system, such as phenomena where different consonants and vowels became indistinguishable in the absence of special symbols. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_6

To be specific, under the McCune–Reischauer system, Korean consonants "(k), (t), (p) and (ch)" and "(k'), (t'), (p') and (ch')" became indistinguishable when the apostrophe was removed. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_7

In addition, Korean vowels "어(ŏ)" and "오(o)" and "으(ŭ)" and "우(u)" became indistinguishable when the breve was removed. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_8

Especially in internet use where omission of apostrophes and breves is common, this caused many Koreans as well as foreigners confusion. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_9

Hence, the revision of the Romanization of Korean was made with the belief that if the old system was left unrevised, it would continue to confuse people, both Koreans and foreigners. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_10

Features Revised Romanization of Korean_section_0

Revised Romanization of Korean_table_infobox_0

HangulRevised Romanization of Korean_header_cell_0_0_0 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_0_0_1
HanjaRevised Romanization of Korean_header_cell_0_1_0 의 로마Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_0_1_1
Revised RomanizationRevised Romanization of Korean_header_cell_0_2_0 gugeoui romaja pyogibeopRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_0_2_1
McCune–ReischauerRevised Romanization of Korean_header_cell_0_3_0 kugŏŭi romacha p'yogibŏpRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_0_3_1

These are notable features of the Revised Romanization system: Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_11

Revised Romanization of Korean_unordered_list_0

  • The aspiration distinction between consonants is represented in a new way. The unaspirated consonants ㄱ ㄷ ㅂ ㅈ are represented as ⟨g⟩ ⟨d⟩ ⟨b⟩ ⟨j⟩ respectively, and the aspirated consonants ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅊ are represented as ⟨k⟩ ⟨t⟩ ⟨p⟩ ⟨ch⟩. These letter pairs have a similar aspiration distinction in English at the beginning of a syllable (though they also have a voicing distinction unlike Korean); this approach is also used by Hanyu Pinyin. By contrast, the McCune–Reischauer system uses ⟨k⟩ ⟨t⟩ ⟨p⟩ ⟨ch⟩ both for the unaspirated and aspirated consonants, adding an apostrophe for the aspirated versions (⟨k'⟩ ⟨t'⟩ ⟨p'⟩ ⟨ch'⟩). (The McCune–Reischauer system also includes voicing, which the revised romanization does not.)Revised Romanization of Korean_item_0_0
    • However, ㄱ ㄷ ㅂ ㅈ are not always romanized as ⟨g⟩ ⟨d⟩ ⟨b⟩ ⟨j⟩, depending on their environment. For example, they are romanized as ⟨k⟩ ⟨t⟩ ⟨p⟩ ⟨ch⟩ when placed in the final position, as they are neutralized to unreleased stops: 벽[pjʌk̚] → byeok, 밖[pak̚] → bak, 부엌[pu.ʌk̚] → bueok, 벽에[pjʌ.ɡe̞] → byeoge, 밖에[pa.k͈e̞] → bakke, 부엌에[pu.ʌ.kʰe̞] → bueoke, 컵[kʰʌp̚] → keop.Revised Romanization of Korean_item_0_1
  • Vowels ㅓ and ㅡ are written as ⟨eo⟩ and ⟨eu⟩ respectively, replacing the '⟨ŏ⟩ and ⟨ŭ⟩ of the McCune–Reischauer system).Revised Romanization of Korean_item_0_2
    • However, ㅝ/wʌ/ is written as ⟨wo⟩ (not ⟨weo⟩), and ㅢ/ɰi/ is written as ⟨ui⟩ (not ⟨eui⟩)Revised Romanization of Korean_item_0_3
  • ㅅ used to be written as sh and s, depending on context. Now it will be written as s in all cases.Revised Romanization of Korean_item_0_4
    • ㅅ/s/ is written as ⟨s⟩ regardless of the following vowels and semivowels; there is no ⟨sh⟩: 사[sa] → sa, 시[ɕi] → si.Revised Romanization of Korean_item_0_5
    • When followed by another consonant or when in final position, it is written as ⟨t⟩: 옷[ot̚] → ot (but 옷에[̞] → ose).Revised Romanization of Korean_item_0_6
  • ㄹ/l/ is ⟨r⟩ before a vowel or a semivowel and ⟨l⟩ everywhere else: 리을[ɾi.ɯl] → rieul, 철원[tɕʰʌ.ɾwʌn] → Cheorwon, 울릉도[ul.lɯŋ.do] → Ulleungdo, 발해[pal.ɦɛ̝] → Balhae. Like in McCune–Reischauer, ㄴ/n/ is written ⟨l⟩ whenever pronounced as a lateral rather than as a nasal consonant: 전라북도[tɕʌ̚.do] → Jeollabuk-doRevised Romanization of Korean_item_0_7

