Rhode Island

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This article is about the State of Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_0

For other uses, see Rhode Island (disambiguation). Rhode Island_sentence_1

Rhode Island_table_infobox_0

Rhode IslandRhode Island_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryRhode Island_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesRhode Island_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodRhode Island_header_cell_0_2_0 Colony of Rhode Island and Providence PlantationsRhode Island_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionRhode Island_header_cell_0_3_0 May 29, 1790 (13th)Rhode Island_cell_0_3_1

(and largest city)Rhode Island_header_cell_0_4_0

ProvidenceRhode Island_cell_0_4_1
Largest metroRhode Island_header_cell_0_5_0 Greater ProvidenceRhode Island_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentRhode Island_header_cell_0_6_0
GovernorRhode Island_header_cell_0_7_0 Gina Raimondo (D)Rhode Island_cell_0_7_1
Lieutenant GovernorRhode Island_header_cell_0_8_0 Daniel McKee (D)Rhode Island_cell_0_8_1
LegislatureRhode Island_header_cell_0_9_0 Rhode Island General AssemblyRhode Island_cell_0_9_1
Upper houseRhode Island_header_cell_0_10_0 SenateRhode Island_cell_0_10_1
Lower houseRhode Island_header_cell_0_11_0 House of RepresentativesRhode Island_cell_0_11_1
JudiciaryRhode Island_header_cell_0_12_0 Rhode Island Supreme CourtRhode Island_cell_0_12_1
U.S. senatorsRhode Island_header_cell_0_13_0 Jack Reed (D)

Sheldon Whitehouse (D)Rhode Island_cell_0_13_1

U.S. House delegationRhode Island_header_cell_0_14_0 1: David Cicilline (D)

2: James Langevin (D) (list)Rhode Island_cell_0_14_1

AreaRhode Island_header_cell_0_15_0
TotalRhode Island_header_cell_0_16_0 1,214 sq mi (3,144 km)Rhode Island_cell_0_16_1
LandRhode Island_header_cell_0_17_0 1,045 sq mi (2,707 km)Rhode Island_cell_0_17_1
WaterRhode Island_header_cell_0_18_0 169 sq mi (438 km)  13.9%Rhode Island_cell_0_18_1
Area rankRhode Island_header_cell_0_19_0 50thRhode Island_cell_0_19_1
DimensionsRhode Island_header_cell_0_20_0
LengthRhode Island_header_cell_0_21_0 48 mi (77 km)Rhode Island_cell_0_21_1
WidthRhode Island_header_cell_0_22_0 37 mi (60 km)Rhode Island_cell_0_22_1
ElevationRhode Island_header_cell_0_23_0 200 ft (60 m)Rhode Island_cell_0_23_1
Highest elevation (Jerimoth Hill)Rhode Island_header_cell_0_24_0 812 ft (247 m)Rhode Island_cell_0_24_1
Lowest elevation (Atlantic Ocean)Rhode Island_header_cell_0_25_0 0 ft (0 m)Rhode Island_cell_0_25_1
Population (2019 Census Bureau, Q2 2019)Rhode Island_header_cell_0_26_0
TotalRhode Island_header_cell_0_27_0 1,059,361Rhode Island_cell_0_27_1
RankRhode Island_header_cell_0_28_0 45thRhode Island_cell_0_28_1
DensityRhode Island_header_cell_0_29_0 1,006/sq mi (388/km)Rhode Island_cell_0_29_1
Density rankRhode Island_header_cell_0_30_0 2ndRhode Island_cell_0_30_1
Median household incomeRhode Island_header_cell_0_31_0 $63,870Rhode Island_cell_0_31_1
Income rankRhode Island_header_cell_0_32_0 16thRhode Island_cell_0_32_1
Demonym(s)Rhode Island_header_cell_0_33_0 Rhode IslanderRhode Island_cell_0_33_1
LanguageRhode Island_header_cell_0_34_0
Official languageRhode Island_header_cell_0_35_0 De jure: None

De facto: EnglishRhode Island_cell_0_35_1

Time zoneRhode Island_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC-05:00 (Eastern)Rhode Island_cell_0_36_1
Summer (DST)Rhode Island_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC-04:00 (EDT)Rhode Island_cell_0_37_1
USPS abbreviationRhode Island_header_cell_0_38_0 RIRhode Island_cell_0_38_1
ISO 3166 codeRhode Island_header_cell_0_39_0 US-RIRhode Island_cell_0_39_1
Traditional abbreviationRhode Island_header_cell_0_40_0 R.I.Rhode Island_cell_0_40_1
LatitudeRhode Island_header_cell_0_41_0 41° 09′ N to 42° 01′ NRhode Island_cell_0_41_1
LongitudeRhode Island_header_cell_0_42_0 71° 07′ W to 71° 53′ WRhode Island_cell_0_42_1
WebsiteRhode Island_header_cell_0_43_0 Rhode Island_cell_0_43_1

Rhode Island (/ˌroʊd -/ (listen), like road) is a state in the New England region of the United States. Rhode Island_sentence_2

It is the smallest U.S. state by area and the seventh least populous (1,059,361 as of 2019), but it is also the second most densely populated behind New Jersey. Rhode Island_sentence_3

The state takes its name from Rhode Island; however, most of the state is located on the mainland. Rhode Island_sentence_4

The state has land borders with Connecticut to the west, Massachusetts to the north and east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south via Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound. Rhode Island_sentence_5

It also shares a small maritime border with New York. Rhode Island_sentence_6

Providence is the state capital and most populous city in Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_7

On May 4, 1776, the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown, and it was the fourth state to ratify the Articles of Confederation, doing so on February 9, 1778. Rhode Island_sentence_8

The state boycotted the 1787 convention which drew up the United States Constitution and initially refused to ratify it; it was the last of the original 13 states to do so, on May 29, 1790. Rhode Island_sentence_9

Formally named the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations since its accession to the Union in 1790, voters in the state approved an amendment in November 2020 to the state constitution removing "and Providence Plantations", thereby renaming itself as the State of Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_10

This change will take effect when the results are certified. Rhode Island_sentence_11

Rhode Island's official nickname is "The Ocean State", a reference to the large bays and inlets that amount to about 14 percent of its total area. Rhode Island_sentence_12

Name Rhode Island_section_0

Origins of the name Rhode Island_section_1

Despite its name, most of Rhode Island is located on the mainland of the United States. Rhode Island_sentence_13

Its official name was originally State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, which is derived from the merger of four Colonial settlements. Rhode Island_sentence_14

The settlements of Newport and Portsmouth were situated on what is commonly called Aquidneck Island today but was called Rhode Island in Colonial times. Rhode Island_sentence_15

Providence Plantation was the name of the colony founded by Roger Williams in the state's capital of Providence. Rhode Island_sentence_16

This was adjoined by the settlement of Warwick; hence the plural Providence Plantations. Rhode Island_sentence_17

It is unclear how the island came to be named Rhode Island, but two historical events may have been of influence: Rhode Island_sentence_18

Rhode Island_unordered_list_0

  • Explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano noted the presence of an island near the mouth of Narragansett Bay in 1524 which he likened to the island of Rhodes off the coast of Greece. Subsequent European explorers were unable to precisely identify the island that Verrazzano described, but the colonists who settled the area assumed that it was this island.Rhode Island_item_0_0
  • Adriaen Block passed by the island during his expeditions in the 1610s, and he described it in a 1625 account of his travels as "an island of reddish appearance," which was "een rodlich Eylande" in 17th-century Dutch, meaning a red or reddish island, supposedly evolving into the designation Rhode Island. Historians have theorized that this "reddish appearance" resulted from either red autumn foliage or red clay on portions of the shore.Rhode Island_item_0_1

The earliest documented use of the name "Rhode Island" for Aquidneck was in 1637 by Roger Williams. Rhode Island_sentence_19

The name was officially applied to the island in 1644 with these words: "Aquethneck shall be henceforth called the Isle of Rodes or Rhode-Island." Rhode Island_sentence_20

The name "Isle of Rodes" is used in a legal document as late as 1646. Rhode Island_sentence_21

Dutch maps as early as 1659 call the island "Red Island" (Roodt Eylant). Rhode Island_sentence_22

Attempts to change the name Rhode Island_section_2

The first English settlement in Rhode Island was the town of Providence, which the Narragansett granted to Roger Williams in 1636. Rhode Island_sentence_23

At that time, Williams obtained no permission from the English crown, as he believed that the English had no legitimate claim on Narragansett and Wampanoag territory. Rhode Island_sentence_24

However, in 1643, he petitioned Charles I of England to grant Providence and neighboring towns a colonial patent, due to threats of invasion from the colonies of Boston and Plymouth. Rhode Island_sentence_25

He used the name "Providence Plantations" in his petition, plantation being the English term for a colony. Rhode Island_sentence_26

"Providence Plantations" was therefore the official name of the colony from 1643 to 1663, when a new charter was issued. Rhode Island_sentence_27

Following the American Revolution, the new state incorporated both "Rhode Island" and "Providence Plantations" in its official name. Rhode Island_sentence_28

The word plantation in the state's name has become a contested issue, and the Rhode Island General Assembly voted on June 25, 2009, to hold a general referendum determining whether "and Providence Plantations" would be dropped from the official name. Rhode Island_sentence_29

Advocates for excising plantation claimed that the word symbolized an alleged legacy of disenfranchisement for many Rhode Islanders, as well as the proliferation of slavery in the colonies and in the post-colonial United States. Rhode Island_sentence_30

Advocates for retaining the name argued that plantation was simply an archaic synonym for colony and bore no relation to slavery. Rhode Island_sentence_31

The referendum election was held on November 2, 2010, and the people voted overwhelmingly (78% to 22%) to retain the entire original name. Rhode Island_sentence_32

Successful name change Rhode Island_section_3

On June 19, 2020, State Senator Harold Metts introduced a resolution for another ballot referendum on removing the words "and Providence Plantations" from the state's name, saying, "Whatever the meaning of the term 'plantations' in the context of Rhode Island's history, it carries a horrific connotation when considering the tragic and racist history of our nation." Rhode Island_sentence_33

On June 22, 2020, Rhode Island Governor Gina Raimondo issued an executive order to remove "Providence Plantations" from a range of official documents and state websites. Rhode Island_sentence_34

On July 16, 2020, amidst the George Floyd protests and nationwide calls to address systemic racism, the resolution referring the question to the voters was passed by both houses of the Rhode Island General Assembly. Rhode Island_sentence_35

The vote was 69-1 in the House of Representatives and 35-0 in the Senate. Rhode Island_sentence_36

The change was approved by voters 52.8% to 47.2% as part of the 2020 United States elections, and will take effect upon final certification of the election results. Rhode Island_sentence_37

History Rhode Island_section_4

Main article: History of Rhode Island Rhode Island_sentence_38

Colonial era: 1636–1770 Rhode Island_section_5

Main article: Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations Rhode Island_sentence_39

In 1636, Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious views, and he settled at the top of Narragansett Bay on land sold or given to him by Narragansett sachem Canonicus. Rhode Island_sentence_40

He named the site Providence, "having a sense of God's merciful providence unto me in my distress", and it became a place of religious freedom where all were welcome. Rhode Island_sentence_41

