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This article is about the art of rhetoric in general. Rhetoric_sentence_0

For the work by Aristotle, see Rhetoric (Aristotle). Rhetoric_sentence_1

"Rhetorical Strategies" redirects here. Rhetoric_sentence_2

For modes of persuasion, see Rhetorical strategies. Rhetoric_sentence_3

"Rhetor" redirects here. Rhetoric_sentence_4

For the academic journal, see Canadian Society for the Study of Rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_5

Rhetoric (/ˈrɛtərɪk/) is the art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric_sentence_6

Rhetoric aims to study the capacities of writers or speakers needed to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. Rhetoric_sentence_7

Aristotle defines rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" and since mastery of the art was necessary for victory in a case at law; or for passage of proposals in the assembly; or for fame as a speaker in civic ceremonies; he calls it "a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics". Rhetoric_sentence_8

Rhetoric typically provides heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals: logos, pathos, and ethos. Rhetoric_sentence_9

The five canons of rhetoric or phases of developing a persuasive speech were first codified in classical Rome: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery. Rhetoric_sentence_10

From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric played a central role in Western education in training orators, lawyers, counsellors, historians, statesmen, and poets. Rhetoric_sentence_11

Uses Rhetoric_section_0

Scope Rhetoric_section_1

Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Rhetoric_sentence_12

Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Rhetoric_sentence_13

Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a much more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times. Rhetoric_sentence_14

While classical rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions such as courtrooms and assemblies, contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse . Rhetoric_sentence_15

Rhetoricians have studied the discourses of a wide variety of domains, including the natural and social sciences, fine art, religion, journalism, digital media, fiction, history, cartography, and architecture, along with the more traditional domains of politics and the law. Rhetoric_sentence_16

Because the ancient Greeks highly valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. Rhetoric_sentence_17

Consequently, rhetoric remains associated with its political origins. Rhetoric_sentence_18

However, even the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_19

According to the Sophists, such as Gorgias, a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic, regardless of his experience in that field. Rhetoric_sentence_20

This method suggested rhetoric could be a means of communicating any expertise, not just politics. Rhetoric_sentence_21

In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias even applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Rhetoric_sentence_22

Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his negative opinions of the art. Rhetoric_sentence_23

He criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth. Rhetoric_sentence_24

In "Gorgias", one of his Socratic Dialogues, Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric_sentence_25

Rhetoric, in Plato's opinion, is merely a form of flattery and functions similarly to cookery, which masks the undesirability of unhealthy food by making it taste good. Rhetoric_sentence_26

Thus, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_27

Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, and epideictic. Rhetoric_sentence_28

Yet, even as he provided order to existing rhetorical theories, Aristotle extended the definition of rhetoric, calling it the ability to identify the appropriate means of persuasion in a given situation, thereby making rhetoric applicable to all fields, not just politics. Rhetoric_sentence_29

When one considers that rhetoric included torture (in the sense that the practice of torture is a form of persuasion or coercion), it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. Rhetoric_sentence_30

However, the enthymeme based upon logic (especially, based upon the syllogism) was viewed as the basis of rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_31

However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. Rhetoric_sentence_32

For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that also modifies rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_33

Yet, Aristotle also outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice. Rhetoric_sentence_34

He restricted rhetoric to the domain of the contingent or probable: those matters that admit multiple legitimate opinions or arguments. Rhetoric_sentence_35

The contemporary neo-Aristotelian and neo-Sophistic positions on rhetoric mirror the division between the Sophists and Aristotle. Rhetoric_sentence_36

Neo-Aristotelians generally study rhetoric as political discourse, while the neo-Sophistic view contends that rhetoric cannot be so limited. Rhetoric_sentence_37

Rhetorical scholar Michael Leff characterizes the conflict between these positions as viewing rhetoric as a "thing contained" versus a "container". Rhetoric_sentence_38

The neo-Aristotelian view threatens the study of rhetoric by restraining it to such a limited field, ignoring many critical applications of rhetorical theory, criticism, and practice. Rhetoric_sentence_39

Simultaneously, the neo-Sophists threaten to expand rhetoric beyond a point of coherent theoretical value. Rhetoric_sentence_40

Over the past century, people studying rhetoric have tended to enlarge its object domain beyond speech texts. Rhetoric_sentence_41

Kenneth Burke asserted humans use rhetoric to resolve conflicts by identifying shared characteristics and interests in symbols. Rhetoric_sentence_42

By nature, humans engage in identification, either to assign oneself or another to a group. Rhetoric_sentence_43

This definition of rhetoric as identification broadened the scope from strategic and overt political persuasion to the more implicit tactics of identification found in an immense range of sources. Rhetoric_sentence_44

Among the many scholars who have since pursued Burke's line of thought, James Boyd White sees rhetoric as a broader domain of social experience in his notion of constitutive rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_45

Influenced by theories of social construction, White argues that culture is "reconstituted" through language. Rhetoric_sentence_46

Just as language influences people, people influence language. Rhetoric_sentence_47

Language is socially constructed, and depends on the meanings people attach to it. Rhetoric_sentence_48

Because language is not rigid and changes depending on the situation, the very usage of language is rhetorical. Rhetoric_sentence_49

An author, White would say, is always trying to construct a new world and persuading his or her readers to share that world within the text. Rhetoric_sentence_50

People engage in the rhetorical process anytime they speak or produce meaning. Rhetoric_sentence_51

Even in the field of science, the practices of which were once viewed as being merely the objective testing and reporting of knowledge, scientists must persuade their audience to accept their findings by sufficiently demonstrating that their study or experiment was conducted reliably and resulted in sufficient evidence to support their conclusions. Rhetoric_sentence_52

The vast scope of rhetoric is difficult to define; however, political discourse remains, in many ways, the paradigmatic example for studying and theorizing specific techniques and conceptions of persuasion, considered by many a synonym for "rhetoric". Rhetoric_sentence_53

As a civic art Rhetoric_section_2

Throughout European History, rhetoric has concerned itself with persuasion in public and political settings such as assemblies and courts. Rhetoric_sentence_54

Because of its associations with democratic institutions, rhetoric is commonly said to flourish in open and democratic societies with rights of free speech, free assembly, and political enfranchisement for some portion of the population. Rhetoric_sentence_55

Those who classify rhetoric as a civic art believe that rhetoric has the power to shape communities, form the character of citizens and greatly affect civic life. Rhetoric_sentence_56

Rhetoric was viewed as a civic art by several of the ancient philosophers. Rhetoric_sentence_57

Aristotle and Isocrates were two of the first to see rhetoric in this light. Rhetoric_sentence_58

In his work, Antidosis, Isocrates states, "We have come together and founded cities and made laws and invented arts; and, generally speaking, there is no institution devised by man which the power of speech has not helped us to establish." Rhetoric_sentence_59

With this statement he argues that rhetoric is a fundamental part of civic life in every society and that it has been necessary in the foundation of all aspects of society. Rhetoric_sentence_60

He further argues in his piece Against the Sophists that rhetoric, although it cannot be taught to just anyone, is capable of shaping the character of man. Rhetoric_sentence_61

He writes, "I do think that the study of political discourse can help more than any other thing to stimulate and form such qualities of character." Rhetoric_sentence_62

Aristotle, writing several years after Isocrates, supported many of his arguments and continued to make arguments for rhetoric as a civic art. Rhetoric_sentence_63

In the words of Aristotle, in the Rhetoric, rhetoric is "... the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion". Rhetoric_sentence_64

According to Aristotle, this art of persuasion could be used in public settings in three different ways. Rhetoric_sentence_65

He writes in Book I, Chapter III, "A member of the assembly decides about future events, a juryman about past events: while those who merely decide on the orator's skill are observers. Rhetoric_sentence_66

From this it follows that there are three divisions of oratory – (1) political, (2) forensic, and (3) the ceremonial oratory of display". Rhetoric_sentence_67

Eugene Garver, in his critique of "Aristotle's Rhetoric", confirms that Aristotle viewed rhetoric as a civic art. Rhetoric_sentence_68

Garver writes, "Rhetoric articulates a civic art of rhetoric, combining the almost incompatible properties of techne and appropriateness to citizens." Rhetoric_sentence_69

Each of Aristotle's divisions plays a role in civic life and can be used in a different way to affect cities. Rhetoric_sentence_70

Because rhetoric is a public art capable of shaping opinion, some of the ancients including Plato found fault in it. Rhetoric_sentence_71

They claimed that while it could be used to improve civic life, it could be used equally easily to deceive or manipulate with negative effects on the city. Rhetoric_sentence_72

The masses were incapable of analyzing or deciding anything on their own and would therefore be swayed by the most persuasive speeches. Rhetoric_sentence_73

Thus, civic life could be controlled by the one who could deliver the best speech. Rhetoric_sentence_74

Plato explores the problematic moral status of rhetoric twice: in Gorgias, a dialogue named for the famed Sophist, and in The Phaedrus, a dialogue best known for its commentary on love. Rhetoric_sentence_75

This concern is still maintained to nowadays. Rhetoric_sentence_76

More trusting in the power of rhetoric to support a republic, the Roman orator Cicero argued that art required something more than eloquence. Rhetoric_sentence_77

A good orator needed also to be a good man, a person enlightened on a variety of civic topics. Rhetoric_sentence_78

He describes the proper training of the orator in his major text on rhetoric, De Oratore, modeled on Plato's dialogues. Rhetoric_sentence_79

Modern day works continue to support the claims of the ancients that rhetoric is an art capable of influencing civic life. Rhetoric_sentence_80