In addition, special provisions are for regular phonological rules in exceptions to transliteration (see Korean phonology). Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_12

Other rules and recommendations include the following: Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_13

Revised Romanization of Korean_unordered_list_1

  • A hyphen optionally disambiguates syllables: 가을 → ga-eul (fall; autumn) versus 개울 → gae-ul (stream). However, few official publications make use of this provision since actual instances of ambiguity among names are rare.Revised Romanization of Korean_item_1_8
    • A hyphen must be used in linguistic transliterations to denote syllable-initial ㅇ except at the beginning of a word: 없었습니다 → eobs-eoss-seumnida, 외국어 → oegug-eo, 애오개 → Ae-ogaeRevised Romanization of Korean_item_1_9
  • It is permitted to hyphenate syllables in the given name, following common practice. Certain phonological changes, ordinarily indicated in other contexts, are ignored in names, for better disambiguating between names: 강홍립 → Gang Hongrip or Gang Hong-rip (not *Hongnip), 한복남 → Han Boknam or Han Bok-nam (not *Bongnam or "Bong-nam")Revised Romanization of Korean_item_1_10
  • Administrative units (such as the do) are hyphenated from the placename proper: 강원도 → Gangwon-doRevised Romanization of Korean_item_1_11
    • One may omit terms such as 시, 군, 읍: 평창군 → Pyeongchang-gun or Pyeongchang, 평창읍 → Pyeongchang-eup or Pyeongchang.Revised Romanization of Korean_item_1_12
  • However, names for geographic features and artificial structures are not hyphenated: 설악산 → Seoraksan, 해인사 → HaeinsaRevised Romanization of Korean_item_1_13
  • Proper nouns are capitalized.Revised Romanization of Korean_item_1_14

Usage Revised Romanization of Korean_section_1

In South Korea Revised Romanization of Korean_section_2

Almost all road signs, names of railway and subway stations on line maps and signs, etc. have been changed according to Revised Romanization of Korean (RR, also called South Korean or Ministry of Culture (MC) 2000). Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_14

It is estimated to have cost at least 500 billion won to 600 billion won (US$500~600 million) to carry out this procedure. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_15

All Korean textbooks, maps and signs to do with cultural heritage were required to comply with the new system by 28 February 2002. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_16

Romanization of surnames and existing companies' names has been left untouched because of the reasons explained below. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_17

However, the Korean government encourages using the revised romanization of Korean for the new names. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_18

Exception Revised Romanization of Korean_section_3

Like several European languages that have undergone spelling reforms (such as Portuguese, German or Swedish), the Revised Romanization is not expected to be adopted as the official romanization of Korean family names. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_19

This is because the conditions for allowing changes in romanization of surnames in passport is very strict. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_20

The reasons are outlined below. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_21

1. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_22

Countries around the world manage information about foreigners who are harmful to the public safety of their countries, including international criminals and illegal immigrants by the Roman name and date of birth of the passport they have used in the past. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_23

And if a passport is free to change its Roman name, it will pose a serious risk to border management due to difficulties in determining the same person. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_24

2. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_25

The people of a country where it is free to change its Roman name will be subject to strict immigration checks, which will inevitably cause inconvenience to the people of that country. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_26

3. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_27

Arbitrary changes in the Romanization of passports can lead to a fall in the credibility of the passports and national credit, which can have a negative impact on the new visa waiver agreement, etc. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_28

Also, with very few exceptions, it is impossible for a person who has ever left the country under their romanized name to change their family name again. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_29

However, South Korea's Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism encourages those who “newly” register their romanized names to follow the Revised Romanization of Korean. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_30

In addition, North Korea continues to use a version of the McCune–Reischauer system of Romanization, a different version of which was in official use in South Korea from 1984 to 2000. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_31

Outside Korea Revised Romanization of Korean_section_4

Textbooks and dictionaries intended for students of the Korean language tend to include this Romanization. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_32

However, some publishers have acknowledged the difficulties or confusion it can cause for non-native Korean speakers who are unused to the conventions of this style of Romanization. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_33

Transcription rules Revised Romanization of Korean_section_5

Vowel letters Revised Romanization of Korean_section_6

Revised Romanization of Korean_table_general_1

HangulRevised Romanization of Korean_header_cell_1_0_0 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_1 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_2 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_3 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_4 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_5 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_6 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_7 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_8 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_9 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_10 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_11 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_12 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_13 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_14 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_15 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_16 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_17 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_18 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_19 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_20 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_0_21
RomanizationRevised Romanization of Korean_header_cell_1_1_0 aRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_1 aeRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_2 yaRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_3 yaeRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_4 eoRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_5 eRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_6 yeoRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_7 yeRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_8 oRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_9 waRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_10 waeRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_11 oeRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_12 yoRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_13 uRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_14 woRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_15 weRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_16 wiRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_17 yuRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_18 euRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_19 uiRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_20 iRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_1_1_21

Consonant letters Revised Romanization of Korean_section_7

Revised Romanization of Korean_table_general_2

HangulRevised Romanization of Korean_header_cell_2_0_0 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_2 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_3 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_4 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_5 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_6 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_7 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_8 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_9 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_10 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_11 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_12 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_13 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_14 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_15 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_16 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_17 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_18 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_19 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_0_20
RomanizationRevised Romanization of Korean_header_cell_2_1_0 InitialRevised Romanization of Korean_header_cell_2_1_1 gRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_2 kkRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_3 nRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_4 dRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_5 ttRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_6 rRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_7 mRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_8 bRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_9 ppRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_10 sRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_11 ssRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_12 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_13 jRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_14 jjRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_15 chRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_16 kRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_17 tRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_18 pRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_19 hRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_1_20
FinalRevised Romanization of Korean_header_cell_2_2_0 kRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_1 kRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_2 tRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_3 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_4 lRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_5 pRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_6 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_7 tRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_8 tRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_9 ngRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_10 tRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_11 Revised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_12 tRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_13 tRevised Romanization of Korean_cell_2_2_14

ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㄹ are transcribed as g, d, b, and r when placed at the initial of a word or before a vowel, and as k, t, p, and l when followed by another consonant or when appearing at the end of a word. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_34

Special provisions Revised Romanization of Korean_section_8

The revised romanization transcribes certain phonetic changes that occur with combinations of the ending consonant of a character and the initial consonant of the next like Hanguk → Hangugeo. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_35

These significant changes occur (highlighted in yellow): Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_36

Phonetic changes between syllables in given names are not transcribed: 정석민 → Jeong Seokmin or Jeong Seok-min, 최빛나 → Choe Bitna or Choe Bit-na. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_37

Phonological changes are reflected where ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ are adjacent to ㅎ: 좋고 → joko, 놓다 → nota, 잡혀 → japyeo, 낳지 → nachi. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_38

However, aspirated sounds are not reflected in case of nouns where ㅎ follows ㄱ, ㄷ, and ㅂ: 묵호 → Mukho, 집현전 → Jiphyeonjeon. Revised Romanization of Korean_sentence_39

See also Revised Romanization of Korean_section_9

Revised Romanization of Korean_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Romanization of Korean.