In 1638 (after conferring with Williams), Anne Hutchinson, William Coddington, John Clarke, Philip Sherman, and other religious dissenters settled on Aquidneck Island (then known as Rhode Island), which was purchased from the local tribes who called it Pocasset. Rhode Island_sentence_42

This settlement was called Portsmouth and was governed by the Portsmouth Compact. Rhode Island_sentence_43

The southern part of the island became the separate settlement of Newport after disagreements among the founders. Rhode Island_sentence_44

Samuel Gorton purchased lands at Shawomet in 1642 from the Narragansetts, precipitating a dispute with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Rhode Island_sentence_45

In 1644, Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport united for their common independence as the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, governed by an elected council and "president". Rhode Island_sentence_46

Gorton received a separate charter for his settlement in 1648 which he named Warwick after his patron. Rhode Island_sentence_47

Metacomet was the Wampanoag tribe's war leader, whom the colonists called King Philip. Rhode Island_sentence_48

They invaded and burned down several of the towns in the area during King Philip's War (1675–1676), including Providence which was attacked twice. Rhode Island_sentence_49

A force of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Plymouth militia under General Josiah Winslow invaded and destroyed the fortified Narragansett Indian village in the Great Swamp in South Kingstown, Rhode Island on December 19, 1675. Rhode Island_sentence_50

In one of the final actions of the war, an Indian associated with Benjamin Church killed King Philip in Bristol, Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_51

The colony was amalgamated into the Dominion of New England in 1686, as King James II attempted to enforce royal authority over the autonomous colonies in British North America, but the colony regained its independence under the Royal Charter after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Rhode Island_sentence_52

Slaves were introduced in Rhode Island at this time, although there is no record of any law legalizing slave-holding. Rhode Island_sentence_53

The colony later prospered under the slave trade, distilling rum to sell in Africa as part of a profitable triangular trade in slaves and sugar with the Caribbean. Rhode Island_sentence_54

Rhode Island's legislative body passed an act in 1652 abolishing the holding of slaves (the first British colony to do so), but this edict was never enforced and Rhode Island continued to be heavily involved in the slave trade during the post-revolution era. Rhode Island_sentence_55

In 1774, the slave population of Rhode Island was 6.3% of the total (nearly twice the ratio of other New England colonies). Rhode Island_sentence_56

Brown University was founded in 1764 as the College in the British Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Rhode Island_sentence_57

It was one of nine Colonial colleges granted charters before the American Revolution, but was the first college in America to accept students regardless of religious affiliation. Rhode Island_sentence_58

Revolutionary to Civil War period: 1770–1860 Rhode Island_section_6

Rhode Island's tradition of independence and dissent gave it a prominent role in the American Revolution. Rhode Island_sentence_59

At approximately 2 a.m. on June 10, 1772, a band of Providence residents attacked the grounded revenue schooner Gaspee, burning it to the waterline for enforcing unpopular trade regulations within Narragansett Bay. Rhode Island_sentence_60

Rhode Island was the first of the thirteen colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776. Rhode Island_sentence_61

It was also the last of the thirteen colonies to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790, and only under threat of heavy trade tariffs from the other former colonies and after assurances were made that a Bill of Rights would become part of the Constitution. Rhode Island_sentence_62

During the Revolution, the British occupied Newport in December 1776. Rhode Island_sentence_63

A combined Franco-American force fought to drive them off Aquidneck Island. Rhode Island_sentence_64

Portsmouth was the site of the first African-American military unit, the 1st Rhode Island Regiment, to fight for the U.S. in the unsuccessful Battle of Rhode Island of August 29, 1778. Rhode Island_sentence_65

A month earlier, the appearance of a French fleet off Newport caused the British to scuttle some of their own ships in an attempt to block the harbor. Rhode Island_sentence_66

The British abandoned Newport in October 1779, concentrating their forces in New York City. Rhode Island_sentence_67

An expedition of 5,500 French troops under Count Rochambeau arrived in Newport by sea on July 10, 1780. Rhode Island_sentence_68

The celebrated march to Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781 ended with the defeat of the British at the Siege of Yorktown and the Battle of the Chesapeake. Rhode Island_sentence_69

Rhode Island was also heavily involved in the Industrial Revolution, which began in America in 1787 when Thomas Somers reproduced textile machine plans which he imported from England. Rhode Island_sentence_70

He helped to produce the Beverly Cotton Manufactory, in which Moses Brown of Providence took an interest. Rhode Island_sentence_71

Moses Brown teamed up with Samuel Slater and helped to create the second cotton mill in America, a water-powered textile mill. Rhode Island_sentence_72

The Industrial Revolution moved large numbers of workers into the cities, creating a permanently landless class who were therefore, by the law of the time, also voteless. Rhode Island_sentence_73

By 1829, 60% of the state's free white males were ineligible to vote. Rhode Island_sentence_74

Several attempts were unsuccessfully made to address this problem, and a new state constitution was passed in 1843 allowing landless men to vote if they could pay a $1 poll tax. Rhode Island_sentence_75

For the first several decades of statehood, Rhode Island was governed in accordance with the 1663 colonial charter. Rhode Island_sentence_76

Voting rights were restricted to landowners holding at least $134 in property, disenfranchising well over half of the state's male citizens. Rhode Island_sentence_77

The charter apportioned legislative seats equally among the state's towns, over-representing rural areas and under-representing the growing industrial centers. Rhode Island_sentence_78

Additionally, the charter disallowed landless citizens from filing civil suits without endorsement from a landowner. Rhode Island_sentence_79

Bills were periodically introduced in the legislature to expand suffrage, but they were invariably defeated. Rhode Island_sentence_80

In 1841, activists led by Thomas W. Dorr organized an extralegal convention to draft a state constitution, arguing that the charter government violated the Guarantee Clause in Article Four, Section Four of the United States Constitution. Rhode Island_sentence_81

In 1842, the charter government and Dorr's supporters held separate elections, and two rival governments claimed sovereignty over the state. Rhode Island_sentence_82

Dorr's supporters led an armed rebellion against the charter government, and Dorr was arrested and imprisoned for treason against the state. Rhode Island_sentence_83

Later that year, the legislature drafted a state constitution, removing property requirements for American-born citizens but keeping them in place for immigrants, and retaining urban under-representation in the legislature. Rhode Island_sentence_84

In the early 19th century, Rhode Island was subject to a tuberculosis outbreak which led to public hysteria about vampirism. Rhode Island_sentence_85

Civil War Rhode Island_section_7

Main article: Rhode Island in the American Civil War Rhode Island_sentence_86

During the American Civil War, Rhode Island was the first Union state to send troops in response to President Lincoln's request for help from the states. Rhode Island_sentence_87

Rhode Island furnished 25,236 fighting men, of whom 1,685 died. Rhode Island_sentence_88

On the home front, Rhode Island and the other northern states used their industrial capacity to supply the Union Army with the materials that it needed to win the war. Rhode Island_sentence_89

The United States Naval Academy moved to Rhode Island temporarily during the war. Rhode Island_sentence_90

In 1866, Rhode Island abolished racial segregation in the public schools throughout the state. Rhode Island_sentence_91

Gilded Age Rhode Island_section_8

The 50 years following the Civil War were a time of prosperity and affluence that author William G. McLoughlin calls "Rhode Island's halcyon era." Rhode Island_sentence_92

Rhode Island was a center of the Gilded Age and provided a home or summer home to many of the country's most prominent industrialists. Rhode Island_sentence_93

This was a time of growth in textile mills and manufacturing and brought an influx of immigrants to fill those jobs, bringing population growth and urbanization. Rhode Island_sentence_94

In Newport, New York's wealthiest industrialists created a summer haven to socialize and build grand mansions. Rhode Island_sentence_95

Thousands of French-Canadian, Italian, Irish, and Portuguese immigrants arrived to fill jobs in the textile and manufacturing mills in Providence, Pawtucket, Central Falls, and Woonsocket. Rhode Island_sentence_96

World War I Rhode Island_section_9

During World War I, Rhode Island furnished 28,817 soldiers, of whom 612 died. Rhode Island_sentence_97

After the war, the state was hit hard by the Spanish Influenza. Rhode Island_sentence_98

In the 1920s and 1930s, rural Rhode Island saw a surge in Ku Klux Klan membership, largely in reaction to large waves of immigrants moving to the state. Rhode Island_sentence_99

The Klan is believed to be responsible for burning the Watchman Industrial School in Scituate, which was a school for African-American children. Rhode Island_sentence_100

Growth in the modern era: 1929–present Rhode Island_section_10

Since the Great Depression, the Rhode Island Democratic Party has dominated local politics. Rhode Island_sentence_101

Rhode Island has comprehensive health insurance for low-income children and a large social safety net. Rhode Island_sentence_102

Many urban areas still have a high rate of children in poverty. Rhode Island_sentence_103

Due to an influx of residents from Boston, increasing housing costs have resulted in more homelessness in Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_104

The 350th Anniversary of the founding of Rhode Island was celebrated with a free concert held on the tarmac of the Quonset State Airport on August 31, 1986. Rhode Island_sentence_105

Performers included Chuck Berry, Tommy James, and headliner Bob Hope. Rhode Island_sentence_106

In 2003, a nightclub fire in West Warwick claimed 100 lives and resulted in nearly twice as many injured, catching national attention. Rhode Island_sentence_107

The fire resulted in criminal sentences. Rhode Island_sentence_108

In March 2010, areas of the state received record flooding due to rising rivers from heavy rain. Rhode Island_sentence_109

The first period of rainy weather in mid-March caused localized flooding and, two weeks later, more rain caused more widespread flooding in many towns, especially south of Providence. Rhode Island_sentence_110

Rain totals on March 29–30, 2010 exceeded 14 inches (35.5 cm) in many locales, resulting in the inundation of area rivers—especially the Pawtuxet River which runs through central Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_111

The overflow of the Pawtuxet River, nearly 11 feet (3 m) above flood stage, submerged a sewage treatment plant and closed a five-mile (8 km) stretch of Interstate 95. Rhode Island_sentence_112

In addition, it flooded two shopping malls, numerous businesses, and many homes in the towns of Warwick, West Warwick, Cranston, and Westerly. Rhode Island_sentence_113

Amtrak service was also suspended between New York and Boston during this period. Rhode Island_sentence_114

Following the flood, Rhode Island was in a state of emergency for two days. Rhode Island_sentence_115

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was called in to help flood victims. Rhode Island_sentence_116

Geography and climate Rhode Island_section_11

Further information: Geology of New England and Climate change in Rhode Island Rhode Island_sentence_117

Rhode Island covers an area of 1,214 square miles (3,144 km) located within the New England region and is bordered on the north and east by Massachusetts, on the west by Connecticut, and on the south by Rhode Island Sound and the Atlantic Ocean. Rhode Island_sentence_118

It shares a narrow maritime border with New York State between Block Island and Long Island. Rhode Island_sentence_119

The mean elevation of the state is 200 feet (61 m). Rhode Island_sentence_120

It is only 37 miles (60 km) wide and 48 miles (77 km) long, yet the state has a tidal shoreline on Narragansett Bay and the Atlantic Ocean of 384 miles (618 km). Rhode Island_sentence_121