In his work Political Style, Robert Hariman claims, "Furthermore, questions of freedom, equality, and justice often are raised and addressed through performances ranging from debates to demonstrations without loss of moral content". Rhetoric_sentence_81

James Boyd White argues further that rhetoric is capable not only of addressing issues of political interest but that it can influence culture as a whole. Rhetoric_sentence_82

In his book, When Words Lose Their Meaning, he argues that words of persuasion and identification define community and civic life. Rhetoric_sentence_83

He states that words produce "the methods by which culture is maintained, criticized, and transformed". Rhetoric_sentence_84

Both White and Hariman agree that words and rhetoric have the power to shape culture and civic life. Rhetoric_sentence_85

In modern times, rhetoric has consistently remained relevant as a civic art. Rhetoric_sentence_86

In speeches, as well as in non-verbal forms, rhetoric continues to be used as a tool to influence communities from local to national levels. Rhetoric_sentence_87

As a course of study Rhetoric_section_3

Rhetoric as a course of study has evolved significantly since its ancient beginnings. Rhetoric_sentence_88

Through the ages, the study and teaching of rhetoric has adapted to the particular exigencies of the time and venue. Rhetoric_sentence_89

The study of rhetoric has conformed to a multitude of different applications, ranging from architecture to literature. Rhetoric_sentence_90

Although the curriculum has transformed in a number of ways, it has generally emphasized the study of principles and rules of composition as a means for moving audiences. Rhetoric_sentence_91

Generally speaking, the study of rhetoric trains students to speak and/or write effectively, as well as critically understand and analyze discourse. Rhetoric_sentence_92

Rhetoric began as a civic art in Ancient Greece where students were trained to develop tactics of oratorical persuasion, especially in legal disputes. Rhetoric_sentence_93

Rhetoric originated in a school of pre-Socratic philosophers known as the Sophists circa 600 BC. Rhetoric_sentence_94

Demosthenes and Lysias emerged as major orators during this period, and Isocrates and Gorgias as prominent teachers. Rhetoric_sentence_95

Rhetorical education focused on five particular canons: inventio (invention), dispositio (arrangement), elocutio (style), memoria (memory), and actio (delivery). Rhetoric_sentence_96

Modern teachings continue to reference these rhetorical leaders and their work in discussions of classical rhetoric and persuasion. Rhetoric_sentence_97

Rhetoric was later taught in universities during the Middle Ages as one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (along with logic and grammar). Rhetoric_sentence_98

During the medieval period, political rhetoric declined as republican oratory died out and the emperors of Rome garnered increasing authority. Rhetoric_sentence_99

With the rise of European monarchs in following centuries, rhetoric shifted into the courtly and religious applications. Rhetoric_sentence_100

Augustine exerted strong influence on Christian rhetoric in the Middle Ages, advocating the use of rhetoric to lead audiences to truth and understanding, especially in the church. Rhetoric_sentence_101

The study of liberal arts, he believed, contributed to rhetorical study: "In the case of a keen and ardent nature, fine words will come more readily through reading and hearing the eloquent than by pursuing the rules of rhetoric." Rhetoric_sentence_102

Poetry and letter writing, for instance, became a central component of rhetorical study during the Middle Ages. Rhetoric_sentence_103

After the fall of the Republic in Rome, poetry became a tool for rhetorical training since there were fewer opportunities for political speech. Rhetoric_sentence_104

Letter writing was the primary form through which business was conducted both in state and church, so it became an important aspect of rhetorical education. Rhetoric_sentence_105

Rhetorical education became more restrained as style and substance separated in 16th-century France with Peter Ramus, and attention turned to the scientific method. Rhetoric_sentence_106

That is, influential scholars like Ramus argued that the processes of invention and arrangement should be elevated to the domain of philosophy, while rhetorical instruction should be chiefly concerned with the use of figures and other forms of the ornamentation of language. Rhetoric_sentence_107

Scholars such as Francis Bacon developed the study of "scientific rhetoric". Rhetoric_sentence_108

This concentration rejected the elaborate style characteristic of the classical oration. Rhetoric_sentence_109

This plain language carried over to John Locke's teaching, which emphasized concrete knowledge and steered away from ornamentation in speech, further alienating rhetorical instruction, which was identified wholly with this ornamentation, from the pursuit of knowledge. Rhetoric_sentence_110

In the 18th century, rhetoric assumed a more social role, initiating the creation of new education systems. Rhetoric_sentence_111

"Elocution schools" arose (predominantly in England) in which females analyzed classic literature, most notably the works of William Shakespeare, and discussed pronunciation tactics. Rhetoric_sentence_112

The study of rhetoric underwent a revival with the rise of democratic institutions during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Rhetoric_sentence_113

Scotland's author and theorist Hugh Blair served as a key leader of this movement during the late 18th century. Rhetoric_sentence_114

In his most famous work "Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres", he advocates rhetorical study for common citizens as a resource for social success. Rhetoric_sentence_115

Many American colleges and secondary schools used Blair's text throughout the 19th century to train students of rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_116

Political rhetoric also underwent renewal in the wake of the US and French revolutions. Rhetoric_sentence_117

The rhetorical studies of ancient Greece and Rome were resurrected in the studies of the era as speakers and teachers looked to Cicero and others to inspire defense of the new republic. Rhetoric_sentence_118

Leading rhetorical theorists included John Quincy Adams of Harvard who advocated the democratic advancement of rhetorical art. Rhetoric_sentence_119

Harvard's founding of the Boylston Professorship of Rhetoric and Oratory sparked the growth of rhetorical study in colleges across the United States. Rhetoric_sentence_120

Harvard's rhetoric program drew inspiration from literary sources to guide organization and style. Rhetoric_sentence_121

Recently, there have been studies conducted examining the rhetoric used in political speech acts to illustrate how political figures will persuade audiences for their own purposes. Rhetoric_sentence_122

Debate clubs and lyceums also developed as forums in which common citizens could hear speakers and sharpen debate skills. Rhetoric_sentence_123

The American lyceum in particular was seen as both an educational and social institution, featuring group discussions and guest lecturers. Rhetoric_sentence_124

These programs cultivated democratic values and promoted active participation in political analysis. Rhetoric_sentence_125

Throughout the 20th century, rhetoric developed as a concentrated field of study with the establishment of rhetorical courses in high schools and universities. Rhetoric_sentence_126

Courses such as public speaking and speech analysis apply fundamental Greek theories (such as the modes of persuasion: ethos, pathos, and logos) as well as trace rhetorical development throughout the course of history. Rhetoric_sentence_127

Rhetoric has earned a more esteemed reputation as a field of study with the emergence of Communication Studies departments as well as Rhetoric and Composition programs within English departments in universities and in conjunction with the linguistic turn. Rhetoric_sentence_128

Rhetorical study has broadened in scope, and is especially utilized by the fields of marketing, politics, and literature. Rhetoric_sentence_129

Rhetoric, as an area of study, is concerned with how humans use symbols, especially language, to reach agreement that permits coordinated effort of some sort. Rhetoric_sentence_130

Harvard University, the first university in the United States, based on the European model, taught a basic curriculum, including rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_131

Rhetoric, in this sense, how to properly give speeches, played an important role in their training. Rhetoric_sentence_132

Rhetoric was soon taught in departments of English as well. Rhetoric_sentence_133

Music Rhetoric_section_4

Having enjoyed a resurgence during the Renaissance nearly every author who wrote about music before the Romantic era discussed rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_134

Joachim Burmeister wrote in 1601, "there is only little difference between music and the nature of oration". Rhetoric_sentence_135

Christoph Bernhard in the latter half of the century said "...until the art of music has attained such a height in our own day, that it may indeed be compared to a rhetoric, in view of the multitude of figures". Rhetoric_sentence_136

Knowledge Rhetoric_section_5

The relationship between rhetoric and knowledge is an old and interesting philosophical problem, partly because of our different assumptions on the nature of knowledge. Rhetoric_sentence_137

But it is fairly clear that while knowledge is primarily concerned with what is commonly known as "truth", rhetoric is primarily concerned with statements and their effects on the audience. Rhetoric_sentence_138

The word "rhetoric" may also refer to "empty speak", which reflects an indifference to truth, and in this sense rhetoric is adversarial to knowledge. Rhetoric_sentence_139

Plato famously criticized the Sophists for their rhetoric which had persuaded people to sentence his friend Socrates to death regardless of what was true. Rhetoric_sentence_140

However, rhetoric is also used in the construction of true arguments, or in identifying what is relevant, the crux of the matter, in a selection of true but otherwise trivial statements. Rhetoric_sentence_141

Hence, rhetoric is also closely related to knowledge. Rhetoric_sentence_142

History Rhetoric_section_6

Rhetoric has its origins in Mesopotamia. Rhetoric_sentence_143

Some of the earliest examples of rhetoric can be found in the Akkadian writings of the princess and priestess Enheduanna (c. 2285–2250 BC), while later examples can be found in the Neo-Assyrian Empire during the time of Sennacherib (704–681 BC). Rhetoric_sentence_144

In ancient Egypt, rhetoric had existed since at least the Middle Kingdom period (c. 2080–1640 BC). Rhetoric_sentence_145

The Egyptians held eloquent speaking in high esteem, and it was a skill that had a very high value in their society. Rhetoric_sentence_146

The "Egyptian rules of rhetoric" also clearly specified that "knowing when not to speak is essential, and very respected, rhetorical knowledge". Rhetoric_sentence_147

Their "approach to rhetoric" was thus a "balance between eloquence and wise silence". Rhetoric_sentence_148

Their rules of speech also strongly emphasized "adherence to social behaviors that support a conservative status quo" and they held that "skilled speech should support, not question, society". Rhetoric_sentence_149