Rhode Island is nicknamed the Ocean State and has a number of oceanfront beaches. Rhode Island_sentence_122

It is mostly flat with no real mountains, and the state's highest natural point is Jerimoth Hill, 812 feet (247 m) above sea level. Rhode Island_sentence_123

The state has two distinct natural regions. Rhode Island_sentence_124

Eastern Rhode Island contains the lowlands of the Narragansett Bay, while Western Rhode Island forms part of the New England upland. Rhode Island_sentence_125

Rhode Island's forests are part of the Northeastern coastal forests ecoregion. Rhode Island_sentence_126

Narragansett Bay is a major feature of the state's topography. Rhode Island_sentence_127

There are more than 30 islands within the bay; the largest is Aquidneck Island which holds the municipalities of Newport, Middletown, and Portsmouth. Rhode Island_sentence_128

The second-largest island is Conanicut, and the third is Prudence. Rhode Island_sentence_129

Block Island lies about 12 miles (19 km) off the southern coast of the mainland and separates Block Island Sound and the Atlantic Ocean proper. Rhode Island_sentence_130

A rare type of rock called Cumberlandite is found only in Rhode Island (specifically, in the town of Cumberland) and is the state rock. Rhode Island_sentence_131

There were initially two known deposits of the mineral, but it is an ore of iron, and one of the deposits was extensively mined for its ferrous content. Rhode Island_sentence_132

Rhode Island_unordered_list_1

  • Geography of Rhode IslandRhode Island_item_1_2
  • Rhode Island_item_1_3
  • Rhode Island_item_1_4
  • Rhode Island_item_1_5

Most of Rhode Island has a humid continental climate, with warm summers and cold winters. Rhode Island_sentence_133

The southern coastal portions of the state are the broad transition zone into subtropical climates, with hot summers and cool winters with a mix of rain and snow. Rhode Island_sentence_134

Block Island has an oceanic climate. Rhode Island_sentence_135

The highest temperature recorded in Rhode Island was 104 °F (40 °C), recorded on August 2, 1975 in Providence. Rhode Island_sentence_136

The lowest recorded temperature in Rhode Island was −23 °F (−31 °C) on February 5, 1996 in Greene. Rhode Island_sentence_137

Monthly average temperatures range from a high of 83 °F (28 °C) to a low of 20 °F (−7 °C). Rhode Island_sentence_138

Rhode Island is vulnerable to tropical storms and hurricanes due to its location in New England, catching the brunt of many storms blowing up the eastern seaboard. Rhode Island_sentence_139

Some hurricanes that have done significant damage in the state are the 1938 New England hurricane, Hurricane Carol (1954), Hurricane Donna (1960), and Hurricane Bob (1991). Rhode Island_sentence_140

Government Rhode Island_section_12

Main article: Government of Rhode Island Rhode Island_sentence_141

Rhode Island_table_general_1

Gubernatorial election resultsRhode Island_table_caption_1
YearRhode Island_header_cell_1_0_0 DemocraticRhode Island_header_cell_1_0_1 RepublicanRhode Island_header_cell_1_0_2
1950Rhode Island_cell_1_1_0 59.3% 176,125Rhode Island_cell_1_1_1 40.7% 120,683Rhode Island_cell_1_1_2
1954Rhode Island_cell_1_2_0 57.7% 189,595Rhode Island_cell_1_2_1 41.7% 137,131Rhode Island_cell_1_2_2
1958Rhode Island_cell_1_3_0 49.1% 170,275Rhode Island_cell_1_3_1 50.9% 176,505Rhode Island_cell_1_3_2
1962Rhode Island_cell_1_4_0 49.9% 163,554Rhode Island_cell_1_4_1 50.1% 163,952Rhode Island_cell_1_4_2
1966Rhode Island_cell_1_5_0 36.7% 121,862Rhode Island_cell_1_5_1 63.3% 210,202Rhode Island_cell_1_5_2
1970Rhode Island_cell_1_6_0 50.1% 173,420Rhode Island_cell_1_6_1 49.5% 171,549Rhode Island_cell_1_6_2
1974Rhode Island_cell_1_7_0 78.5% 252,436Rhode Island_cell_1_7_1 21.5% 69,224Rhode Island_cell_1_7_2
1978Rhode Island_cell_1_8_0 62.8% 197,386Rhode Island_cell_1_8_1 30.7% 96,596Rhode Island_cell_1_8_2
1982Rhode Island_cell_1_9_0 73.3% 247,208Rhode Island_cell_1_9_1 23.6% 79,602Rhode Island_cell_1_9_2
1986Rhode Island_cell_1_10_0 32.4% 104,504Rhode Island_cell_1_10_1 64.7% 208,822Rhode Island_cell_1_10_2
1990Rhode Island_cell_1_11_0 74.1% 264,411Rhode Island_cell_1_11_1 25.9% 92,177Rhode Island_cell_1_11_2
1994Rhode Island_cell_1_12_0 43.6% 157,361Rhode Island_cell_1_12_1 47.4% 171,194Rhode Island_cell_1_12_2
1998Rhode Island_cell_1_13_0 42.1% 129,105Rhode Island_cell_1_13_1 51.0% 156,180Rhode Island_cell_1_13_2
2002Rhode Island_cell_1_14_0 45.2% 150,229Rhode Island_cell_1_14_1 54.7% 181,827Rhode Island_cell_1_14_2
2006Rhode Island_cell_1_15_0 49.0% 189,503Rhode Island_cell_1_15_1 51.0% 197,306Rhode Island_cell_1_15_2
2010Rhode Island_cell_1_16_0 23.1% 78,896Rhode Island_cell_1_16_1 33.6% 114,911Rhode Island_cell_1_16_2
2014Rhode Island_cell_1_17_0 40.7% 131,452Rhode Island_cell_1_17_1 36.2% 117,106Rhode Island_cell_1_17_2
2018Rhode Island_cell_1_18_0 52.6% 198,122Rhode Island_cell_1_18_1 37.2% 139,932Rhode Island_cell_1_18_2

Rhode Island_table_general_2

Presidential election resultsRhode Island_table_caption_2
YearRhode Island_header_cell_2_0_0 DemocraticRhode Island_header_cell_2_0_1 RepublicanRhode Island_header_cell_2_0_2
1952Rhode Island_cell_2_1_0 49.1% 203,293Rhode Island_cell_2_1_1 50.9% 210,935Rhode Island_cell_2_1_2
1956Rhode Island_cell_2_2_0 41.7% 161,790Rhode Island_cell_2_2_1 58.3% 225,819Rhode Island_cell_2_2_2
1960Rhode Island_cell_2_3_0 63.6% 258,032Rhode Island_cell_2_3_1 36.4% 147,502Rhode Island_cell_2_3_2
1964Rhode Island_cell_2_4_0 80.9% 315,463Rhode Island_cell_2_4_1 19.1% 74,615Rhode Island_cell_2_4_2
1968Rhode Island_cell_2_5_0 64.0% 246,518Rhode Island_cell_2_5_1 31.8% 122,359Rhode Island_cell_2_5_2
1972Rhode Island_cell_2_6_0 46.8% 194,645Rhode Island_cell_2_6_1 53.0% 220,383Rhode Island_cell_2_6_2
1976Rhode Island_cell_2_7_0 55.4% 227,636Rhode Island_cell_2_7_1 44.1% 181,249Rhode Island_cell_2_7_2
1980Rhode Island_cell_2_8_0 47.7% 198,342Rhode Island_cell_2_8_1 37.2% 154,793Rhode Island_cell_2_8_2
1984Rhode Island_cell_2_9_0 48.0% 197,106Rhode Island_cell_2_9_1 51.7% 212,080Rhode Island_cell_2_9_2
1988Rhode Island_cell_2_10_0 55.6% 225,123Rhode Island_cell_2_10_1 43.9% 177,761Rhode Island_cell_2_10_2
1992Rhode Island_cell_2_11_0 47.0% 213,299Rhode Island_cell_2_11_1 29.0% 131,601Rhode Island_cell_2_11_2
1996Rhode Island_cell_2_12_0 59.7% 233,050Rhode Island_cell_2_12_1 26.8% 104,683Rhode Island_cell_2_12_2
2000Rhode Island_cell_2_13_0 61.0% 249,508Rhode Island_cell_2_13_1 31.9% 130,555Rhode Island_cell_2_13_2
2004Rhode Island_cell_2_14_0 59.4% 259,760Rhode Island_cell_2_14_1 38.7% 169,046Rhode Island_cell_2_14_2
2008Rhode Island_cell_2_15_0 62.9% 296,571Rhode Island_cell_2_15_1 35.1% 165,391Rhode Island_cell_2_15_2
2012Rhode Island_cell_2_16_0 62.7% 279,677Rhode Island_cell_2_16_1 35.2% 157,204Rhode Island_cell_2_16_2
2016Rhode Island_cell_2_17_0 54.4% 252,525Rhode Island_cell_2_17_1 38.9% 180,543Rhode Island_cell_2_17_2
2020Rhode Island_cell_2_18_0 59.6% 306,192Rhode Island_cell_2_18_1 38.9% 199,830Rhode Island_cell_2_18_2

The capital of Rhode Island is Providence. Rhode Island_sentence_142

The state's current governor is Gina Raimondo (D), and the lieutenant governor is Daniel McKee (D). Rhode Island_sentence_143

Raimondo became Rhode Island's first female governor with a plurality of the vote in the November 2014 state elections. Rhode Island_sentence_144

Its United States senators are Jack Reed (D) and Sheldon Whitehouse (D). Rhode Island_sentence_145

Rhode Island's two United States representatives are David Cicilline (D-1) and Jim Langevin (D-2). Rhode Island_sentence_146

See congressional districts map. Rhode Island_sentence_147

Rhode Island is one of a few states that do not have an official governor's residence. Rhode Island_sentence_148

See List of Rhode Island Governors. Rhode Island_sentence_149

The state legislature is the Rhode Island General Assembly, consisting of the 75-member House of Representatives and the 38-member Senate. Rhode Island_sentence_150

Both houses of the bicameral body are currently dominated by the Democratic Party; the presence of the Republican Party is minor in the state government, with Republicans holding a handful of seats in both the Senate and House of Representatives. Rhode Island_sentence_151

Elections Rhode Island_section_13

Further information: Politics of Rhode Island and Political party strength in Rhode Island Rhode Island_sentence_152

Rhode Island's population barely crosses the threshold beyond the minimum of three for additional votes in both the federal House of Representatives and Electoral College; it is well represented relative to its population, with the eighth-highest number of electoral votes and second-highest number of House Representatives per resident. Rhode Island_sentence_153

Based on its area, Rhode Island has the highest density of electoral votes. Rhode Island_sentence_154

Federally, Rhode Island is a reliably Democratic state during presidential elections, usually supporting the Democratic presidential nominee. Rhode Island_sentence_155

The state voted for the Republican presidential candidate until 1908. Rhode Island_sentence_156

Since then, it has voted for the Republican nominee for president seven times, and the Democratic nominee 17 times. Rhode Island_sentence_157

The last 16 presidential elections in Rhode Island have resulted in the Democratic Party winning the Ocean State's Electoral College votes 12 times. Rhode Island_sentence_158