In ancient China, rhetoric dates back to the Chinese philosopher, Confucius (551–479 BC), and continued with later followers. Rhetoric_sentence_150

The tradition of Confucianism emphasized the use of eloquence in speaking. Rhetoric_sentence_151

The use of rhetoric can also be found in the ancient Biblical tradition. Rhetoric_sentence_152

In ancient Greece, the earliest mention of oratorical skill occurs in Homer's Iliad, where heroes like Achilles, Hector, and Odysseus were honored for their ability to advise and exhort their peers and followers (the Laos or army) in wise and appropriate action. Rhetoric_sentence_153

With the rise of the democratic polis, speaking skill was adapted to the needs of the public and political life of cities in ancient Greece, much of which revolved around the use of oratory as the medium through which political and judicial decisions were made, and through which philosophical ideas were developed and disseminated. Rhetoric_sentence_154

For modern students today, it can be difficult to remember that the wide use and availability of written texts is a phenomenon that was just coming into vogue in Classical Greece. Rhetoric_sentence_155

In Classical times, many of the great thinkers and political leaders performed their works before an audience, usually in the context of a competition or contest for fame, political influence, and cultural capital; in fact, many of them are known only through the texts that their students, followers, or detractors wrote down. Rhetoric_sentence_156

As has already been noted, rhetor was the Greek term for orator: A rhetor was a citizen who regularly addressed juries and political assemblies and who was thus understood to have gained some knowledge about public speaking in the process, though in general facility with language was often referred to as logôn techne, "skill with arguments" or "verbal artistry". Rhetoric_sentence_157

Rhetoric thus evolved as an important art, one that provided the orator with the forms, means, and strategies for persuading an audience of the correctness of the orator's arguments. Rhetoric_sentence_158

Today the term rhetoric can be used at times to refer only to the form of argumentation, often with the pejorative connotation that rhetoric is a means of obscuring the truth. Rhetoric_sentence_159

Classical philosophers believed quite the contrary: the skilled use of rhetoric was essential to the discovery of truths, because it provided the means of ordering and clarifying arguments. Rhetoric_sentence_160

Sophists Rhetoric_section_7

Main article: Sophists Rhetoric_sentence_161

In Europe, organized thought about public speaking began in ancient Greece. Rhetoric_sentence_162

Possibly, the first study about the power of language may be attributed to the philosopher Empedocles (d. c. 444 BC), whose theories on human knowledge would provide a newfound basis for many future rhetoricians. Rhetoric_sentence_163

The first written manual is attributed to Corax and his pupil Tisias. Rhetoric_sentence_164

Their work, as well as that of many of the early rhetoricians, grew out of the courts of law; Tisias, for example, is believed to have written judicial speeches that others delivered in the courts. Rhetoric_sentence_165

Teaching in oratory was popularized in the 5th century BC by itinerant teachers known as sophists, the best known of whom were Protagoras (c. 481–420 BC), Gorgias (c. 483–376 BC), and Isocrates (436–338 BC). Rhetoric_sentence_166

Aspasia of Miletus is believed to be one of the first women to engage in private and public rhetoric activities as a Sophist. Rhetoric_sentence_167

The Sophists were a disparate group who travelled from city to city, teaching in public places to attract students and offer them an education. Rhetoric_sentence_168

Their central focus was on logos or what we might broadly refer to as discourse, its functions and powers. Rhetoric_sentence_169

They defined parts of speech, analyzed poetry, parsed close synonyms, invented argumentation strategies, and debated the nature of reality. Rhetoric_sentence_170

They claimed to make their students "better", or, in other words, to teach virtue. Rhetoric_sentence_171

They thus claimed that human "excellence" was not an accident of fate or a prerogative of noble birth, but an art or "techne" that could be taught and learned. Rhetoric_sentence_172

They were thus among the first humanists. Rhetoric_sentence_173

Several sophists also questioned received wisdom about the gods and the Greek culture, which they believed was taken for granted by Greeks of their time, making them among the first agnostics. Rhetoric_sentence_174

For example, they argued that cultural practices were a function of convention or nomos rather than blood or birth or phusis. Rhetoric_sentence_175

They argued even further that morality or immorality of any action could not be judged outside of the cultural context within which it occurred. Rhetoric_sentence_176

The well-known phrase, "Man is the measure of all things" arises from this belief. Rhetoric_sentence_177

One of their most famous, and infamous, doctrines has to do with probability and counter arguments. Rhetoric_sentence_178

They taught that every argument could be countered with an opposing argument, that an argument's effectiveness derived from how "likely" it appeared to the audience (its probability of seeming true), and that any probability argument could be countered with an inverted probability argument. Rhetoric_sentence_179

Thus, if it seemed likely that a strong, poor man were guilty of robbing a rich, weak man, the strong poor man could argue, on the contrary, that this very likelihood (that he would be a suspect) makes it unlikely that he committed the crime, since he would most likely be apprehended for the crime. Rhetoric_sentence_180

They also taught and were known for their ability to make the weaker (or worse) argument the stronger (or better). Rhetoric_sentence_181

Aristophanes famously parodies the clever inversions that sophists were known for in his play The Clouds. Rhetoric_sentence_182

The word "sophistry" developed strong negative connotations in ancient Greece that continue today, but in ancient Greece sophists were nevertheless popular and well-paid professionals, widely respected for their abilities but also widely criticized for their excesses. Rhetoric_sentence_183

Isocrates Rhetoric_section_8

Main article: Isocrates Rhetoric_sentence_184

Isocrates (436–338 BC), like the sophists, taught public speaking as a means of human improvement, but he worked to distinguish himself from the Sophists, whom he saw as claiming far more than they could deliver. Rhetoric_sentence_185

He suggested that while an art of virtue or excellence did exist, it was only one piece, and the least, in a process of self-improvement that relied much more heavily on native talent and desire, constant practice, and the imitation of good models. Rhetoric_sentence_186

Isocrates believed that practice in speaking publicly about noble themes and important questions would function to improve the character of both speaker and audience while also offering the best service to a city. Rhetoric_sentence_187

In fact, Isocrates was an outspoken champion of rhetoric as a mode of civic engagement. Rhetoric_sentence_188

He thus wrote his speeches as "models" for his students to imitate in the same way that poets might imitate Homer or Hesiod, seeking to inspire in them a desire to attain fame through civic leadership. Rhetoric_sentence_189

His was the first permanent school in Athens and it is likely that Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum were founded in part as a response to Isocrates. Rhetoric_sentence_190

Though he left no handbooks, his speeches ("Antidosis" and "Against the Sophists" are most relevant to students of rhetoric) became models of oratory (he was one of the canonical "Ten Attic Orators") and keys to his entire educational program. Rhetoric_sentence_191

He had a marked influence on Cicero and Quintilian, and through them, on the entire educational system of the west. Rhetoric_sentence_192

Plato Rhetoric_section_9

Main articles: Plato and Platonism Rhetoric_sentence_193

Plato (427–347 BC) famously outlined the differences between true and false rhetoric in a number of dialogues; particularly the Gorgias and Phaedrus dialogues wherein Plato disputes the sophistic notion that the art of persuasion (the sophists' art, which he calls "rhetoric"), can exist independent of the art of dialectic. Rhetoric_sentence_194

Plato claims that since sophists appeal only to what seems probable, they are not advancing their students and audiences, but simply flattering them with what they want to hear. Rhetoric_sentence_195

While Plato's condemnation of rhetoric is clear in the Gorgias, in the Phaedrus he suggests the possibility of a true art wherein rhetoric is based upon the knowledge produced by dialectic, and relies on a dialectically informed rhetoric to appeal to the main character, Phaedrus, to take up philosophy. Rhetoric_sentence_196

Thus Plato's rhetoric is actually dialectic (or philosophy) "turned" toward those who are not yet philosophers and are thus unready to pursue dialectic directly. Rhetoric_sentence_197

Plato's animosity against rhetoric, and against the sophists, derives not only from their inflated claims to teach virtue and their reliance on appearances, but from the fact that his teacher, Socrates, was sentenced to death after sophists' efforts. Rhetoric_sentence_198

Aristotle Rhetoric_section_10

Main article: Rhetoric (Aristotle) Rhetoric_sentence_199

Indian rhetoric Rhetoric_section_11

Further information: Ancient Indian rhetoric Rhetoric_sentence_200

India has a deep and enriching past in the art of rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_201

In India's Struggle for Independence, Chandra et al. Rhetoric_sentence_202

offer a vivid description of the culture that sprang up around the newspaper in village India of the early 1870s: Rhetoric_sentence_203

This reading and discussion was the focal point of origin of the modern Indian rhetorical movement. Rhetoric_sentence_204

Much before this, ancient greats such as Kautilya, Birbal, and the likes indulged themselves in a great deal of discussion and persuasion. Rhetoric_sentence_205

Keith Lloyd in his 2007 article "Rethinking Rhetoric from an Indian perspective: Implications in the Nyaya Sutra" said that much of the recital of the Vedas can be likened to the recital of ancient Greek poetry. Rhetoric_sentence_206

Lloyd proposed including the Nyāya Sūtras in the field of rhetorical studies, exploring its methods within their historical context, comparing its approach to the traditional logical syllogism, and relating it to the contemporary perspectives of Stephen Toulmin, Kenneth Burke, and Chaim Perelman. Rhetoric_sentence_207

Nyaya is a Sanskrit word which means just or right and refers to "the science of right and wrong reasoning" (Radhakrishnan & Moore, 1957, p. 356). Rhetoric_sentence_208

Sutra is also a Sanskrit word which means string or thread. Rhetoric_sentence_209

Here sutra refers to a collection of aphorism in the form of a manual. Rhetoric_sentence_210

Each sutra is a short rule usually consisted of one or two sentences. Rhetoric_sentence_211

An example of a sutra is: "Reality is truth, and what is true is so, irrespective of whether we know it is, or are aware of that truth." Rhetoric_sentence_212

The Nyāya Sūtras is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text composed by Aksapada Gautama. Rhetoric_sentence_213

It is the foundational text of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy. Rhetoric_sentence_214

The date when the text was composed, and the biography of its author is unknown. Rhetoric_sentence_215

It is estimated that the text was composed between 6th-century BCE and 2nd-century CE. Rhetoric_sentence_216

Zimmer (2013) has said that the text may have been composed by more one author, over a period of time. Rhetoric_sentence_217

Radhakrishan and Moore (1957) placed its origin in the "third century BC ... though some of the contents of the Nyaya Sutra are certainly a post-Christian era" (p. 36). Rhetoric_sentence_218

Vidyabhusana (1930) stated that the ancient school of Nyaya extended over a period of one thousand years, beginning with Gautama about 550 BC and ending with Vatsyayana about 400 AD. Rhetoric_sentence_219

Nyaya provides significant insight into the Indian rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_220

Nyaya presents an argumentative approach that works a rhetor how to decide about any argument. Rhetoric_sentence_221

In addition, it proposes a new approach of thinking of a cultural tradition which is different from the Western rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_222

It also broadens the view of rhetoric and the relationship among human beings. Rhetoric_sentence_223

Nyaya proposes an enlightenment of reality which is associated with situations, time, and places. Rhetoric_sentence_224

Toulmin emphasizes the situational dimension of argumentative genre as the fundamental component of any rhetorical logic. Rhetoric_sentence_225

On the contrary, Nyaya views this situational rhetoric in a new way which offers context of practical arguments. Rhetoric_sentence_226

Some of India's famous rhetors include Kabir Das, Rahim Das, Chanakya, Chandragupt Maurya, and so on. Rhetoric_sentence_227

Canons Rhetoric_section_12

The Five Canons of Rhetoric serve as a guide to creating persuasive messages and arguments. Rhetoric_sentence_228

These are invention (the process of developing arguments); arrangement (organizing the arguments for extreme effect); style (determining how to present the arguments); memory (the process of learning and memorizing the speech and persuasive messages), and delivery (the gestures, pronunciation, tone and pace used when presenting the persuasive arguments). Rhetoric_sentence_229

In the rhetoric field, there is an intellectual debate about Aristotle's definition of rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_230

Some believe that Aristotle defines rhetoric in On Rhetoric as the art of persuasion, while others think he defines it as the art of judgment. Rhetoric_sentence_231

Rhetoric as the art of judgment would mean the rhetor discerns the available means of persuasion with a choice. Rhetoric_sentence_232

Aristotle also says rhetoric is concerned with judgment because the audience judges the rhetor's ethos. Rhetoric_sentence_233

One of the most famous of Aristotelian doctrines was the idea of topics (also referred to as common topics or commonplaces). Rhetoric_sentence_234

Though the term had a wide range of application (as a memory technique or compositional exercise, for example) it most often referred to the "seats of argument"—the list of categories of thought or modes of reasoning—that a speaker could use to generate arguments or proofs. Rhetoric_sentence_235

The topics were thus a heuristic or inventional tool designed to help speakers categorize and thus better retain and apply frequently used types of argument. Rhetoric_sentence_236

For example, since we often see effects as "like" their causes, one way to invent an argument (about a future effect) is by discussing the cause (which it will be "like"). Rhetoric_sentence_237

This and other rhetorical topics derive from Aristotle's belief that there are certain predictable ways in which humans (particularly non-specialists) draw conclusions from premises. Rhetoric_sentence_238

Based upon and adapted from his dialectical Topics, the rhetorical topics became a central feature of later rhetorical theorizing, most famously in Cicero's work of that name. Rhetoric_sentence_239

Cicero Rhetoric_section_13

Main articles: Cicero, Asiatic style, De Inventione, De Oratore, Brutus (Cicero), De Optimo Genere Oratorum, and De Partitionibus Oratoriae Rhetoric_sentence_240

For the Romans, oration became an important part of public life. Rhetoric_sentence_241

Cicero (106–43 BC) was chief among Roman rhetoricians and remains the best known ancient orator and the only orator who both spoke in public and produced treatises on the subject. Rhetoric_sentence_242

Rhetorica ad Herennium, formerly attributed to Cicero but now considered to be of unknown authorship, is one of the most significant works on rhetoric and is still widely used as a reference today. Rhetoric_sentence_243

It is an extensive reference on the use of rhetoric, and in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, it achieved wide publication as an advanced school text on rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_244

Cicero is considered one of the most significant rhetoricians of all time, charting a middle path between the competing Attic and Asiatic styles to become considered second only to Demosthenes among history's orators. Rhetoric_sentence_245

His works include the early and very influential De Inventione (On Invention, often read alongside the Ad Herennium as the two basic texts of rhetorical theory throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance), De Oratore (a fuller statement of rhetorical principles in dialogue form), Topics (a rhetorical treatment of common topics, highly influential through the Renaissance), Brutus (a discussion of famous orators) and Orator (a defense of Cicero's style). Rhetoric_sentence_246

Cicero also left a large body of speeches and letters which would establish the outlines of Latin eloquence and style for generations to come. Rhetoric_sentence_247

It was the rediscovery of Cicero's speeches (such as the defense of Archias) and letters (to Atticus) by Italians like Petrarch that, in part, ignited the cultural innovations that is known as the Renaissance. Rhetoric_sentence_248

He championed the learning of Greek (and Greek rhetoric), contributed to Roman ethics, linguistics, philosophy, and politics, and emphasized the importance of all forms of appeal (emotion, humor, stylistic range, irony and digression in addition to pure reasoning) in oratory. Rhetoric_sentence_249

But perhaps his most significant contribution to subsequent rhetoric, and education in general, was his argument that orators learn not only about the specifics of their case (the hypothesis) but also about the general questions from which they derived (the theses). Rhetoric_sentence_250

Thus, in giving a speech in defense of a poet whose Roman citizenship had been questioned, the orator should examine not only the specifics of that poet's civic status, he should also examine the role and value of poetry and of literature more generally in Roman culture and political life. Rhetoric_sentence_251

The orator, said Cicero, needed to be knowledgeable about all areas of human life and culture, including law, politics, history, literature, ethics, warfare, medicine, even arithmetic and geometry. Rhetoric_sentence_252

Cicero gave rise to the idea that the "ideal orator" be well-versed in all branches of learning: an idea that was rendered as "liberal humanism", and that lives on today in liberal arts or general education requirements in colleges and universities around the world. Rhetoric_sentence_253

Quintilian Rhetoric_section_14

Main articles: Quintilian and Byzantine rhetoric Rhetoric_sentence_254

Medieval to Enlightenment Rhetoric_section_15

After the breakup of the western Roman Empire, the study of rhetoric continued to be central to the study of the verbal arts; but the study of the verbal arts went into decline for several centuries, followed eventually by a gradual rise in formal education, culminating in the rise of medieval universities. Rhetoric_sentence_255

But rhetoric transmuted during this period into the arts of letter writing (ars dictaminis) and sermon writing (ars praedicandi). Rhetoric_sentence_256

As part of the trivium, rhetoric was secondary to the study of logic, and its study was highly scholastic: students were given repetitive exercises in the creation of discourses on historical subjects (suasoriae) or on classic legal questions (controversiae). Rhetoric_sentence_257

Although he is not commonly regarded as a rhetorician, St. Rhetoric_sentence_258 Augustine (354–430) was trained in rhetoric and was at one time a professor of Latin rhetoric in Milan. Rhetoric_sentence_259

After his conversion to Christianity, he became interested in using these "pagan" arts for spreading his religion. Rhetoric_sentence_260

This new use of rhetoric is explored in the Fourth Book of his De Doctrina Christiana, which laid the foundation of what would become homiletics, the rhetoric of the sermon. Rhetoric_sentence_261

Augustine begins the book by asking why "the power of eloquence, which is so efficacious in pleading either for the erroneous cause or the right", should not be used for righteous purposes (IV. Rhetoric_sentence_262

3). Rhetoric_sentence_263

One early concern of the medieval Christian church was its attitude to classical rhetoric itself. Rhetoric_sentence_264

Jerome (d. 420) complained, "What has Horace to do with the Psalms, Virgil with the Gospels, Cicero with the Apostles?" Rhetoric_sentence_265

Augustine is also remembered for arguing for the preservation of pagan works and fostering a church tradition that led to conservation of numerous pre-Christian rhetorical writings. Rhetoric_sentence_266

Rhetoric would not regain its classical heights until the Renaissance, but new writings did advance rhetorical thought. Rhetoric_sentence_267

Boethius (480?–524), in his brief Overview of the Structure of Rhetoric, continues Aristotle's taxonomy by placing rhetoric in subordination to philosophical argument or dialectic. Rhetoric_sentence_268

The introduction of Arab scholarship from European relations with the Muslim empire (in particular Al-Andalus) renewed interest in Aristotle and Classical thought in general, leading to what some historians call the 12th century Renaissance. Rhetoric_sentence_269

A number of medieval grammars and studies of poetry and rhetoric appeared. Rhetoric_sentence_270

Late medieval rhetorical writings include those of St. Thomas Aquinas (1225?–1274), Matthew of Vendome (Ars Versificatoria, 1175? Rhetoric_sentence_271