In the 1980 presidential election, Rhode Island was one of six states to vote against Republican Ronald Reagan. Rhode Island_sentence_159

Reagan was the last Republican to win any of the state's counties in a Presidential election until Donald Trump won Kent County in 2016. Rhode Island_sentence_160

In 1988, George H. W. Bush won over 40% of the state's popular vote, something that no Republican has done since. Rhode Island_sentence_161

Rhode Island_table_general_3

Voter registration and party enrollment as of March 15, 2011Rhode Island_table_caption_3
PartyRhode Island_header_cell_3_0_0 Active votersRhode Island_header_cell_3_0_2 Inactive votersRhode Island_header_cell_3_0_3 Total votersRhode Island_header_cell_3_0_4 PercentageRhode Island_header_cell_3_0_5
Rhode Island_cell_3_1_0 DemocraticRhode Island_cell_3_1_1 259,263Rhode Island_cell_3_1_2 22,586Rhode Island_cell_3_1_3 286,625Rhode Island_cell_3_1_4 40.97%Rhode Island_cell_3_1_5
Rhode Island_cell_3_2_0 RepublicanRhode Island_cell_3_2_1 65,033Rhode Island_cell_3_2_2 6,792Rhode Island_cell_3_2_3 72,613Rhode Island_cell_3_2_4 10.38%Rhode Island_cell_3_2_5
Rhode Island_cell_3_3_0 UnaffiliatedRhode Island_cell_3_3_1 306,697Rhode Island_cell_3_3_2 29,253Rhode Island_cell_3_3_3 340,085Rhode Island_cell_3_3_4 48.61%Rhode Island_cell_3_3_5
TotalRhode Island_header_cell_3_4_0 631,320Rhode Island_header_cell_3_4_2 58,634Rhode Island_header_cell_3_4_3 699,653Rhode Island_header_cell_3_4_4 100%Rhode Island_header_cell_3_4_5

Rhode Island was the Democrats' leading state in 1988 and 2000, and second-best in 1968, 1996, and 2004. Rhode Island_sentence_162

Rhode Island's most one-sided Presidential election result was in 1964, with over 80% of Rhode Island's votes going for Lyndon B. Johnson. Rhode Island_sentence_163

In 2004, Rhode Island gave John Kerry more than a 20-percentage-point margin of victory (the third-highest of any state), with 59.4% of its vote. Rhode Island_sentence_164

All but three of Rhode Island's 39 cities and towns voted for the Democratic candidate. Rhode Island_sentence_165

The exceptions were East Greenwich, West Greenwich, and Scituate. Rhode Island_sentence_166

In 2008, Rhode Island gave Barack Obama a 28-percentage-point margin of victory (the third-highest of any state), with 63% of its vote. Rhode Island_sentence_167

All but one of Rhode Island's 39 cities and towns voted for the Democratic candidate (the exception being Scituate). Rhode Island_sentence_168

Legislation and taxes Rhode Island_section_14

Rhode Island is one of 21 states that have abolished capital punishment; it was second do so, just after Michigan, and carried out its last execution in the 1840s. Rhode Island_sentence_169

Rhode Island was the second to last state to make prostitution illegal. Rhode Island_sentence_170

Until November 2009 Rhode Island law made prostitution legal provided it took place indoors. Rhode Island_sentence_171

In a 2009 study Rhode Island was listed as the 9th safest state in the country. Rhode Island_sentence_172

In 2011, Rhode Island became the third state in the United States to pass legislation to allow the use of medical marijuana. Rhode Island_sentence_173

Additionally, the Rhode Island General Assembly passed civil unions, and it was signed into law by Governor Lincoln Chafee on July 2, 2011. Rhode Island_sentence_174

Rhode Island became the eighth state to fully recognize either same-sex marriage or civil unions. Rhode Island_sentence_175

Same-sex marriage became legal on May 2, 2013, and took effect August 1. Rhode Island_sentence_176

Rhode Island has some of the highest taxes in the country, particularly its property taxes, ranking seventh in local and state taxes, and sixth in real estate taxes. Rhode Island_sentence_177

Demographics Rhode Island_section_15

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Rhode Island was 1,059,361 on July 1, 2019, a 0.65% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Rhode Island_sentence_178

The center of population of Rhode Island is located in Providence County, in the city of Cranston. Rhode Island_sentence_179

A corridor of population can be seen from the Providence area, stretching northwest following the Blackstone River to Woonsocket, where 19th-century mills drove industry and development. Rhode Island_sentence_180

According to the 2010 Census, 81.4% of the population was White (76.4% non-Hispanic white), 5.7% was Black or African American, 0.6% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.9% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 3.3% from two or more races. Rhode Island_sentence_181

12.4% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race). Rhode Island_sentence_182

Rhode Island_table_general_4

Rhode Island racial breakdown of populationRhode Island_table_caption_4
Racial compositionRhode Island_header_cell_4_0_0 1970Rhode Island_header_cell_4_0_1 1990Rhode Island_header_cell_4_0_2 2000Rhode Island_header_cell_4_0_3 2010Rhode Island_header_cell_4_0_4
WhiteRhode Island_cell_4_1_0 96.6%Rhode Island_cell_4_1_1 91.4%Rhode Island_cell_4_1_2 85.0%Rhode Island_cell_4_1_3 81.4%Rhode Island_cell_4_1_4
BlackRhode Island_cell_4_2_0 2.7%Rhode Island_cell_4_2_1 3.9%Rhode Island_cell_4_2_2 4.5%Rhode Island_cell_4_2_3 5.7%Rhode Island_cell_4_2_4
AsianRhode Island_cell_4_3_0 0.4%Rhode Island_cell_4_3_1 1.8%Rhode Island_cell_4_3_2 2.3%Rhode Island_cell_4_3_3 2.9%Rhode Island_cell_4_3_4
NativeRhode Island_cell_4_4_0 0.1%Rhode Island_cell_4_4_1 0.4%Rhode Island_cell_4_4_2 0.5%Rhode Island_cell_4_4_3 0.6%Rhode Island_cell_4_4_4
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderRhode Island_cell_4_5_0

Rhode Island_cell_4_5_1 Rhode Island_cell_4_5_2 0.1%Rhode Island_cell_4_5_3 0.1%Rhode Island_cell_4_5_4
Other raceRhode Island_cell_4_6_0 0.2%Rhode Island_cell_4_6_1 2.5%Rhode Island_cell_4_6_2 5.0%Rhode Island_cell_4_6_3 6.1%Rhode Island_cell_4_6_4
Two or more racesRhode Island_cell_4_7_0 Rhode Island_cell_4_7_1 Rhode Island_cell_4_7_2 2.7%Rhode Island_cell_4_7_3 3.3%Rhode Island_cell_4_7_4

Of the people residing in Rhode Island, 58.7% were born in Rhode Island, 26.6% were born in a different state, 2.0% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas or born abroad to American parent(s), and 12.6% were foreign born. Rhode Island_sentence_183

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2015, Rhode Island had an estimated population of 1,056,298, which is an increase of 1,125, or 0.10%, from the prior year and an increase of 3,731, or 0.35%, since the year 2010. Rhode Island_sentence_184

This includes a natural increase since the last census of 15,220 people (that is 66,973 births minus 51,753 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 14,001 people into the state. Rhode Island_sentence_185

Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 18,965 people, and migration within the country produced a net decrease of 4,964 people. Rhode Island_sentence_186

Hispanics in the state make up 12.8% of the population, predominantly Dominican, Puerto Rican, and Guatemalan populations. Rhode Island_sentence_187

According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 84% of the population aged 5 and older spoke only American English, while 8.07% spoke Spanish at home, 3.80% Portuguese, 1.96% French, 1.39% Italian and 0.78% speak other languages at home accordingly. Rhode Island_sentence_188

The state's most populous ethnic group, non-Hispanic white, has declined from 96.1% in 1970 to 76.5% in 2011. Rhode Island_sentence_189

In 2011, 40.3% of Rhode Island's children under the age of one belonged to racial or ethnic minority groups, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white. Rhode Island_sentence_190

6.1% of Rhode Island's population were reported as under 5, 23.6% under 18, and 14.5% were 65 or older. Rhode Island_sentence_191

Females made up approximately 52% of the population. Rhode Island_sentence_192

According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were Irish (18.3%), Italian (18.0%), English (10.5%), French (10.4%), and Portuguese (9.3%). Rhode Island_sentence_193

Rhode Island has a higher percentage of Americans of Portuguese ancestry, including Portuguese Americans and Cape Verdean Americans than any other state in the nation. Rhode Island_sentence_194

Additionally, the state also has the highest percentage of Liberian immigrants, with more than 15,000 residing in the state. Rhode Island_sentence_195

Italian Americans make up a plurality in central and southern Providence County and French-Canadian Americans form a large part of northern Providence County. Rhode Island_sentence_196

Irish Americans have a strong presence in Newport and Kent counties. Rhode Island_sentence_197

Americans of English ancestry still have a presence in the state as well, especially in Washington County, and are often referred to as "Swamp Yankees." Rhode Island_sentence_198

African immigrants, including Cape Verdean Americans, Liberian Americans, Nigerian Americans and Ghanaian Americans, form significant and growing communities in Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_199

Although Rhode Island has the smallest land area of all 50 states, it has the second highest population density of any state in the Union, second to that of New Jersey. Rhode Island_sentence_200

Birth data Rhode Island_section_16

Rhode Island_table_general_5

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of MotherRhode Island_table_caption_5
RaceRhode Island_header_cell_5_0_0 2013Rhode Island_header_cell_5_0_1 2014Rhode Island_header_cell_5_0_2 2015Rhode Island_header_cell_5_0_3 2016Rhode Island_header_cell_5_0_4 2017Rhode Island_header_cell_5_0_5 2018Rhode Island_header_cell_5_0_6
White:Rhode Island_cell_5_1_0 8,672 (80.2%)Rhode Island_cell_5_1_1 8,734 (80.7%)Rhode Island_cell_5_1_2 8,824 (80.3%)Rhode Island_cell_5_1_3 ...Rhode Island_cell_5_1_4 ...Rhode Island_cell_5_1_5 ...Rhode Island_cell_5_1_6
Non-Hispanic WhiteRhode Island_cell_5_2_0 6,572 (60.8%)Rhode Island_cell_5_2_1 6,573 (60.7%)Rhode Island_cell_5_2_2 6,702 (61.0%)Rhode Island_cell_5_2_3 6,338 (58.7%)Rhode Island_cell_5_2_4 6,142 (57.7%)Rhode Island_cell_5_2_5 6,008 (57.2%)Rhode Island_cell_5_2_6
BlackRhode Island_cell_5_3_0 1,411 (13.0%)Rhode Island_cell_5_3_1 1,365 (12.6%)Rhode Island_cell_5_3_2 1,392 (12.7%)Rhode Island_cell_5_3_3 784 (7.3%)Rhode Island_cell_5_3_4 776 (7.3%)Rhode Island_cell_5_3_5 783 (7.5%)Rhode Island_cell_5_3_6
AsianRhode Island_cell_5_4_0 598 (5.5%)Rhode Island_cell_5_4_1 594 (5.5%)Rhode Island_cell_5_4_2 639 (5.8%)Rhode Island_cell_5_4_3 565 (5.2%)Rhode Island_cell_5_4_4 542 (5.1%)Rhode Island_cell_5_4_5 519 (4.9%)Rhode Island_cell_5_4_6
American IndianRhode Island_cell_5_5_0 128 (1.2%)Rhode Island_cell_5_5_1 130 (1.2%)Rhode Island_cell_5_5_2 138 (1.2%)Rhode Island_cell_5_5_3 63 (0.6%)Rhode Island_cell_5_5_4 51 (0.5%)Rhode Island_cell_5_5_5 41 (0.4%)Rhode Island_cell_5_5_6
Hispanic (of any race)Rhode Island_cell_5_6_0 2,453 (22.7%)Rhode Island_cell_5_6_1 2,585 (23.9%)Rhode Island_cell_5_6_2 2,622 (23.8%)Rhode Island_cell_5_6_3 2,684 (24.8%)Rhode Island_cell_5_6_4 2,760 (25.9%)Rhode Island_cell_5_6_5 2,756 (26.2%)Rhode Island_cell_5_6_6
Total Rhode IslandRhode Island_cell_5_7_0 10,809 (100%)Rhode Island_cell_5_7_1 10,823 (100%)Rhode Island_cell_5_7_2 10,993 (100%)Rhode Island_cell_5_7_3 10,798 (100%)Rhode Island_cell_5_7_4 10,638 (100%)Rhode Island_cell_5_7_5 10,506 (100%)Rhode Island_cell_5_7_6