), and Geoffrey of Vinsauf (Poetria Nova, 1200–1216). Rhetoric_sentence_272

Pre-modern female rhetoricians, outside of Socrates' friend Aspasia, are rare; but medieval rhetoric produced by women either in religious orders, such as Julian of Norwich (d. 1415), or the very well-connected Christine de Pizan (1364?–1430? Rhetoric_sentence_273

), did occur if not always recorded in writing. Rhetoric_sentence_274

In his 1943 Cambridge University doctoral dissertation in English, Canadian Marshall McLuhan (1911–1980) surveys the verbal arts from approximately the time of Cicero down to the time of Thomas Nashe (1567–1600?). Rhetoric_sentence_275

His dissertation is still noteworthy for undertaking to study the history of the verbal arts together as the trivium, even though the developments that he surveys have been studied in greater detail since he undertook his study. Rhetoric_sentence_276

As noted below, McLuhan became one of the most widely publicized thinkers in the 20th century, so it is important to note his scholarly roots in the study of the history of rhetoric and dialectic. Rhetoric_sentence_277

Another interesting record of medieval rhetorical thought can be seen in the many animal debate poems popular in England and the continent during the Middle Ages, such as The Owl and the Nightingale (13th century) and Geoffrey Chaucer's Parliament of Fowls. Rhetoric_sentence_278

Sixteenth century Rhetoric_section_16

Walter J. Ong's article "Humanism" in the 1967 New Catholic Encyclopedia surveys Renaissance humanism, which defined itself broadly as disfavoring medieval scholastic logic and dialectic and as favoring instead the study of classical Latin style and grammar and philology and rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_279

(Reprinted in Ong's Faith and Contexts (Scholars Press, 1999; 4: 69–91.)) Rhetoric_sentence_280

One influential figure in the rebirth of interest in classical rhetoric was Erasmus (c. 1466–1536). Rhetoric_sentence_281

His 1512 work, De Duplici Copia Verborum et Rerum (also known as Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style), was widely published (it went through more than 150 editions throughout Europe) and became one of the basic school texts on the subject. Rhetoric_sentence_282

Its treatment of rhetoric is less comprehensive than the classic works of antiquity, but provides a traditional treatment of res-verba (matter and form): its first book treats the subject of elocutio, showing the student how to use schemes and tropes; the second book covers inventio. Rhetoric_sentence_283

Much of the emphasis is on abundance of variation (copia means "plenty" or "abundance", as in copious or cornucopia), so both books focus on ways to introduce the maximum amount of variety into discourse. Rhetoric_sentence_284

For instance, in one section of the De Copia, Erasmus presents two hundred variations of the sentence "Semper, dum vivam, tui meminero." Rhetoric_sentence_285

Another of his works, the extremely popular The Praise of Folly, also had considerable influence on the teaching of rhetoric in the later 16th century. Rhetoric_sentence_286

Its orations in favour of qualities such as madness spawned a type of exercise popular in Elizabethan grammar schools, later called adoxography, which required pupils to compose passages in praise of useless things. Rhetoric_sentence_287

Juan Luis Vives (1492–1540) also helped shape the study of rhetoric in England. Rhetoric_sentence_288

A Spaniard, he was appointed in 1523 to the Lectureship of Rhetoric at Oxford by Cardinal Wolsey, and was entrusted by Henry VIII to be one of the tutors of Mary. Rhetoric_sentence_289

Vives fell into disfavor when Henry VIII divorced Catherine of Aragon and left England in 1528. Rhetoric_sentence_290

His best-known work was a book on education, De Disciplinis, published in 1531, and his writings on rhetoric included Rhetoricae, sive De Ratione Dicendi, Libri Tres (1533), De Consultatione (1533), and a rhetoric on letter writing, De Conscribendis Epistolas (1536). Rhetoric_sentence_291

It is likely that many well-known English writers were exposed to the works of Erasmus and Vives (as well as those of the Classical rhetoricians) in their schooling, which was conducted in Latin (not English) and often included some study of Greek and placed considerable emphasis on rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_292

See, for example, T.W. Rhetoric_sentence_293

Baldwin's William Shakspere's Small Latine and Lesse Greeke, 2 vols. (University of Illinois Press, 1944). Rhetoric_sentence_294

The mid-16th century saw the rise of vernacular rhetorics—those written in English rather than in the Classical languages; adoption of works in English was slow, however, due to the strong orientation toward Latin and Greek. Rhetoric_sentence_295

Leonard Cox's The Art or Crafte of Rhetoryke (c. 1524–1530; second edition published in 1532) is considered to be the earliest text on rhetorics in English; it was, for the most part, a translation of the work of Philipp Melanchthon. Rhetoric_sentence_296

A successful early text was Thomas Wilson's The Arte of Rhetorique (1553), which presents a traditional treatment of rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_297

For instance, Wilson presents the five canons of rhetoric (Invention, Disposition, Elocutio, Memoria, and Utterance or Actio). Rhetoric_sentence_298

Other notable works included Angel Day's The English Secretorie (1586, 1592), George Puttenham's The Arte of English Poesie (1589), and Richard Rainholde's Foundacion of Rhetorike (1563). Rhetoric_sentence_299

During this same period, a movement began that would change the organization of the school curriculum in Protestant and especially Puritan circles and led to rhetoric losing its central place. Rhetoric_sentence_300

A French scholar, Pierre de la Ramée, in Latin Petrus Ramus (1515–1572), dissatisfied with what he saw as the overly broad and redundant organization of the trivium, proposed a new curriculum. Rhetoric_sentence_301

In his scheme of things, the five components of rhetoric no longer lived under the common heading of rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_302

Instead, invention and disposition were determined to fall exclusively under the heading of dialectic, while style, delivery, and memory were all that remained for rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_303

See Walter J. Ong, Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason (Harvard University Press, 1958; reissued by the University of Chicago Press, 2004, with a new foreword by Adrian Johns). Rhetoric_sentence_304

Ramus was martyred during the French Wars of Religion. Rhetoric_sentence_305

His teachings, seen as inimical to Catholicism, were short-lived in France but found a fertile ground in the Netherlands, Germany and England. Rhetoric_sentence_306

One of Ramus' French followers, Audomarus Talaeus (Omer Talon) published his rhetoric, Institutiones Oratoriae, in 1544. Rhetoric_sentence_307

This work provided a simple presentation of rhetoric that emphasized the treatment of style, and became so popular that it was mentioned in John Brinsley's (1612) Ludus literarius; or The Grammar Schoole as being the "most used in the best schooles". Rhetoric_sentence_308

Many other Ramist rhetorics followed in the next half-century, and by the 17th century, their approach became the primary method of teaching rhetoric in Protestant and especially Puritan circles. Rhetoric_sentence_309

John Milton (1608–1674) wrote a textbook in logic or dialectic in Latin based on Ramus' work. Rhetoric_sentence_310

Ramism could not exert any influence on the established Catholic schools and universities, which remained loyal to Scholasticism, or on the new Catholic schools and universities founded by members of the religious orders known as the Society of Jesus or the Oratorians, as can be seen in the Jesuit curriculum (in use right up to the 19th century, across the Christian world) known as the Ratio Studiorum (that Claude Pavur, S.J., has recently translated into English, with the Latin text in the parallel column on each page (St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 2005)). Rhetoric_sentence_311

If the influence of Cicero and Quintilian permeates the Ratio Studiorum, it is through the lenses of devotion and the militancy of the Counter-Reformation. Rhetoric_sentence_312

The Ratio was indeed imbued with a sense of the divine, of the incarnate logos, that is of rhetoric as an eloquent and humane means to reach further devotion and further action in the Christian city, which was absent from Ramist formalism. Rhetoric_sentence_313

The Ratio is, in rhetoric, the answer to St Ignatius Loyola's practice, in devotion, of "spiritual exercises". Rhetoric_sentence_314

This complex oratorical-prayer system is absent from Ramism. Rhetoric_sentence_315

Seventeenth century Rhetoric_section_17

In New England and at Harvard College (founded 1636), Ramus and his followers dominated, as Perry Miller shows in The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century (Harvard University Press, 1939). Rhetoric_sentence_316

However, in England, several writers influenced the course of rhetoric during the 17th century, many of them carrying forward the dichotomy that had been set forth by Ramus and his followers during the preceding decades. Rhetoric_sentence_317

Of greater importance is that this century saw the development of a modern, vernacular style that looked to English, rather than to Greek, Latin, or French models. Rhetoric_sentence_318

Francis Bacon (1561–1626), although not a rhetorician, contributed to the field in his writings. Rhetoric_sentence_319

One of the concerns of the age was to find a suitable style for the discussion of scientific topics, which needed above all a clear exposition of facts and arguments, rather than the ornate style favored at the time. Rhetoric_sentence_320

Bacon in his The Advancement of Learning criticized those who are preoccupied with style rather than "the weight of matter, worth of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention, or depth of judgment". Rhetoric_sentence_321

On matters of style, he proposed that the style conform to the subject matter and to the audience, that simple words be employed whenever possible, and that the style should be agreeable. Rhetoric_sentence_322

Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) also wrote on rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_323

Along with a shortened translation of Aristotle's Rhetoric, Hobbes also produced a number of other works on the subject. Rhetoric_sentence_324

Sharply contrarian on many subjects, Hobbes, like Bacon, also promoted a simpler and more natural style that used figures of speech sparingly. Rhetoric_sentence_325

Perhaps the most influential development in English style came out of the work of the Royal Society (founded in 1660), which in 1664 set up a committee to improve the English language. Rhetoric_sentence_326

Among the committee's members were John Evelyn (1620–1706), Thomas Sprat (1635–1713), and John Dryden (1631–1700). Rhetoric_sentence_327

Sprat regarded "fine speaking" as a disease, and thought that a proper style should "reject all amplifications, digressions, and swellings of style" and instead "return back to a primitive purity and shortness" (History of the Royal Society, 1667). Rhetoric_sentence_328

While the work of this committee never went beyond planning, John Dryden is often credited with creating and exemplifying a new and modern English style. Rhetoric_sentence_329

His central tenet was that the style should be proper "to the occasion, the subject, and the persons". Rhetoric_sentence_330

As such, he advocated the use of English words whenever possible instead of foreign ones, as well as vernacular, rather than Latinate, syntax. Rhetoric_sentence_331

His own prose (and his poetry) became exemplars of this new style. Rhetoric_sentence_332

Eighteenth century Rhetoric_section_18

Arguably one of the most influential schools of rhetoric during this time was Scottish Belletristic rhetoric, exemplified by such professors of rhetoric as Hugh Blair whose Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres saw international success in various editions and translations. Rhetoric_sentence_333

Nineteenth century Rhetoric_section_19

William G. Allen became the first American college professor of rhetoric, at New-York Central College, 1850–1853. Rhetoric_sentence_334

Modern Rhetoric_section_20

At the turn of the 20th century, there was a revival of rhetorical study manifested in the establishment of departments of rhetoric and speech at academic institutions, as well as the formation of national and international professional organizations. Rhetoric_sentence_335

Jim A. Kuypers and Andrew King suggest that the early interest in rhetorical studies was a movement away from elocution as taught in departments of English in the United States, and was an attempt to refocus rhetorical studies away from delivery only to civic engagement. Rhetoric_sentence_336

Collectively, they write, twentieth century rhetorical studies offered an understanding of rhetoric that demonstrated a "rich complexity" of how rhetorical scholars understood the nature of rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_337

Theorists generally agree that by the 1930s a significant reason for the revival of the study of rhetoric was the renewed importance of language and persuasion in the increasingly mediated environment of the 20th century (see Linguistic turn) and through the 21st century, with the media focus on the wide variations and analyses of political rhetoric and its consequences. Rhetoric_sentence_338

The rise of advertising and of mass media such as photography, telegraphy, radio, and film brought rhetoric more prominently into people's lives. Rhetoric_sentence_339

More recently the term rhetoric has been applied to media forms other than verbal language, e.g. Visual rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_340

Notable theorists Rhetoric_section_21


  • Chaïm Perelman was a philosopher of law, who studied, taught, and lived most of his life in Brussels. He was among the most important argumentation theorists of the 20th century. His chief work is the Traité de l'argumentation – la nouvelle rhétorique (1958), with Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca, which was translated into English as The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation, by John Wilkinson and Purcell Weaver (1969). Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca move rhetoric from the periphery to the center of argumentation theory. Among their most influential concepts are "dissociation", "the universal audience", "quasi-logical argument", and "presence".Rhetoric_item_0_0
  • Kenneth Burke was a rhetorical theorist, philosopher, and poet. Many of his works are central to modern rhetorical theory: A Rhetoric of Motives (1950), A Grammar of Motives (1945), Language as Symbolic Action (1966), and Counterstatement (1931). Among his influential concepts are "identification", "consubstantiality", and the "dramatistic pentad". He described rhetoric as "the use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols". In relation to Aristotle's theory, Aristotle was more interested in constructing rhetoric, while Burke was interested in "debunking" it.Rhetoric_item_0_1
  • Edwin Black was a rhetorical critic best known for his book Rhetorical Criticism: A Study in Method (1965) in which he criticized the dominant "neo-Aristotelian" tradition in American rhetorical criticism as having little in common with Aristotle "besides some recurrent topics of discussion and a vaguely derivative view of rhetorical discourse". Furthermore, he contended, because rhetorical scholars had been focusing primarily on Aristotelian logical forms they often overlooked important, alternative types of discourse. He also published several highly influential essays including: "Secrecy and Disclosure as Rhetorical Forms", "The Second Persona", and "A Note on Theory and Practice in Rhetorical Criticism".Rhetoric_item_0_2
  • Marshall McLuhan was a media theorist whose theories and whose choice of objects of study are important to the study of rhetoric. McLuhan's famous dictum "the medium is the message" highlights the significance of the medium itself. No other scholar of the history and theory of rhetoric was as widely publicized in the 20th century as McLuhan.Rhetoric_item_0_3
  • I. A. Richards was a literary critic and rhetorician. His The Philosophy of Rhetoric is an important text in modern rhetorical theory. In this work, he defined rhetoric as "a study of misunderstandings and its remedies", and introduced the influential concepts tenor and vehicle to describe the components of a metaphor—the main idea and the concept to which it is compared.Rhetoric_item_0_4
  • The Groupe µ: This interdisciplinary team has contributed to the renovation of the elocutio in the context of poetics and modern linguistics, significantly with Rhétorique générale (1970; translated into English as A General Rhetoric, by Paul B. Burrell et Edgar M. Slotkin, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981) and Rhétorique de la poésie (1977).Rhetoric_item_0_5
  • Stephen Toulmin was a philosopher whose models of argumentation have had great influence on modern rhetorical theory. His Uses of Argument is an important text in modern rhetorical theory and argumentation theory.Rhetoric_item_0_6
  • Richard Vatz is a rhetorician responsible for the salience-agenda/meaning-spin conceptualization of rhetoric, later revised (2014) to an "agenda-spin" model, a conceptualization which emphasizes persuader responsibility for the agenda and spin he/she creates. His theory is notable for its agent-focused perspective, articulated in The Only Authentic Book of Persuasion (Kendall Hunt), derived from the Summer, 1973 Philosophy and Rhetoric article, "The Myth of the Rhetorical Situation".Rhetoric_item_0_7
  • Richard M. Weaver was a rhetorical and cultural critic well known for his contributions to the new conservatism. He focused on the ethical implications of rhetoric and his ideas can be seen in "Language is Sermonic" and "The Ethics of Rhetoric". According to Weaver there are four types of argument, and through the argument a person habitually uses the critic can see the rhetorician's worldview. Those who prefer the argument from genus or definition are idealists. Those who argue from similitude, such as poets and religious people, see the connectedness between things. The argument from consequence sees a cause and effect relationship. Finally the argument from circumstance considers the particulars of a situation and is an argument preferred by liberals.Rhetoric_item_0_8
  • Gloria Anzaldúa was a "Mestiza" and "Borderland" rhetorician, as well as a Mexican-American poet and pioneer in the field of Chicana lesbian feminism. Mestiza and Borderland rhetoric focused on ones' formation of identity, disregarding societal and discourse labels. With "Mestiza" rhetoric, one viewed the world as discovering one's "self" in others and others' "self" in you. Through this process, one accepted living in a world of contradictions and ambiguity. Anzaldua learned to balance cultures, being Mexican in the eyes of the Anglo-majority and Indian in a Mexican culture. Her other notable works include: Sinister Wisdom, Borderlands/La Fronters: The New Mestiza, and La Prieta.Rhetoric_item_0_9
  • Gertrude Buck was one of the prominent female rhetorical theorists who was also a composition educator. Her scholastic contributions such as "The present status of Rhetorical Theory" to inspire the egalitarian status of hearers-speakers to achieve the goal of communication. Another piece that she edited with Newton Scott is "Brief English Grammar" which troubled the common prescriptive grammar. This book received a lot of praise and critiques for descriptive nature of social responsibility from non-mainstream beliefs.Rhetoric_item_0_10
  • Krista Ratcliffe is one of the prominent female rhetorical theorists. She wrote one of her influential models of "Rhetorical Listening: Identification, Gender, Whiteness." In it, she theorizes many ways in which effect has to navigate the pitfalls of biases, ideological and cultural conditioning, and appropriation. She points out and recommends relentless engagement. In her Book, Ratcliffe seems to recommend when she said that I would suggest that teachers should keep themselves open to hearing diverse layers in their students' texts that both challenge their biases and point to new textual possibilities.Rhetoric_item_0_11

Methods of analysis Rhetoric_section_22

Criticism seen as a method Rhetoric_section_23

Rhetoric can be analyzed by a variety of methods and theories. Rhetoric_sentence_341

One such method is criticism. Rhetoric_sentence_342

When those using criticism analyze instances of rhetoric what they do is called rhetorical criticism (see section below). Rhetoric_sentence_343

According to rhetorical critic Jim A. Kuypers, "The use of rhetoric is an art; as such, it does not lend itself well to scientific methods of analysis. Rhetoric_sentence_344

Criticism is an art as well; as such, it is particularly well suited for examining rhetorical creations." Rhetoric_sentence_345

He asserts that criticism is a method of generating knowledge just as the scientific method is a method for generating knowledge: Rhetoric_sentence_346

Edwin Black (rhetorician) wrote on this point that, "Methods, then, admit of varying degrees of personality. Rhetoric_sentence_347

And criticism, on the whole, is near the indeterminate, contingent, personal end of the methodological scale. Rhetoric_sentence_348

In consequence of this placement, it is neither possible nor desirable for criticism to be fixed into a system, for critical techniques to be objectified, for critics to be interchangeable for purposes of [scientific] replication, or for rhetorical criticism to serve as the handmaiden of quasi-scientific theory. Rhetoric_sentence_349

[The] idea is that critical method is too personally expressive to be systematized. Rhetoric_sentence_350

Jim A. Kuypers sums this idea of criticism as art in the following manner: "In short, criticism is an art, not a science. Rhetoric_sentence_351