Rhode Island_unordered_list_2

  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.Rhode Island_item_2_6

Religion Rhode Island_section_17

A Pew survey of Rhode Island residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations: Roman Catholic 42%, Protestant 30%, Jewish 1%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, Buddhism 1%, Mormonism 1%, Hinduism 1%, and Non-religious 20%. Rhode Island_sentence_201

The largest denominations are the Roman Catholic Church with 456,598 adherents, the Episcopal Church with 19,377, the American Baptist Churches USA with 15,220, and the United Methodist Church with 6,901 adherents. Rhode Island_sentence_202

Rhode Island has the highest proportion of Roman Catholic residents of any state, mainly due to large Irish, Italian, and French-Canadian immigration in the past; recently, significant Portuguese and various Hispanic communities have also been established in the state. Rhode Island_sentence_203

Though it has the highest overall Catholic percentage of any state, none of Rhode Island's individual counties ranks among the 10 most Catholic in the United States, as Catholics are very evenly spread throughout the state. Rhode Island_sentence_204

The Jewish community of Rhode Island is centered in the Providence area, and emerged during a wave of Jewish immigration predominantly from Eastern Europeans shtetls between 1880 and 1920. Rhode Island_sentence_205

The presence of the Touro Synagogue in Newport, the oldest existing synagogue in the United States, emphasizes that these second-wave immigrants did not create Rhode Island's first Jewish community; a comparatively smaller wave of Spanish and Portuguese Jews immigrated to Newport during the colonial era. Rhode Island_sentence_206

Cities and towns Rhode Island_section_18

Main article: List of municipalities in Rhode Island Rhode Island_sentence_207

See also: Rhode Island locations by per capita income and :Category:Villages in Rhode Island Rhode Island_sentence_208

Rhode Island is divided into five counties but it has no county governments. Rhode Island_sentence_209

The entire state is divided into municipalities, which handle all local government affairs. Rhode Island_sentence_210

There are 39 cities and towns in Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_211

Major population centers today result from historical factors; development took place predominantly along the Blackstone, Seekonk, and Providence Rivers with the advent of the water-powered mill. Rhode Island_sentence_212

Providence is the base of a large metropolitan area. Rhode Island_sentence_213

The state's 18 largest municipalities ranked by population are : Rhode Island_sentence_214

Some of Rhode Island's cities and towns are further partitioned into villages, in common with many other New England states. Rhode Island_sentence_215

Notable villages include Kingston in the town of South Kingstown, which houses the University of Rhode Island; Wickford in the town of North Kingstown, the site of an annual international art festival; and Wakefield where the Town Hall is located for the Town of South Kingstown. Rhode Island_sentence_216

Rhode Island_unordered_list_3

  • Major Cities of Rhode IslandRhode Island_item_3_7
  • Rhode Island_item_3_8
  • Rhode Island_item_3_9
  • Rhode Island_item_3_10
  • Rhode Island_item_3_11
  • Rhode Island_item_3_12
  • Rhode Island_item_3_13
  • Rhode Island_item_3_14
  • Rhode Island_item_3_15
  • Rhode Island_item_3_16
  • Rhode Island_item_3_17
  • Rhode Island_item_3_18
  • Rhode Island_item_3_19
  • Rhode Island_item_3_20
  • Rhode Island_item_3_21
  • Rhode Island_item_3_22

Economy Rhode Island_section_19

See also: Rhode Island locations by per capita income Rhode Island_sentence_217

The Rhode Island economy had a colonial base in fishing. Rhode Island_sentence_218

The Blackstone River Valley was a major contributor to the American Industrial Revolution. Rhode Island_sentence_219

It was in Pawtucket that Samuel Slater set up Slater Mill in 1793, using the waterpower of the Blackstone River to power his cotton mill. Rhode Island_sentence_220

For a while, Rhode Island was one of the leaders in textiles. Rhode Island_sentence_221

However, with the Great Depression, most textile factories relocated to southern U.S. states. Rhode Island_sentence_222

The textile industry still constitutes a part of the Rhode Island economy but does not have the same power that it once had. Rhode Island_sentence_223

Other important industries in Rhode Island's past included toolmaking, costume jewelry, and silverware. Rhode Island_sentence_224

An interesting by-product of Rhode Island's industrial history is the number of abandoned factories, many of them now being used for condominiums, museums, offices, and low-income and elderly housing. Rhode Island_sentence_225

Today, much of the economy of Rhode Island is based in services, particularly healthcare and education, and still manufacturing to some extent. Rhode Island_sentence_226

The state's nautical history continues in the 21st century in the form of nuclear submarine construction. Rhode Island_sentence_227

Per the 2013 American Communities Survey, Rhode Island has the highest paid elementary school teachers in the country, with an average salary of $75,028 (adjusted to inflation). Rhode Island_sentence_228

The headquarters of Citizens Financial Group is located in Providence, the 14th largest bank in the United States. Rhode Island_sentence_229

The Fortune 500 companies CVS Caremark and Textron are based in Woonsocket and Providence, respectively. Rhode Island_sentence_230

FM Global, GTECH Corporation, Hasbro, American Power Conversion, Nortek, and Amica Mutual Insurance are all Fortune 1000 companies that are based in Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_231

Rhode Island's 2000 total gross state production was $46.18 billion (adjusted to inflation), placing it 45th in the nation. Rhode Island_sentence_232

Its 2000 per capita personal income was $41,484 (adjusted to inflation), 16th in the nation. Rhode Island_sentence_233

Rhode Island has the lowest level of energy consumption per capita of any state. Rhode Island_sentence_234

Additionally, Rhode Island is rated as the 5th most energy efficient state in the country. Rhode Island_sentence_235

In December 2012, the state's unemployment rate was 10.2%.This has gradually reduced to 3.5% in November 2019, however, the coronavirus pandemic brought the unemployment rate to a high of 18.1% in April 2020. Rhode Island_sentence_236

This has since reduced to 10.5% in September 2020 and is projected to further decrease to 7% in October 2020. Rhode Island_sentence_237

Health services are Rhode Island's largest industry. Rhode Island_sentence_238

Second is tourism, supporting 39,000 jobs, with tourism-related sales at $4.56 billion (adjusted to inflation) in the year 2000. Rhode Island_sentence_239

The third-largest industry is manufacturing. Rhode Island_sentence_240

Its industrial outputs are submarine construction, shipbuilding, costume jewelry, fabricated metal products, electrical equipment, machinery, and boatbuilding. Rhode Island_sentence_241

Rhode Island's agricultural outputs are nursery stock, vegetables, dairy products, and eggs. Rhode Island_sentence_242

Rhode Island's taxes were appreciably higher than neighboring states, because Rhode Island's income tax was based on 25% of the payer's federal income tax payment. Rhode Island_sentence_243

Former Governor Donald Carcieri claimed that the higher tax rate had an inhibitory effect on business growth in the state and called for reductions to increase the competitiveness of the state's business environment. Rhode Island_sentence_244

In 2010, the Rhode Island General Assembly passed a new state income tax structure that was then signed into law on June 9, 2010, by Governor Carcieri. Rhode Island_sentence_245

The income tax overhaul has now made Rhode Island competitive with other New England states by lowering its maximum tax rate to 5.99% and reducing the number of tax brackets to three. Rhode Island_sentence_246

The state's first income tax was enacted in 1971. Rhode Island_sentence_247

Largest employers Rhode Island_section_20

As of March 2011, the largest employers in Rhode Island (excluding employees of municipalities) are the following: Rhode Island_sentence_248

Rhode Island_table_general_6

RankRhode Island_header_cell_6_0_0 EmployerRhode Island_header_cell_6_0_1 EmployeesRhode Island_header_cell_6_0_2 NotesRhode Island_header_cell_6_0_3
1Rhode Island_cell_6_1_0 State of Rhode IslandRhode Island_cell_6_1_1 14,904Rhode Island_cell_6_1_2 Full-time equivalentsRhode Island_cell_6_1_3
2Rhode Island_cell_6_2_0 Lifespan Hospital GroupRhode Island_cell_6_2_1 11,869Rhode Island_cell_6_2_2 Rhode Island Hospital (7,024 employees), The Miriam Hospital (2,410), Newport Hospital (919), Emma Pendleton Bradley Hospital (800), Lifespan Corporate Services (580), Newport Alliance Newport (68), Lifespan MSO (53), and Home Medical (15)Rhode Island_cell_6_2_3
3Rhode Island_cell_6_3_0 U.S. federal governmentRhode Island_cell_6_3_1 11,581Rhode Island_cell_6_3_2 Excludes 3,000 active duty military personnel and 7,000 reservists, but includes 250 employees of the Naval War College.Rhode Island_cell_6_3_3
4Rhode Island_cell_6_4_0 Roman Catholic Diocese of ProvidenceRhode Island_cell_6_4_1 6,200Rhode Island_cell_6_4_2 Rhode Island_cell_6_4_3
5Rhode Island_cell_6_5_0 Care New EnglandRhode Island_cell_6_5_1 5,953Rhode Island_cell_6_5_2 Employees at: Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island (3,134), Kent County Memorial Hospital (1,850), Butler Hospital (800), VNA of Care New England (140), and Care New England (29)Rhode Island_cell_6_5_3
6Rhode Island_cell_6_6_0 CVS CaremarkRhode Island_cell_6_6_1 5,800Rhode Island_cell_6_6_2 The corporate headquarters are at Woonsocket (5,630 employees). The corporation also has 170 employees at PharmacareRhode Island_cell_6_6_3
7Rhode Island_cell_6_7_0 Citizens Financial GroupRhode Island_cell_6_7_1 4,991Rhode Island_cell_6_7_2 The corporate headquarters are in Johnston.Rhode Island_cell_6_7_3
8Rhode Island_cell_6_8_0 Brown UniversityRhode Island_cell_6_8_1 4,800Rhode Island_cell_6_8_2 Excludes student employees.Rhode Island_cell_6_8_3
9Rhode Island_cell_6_9_0 Stop & Shop Supermarket

(subsidiary of Ahold)Rhode Island_cell_6_9_1

3,632Rhode Island_cell_6_9_2 Rhode Island_cell_6_9_3
10Rhode Island_cell_6_10_0 Bank of AmericaRhode Island_cell_6_10_1 3,500Rhode Island_cell_6_10_2 Rhode Island_cell_6_10_3
11Rhode Island_cell_6_11_0 Fidelity InvestmentsRhode Island_cell_6_11_1 2,934Rhode Island_cell_6_11_2 2,434 employees in Smithfield and 500 in ProvidenceRhode Island_cell_6_11_3
12Rhode Island_cell_6_12_0 Rhode Island ARCRhode Island_cell_6_12_1 2,851Rhode Island_cell_6_12_2 Employees at James L. Maher Center (700), The Homestead Group (650), Cranston Arc (374), The ARC of Blackstone Valley (350), Kent County ARC (500), The Fogarty Center (225), and Westerly Chariho, ARC (52)Rhode Island_cell_6_12_3
13Rhode Island_cell_6_13_0 MetLife Insurance Co.Rhode Island_cell_6_13_1 2,604Rhode Island_cell_6_13_2 Rhode Island_cell_6_13_3
14Rhode Island_cell_6_14_0 General Dynamics Corp.Rhode Island_cell_6_14_1 2,243Rhode Island_cell_6_14_2 2,200 employees at General Dynamics Electric Boat in North Kingstown, and 43 employees at General Dynamics Information Technology – Newport in Middletown adjacent to the Naval Undersea Warfare CenterRhode Island_cell_6_14_3
15Rhode Island_cell_6_15_0 University of Rhode IslandRhode Island_cell_6_15_1 2,155Rhode Island_cell_6_15_2 Rhode Island_cell_6_15_3
16Rhode Island_cell_6_16_0 Wal-MartRhode Island_cell_6_16_1 2,078Rhode Island_cell_6_16_2 Rhode Island_cell_6_16_3
17Rhode Island_cell_6_17_0 The Jan CompaniesRhode Island_cell_6_17_1 2,050Rhode Island_cell_6_17_2 Employees at Jan-Co Burger King (1,500) (Burger King franchiser); Newport Creamery, LLC (400), Quidnessett Country Club (100), and The Country Inn (50)Rhode Island_cell_6_17_3
18Rhode Island_cell_6_18_0 Shaw's Supermarkets

(subsidiary of Albertsons LLC)Rhode Island_cell_6_18_1

1,900Rhode Island_cell_6_18_2 Rhode Island_cell_6_18_3
19Rhode Island_cell_6_19_0 St. Joseph Health Services and Hospitals of Rhode Island/CharterCARE Health PartnersRhode Island_cell_6_19_1 1,865Rhode Island_cell_6_19_2 Employees at Our Lady of Fatima Hospital (1,343) and St. Joseph Hospital for Specialty Care (522)Rhode Island_cell_6_19_3
20Rhode Island_cell_6_20_0 The Home Depot, Inc.Rhode Island_cell_6_20_1 1,780Rhode Island_cell_6_20_2 Rhode Island_cell_6_20_3

Transportation Rhode Island_section_21

Further information: Rhode Island Department of Transportation Rhode Island_sentence_249

Bus Rhode Island_section_22

The Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (RIPTA) operates statewide intra- and intercity bus transport from its hubs at Kennedy Plaza in Providence, Pawtucket, and Newport. Rhode Island_sentence_250

RIPTA bus routes serve 38 of Rhode Island's 39 cities and towns. Rhode Island_sentence_251

(New Shoreham on Block Island is not served). Rhode Island_sentence_252

RIPTA currently operates 58 routes, including daytime trolley service (using trolley-style replica buses) in Providence and Newport. Rhode Island_sentence_253

Ferry Rhode Island_section_23

From 2000 through 2008, RIPTA offered seasonal ferry service linking Providence and Newport (already connected by highway) funded by grant money from the United States Department of Transportation. Rhode Island_sentence_254

Though the service was popular with residents and tourists, RIPTA was unable to continue on after the federal funding ended. Rhode Island_sentence_255

Service was discontinued as of 2010. Rhode Island_sentence_256

The service was resumed in 2016 and has been successful. Rhode Island_sentence_257

The privately run Block Island Ferry links Block Island with Newport and Narragansett with traditional and fast-ferry service, while the Prudence Island Ferry connects Bristol with Prudence Island. Rhode Island_sentence_258

Private ferry services also link several Rhode Island communities with ports in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York. Rhode Island_sentence_259

The Vineyard Fast Ferry offers seasonal service to Martha's Vineyard from Quonset Point with bus and train connections to Providence, Boston, and New York. Rhode Island_sentence_260

Viking Fleet offers seasonal service from Block Island to New London, Connecticut, and Montauk, New York. Rhode Island_sentence_261

Rail Rhode Island_section_24

The MBTA Commuter Rail's Providence/Stoughton Line links Providence and T. Rhode Island_sentence_262 F. Green Airport with Boston. Rhode Island_sentence_263

The line was later extended southward to Wickford Junction, with service beginning April 23, 2012. Rhode Island_sentence_264

The state hopes to extend the MBTA line to Kingston and Westerly, as well as explore the possibility of extending Connecticut's Shore Line East to T.F. Rhode Island_sentence_265

Green Airport. Rhode Island_sentence_266

Amtrak's Acela Express stops at Providence Station (the only Acela stop in Rhode Island), linking Providence to other cities in the Northeast Corridor. Rhode Island_sentence_267

Amtrak's Northeast Regional service makes stops at Providence Station, Kingston, and Westerly. Rhode Island_sentence_268

Aviation Rhode Island_section_25

See also: Aviation in Rhode Island and List of airports in Rhode Island Rhode Island_sentence_269

Rhode Island's primary airport for passenger and cargo transport is T. Rhode Island_sentence_270 F. Green Airport in Warwick, though most Rhode Islanders who wish to travel internationally on direct flights and those who seek a greater availability of flights and destinations often fly through Logan International Airport in Boston. Rhode Island_sentence_271

Limited access highways Rhode Island_section_26

Interstate 95 (I-95) runs southwest to northeast across the state, linking Rhode Island with other states along the East Coast. Rhode Island_sentence_272

I-295 functions as a partial beltway encircling Providence to the west. Rhode Island_sentence_273

I-195 provides a limited-access highway connection from Providence (and Connecticut and New York via I-95) to Cape Cod. Rhode Island_sentence_274

Initially built as the easternmost link in the (now cancelled) extension of I-84 from Hartford, Connecticut, a portion of U.S. Rhode Island_sentence_275 Route 6 (US 6) through northern Rhode Island is limited-access and links I-295 with downtown Providence. Rhode Island_sentence_276

Several Rhode Island highways extend the state's limited-access highway network. Rhode Island_sentence_277

Route 4 is a major north–south freeway linking Providence and Warwick (via I-95) with suburban and beach communities along Narragansett Bay. Rhode Island_sentence_278

Route 10 is an urban connector linking downtown Providence with Cranston and Johnston. Rhode Island_sentence_279

Route 37 is an important east–west freeway through Cranston and Warwick and links I-95 with I-295. Rhode Island_sentence_280

Route 99 links Woonsocket with Providence (via Route 146). Rhode Island_sentence_281

Route 146 travels through the Blackstone Valley, linking Providence and I-95 with Worcester, Massachusetts and the Massachusetts Turnpike. Rhode Island_sentence_282

Route 403 links Route 4 with Quonset Point. Rhode Island_sentence_283

Several bridges cross Narragansett Bay connecting Aquidneck Island and Conanicut Island to the mainland, most notably the Claiborne Pell Newport Bridge and the Jamestown-Verrazano Bridge. Rhode Island_sentence_284

Bicycle paths Rhode Island_section_27

The East Bay Bike Path stretches from Providence to Bristol along the eastern shore of Narragansett Bay, while the Blackstone River Bikeway will eventually link Providence and Worcester. Rhode Island_sentence_285

In 2011, Rhode Island completed work on a marked on-road bicycle path through Pawtucket and Providence, connecting the East Bay Bike Path with the Blackstone River Bikeway, completing a 33.5 miles (54 km) bicycle route through the eastern side of the state. Rhode Island_sentence_286

The William C. O'Neill Bike Path (commonly known as the South County Bike Path) is an 8 mi (13 km) path through South Kingstown and Narragansett. Rhode Island_sentence_287

The 19 mi (31 km) Washington Secondary Bike Path stretches from Cranston to Coventry, and the 2 mi (3.2 km) Ten Mile River Greenway path runs through East Providence and Pawtucket. Rhode Island_sentence_288

Environmental legislation Rhode Island_section_28

On May 29, 2014, Governor Lincoln D. Chafee announced that Rhode Island was one of eight states to release a collaborative Action Plan to put 3.3 million zero emission vehicles on the roads by 2025. Rhode Island_sentence_289

The goal of the plan is to reduce greenhouse gas and smog-causing emissions. Rhode Island_sentence_290

The Action Plan covers promoting zero emission vehicles and investing in the infrastructure to support them. Rhode Island_sentence_291

In 2014, Rhode Island received grants from the Environmental Protection Agency in the amount of $2,711,685 to clean up Brownfield sites in eight locations. Rhode Island_sentence_292

The intent of the grants was to provide communities with the funding necessary to assess, clean up, and redevelop contaminated properties, boost local economies, and leverage jobs while protecting public health and the environment. Rhode Island_sentence_293

In 2013, the "Lots of Hope" program was established in the City of Providence to focus on increasing the city's green space and local food production, improve urban neighborhoods, promote healthy lifestyles and improve environmental sustainability. Rhode Island_sentence_294

"Lots of Hope", supported by a $100,000 grant, will partner with the City of Providence, the Southside Community Land Trust and the Rhode Island Foundation to convert city-owned vacant lots into productive urban farms. Rhode Island_sentence_295

In 2012, Rhode Island passed bill S2277/H7412, "An act relating to Health and Safety – Environmental Cleanup Objectives for Schools", informally known as the "School Siting Bill." Rhode Island_sentence_296

The bill, sponsored by Senator Juan Pichardo and Representative Scott Slater and signed into law by the Governor, made Rhode Island the first state in the US to prohibit school construction on Brownfield Sites where there is an ongoing potential for toxic vapors to negatively impact indoor air quality. Rhode Island_sentence_297

It also creates a public participation process whenever a city or town considers building a school on any other kind of contaminated site. Rhode Island_sentence_298

Media Rhode Island_section_29

Main article: Media in Rhode Island Rhode Island_sentence_299

Education Rhode Island_section_30

Primary and secondary schools Rhode Island_section_31

Further information: Rhode Island schools Rhode Island_sentence_300

Colleges and universities Rhode Island_section_32

Main article: List of colleges and universities in Rhode Island Rhode Island_sentence_301

Rhode Island has several colleges and universities: Rhode Island_sentence_302

Culture Rhode Island_section_33

Local accent Rhode Island_section_34

Main article: Eastern New England English § Rhode Island English Rhode Island_sentence_303

Some Rhode Islanders speak with the distinctive, non-rhotic, traditional Rhode Island accent that many compare to a cross between the New York City and Boston accents (e.g., "water" sounds like "watuh" [ˈwɔəɾə]). Rhode Island_sentence_304

Many Rhode Islanders distinguish a strong aw sound [ɔə] (i.e., do not exhibit the cot–caught merger) as one might hear in New Jersey or New York City; for example, the word coffee is pronounced [ˈkʰɔəfi]. Rhode Island_sentence_305

Rhode Islanders sometimes refer to drinking fountains as "bubblers", milkshakes as "cabinets", and overstuffed foot-long sandwiches (of whatever kind) as "grinders". Rhode Island_sentence_306

Food and beverages Rhode Island_section_35

Rhode Island state symbols Rhode Island_section_36

Rhode Island_table_infobox_7

Rhode Island state symbolsRhode Island_header_cell_7_0_0
Living insigniaRhode Island_header_cell_7_1_0
BirdRhode Island_header_cell_7_2_0 Rhode Island Red chicken

Gallus gallus domesticusRhode Island_cell_7_2_1

FishRhode Island_header_cell_7_3_0 Striped bassRhode Island_cell_7_3_1
FlowerRhode Island_header_cell_7_4_0 Violet

Viola sororiaRhode Island_cell_7_4_1

InsectRhode Island_header_cell_7_5_0 American burying beetle

Nicroforus americanusRhode Island_cell_7_5_1

MammalRhode Island_header_cell_7_6_0 Morgan horseRhode Island_cell_7_6_1
ReptileRhode Island_header_cell_7_7_0 Painted turtleRhode Island_cell_7_7_1
TreeRhode Island_header_cell_7_8_0 Red Maple

Acer rubrumRhode Island_cell_7_8_1

Inanimate insigniaRhode Island_header_cell_7_9_0
BeverageRhode Island_header_cell_7_10_0 Coffee milkRhode Island_cell_7_10_1
MineralRhode Island_header_cell_7_11_0 BoweniteRhode Island_cell_7_11_1
RockRhode Island_header_cell_7_12_0 CumberlanditeRhode Island_cell_7_12_1
ShipRhode Island_header_cell_7_13_0 USS ProvidenceRhode Island_cell_7_13_1
TartanRhode Island_header_cell_7_14_0 Rhode Island State TartanRhode Island_cell_7_14_1
OtherRhode Island_header_cell_7_15_0 Fruit: Rhode Island GreeningRhode Island_cell_7_15_1
State route markerRhode Island_header_cell_7_16_0
State quarterRhode Island_header_cell_7_17_0

In popular culture Rhode Island_section_37

Main article: Rhode Island in popular culture Rhode Island_sentence_307

The Farrelly brothers and Seth MacFarlane depict Rhode Island in popular culture, often making comedic parodies of the state. Rhode Island_sentence_308

MacFarlane's television series Family Guy is based in a fictional Rhode Island city named Quahog, and notable local events and celebrities are regularly lampooned. Rhode Island_sentence_309

Peter Griffin is seen working at the Pawtucket brewery, and other state locations are mentioned. Rhode Island_sentence_310

The movie High Society (starring Bing Crosby, Grace Kelly, and Frank Sinatra) was set in Newport, Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_311

The 1974 film adaptation of The Great Gatsby was also filmed in Newport. Rhode Island_sentence_312

Jacqueline Bouvier and John F. Kennedy were married at St. Mary's church in Newport. Rhode Island_sentence_313

Their reception was held at Hammersmith Farm, the Bouvier summer home in Newport. Rhode Island_sentence_314

Cartoonist Don Bousquet, a state icon, has made a career out of Rhode Island culture, drawing Rhode Island-themed gags in The Providence Journal and Yankee magazine. Rhode Island_sentence_315

These cartoons have been reprinted in the Quahog series of paperbacks (I Brake for Quahogs, Beware of the Quahog, and The Quahog Walks Among Us.) Rhode Island_sentence_316

Bousquet has also collaborated with humorist and Providence Journal columnist Mark Patinkin on two books: The Rhode Island Dictionary and The Rhode Island Handbook. Rhode Island_sentence_317

The 1998 film Meet Joe Black was filmed at Aldrich Mansion in the Warwick Neck area of Warwick. Rhode Island_sentence_318

Body of Proof's first season was filmed entirely in Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_319

The show premiered on March 29, 2011. Rhode Island_sentence_320

The 2007 Steve Carell and Dane Cook film Dan in Real Life was filmed in various coastal towns in the state. Rhode Island_sentence_321

The sunset scene with the entire family on the beach takes place at Napatree Point. Rhode Island_sentence_322

Jersey Shore star Pauly D filmed part of his spin-off The Pauly D Project in his hometown of Johnston. Rhode Island_sentence_323

The Comedy Central cable television series Another Period is set in Newport during the Gilded Age. Rhode Island_sentence_324

Notable firsts in Rhode Island Rhode Island_section_38

Rhode Island has been the first in a number of initiatives. Rhode Island_sentence_325

The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations enacted the first law prohibiting slavery in America on May 18, 1652. Rhode Island_sentence_326

The first act of armed rebellion in America against the British Crown was the boarding and burning of the Revenue Schooner Gaspee in Narragansett Bay on June 10, 1772. Rhode Island_sentence_327

The idea of a Continental Congress was first proposed at a town meeting in Providence on May 17, 1774. Rhode Island_sentence_328

Rhode Island elected the first delegates (Stephen Hopkins and Samuel Ward) to the Continental Congress on June 15, 1774. Rhode Island_sentence_329

The Rhode Island General Assembly created the first standing army in the colonies (1,500 men) on April 22, 1775. Rhode Island_sentence_330

On June 15, 1775, the first naval engagement took place in the American Revolution between an American sloop commanded by Capt. Rhode Island_sentence_331

Abraham Whipple and an armed tender of the British Frigate Rose. Rhode Island_sentence_332

The tender was chased aground and captured. Rhode Island_sentence_333

Later in June, the General Assembly created the American Navy when it commissioned the sloops Katy and Washington, armed with 24 guns and commanded by Abraham Whipple who was promoted to Commodore. Rhode Island_sentence_334

Rhode Island was the first Colony to declare independence from Britain on May 4, 1776. Rhode Island_sentence_335

Slater Mill in Pawtucket was the first commercially successful cotton-spinning mill with a fully mechanized power system in America and was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution in the US. Rhode Island_sentence_336

The oldest Fourth of July parade in the country is still held annually in Bristol, Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_337

The first Baptist church in America was founded in Providence in 1638. Rhode Island_sentence_338

Ann Smith Franklin of the Newport Mercury was the first female newspaper editor in America (August 22, 1762). Rhode Island_sentence_339

Touro Synagogue was the first synagogue in America, founded in Newport in 1763. Rhode Island_sentence_340

Pelham Street in Newport was the first in America to be illuminated by gaslight in 1806. Rhode Island_sentence_341

The first strike in the United States in which women participated occurred in Pawtucket in 1824. Rhode Island_sentence_342

Watch Hill has the nation's oldest flying horses carousel that has been in continuous operation since 1850. Rhode Island_sentence_343

The motion picture machine was patented in Providence on April 23, 1867. Rhode Island_sentence_344

The first lunch wagon in America was introduced in Providence in 1872. Rhode Island_sentence_345

The first nine-hole golf course in America was completed in Newport in 1890. Rhode Island_sentence_346

The first state health laboratory was established in Providence on September 1, 1894. Rhode Island_sentence_347

The Rhode Island State House was the first building with an all-marble dome to be built in the United States (1895–1901). Rhode Island_sentence_348

The first automobile race on a track was held in Cranston on September 7, 1896. Rhode Island_sentence_349

The first automobile parade was held in Newport on September 7, 1899 on the grounds of Belcourt Castle. Rhode Island_sentence_350

Miscellaneous local culture Rhode Island_section_39

Rhode Island is nicknamed "The Ocean State", and the nautical nature of Rhode Island's geography pervades its culture. Rhode Island_sentence_351

Newport Harbor, in particular, holds many pleasure boats. Rhode Island_sentence_352

In the lobby of T. Rhode Island_sentence_353 F. Green, the state's main airport, is a large life-sized sailboat, and the state's license plates depict an ocean wave or a sailboat. Rhode Island_sentence_354

Additionally, the large number of beaches in Washington County lures many Rhode Islanders south for summer vacation. Rhode Island_sentence_355

The state was notorious for organized crime activity from the 1950s into the 1990s when the Patriarca crime family held sway over most of New England from its Providence headquarters. Rhode Island_sentence_356

Rhode Islanders developed a unique style of architecture in the 17th century called the stone-ender. Rhode Island_sentence_357

Rhode Island is the only state to still celebrate Victory over Japan Day which is officially named "Victory Day" but is sometimes referred to as "VJ Day." Rhode Island_sentence_358

It is celebrated on the second Monday in August. Rhode Island_sentence_359

Nibbles Woodaway, more commonly referred to as "The Big Blue Bug", is a 58-foot-long termite mascot for a Providence extermination business. Rhode Island_sentence_360

Since its construction in 1980, it has been featured in several movies and television shows, and has come to be recognized as a cultural landmark by many locals. Rhode Island_sentence_361

In more recent times, the Big Blue Bug has been given a mask to remind locals and visitors to mask-up during the COVID-19 outbreak. Rhode Island_sentence_362

Sports Rhode Island_section_40

Professional Rhode Island_section_41

Rhode Island has two professional sports teams, both of which are top-level minor league affiliates for teams in Boston. Rhode Island_sentence_363

The Pawtucket Red Sox baseball team of the Triple-A International League are an affiliate of the Boston Red Sox. Rhode Island_sentence_364

They play at McCoy Stadium in Pawtucket and have won four league titles, the Governors' Cup, in 1973, 1984, 2012, and 2014. Rhode Island_sentence_365

McCoy Stadium also has the distinction of being home to the longest professional baseball game ever played – 33 innings. Rhode Island_sentence_366

The other professional minor league team is the Providence Bruins ice hockey team of the American Hockey League, who are an affiliate of the Boston Bruins. Rhode Island_sentence_367

They play in the Dunkin' Donuts Center in Providence and won the AHL's Calder Cup during the 1998–99 AHL season. Rhode Island_sentence_368

The Providence Reds were a hockey team that played in the Canadian-American Hockey League (CAHL) between 1926 and 1936 and the American Hockey League (AHL) from 1936 to 1977, the last season of which they played as the Rhode Island Reds. Rhode Island_sentence_369

The team won the Calder Cup in 1938, 1940, 1949, and 1956. Rhode Island_sentence_370

The Reds played at the Rhode Island Auditorium, located on North Main Street in Providence, Rhode Island from 1926 through 1972, when the team affiliated with the New York Rangers and moved into the newly built Providence Civic Center. Rhode Island_sentence_371

The team name came from the rooster known as the Rhode Island Red. Rhode Island_sentence_372

They moved to New York in 1977, then to Connecticut in 1997, and are now called the Hartford Wolf Pack. Rhode Island_sentence_373

The Reds are the oldest continuously operating minor-league hockey franchise in North America, having fielded a team in one form or another since 1926 in the CAHL. Rhode Island_sentence_374

It is also the only AHL franchise to have never missed a season. Rhode Island_sentence_375

The AHL returned to Providence in 1992 in the form of the Providence Bruins. Rhode Island_sentence_376

Before the great expansion of athletic teams all over the country, Providence and Rhode Island in general played a great role in supporting teams. Rhode Island_sentence_377

The Providence Grays won the first World Championship in baseball history in 1884. Rhode Island_sentence_378

The team played their home games at the old Messer Street Field in Providence. Rhode Island_sentence_379

The Grays played in the National League from 1878 to 1885. Rhode Island_sentence_380

They defeated the New York Metropolitans of the American Association in a best of five game series at the Polo Grounds in New York. Rhode Island_sentence_381

Providence won three straight games to become the first champions in major league baseball history. Rhode Island_sentence_382

Babe Ruth played for the minor league Providence Grays of 1914 and hit his only official minor league home run for that team before being recalled by the Grays' parent club, the Boston Red Stockings. Rhode Island_sentence_383

The now-defunct professional football team the Providence Steam Roller won the 1928 NFL title. Rhode Island_sentence_384

They played in a 10,000 person stadium called the Cycledrome. Rhode Island_sentence_385

The Providence Steamrollers played in the Basketball Association of America which became the National Basketball Association. Rhode Island_sentence_386

Rhode Island is also home to a top semi-professional soccer club, the Rhode Island Reds, which compete in the National premier soccer league, in the fourth division of U.S. Soccer. Rhode Island_sentence_387

Rhode Island is home to one top level non-minor league team, the Rhode Island Rebellion rugby league team, a semi-professional rugby league team that competes in the USA Rugby League, the Top Competition in the United States for the Sport of Rugby League. Rhode Island_sentence_388

The Rebellion play their home games at Classical High School in Providence. Rhode Island_sentence_389

Current professional teams Rhode Island_section_42

Rhode Island_table_general_8

Professional TeamRhode Island_header_cell_8_0_0 LeagueRhode Island_header_cell_8_0_1 SportRhode Island_header_cell_8_0_2 VenueRhode Island_header_cell_8_0_3 CityRhode Island_header_cell_8_0_4 EstablishedRhode Island_header_cell_8_0_5 ChampionshipsRhode Island_header_cell_8_0_6
Pawtucket Red SoxRhode Island_cell_8_1_0 International League (IHL)Rhode Island_cell_8_1_1 BaseballRhode Island_cell_8_1_2 McCoy StadiumRhode Island_cell_8_1_3 Pawtucket, Rhode IslandRhode Island_cell_8_1_4 1970Rhode Island_cell_8_1_5 4Rhode Island_cell_8_1_6
Providence BruinsRhode Island_cell_8_2_0 American Hockey League (AHL)Rhode Island_cell_8_2_1 Ice hockeyRhode Island_cell_8_2_2 Dunkin' Donuts CenterRhode Island_cell_8_2_3 Providence, Rhode IslandRhode Island_cell_8_2_4 1987Rhode Island_cell_8_2_5 1Rhode Island_cell_8_2_6
USLC Rhode IslandRhode Island_cell_8_3_0 USL Championship (USLC)Rhode Island_cell_8_3_1 SoccerRhode Island_cell_8_3_2 Riptide StadiumRhode Island_cell_8_3_3 Pawtucket, Rhode IslandRhode Island_cell_8_3_4 2020Rhode Island_cell_8_3_5 0Rhode Island_cell_8_3_6
Current semi-professional teams Rhode Island_section_43

Rhode Island_table_general_9

Semi-Professional TeamRhode Island_header_cell_9_0_0 LeagueRhode Island_header_cell_9_0_1 SportRhode Island_header_cell_9_0_2 VenueRhode Island_header_cell_9_0_3 CityRhode Island_header_cell_9_0_4 EstablishedRhode Island_header_cell_9_0_5 ChampionshipsRhode Island_header_cell_9_0_6
Rhode Island RebellionRhode Island_cell_9_1_0 USA Rugby League (USARL)Rhode Island_cell_9_1_1 Rugby unionRhode Island_cell_9_1_2 Marvel FieldRhode Island_cell_9_1_3 Providence, Rhode IslandRhode Island_cell_9_1_4 2011Rhode Island_cell_9_1_5 0Rhode Island_cell_9_1_6
Rhode Island Reds FCRhode Island_cell_9_2_0 National Premier Soccer League (NPSL)Rhode Island_cell_9_2_1 SoccerRhode Island_cell_9_2_2 Brown UniversityRhode Island_cell_9_2_3 Providence, Rhode IslandRhode Island_cell_9_2_4 2012Rhode Island_cell_9_2_5 0Rhode Island_cell_9_2_6
Rhode Island Reds FCRhode Island_cell_9_3_0 Women's Premier Soccer League (WPSL)Rhode Island_cell_9_3_1 SoccerRhode Island_cell_9_3_2 Bayside FieldRhode Island_cell_9_3_3 Bristol, Rhode IslandRhode Island_cell_9_3_4 2012Rhode Island_cell_9_3_5 0Rhode Island_cell_9_3_6

Collegiate and amateur sports Rhode Island_section_44

There are four NCAA Division I schools in Rhode Island. Rhode Island_sentence_390

All four schools compete in different conferences. Rhode Island_sentence_391

The Brown University Bears compete in the Ivy League, the Bryant University Bulldogs compete in the Northeast Conference, the Providence College Friars compete in the Big East Conference, and the University of Rhode Island Rams compete in the Atlantic-10 Conference. Rhode Island_sentence_392

Three of the schools' football teams compete in the Football Championship Subdivision, the second-highest level of college football in the United States. Rhode Island_sentence_393

Brown plays FCS football in the Ivy League, Bryant plays FCS football in the Northeast Conference, and Rhode Island plays FCS football in the Colonial Athletic Association. Rhode Island_sentence_394

All four of the Division I schools in the state compete in an intrastate all-sports competition known as the Ocean State Cup, with Bryant winning the most recent cup in 2011–12 academic year. Rhode Island_sentence_395

From 1930 to 1983, America's Cup races were sailed off Newport, and the extreme-sport X Games and Gravity Games were founded and hosted in the state's capital city. Rhode Island_sentence_396

The International Tennis Hall of Fame is in Newport at the Newport Casino, site of the first U.S. National Championships in 1881. Rhode Island_sentence_397

The Hall of Fame and Museum were established in 1954 by James Van Alen as "a shrine to the ideals of the game". Rhode Island_sentence_398

Rhode Island is also home to the headquarters of the governing body for youth rugby league in the United States, the American Youth Rugby League Association or AYRLA. Rhode Island_sentence_399

The AYRLA has started the first-ever Rugby League youth competition in Providence Middle Schools, a program at the RI Training School, in addition to starting the first High School Competition in the US in Providence Public High School. Rhode Island_sentence_400

Landmarks Rhode Island_section_45

See also: List of Registered Historic Places in Rhode Island Rhode Island_sentence_401

The state capitol building is made of white Georgian marble. Rhode Island_sentence_402

On top is the world's fourth largest self-supported marble dome. Rhode Island_sentence_403

It houses the Rhode Island Charter granted by King Charles II in 1663, the Brown University charter, and other state treasures. Rhode Island_sentence_404

The First Baptist Church of Providence is the oldest Baptist church in the Americas, founded by Roger Williams in 1638. Rhode Island_sentence_405

The first fully automated post office in the country is located in Providence. Rhode Island_sentence_406

There are many historic mansions in the seaside city of Newport, including The Breakers, Marble House, and Belcourt Castle. Rhode Island_sentence_407

Also located there is the Touro Synagogue, dedicated on December 2, 1763, considered by locals to be the first synagogue within the United States (see below for information on New York City's claim), and still serving. Rhode Island_sentence_408

The synagogue showcases the religious freedoms that were established by Roger Williams, as well as impressive architecture in a mix of the classic colonial and Sephardic style. Rhode Island_sentence_409

The Newport Casino is a National Historic Landmark building complex that presently houses the International Tennis Hall of Fame and features an active grass-court tennis club. Rhode Island_sentence_410

Scenic Route 1A (known locally as Ocean Road) is in Narragansett. Rhode Island_sentence_411

"The Towers" is also located in Narragansett featuring a large stone arch. Rhode Island_sentence_412

It was once the entrance to a famous Narragansett casino that burned down in 1900. Rhode Island_sentence_413

The Towers now serve as an event venue and host the local Chamber of Commerce, which operates a tourist information center. Rhode Island_sentence_414

The Newport Tower has been hypothesized to be of Viking origin, although most experts believe that it was a Colonial-era windmill. Rhode Island_sentence_415

Notable people Rhode Island_section_46

Main article: List of people from Rhode Island Rhode Island_sentence_416

Rhode Island_unordered_list_4

  • Thomas Angell (1618–1694) – co-founder of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence PlantationsRhode Island_item_4_23
  • Joshua Babcock (1707–1783) – physician, American Revolution general, state Supreme Court justice, and postmasterRhode Island_item_4_24
  • John Clarke (1609–1676) – Baptist minister, co-founder of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, author of its influential charter, and a leading advocate of religious freedom in AmericaRhode Island_item_4_25
  • William Coddington (1601–1678) – magistrate of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Judge of Portsmouth, Judge of Newport, Governor of Portsmouth and Newport, Deputy Governor of the entire colony, and governor of the colonyRhode Island_item_4_26
  • William Ellery (1727–1820) – a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Rhode IslandRhode Island_item_4_27
  • Samuel Gorton (1593–1677) – settled WarwickRhode Island_item_4_28
  • Nathanael Greene (1742–1786) – Continental Army officer, considered George Washington's most gifted officerRhode Island_item_4_29
  • Esek Hopkins (1718–1802) – Commander in Chief of the Continental Navy during the American Revolutionary WarRhode Island_item_4_30
  • Stephen Hopkins (1707–1785) – Governor of Rhode Island, RI Supreme Court justice, Signatory of the Declaration of IndependenceRhode Island_item_4_31
  • Anne Hutchinson (1591–1643) – early settler of Newport, the catalyst of the Antinomian ControversyRhode Island_item_4_32
  • James Mitchell Varnum (1748–1789) – general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary WarRhode Island_item_4_33
  • Samuel Ward, Jr. (1756–1832) – American Revolutionary War soldier and delegate to the secessionist Hartford ConventionRhode Island_item_4_34
  • H. P. Lovecraft (1890–1937) – authorRhode Island_item_4_35
  • Gilbert Stuart (1755–1828) – painter, one of America's foremost portraitistsRhode Island_item_4_36
  • Samuel Slater (1768–1835) - industrialist, "father of the industrial revolution"Rhode Island_item_4_37
  • Samuel Ward (1725–1776) – Supreme Court Justice, Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and a delegate to the Continental CongressRhode Island_item_4_38
  • Roger Williams (1603–1684) – founder of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, influential author, considered the first proponent of separation of church and stateRhode Island_item_4_39
  • Abraham Whipple (1733–1819) – Continental Navy commander-in-chiefRhode Island_item_4_40

See also Rhode Island_section_47

Rhode Island_unordered_list_5

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhode Island.