It is not a scientific method; it uses subjective methods of argument; it exists on its own, not in conjunction with other methods of generating knowledge (i.e., social scientific or scientific). Rhetoric_sentence_352

[I]nsight and imagination top statistical applications when studying rhetorical action." Rhetoric_sentence_353

Observation on analytic method Rhetoric_section_24

There does not exist an analytic method that is widely recognized as "the" rhetorical method, partly because many in rhetorical study see rhetoric as merely produced by reality (see dissent from that view below). Rhetoric_sentence_354

It is important to note that the object of rhetorical analysis is typically discourse, and therefore the principles of "rhetorical analysis" would be difficult to distinguish from those of "discourse analysis". Rhetoric_sentence_355

However, rhetorical analytic methods can also be applied to almost anything, including objects—a car, a castle, a computer, a comportment. Rhetoric_sentence_356

Generally speaking, rhetorical analysis makes use of rhetorical concepts (ethos, logos, kairos, mediation, etc.) to describe the social or epistemological functions of the object of study. Rhetoric_sentence_357

When the object of study happens to be some type of discourse (a speech, a poem, a joke, a newspaper article), the aim of rhetorical analysis is not simply to describe the claims and arguments advanced within the discourse, but (more important) to identify the specific semiotic strategies employed by the speaker to accomplish specific persuasive goals. Rhetoric_sentence_358

Therefore, after a rhetorical analyst discovers a use of language that is particularly important in achieving persuasion, she typically moves onto the question of "How does it work?" Rhetoric_sentence_359

That is, what effects does this particular use of rhetoric have on an audience, and how does that effect provide more clues as to the speaker's (or writer's) objectives? Rhetoric_sentence_360

There are some scholars who do partial rhetorical analysis and defer judgments about rhetorical success. Rhetoric_sentence_361

In other words, some analysts attempt to avoid the question of "Was this use of rhetoric successful [in accomplishing the aims of the speaker]?" Rhetoric_sentence_362

To others, however, that is the preeminent point: is the rhetoric strategically effective and what did the rhetoric accomplish? Rhetoric_sentence_363

This question allows a shift in focus from the speaker's objectives to the effects and functions of the rhetoric itself. Rhetoric_sentence_364

Strategies Rhetoric_section_25

Rhetorical strategies are the efforts made by authors to persuade or inform their readers. Rhetoric_sentence_365

Rhetorical strategies are employed by writers and refer to the different ways they can persuade the reader. Rhetoric_sentence_366

According to Gray, there are various argument strategies used in writing. Rhetoric_sentence_367

He describes four of these as argument from analogy, argument from absurdity, thought experiments, and inference to the best explanation. Rhetoric_sentence_368

Criticism Rhetoric_section_26

Modern rhetorical criticism explores the relationship between text and context; that is, how an instance of rhetoric relates to circumstances. Rhetoric_sentence_369

Since the aim of rhetoric is to be persuasive, the level to which the rhetoric in question persuades its audience is what must be analyzed, and later criticized. Rhetoric_sentence_370

In determining the extent to which a text is persuasive, one may explore the text's relationship with its audience, purpose, ethics, argument, evidence, arrangement, delivery, and style. Rhetoric_sentence_371

In his Rhetorical Criticism: A Study in Method, scholar Edwin Black states, "It is the task of criticism not to measure ... discourses dogmatically against some parochial standard of rationality but, allowing for the immeasurable wide range of human experience, to see them as they really are." Rhetoric_sentence_372

While the language "as they really are" is debatable, rhetorical critics explain texts and speeches by investigating their rhetorical situation, typically placing them in a framework of speaker/audience exchange. Rhetoric_sentence_373

The antithetical view places the rhetor at the center of creating that which is considered the extant situation; i.e., the agenda and spin. Rhetoric_sentence_374

Additional theoretical approaches Rhetoric_section_27

Following the neo-Aristotelian approaches to criticism, scholars began to derive methods from other disciplines, such as history, philosophy, and the social sciences. Rhetoric_sentence_375

The importance of critics' personal judgment decreased in explicit coverage while the analytical dimension of criticism began to gain momentum. Rhetoric_sentence_376

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, methodological pluralism replaced the singular neo-Aristotelian method. Rhetoric_sentence_377

Methodological rhetorical criticism is typically done by deduction, where a broad method is used to examine a specific case of rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_378

These types include: Rhetoric_sentence_379


  • Ideological criticism – critics engage rhetoric as it suggests the beliefs, values, assumptions, and interpretations held by the rhetor or the larger culture. Ideological criticism also treats ideology as an artifact of discourse, one that is embedded in key terms (called "ideographs") as well as material resources and discursive embodiment.Rhetoric_item_1_12
  • Cluster criticism – a method developed by Kenneth Burke that seeks to help the critic understand the rhetor's worldview. This means identifying terms that are 'clustered' around key symbols in the rhetorical artifact and the patterns in which they appear.Rhetoric_item_1_13
  • Frame analysis – when used as rhetorical criticism, this theoretical perspective allows critics to look for how rhetors construct an interpretive lens in their discourse. In short, how they make certain facts more noticeable than others. It is particularly useful for analyzing products of the news media.Rhetoric_item_1_14
  • Genre criticism – a method that assumes certain situations call for similar needs and expectations within the audience, therefore calling for certain types of rhetoric. It studies rhetoric in different times and locations, looking at similarities in the rhetorical situation and the rhetoric that responds to them. Examples include eulogies, inaugural addresses, and declarations of war.Rhetoric_item_1_15
  • Narrative criticism – narratives help organize experiences in order to endow meaning to historical events and transformations. Narrative criticism focuses on the story itself and how the construction of the narrative directs the interpretation of the situation.Rhetoric_item_1_16

By the mid-1980s, however, the study of rhetorical criticism began to move away from precise methodology towards conceptual issues. Rhetoric_sentence_380

Conceptually driven criticism operates more through abduction, according to scholar James Jasinski, who argues that this emerging type of criticism can be thought of as a back-and-forth between the text and the concepts, which are being explored at the same time. Rhetoric_sentence_381

The concepts remain "works in progress", and understanding those terms develops through the analysis of a text. Rhetoric_sentence_382

Criticism is considered rhetorical when it focuses on the way some types of discourse react to situational exigencies—problems or demands—and constraints. Rhetoric_sentence_383

This means that modern rhetorical criticism is based in how the rhetorical case or object persuades, defines, or constructs the audience. Rhetoric_sentence_384

In modern terms, what can be considered rhetoric includes, but it is not limited to, speeches, scientific discourse, pamphlets, literary work, works of art, and pictures. Rhetoric_sentence_385

Contemporary rhetorical criticism has maintained aspects of early neo-Aristotelian thinking through close reading, which attempts to explore the organization and stylistic structure of a rhetorical object. Rhetoric_sentence_386

Using close textual analysis means rhetorical critics use the tools of classical rhetoric and literary analysis to evaluate the style and strategy used to communicate the argument. Rhetoric_sentence_387

Purpose of criticism Rhetoric_section_28

Rhetorical criticism serves several purposes or functions. Rhetoric_sentence_388

First, rhetorical criticism hopes to help form or improve public taste. Rhetoric_sentence_389

It helps educate audiences and develops them into better judges of rhetorical situations by reinforcing ideas of value, morality, and suitability. Rhetoric_sentence_390

Rhetorical criticism can thus contribute to the audience's understanding of themselves and society. Rhetoric_sentence_391

According to Jim A. Kuypers, a dual purpose for performing criticism should be primarily to enhance our appreciation and understanding. Rhetoric_sentence_392

"[W]e wish to enhance both our own and others' understanding of the rhetorical act; we wish to share our insights with others, and to enhance their appreciation of the rhetorical act. Rhetoric_sentence_393

These are not hollow goals, but quality of life issues. Rhetoric_sentence_394

By improving understanding and appreciation, the critic can offer new and potentially exciting ways for others to see the world. Rhetoric_sentence_395

Through understanding we also produce knowledge about human communication; in theory this should help us to better govern our interactions with others." Rhetoric_sentence_396

Criticism is a humanizing activity in that it explores and highlights qualities that make us human." Rhetoric_sentence_397

French Rhetoric_section_29

Rhetoric was part of the curriculum in Jesuit and, to a lesser extent, Oratorian colleges until the French Revolution. Rhetoric_sentence_398

The cornerstone of Jesuit Education was Eloquentia Perfecta. Rhetoric_sentence_399

For Jesuits, right from the foundation of the Society in France, rhetoric was an integral part of the training of young men toward taking up leadership positions in the Church and in State institutions, as Marc Fumaroli has shown it in his foundational Âge de l'éloquence (1980). Rhetoric_sentence_400

The Oratorians, by contrast, reserved it a lesser place, in part due to the stress they placed on modern language acquisition and a more sensualist philosophy (like Bernard Lamy's La Rhétorique ou l'Art de parler (1675), which is an excellent example of their approach). Rhetoric_sentence_401

Nonetheless, in the 18th Century, rhetoric was the structure and crown of secondary education, with works such as Rollin's Treatise of Studies achieving a wide and enduring fame across the Continent. Rhetoric_sentence_402

Later, with Nicolas Boileau and François de Malherbe, rhetoric is the instrument of the clarity of the comment and speech; the literature that ensues from it is named "Sublime". Rhetoric_sentence_403

The main representative remains Rivarol. Rhetoric_sentence_404

The French Revolution, however, turned this around. Rhetoric_sentence_405

Philosophers such as Condorcet, who drafted the French revolutionary chart for a people's education under the rule of reason, dismissed rhetoric as an instrument of oppression in the hands of clerics in particular. Rhetoric_sentence_406

The Revolution went as far as to suppress the Bar, arguing that forensic rhetoric did disservice to a rational system of justice, by allowing fallacies and emotions to come into play. Rhetoric_sentence_407

Nonetheless, as later historians of the 19th century were keen to explain, the Revolution was a high moment of eloquence and rhetorical prowess, although set against a background of rejecting rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_408

Under the First Empire and its wide-ranging educational reforms, imposed on or imitated across the Continent, rhetoric regained little ground. Rhetoric_sentence_409

In fact, instructions to the newly founded Polytechnic School, tasked with training the scientific and technical elites, made it clear that written reporting was to supersede oral reporting. Rhetoric_sentence_410

Rhetoric reentered secondary curriculum in fits and starts, but never regained the prominence it had enjoyed under the ancien régime, although the penultimate year of secondary education was known as the Class of Rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_411

When manuals were redrafted in the mid-century, in particular after the 1848 Revolution to formulate a national curriculum, care was taken to distance their approach to rhetoric from that of the Church, which was seen as an agent of conservatism and reactionary politics. Rhetoric_sentence_412

By the end of the 1870s, a major change had taken place: philosophy of the rationalist or eclectic kind, generally Kantian, had taken over rhetoric as the true end stage of secondary education (the so-called Class of Philosophy bridged secondary and university education). Rhetoric_sentence_413

Rhetoric was then relegated to the study of literary figures of speech, a discipline later on taught as Stylistics within the French literature curriculum. Rhetoric_sentence_414

More decisively, in 1890, a new standard written exercise superseded the rhetorical exercises of speech writing, letter writing and narration. Rhetoric_sentence_415

The new genre, called dissertation, had been invented in 1866, for the purpose of rational argument in the philosophy class. Rhetoric_sentence_416

Typically, in a dissertation, a question is asked, such as: "Is history a sign of humanity's freedom?" Rhetoric_sentence_417

The structure of a dissertation consists in an introduction that elucidates the basic definitions involved in the question as set, followed by an argument or thesis, a counter-argument or antithesis, and a resolving argument or synthesis that is not a compromise between the former but the production of a new argument, ending with a conclusion that does not sum up the points but opens onto a new problem. Rhetoric_sentence_418

Hegelianism influenced the dissertation design. Rhetoric_sentence_419

It remains today the standard of writing in French humanities. Rhetoric_sentence_420

By the beginning of the 20th century, rhetoric was fast losing the remains of its former importance, and eventually was taken out of the school curriculum altogether at the time of the Separation of State and Churches (1905). Rhetoric_sentence_421

Part of the argument was that rhetoric remained the last element of irrationality, driven by religious arguments, in what was perceived as inimical to Republican education. Rhetoric_sentence_422

The move, initiated in 1789, found its resolution in 1902 when rhetoric was expunged from all curricula. Rhetoric_sentence_423

At the same time, Aristotelian rhetoric, owing to a revival of Thomistic philosophy initiated by Rome, regained ground in what was left of Catholic education in France, in particular at the prestigious Faculty of Theology of Paris, now a private entity. Rhetoric_sentence_424

Yet, rhetoric vanished substantially from the French scene, educational or intellectual, for some 60 years. Rhetoric_sentence_425

In the early 1960s a change began to take place, as the word rhetoric and the body of knowledge it covers began to be used again, in a modest and almost secret manner. Rhetoric_sentence_426

The new linguistic turn, through the rise of semiotics as well as of structural linguistics, brought to the fore a new interest in figures of speech as signs, the metaphor in particular (in the works of Roman Jakobson, Groupe µ, Michel Charles, Gérard Genette) while famed Structuralist Roland Barthes, a classicist by training, perceived how some basic elements of rhetoric could be of use in the study of narratives, fashion and ideology. Rhetoric_sentence_427

Knowledge of rhetoric was so dim in the early 1970s that his short memoir on rhetoric was seen as highly innovative. Rhetoric_sentence_428

Basic as it was, it did help rhetoric regain some currency in avant-garde circles. Rhetoric_sentence_429

Psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, his contemporary, makes references to rhetoric, in particular to the Pre-Socratics. Rhetoric_sentence_430

Philosopher Jacques Derrida wrote on Voice. Rhetoric_sentence_431

At the same time, more profound work was taking place that eventually gave rise to the French school of rhetoric as it exists today. Rhetoric_sentence_432

This rhetorical revival took place on two fronts. Rhetoric_sentence_433

First, in 17th-century French studies, the mainstay of French literary education, awareness grew that rhetoric was necessary to push the limits of knowledge further, and also to provide an antidote to Structuralism and its denial of historicism in culture. Rhetoric_sentence_434

This was the pioneering work of Marc Fumaroli who, building on the work of classicist and Neo-Latinist Alain Michel and French scholars such as Roger Zuber, published his famed Age de l'Eloquence (1980), was one of the founders of the International Society for the History of Rhetoric and was eventually elevated to a chair in rhetoric at the prestigious College de France. Rhetoric_sentence_435

He is the editor in chief of a monumental History of Rhetoric in Modern Europe. Rhetoric_sentence_436

His disciples form the second generation, with rhetoricians such as Françoise Waquet and Delphine Denis, both of the Sorbonne, or Philippe-Joseph Salazar ( on the French Wikipedia), until recently at Derrida's College international de philosophie, laureate of the Harry Oppenheimer prize and whose recent book on Hyperpolitique has attracted the French media's attention on a "re-appropriation of the means of production of persuasion". Rhetoric_sentence_437

Second, in the area of Classical studies, in the wake of Alain Michel, Latin scholars fostered a renewal in Cicero studies. Rhetoric_sentence_438

They broke away from a pure literary reading of his orations, in an attempt to embed Cicero in European ethics. Rhetoric_sentence_439

Meanwhile, among Greek scholars, the literary historian and philologist Jacques Bompaire, the philologist and philosopher E. Dupréel, and later the literature historian Jacqueline de Romilly pioneered new studies in the Sophists and the Second Sophistic. Rhetoric_sentence_440

The second generation of Classicists, often trained in philosophy as well (following Heidegger and Derrida, mainly), built on their work, with authors such as Marcel Detienne (now at Johns Hopkins), Nicole Loraux, Medievalist and logician (Geneva), Ciceronian scholar Carlos Lévy (Sorbonne, Paris) and Barbara Cassin (Collége international de philosophie, Paris). Rhetoric_sentence_441

Sociologist of science Bruno Latour and economist Romain Laufer may also be considered part of, or close to this group. Rhetoric_sentence_442

Also French philosophers specialized in Arabic commentaries on Aristotle's Rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_443

Links between the two strands—literary and philosophical—of the French school of rhetoric are strong and collaborative, and bear witness to the revival of rhetoric in France. Rhetoric_sentence_444

A recent issue of Philosophy & Rhetoric presents current writing in the field. Rhetoric_sentence_445

Animal rhetoric Rhetoric_section_30

Rhetoric is practiced by social animals in a variety of ways. Rhetoric_sentence_446

For example, birds use song, various animals warn members of their species of danger, chimpanzees have the capacity to deceive through communicative keyboard systems, and deer stags compete for the attention of mates. Rhetoric_sentence_447

While these might be understood as rhetorical actions (attempts at persuading through meaningful actions and utterances), they can also be seen as rhetorical fundamentals shared by humans and animals. Rhetoric_sentence_448

The study of animal rhetoric has been described as biorhetorics. Rhetoric_sentence_449

The self-awareness required to practice rhetoric might be difficult to notice and acknowledge in some animals. Rhetoric_sentence_450

However, some animals are capable of acknowledging themselves in a mirror, and therefore, they might be understood to be self-aware and engaged in rhetoric when practicing some form of language, and therefore, rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_451

Anthropocentrism plays a significant role in human-animal relationships, reflecting and perpetuating binaries in which humans are assumed to be beings that "have" extraordinary qualities while animals are regarded as beings that "lack" those qualities. Rhetoric_sentence_452

This dualism is manifested through other forms as well, such as reason and sense, mind and body, ideal and phenomenon in which the first category of each pair (reason, mind, and ideal) represents and belongs to only humans. Rhetoric_sentence_453

By becoming aware of and overcoming these dualistic conceptions including the one between humans and animals, human knowledge of themselves and the world is expected to become more complete and holistic. Rhetoric_sentence_454

The relationship between humans and animals (as well as the rest of the natural world) is often defined by the human rhetorical act of naming and categorizing animals through scientific and folk labeling. Rhetoric_sentence_455

The act of naming partially defines the rhetorical relationships between humans and animals, though both may be understood to engage in rhetoric beyond human naming and categorizing. Rhetoric_sentence_456

Contrary to the binary assumptions deriving from anthropocentrism, which regarded animals as creatures without extraordinarily qualities, it does exist some specific animals with a sort of phrónēsis which confers them capabilities to "learn and receive instruction" with rudimentary understanding of some significant signs. Rhetoric_sentence_457

Those animals do practice deliberative, judicial, and epideictic rhetoric deploying ethos, logos, and pathos with gesture and preen, sing and growl. Rhetoric_sentence_458

Since animals offer models of rhetorical behavior and interaction that are physical, even instinctual, but perhaps no less artful, getting rid of our accustomed focus on verbal language and consciousness concepts will help people interested in rhetoric and communication matters promote human-animals' rhetoric. Rhetoric_sentence_459

See also Rhetoric_section_31

Miscellaneous terms Rhetoric_section_32

Political speech resources Rhetoric_section_33


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetoric.