Richard Nixon

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"Nixon" redirects here. Richard Nixon_sentence_0

For other uses, see Nixon (disambiguation) and Richard Nixon (disambiguation). Richard Nixon_sentence_1

Richard Nixon_table_infobox_0

Richard NixonRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_0_0
37th President of the United StatesRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_1_0
Vice PresidentRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_2_0 Richard Nixon_cell_0_2_1
Preceded byRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_3_0 Lyndon B. JohnsonRichard Nixon_cell_0_3_1
Succeeded byRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_4_0 Gerald FordRichard Nixon_cell_0_4_1
36th Vice President of the United StatesRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_5_0
PresidentRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_6_0 Dwight D. EisenhowerRichard Nixon_cell_0_6_1
Preceded byRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_7_0 Alben W. BarkleyRichard Nixon_cell_0_7_1
Succeeded byRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_8_0 Lyndon B. JohnsonRichard Nixon_cell_0_8_1
United States Senator

from CaliforniaRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_9_0

Preceded byRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_10_0 Sheridan DowneyRichard Nixon_cell_0_10_1
Succeeded byRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_11_0 Thomas KuchelRichard Nixon_cell_0_11_1
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives

from California's 12th districtRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_12_0

Preceded byRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_13_0 Jerry VoorhisRichard Nixon_cell_0_13_1
Succeeded byRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_14_0 Patrick J. HillingsRichard Nixon_cell_0_14_1
Personal detailsRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_15_0
BornRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_16_0 Richard Milhous Nixon

(1913-01-09)January 9, 1913 Yorba Linda, California, U.S.Richard Nixon_cell_0_16_1

DiedRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_17_0 April 22, 1994(1994-04-22) (aged 81)

New York City, U.S.Richard Nixon_cell_0_17_1

Resting placeRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_18_0 Richard Nixon Presidential Library and MuseumRichard Nixon_cell_0_18_1
Political partyRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_19_0 RepublicanRichard Nixon_cell_0_19_1
Spouse(s)Richard Nixon_header_cell_0_20_0 Pat Ryan

​ ​(m. 1940; died 1993)​Richard Nixon_cell_0_20_1

ChildrenRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_21_0 Richard Nixon_cell_0_21_1
MotherRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_22_0 Hannah MilhousRichard Nixon_cell_0_22_1
FatherRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_23_0 Francis A. NixonRichard Nixon_cell_0_23_1
EducationRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_24_0 Richard Nixon_cell_0_24_1
SignatureRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_25_0 Richard Nixon_cell_0_25_1
Military serviceRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_26_0
AllegianceRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_27_0 United StatesRichard Nixon_cell_0_27_1
Branch/serviceRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_28_0 United States NavyRichard Nixon_cell_0_28_1
Years of serviceRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_29_0 Richard Nixon_cell_0_29_1
RankRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_30_0 CommanderRichard Nixon_cell_0_30_1
Battles/warsRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_31_0 Richard Nixon_cell_0_31_1
AwardsRichard Nixon_header_cell_0_32_0 Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal (2)Richard Nixon_cell_0_32_1

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974. Richard Nixon_sentence_2

A member of the Republican Party, Nixon previously served as the 36th vice president from 1953 to 1961, having risen to national prominence as a representative and senator from California. Richard Nixon_sentence_3

After five years in the White House that saw the conclusion to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, détente with the Soviet Union and China, and the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency, he became the only president to resign from the office, following the Watergate scandal. Richard Nixon_sentence_4

Nixon was born into a poor family in a small town in Southern California. Richard Nixon_sentence_5

He graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law. Richard Nixon_sentence_6

He and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. Richard Nixon_sentence_7

He served on active duty in the Navy Reserve during World War II. Richard Nixon_sentence_8

He was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946. Richard Nixon_sentence_9

His pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-Communist which elevated him to national prominence. Richard Nixon_sentence_10

In 1950, he was elected to the Senate. Richard Nixon_sentence_11

He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party's presidential nominee in the 1952 election, subsequently serving for eight years as the vice president. Richard Nixon_sentence_12

He unsuccessfully ran for president in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy. Richard Nixon_sentence_13

Nixon then lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. Richard Nixon_sentence_14

In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating Hubert Humphrey and George Wallace in a close election. Richard Nixon_sentence_15

Nixon ended American involvement in Vietnam in 1973, ending the military draft that same year. Richard Nixon_sentence_16

Nixon's visit to China in 1972 eventually led to diplomatic relations between the two nations, and he gained the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year. Richard Nixon_sentence_17

His administration generally transferred power from federal control to state control. Richard Nixon_sentence_18

He imposed wage and price controls for 90 days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency, and began the War on Cancer. Richard Nixon_sentence_19

He also presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the Space Race. Richard Nixon_sentence_20

He was re-elected in one of the largest electoral landslides in American history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern. Richard Nixon_sentence_21

In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, a war which led to the oil crisis at home. Richard Nixon_sentence_22

By late 1973, Watergate escalated, costing Nixon much of his political support. Richard Nixon_sentence_23

On August 9, 1974, facing almost certain impeachment and removal from office, he became the first American president to resign. Richard Nixon_sentence_24

After his resignation, he was issued a pardon by his successor, Gerald Ford. Richard Nixon_sentence_25

In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote his memoirs and nine other books and undertook many foreign trips, rehabilitating his image into that of an elder statesman and leading expert on foreign affairs. Richard Nixon_sentence_26

He suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994, and died four days later at age 81. Richard Nixon_sentence_27

Surveys of historians and political scientists have ranked Nixon as a below-average president. Richard Nixon_sentence_28

However, evaluations of him have proven complex, with successes as president contrasted against the circumstances of his departure from office. Richard Nixon_sentence_29

Early life Richard Nixon_section_0

Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913, in Yorba Linda, California, in a house built by his father. Richard Nixon_sentence_30

His parents were Hannah (Milhous) Nixon and Francis A. Nixon. Richard Nixon_sentence_31

His mother was a Quaker, and his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith. Richard Nixon_sentence_32

Through his mother, Nixon was a descendant of the early English settler Thomas Cornell, who was also an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates. Richard Nixon_sentence_33

Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time such as refraining from alcohol, dancing, and swearing. Richard Nixon_sentence_34

Nixon had four brothers: Harold (1909–33), Donald (1914–87), Arthur (1918–25), and Edward (1930–2019). Richard Nixon_sentence_35

Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in medieval or legendary Britain; Richard, for example, was named after Richard the Lionheart. Richard Nixon_sentence_36

Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, and he later quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it". Richard Nixon_sentence_37

The Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, and the family moved to Whittier, California. Richard Nixon_sentence_38

In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery store and gas station. Richard Nixon_sentence_39

Richard's younger brother Arthur died in 1925 at the age of seven after a short illness. Richard Nixon_sentence_40

Richard was twelve years old when a spot was found on his lung. Richard Nixon_sentence_41

With a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports. Richard Nixon_sentence_42

Eventually, the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Richard Nixon_sentence_43

Primary and secondary education Richard Nixon_section_1

Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class. Richard Nixon_sentence_44

His parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis (he died of it in 1933), so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School. Richard Nixon_sentence_45

He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year and received excellent grades. Richard Nixon_sentence_46

Later, he lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week. Richard Nixon_sentence_47

He played junior varsity football, and seldom missed a practice, though he was rarely used in games. Richard Nixon_sentence_48

He had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Richard Nixon_sentence_49

Nixon later remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation...don't shout at people. Richard Nixon_sentence_50

Talk to them. Richard Nixon_sentence_51

Converse with them." Richard Nixon_sentence_52

Nixon said he tried to use a conversational tone as much as possible. Richard Nixon_sentence_53

At the start of his junior year in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. Richard Nixon_sentence_54

At Whittier, Nixon suffered his first election defeat when he lost his bid for student body president. Richard Nixon_sentence_55

He often rose at 4 a.m., to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market. Richard Nixon_sentence_56

He then drove to the store to wash and display them before going to school. Richard Nixon_sentence_57

Harold had been diagnosed with tuberculosis the previous year; when their mother took him to Arizona in the hopes of improving his health, the demands on Richard increased, causing him to give up football. Richard Nixon_sentence_58

Nevertheless, Richard graduated from Whittier High third in his class of 207. Richard Nixon_sentence_59

College and law school education Richard Nixon_section_2

Nixon was offered a tuition grant to attend Harvard University, but Harold's continued illness and the need for their mother to care for him meant Richard was needed at the store. Richard Nixon_sentence_60

He remained in his hometown and attended Whittier College with his expenses covered by a bequest from his maternal grandfather. Richard Nixon_sentence_61

Nixon played for the basketball team; he also tried out for football but lacked the size to play. Richard Nixon_sentence_62

He remained on the team as a substitute and was noted for his enthusiasm. Richard Nixon_sentence_63

Instead of fraternities and sororities, Whittier had literary societies. Richard Nixon_sentence_64

Nixon was snubbed by the only one for men, the Franklins; many of the Franklins were from prominent families, but Nixon was not. Richard Nixon_sentence_65

He responded by helping to found a new society, the Orthogonian Society. Richard Nixon_sentence_66

In addition to the society, schoolwork, and work at the store, Nixon found time for a large number of extracurricular activities, becoming a champion debater and gaining a reputation as a hard worker. Richard Nixon_sentence_67

In 1933, he became engaged to Ola Florence Welch, daughter of the Whittier police chief. Richard Nixon_sentence_68

They broke up in 1935. Richard Nixon_sentence_69

After graduating summa cum laude with a Bachelor of Arts degree in history from Whittier in 1934, Nixon received a full scholarship to attend Duke University School of Law. Richard Nixon_sentence_70

The school was new and sought to attract top students by offering scholarships. Richard Nixon_sentence_71

It paid high salaries to its professors, many of whom had national or international reputations. Richard Nixon_sentence_72

The number of scholarships was greatly reduced for second- and third-year students, forcing recipients into intense competition. Richard Nixon_sentence_73

Nixon not only kept his scholarship but was elected president of the Duke Bar Association, inducted into the Order of the Coif, and graduated third in his class in June 1937. Richard Nixon_sentence_74

Early career and marriage Richard Nixon_section_3

After graduating from Duke, Nixon initially hoped to join the FBI. Richard Nixon_sentence_75

He received no response to his letter of application and learned years later that he had been hired, but his appointment had been canceled at the last minute due to budget cuts. Richard Nixon_sentence_76

Instead, he returned to California and was admitted to the California bar in 1937. Richard Nixon_sentence_77

He began practicing in Whittier with the law firm Wingert and Bewley, working on commercial litigation for local petroleum companies and other corporate matters, as well as on wills. Richard Nixon_sentence_78

In later years, Nixon proudly said he was the only modern president to have previously worked as a practicing attorney. Richard Nixon_sentence_79

Nixon was reluctant to work on divorce cases, disliking frank sexual talk from women. Richard Nixon_sentence_80

In 1938, he opened up his own branch of Wingert and Bewley in La Habra, California, and became a full partner in the firm the following year. Richard Nixon_sentence_81

In January 1938 Nixon was cast in the Whittier Community Players production of The Dark Tower. Richard Nixon_sentence_82

There he played opposite a high school teacher named Thelma "Pat" Ryan. Richard Nixon_sentence_83

Nixon described it in his memoirs as "a case of love at first sight"—for Nixon only, as Pat Ryan turned down the young lawyer several times before agreeing to date him. Richard Nixon_sentence_84

Once they began their courtship, Ryan was reluctant to marry Nixon; they dated for two years before she assented to his proposal. Richard Nixon_sentence_85

They wed in a small ceremony on June 21, 1940. Richard Nixon_sentence_86

After a honeymoon in Mexico, the Nixons began their married life in Whittier. Richard Nixon_sentence_87

They had two daughters, Tricia (born 1946) and Julie (born 1948). Richard Nixon_sentence_88

Military service Richard Nixon_section_4

In January 1942 the couple moved to Washington, D.C., where Nixon took a job at the Office of Price Administration. Richard Nixon_sentence_89

In his political campaigns, Nixon would suggest that this was his response to Pearl Harbor, but he had sought the position throughout the latter part of 1941. Richard Nixon_sentence_90

Both Nixon and his wife believed he was limiting his prospects by remaining in Whittier. Richard Nixon_sentence_91

He was assigned to the tire rationing division, where he was tasked with replying to correspondence. Richard Nixon_sentence_92

He did not enjoy the role, and four months later applied to join the United States Navy. Richard Nixon_sentence_93

As a birthright Quaker, he could have by law claimed exemption from the draft; he might also have been deferred because he worked in government service. Richard Nixon_sentence_94

In spite of that, Nixon sought a commission in the Navy. Richard Nixon_sentence_95

His application was successful, and he was appointed a lieutenant junior grade in the U.S Naval Reserve (U.S. Navy Reserve) on June 15, 1942. Richard Nixon_sentence_96

In October 1942, he was assigned as aide to the commander of the Naval Air Station Ottumwa in Iowa until May 1943. Richard Nixon_sentence_97

Seeking more excitement, he requested sea duty and on July 2, 1943, was assigned to Marine Aircraft Group 25 and the South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command (SCAT), supporting the logistics of operations in the South Pacific Theater. Richard Nixon_sentence_98

On October 1, 1943, Nixon was promoted to lieutenant. Richard Nixon_sentence_99

Nixon commanded the SCAT forward detachments at Vella Lavella, Bougainville, and finally at Green Island (Nissan Island). Richard Nixon_sentence_100

His unit prepared manifests and flight plans for R4D/C-47 operations and supervised the loading and unloading of the transport aircraft. Richard Nixon_sentence_101

For this service, he received a Navy Letter of Commendation (awarded a Navy Commendation Ribbon which was later updated to the Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal) from his commanding officer for "meritorious and efficient performance of duty as Officer in Charge of the South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command". Richard Nixon_sentence_102

Upon his return to the U.S., Nixon was appointed the administrative officer of the Alameda Naval Air Station in California. Richard Nixon_sentence_103

In January 1945 he was transferred to the Bureau of Aeronautics office in Philadelphia to help negotiate the termination of war contracts, and received his second letter of commendation, from the Secretary of the Navy for "meritorious service, tireless effort, and devotion to duty". Richard Nixon_sentence_104

Later, Nixon was transferred to other offices to work on contracts and finally to Baltimore. Richard Nixon_sentence_105

On October 3, 1945, he was promoted to lieutenant commander. Richard Nixon_sentence_106

On March 10, 1946, he was relieved of active duty. Richard Nixon_sentence_107

On June 1, 1953, he was promoted to commander in the U.S. Richard Nixon_sentence_108

Naval Reserve, from which he retired in the U.S. Richard Nixon_sentence_109

Naval Reserve on June 6, 1966. Richard Nixon_sentence_110

Richard Nixon_table_general_1

Navy and Marine Corps Commendation MedalRichard Nixon_cell_1_0_0 American Campaign MedalRichard Nixon_cell_1_0_2
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal

with two starsRichard Nixon_cell_1_1_0

World War II Victory MedalRichard Nixon_cell_1_1_1 Armed Forces Reserve Medal

with silver hourglass deviceRichard Nixon_cell_1_1_3

Rising politician Richard Nixon_section_5

Congressional career Richard Nixon_section_6

For more information on Nixon's congressional election campaigns, see 1946 California's 12th congressional district election and 1950 United States Senate election in California. Richard Nixon_sentence_111

California congressman (1947–1950) Richard Nixon_section_7

Republicans in California's 12th congressional district were frustrated by their inability to defeat Democratic representative Jerry Voorhis. Richard Nixon_sentence_112

They sought a consensus candidate who would run a strong campaign against him. Richard Nixon_sentence_113

In 1945, they formed a "Committee of 100" to decide on a candidate, hoping to avoid internal dissensions which had led to previous Voorhis victories. Richard Nixon_sentence_114

After the committee failed to attract higher-profile candidates, Herman Perry, manager of Whittier's Bank of America branch, suggested Nixon, a family friend with whom he had served on the Whittier College Board of Trustees before the war. Richard Nixon_sentence_115

Perry wrote to Nixon in Baltimore. Richard Nixon_sentence_116

After a night of excited talk between Nixon and his wife, he responded to Perry with enthusiasm. Richard Nixon_sentence_117

Nixon flew to California and was selected by the committee. Richard Nixon_sentence_118

When he left the Navy at the start of 1946, Nixon and his wife returned to Whittier, where Nixon began a year of intensive campaigning. Richard Nixon_sentence_119

He contended that Voorhis had been ineffective as a representative and suggested that Voorhis's endorsement by a group linked to Communists meant that Voorhis must have radical views. Richard Nixon_sentence_120

Nixon won the election, receiving 65,586 votes to Voorhis's 49,994. Richard Nixon_sentence_121

In June 1947, Nixon supported the Taft–Hartley Act, a federal law that monitors the activities and power of labor unions, and he served on the Education and Labor Committee. Richard Nixon_sentence_122

In August 1947, he became one of 19 House members to serve on the Herter Committee, which went to Europe to report on the need for U.S. foreign aid. Richard Nixon_sentence_123

Nixon was the youngest member of the committee and the only Westerner. Richard Nixon_sentence_124

Advocacy by Herter Committee members, including Nixon, led to congressional passage of the Marshall Plan. Richard Nixon_sentence_125

In his memoirs, Nixon wrote that he joined the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) "at the end of 1947". Richard Nixon_sentence_126

However, he was already a HUAC member in early February 1947, when he heard "Enemy Number One" Gerhard Eisler and his sister Ruth Fischer testify. Richard Nixon_sentence_127

On February 18, 1947, Nixon referred to Eisler's belligerence toward HUAC in his maiden speech to the House. Richard Nixon_sentence_128

Also by early February 1947, fellow U.S. Representative Charles J. Kersten had introduced him to Father John Francis Cronin in Baltimore. Richard Nixon_sentence_129

Cronin shared with Nixon his 1945 privately circulated paper "The Problem of American Communism in 1945", with much information from the FBI's William C. Sullivan (who by 1961 would head domestic intelligence under J. Richard Nixon_sentence_130 Edgar Hoover). Richard Nixon_sentence_131

By May 1948, Nixon had co-sponsored a "Mundt–Nixon Bill" to implement "a new approach to the complicated problem of internal communist subversion ... Richard Nixon_sentence_132

It provided for registration of all Communist Party members and required a statement of the source of all printed and broadcast material issued by organizations that were found to be Communist fronts." Richard Nixon_sentence_133

He served as floor manager for the Republican Party. Richard Nixon_sentence_134

On May 19, 1948, the bill passed the House by 319 to 58, but later it failed to pass the Senate. Richard Nixon_sentence_135

(The Nixon Library cites this bill's passage as Nixon's first significant victory in Congress.) Richard Nixon_sentence_136

Nixon first gained national attention in August 1948, when his persistence as a HUAC member helped break the Alger Hiss spy case. Richard Nixon_sentence_137

While many doubted Whittaker Chambers's allegations that Hiss, a former State Department official, had been a Soviet spy, Nixon believed them to be true and pressed for the committee to continue its investigation. Richard Nixon_sentence_138

After Hiss filed suit for defamation, Chambers produced documents corroborating his allegations. Richard Nixon_sentence_139

These included paper and microfilm copies that Chambers turned over to House investigators after having hidden them overnight in a field; they became known as the "Pumpkin Papers". Richard Nixon_sentence_140

Hiss was convicted of perjury in 1950 for denying under oath he had passed documents to Chambers. Richard Nixon_sentence_141

In 1948, Nixon successfully cross-filed as a candidate in his district, winning both major party primaries, and was comfortably reelected. Richard Nixon_sentence_142

U.S. Senate (1950–1953) Richard Nixon_section_8

In 1949, Nixon began to consider running for the United States Senate against the Democratic incumbent, Sheridan Downey, and entered the race in November. Richard Nixon_sentence_143

Downey, faced with a bitter primary battle with Representative Helen Gahagan Douglas, announced his retirement in March 1950. Richard Nixon_sentence_144

Nixon and Douglas won the primary elections and engaged in a contentious campaign in which the ongoing Korean War was a major issue. Richard Nixon_sentence_145

Nixon tried to focus attention on Douglas's liberal voting record. Richard Nixon_sentence_146

As part of that effort, a "Pink Sheet" was distributed by the Nixon campaign suggesting that, as Douglas's voting record was similar to that of New York Congressman Vito Marcantonio (believed by some to be a communist), their political views must be nearly identical. Richard Nixon_sentence_147

Nixon won the election by almost twenty percentage points. Richard Nixon_sentence_148

During this campaign, Nixon was first called "Tricky Dick" by his opponents for his campaign tactics. Richard Nixon_sentence_149

In the Senate, Nixon took a prominent position in opposing global communism, traveling frequently and speaking out against it. Richard Nixon_sentence_150

He maintained friendly relations with his fellow anti-communist, controversial Wisconsin senator Joseph McCarthy, but was careful to keep some distance between himself and McCarthy's allegations. Richard Nixon_sentence_151

Nixon also criticized President Harry S. Truman's handling of the Korean War. Richard Nixon_sentence_152

He supported statehood for Alaska and Hawaii, voted in favor of civil rights for minorities, and supported federal disaster relief for India and Yugoslavia. Richard Nixon_sentence_153

He voted against price controls and other monetary restrictions, benefits for illegal immigrants, and public power. Richard Nixon_sentence_154

Vice president (1953–1961) Richard Nixon_section_9

General Dwight D. Eisenhower was nominated for president by the Republicans in 1952. Richard Nixon_sentence_155

He had no strong preference for a vice-presidential candidate, and Republican officeholders and party officials met in a "smoke-filled room" and recommended Nixon to the general, who agreed to the senator's selection. Richard Nixon_sentence_156

Nixon's youth (he was then 39), stance against communism, and political base in California—one of the largest states—were all seen as vote-winners by the leaders. Richard Nixon_sentence_157

Among the candidates considered along with Nixon were Ohio Senator Robert A. Taft, New Jersey Governor Alfred Driscoll and Illinois Senator Everett Dirksen. Richard Nixon_sentence_158

On the campaign trail, Eisenhower spoke to his plans for the country, leaving the negative campaigning to his running mate. Richard Nixon_sentence_159

In mid-September, the Republican ticket faced a major crisis. Richard Nixon_sentence_160

The media reported that Nixon had a political fund, maintained by his backers, which reimbursed him for political expenses. Richard Nixon_sentence_161

Such a fund was not illegal but it exposed Nixon to allegations of a possible conflict of interest. Richard Nixon_sentence_162

With pressure building for Eisenhower to demand Nixon's resignation from the ticket the senator went on television to deliver an address to the nation on September 23, 1952. Richard Nixon_sentence_163

The address, later termed the Checkers speech, was heard by about 60 million Americans—including the largest television audience up to that point. Richard Nixon_sentence_164

Nixon emotionally defended himself, stating that the fund was not secret, nor had donors received special favors. Richard Nixon_sentence_165

He painted himself as a man of modest means (his wife had no mink coat; instead she wore a "respectable Republican cloth coat") and a patriot. Richard Nixon_sentence_166

The speech would be remembered for the gift which Nixon had received, but which he would not give back: "a little cocker spaniel dog ... sent all the way from Texas. Richard Nixon_sentence_167

And our little girl—Tricia, the 6-year-old—named it Checkers." Richard Nixon_sentence_168

The speech prompted a huge public outpouring of support for Nixon. Richard Nixon_sentence_169

Eisenhower decided to retain him on the ticket, which proved victorious in the November election. Richard Nixon_sentence_170

Eisenhower gave Nixon responsibilities during his term as vice president—more than any previous vice president. Richard Nixon_sentence_171

Nixon attended Cabinet and National Security Council meetings and chaired them when Eisenhower was absent. Richard Nixon_sentence_172

A 1953 tour of the Far East succeeded in increasing local goodwill toward the United States and prompted Nixon to appreciate the potential of the region as an industrial center. Richard Nixon_sentence_173

He visited Saigon and Hanoi in French Indochina. Richard Nixon_sentence_174

On his return to the United States at the end of 1953, Nixon increased the amount of time he devoted to foreign relations. Richard Nixon_sentence_175

Biographer Irwin Gellman, who chronicled Nixon's congressional years, said of his vice presidency: Richard Nixon_sentence_176

Despite intense campaigning by Nixon, who reprised his strong attacks on the Democrats, the Republicans lost control of both houses of Congress in the 1954 elections. Richard Nixon_sentence_177

These losses caused Nixon to contemplate leaving politics once he had served out his term. Richard Nixon_sentence_178

On September 24, 1955, President Eisenhower suffered a heart attack; his condition was initially believed to be life-threatening. Richard Nixon_sentence_179

Eisenhower was unable to perform his duties for six weeks. Richard Nixon_sentence_180

The 25th Amendment to the United States Constitution had not yet been proposed, and the vice president had no formal power to act. Richard Nixon_sentence_181

Nonetheless, Nixon acted in Eisenhower's stead during this period, presiding over Cabinet meetings and ensuring that aides and Cabinet officers did not seek power. Richard Nixon_sentence_182

According to Nixon biographer Stephen Ambrose, Nixon had "earned the high praise he received for his conduct during the crisis ... he made no attempt to seize power". Richard Nixon_sentence_183

His spirits buoyed, Nixon sought a second term, but some of Eisenhower's aides aimed to displace him. Richard Nixon_sentence_184

In a December 1955 meeting, Eisenhower proposed that Nixon not run for reelection in order to give him administrative experience before a 1960 presidential run and instead become a Cabinet officer in a second Eisenhower administration. Richard Nixon_sentence_185

Nixon believed such an action would destroy his political career. Richard Nixon_sentence_186

When Eisenhower announced his reelection bid in February 1956, he hedged on the choice of his running mate, saying it was improper to address that question until he had been renominated. Richard Nixon_sentence_187

Although no Republican was opposing Eisenhower, Nixon received a substantial number of write-in votes against the president in the 1956 New Hampshire primary election. Richard Nixon_sentence_188

In late April, the President announced that Nixon would again be his running mate. Richard Nixon_sentence_189

Eisenhower and Nixon were reelected by a comfortable margin in the November 1956 election. Richard Nixon_sentence_190

In early 1957, Nixon undertook another major foreign trip, this time to Africa. Richard Nixon_sentence_191

On his return, he helped shepherd the Civil Rights Act of 1957 through Congress. Richard Nixon_sentence_192

The bill was weakened in the Senate, and civil rights leaders were divided over whether Eisenhower should sign it. Richard Nixon_sentence_193

Nixon advised the President to sign the bill, which he did. Richard Nixon_sentence_194

Eisenhower suffered a mild stroke in November 1957, and Nixon gave a press conference, assuring the nation that the Cabinet was functioning well as a team during Eisenhower's brief illness. Richard Nixon_sentence_195

On April 27, 1958, Richard and Pat Nixon reluctantly embarked on a goodwill tour of South America. Richard Nixon_sentence_196

In Montevideo, Uruguay, Nixon made an impromptu visit to a college campus, where he fielded questions from students on U.S. foreign policy. Richard Nixon_sentence_197

The trip was uneventful until the Nixon party reached Lima, Peru, where he was met with student demonstrations. Richard Nixon_sentence_198

Nixon went to the historical campus of National University of San Marcos, the oldest university in the Americas, got out of his car to confront the students, and stayed until forced back into the car by a volley of thrown objects. Richard Nixon_sentence_199

At his hotel, Nixon faced another mob, and one demonstrator spat on him. Richard Nixon_sentence_200

In Caracas, Venezuela, Nixon and his wife were spat on by anti-American demonstrators and their limousine was attacked by a pipe-wielding mob. Richard Nixon_sentence_201

According to Ambrose, Nixon's courageous conduct "caused even some of his bitterest enemies to give him some grudging respect". Richard Nixon_sentence_202

Reporting to the cabinet after the trip, Nixon claimed there was "absolute proof that [the protestors] were directed and controlled by a central Communist conspiracy." Richard Nixon_sentence_203

Secretary of State John Foster Dulles concurred in this view; Director of Central Intelligence Allen Dulles sharply rebuked it. Richard Nixon_sentence_204

In July 1959 President Eisenhower sent Nixon to the Soviet Union for the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow. Richard Nixon_sentence_205

On July 24, Nixon was touring the exhibits with Soviet First Secretary and Premier Nikita Khrushchev when the two stopped at a model of an American kitchen and engaged in an impromptu exchange about the merits of capitalism versus communism that became known as the "Kitchen Debate". Richard Nixon_sentence_206

1960 and 1962 elections; wilderness years Richard Nixon_section_10

Main article: 1960 United States presidential election Richard Nixon_sentence_207

In 1960 Nixon launched his first campaign for President of the United States. Richard Nixon_sentence_208

He faced little opposition in the Republican primaries and chose former Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. as his running mate. Richard Nixon_sentence_209

His Democratic opponent was John F. Kennedy and the race remained close for the duration. Richard Nixon_sentence_210

Nixon campaigned on his experience but Kennedy called for new blood and claimed the Eisenhower–Nixon administration had allowed the Soviet Union to overtake the U.S. in ballistic missiles (the "missile gap"). Richard Nixon_sentence_211

A new political medium was introduced in the campaign: televised presidential debates. Richard Nixon_sentence_212

In the first of four such debates Nixon appeared pale, with a five o'clock shadow, in contrast to the photogenic Kennedy. Richard Nixon_sentence_213

Nixon's performance in the debate was perceived to be mediocre in the visual medium of television, though many people listening on the radio thought Nixon had won. Richard Nixon_sentence_214

Nixon narrowly lost the election; Kennedy won the popular vote by only 112,827 votes (0.2 percent). Richard Nixon_sentence_215

There were charges of voter fraud in Texas and Illinois, both states won by Kennedy. Richard Nixon_sentence_216

Nixon refused to consider contesting the election, feeling a lengthy controversy would diminish the United States in the eyes of the world and the uncertainty would hurt U.S. interests. Richard Nixon_sentence_217

At the end of his term of office as vice president in January 1961, Nixon and his family returned to California, where he practiced law and wrote a bestselling book, Six Crises, which included coverage of the Hiss case, Eisenhower's heart attack, and the Fund Crisis, which had been resolved by the Checkers speech. Richard Nixon_sentence_218

Local and national Republican leaders encouraged Nixon to challenge incumbent Pat Brown for Governor of California in the 1962 election. Richard Nixon_sentence_219

Despite initial reluctance, Nixon entered the race. Richard Nixon_sentence_220

The campaign was clouded by public suspicion that Nixon viewed the office as a stepping stone for another presidential run, some opposition from the far-right of the party, and his own lack of interest in being California's governor. Richard Nixon_sentence_221

Nixon hoped a successful run would confirm his status as the nation's leading active Republican politician, and ensure he remained a major player in national politics. Richard Nixon_sentence_222

Instead, he lost to Brown by more than five percentage points, and the defeat was widely believed to be the end of his political career. Richard Nixon_sentence_223

In an impromptu concession speech the morning after the election, Nixon blamed the media for favoring his opponent, saying, "You won't have Nixon to kick around anymore because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference." Richard Nixon_sentence_224

The California defeat was highlighted in the November 11, 1962, episode of ABC's Howard K. Smith: News and Comment, titled "The Political Obituary of Richard M. Nixon". Richard Nixon_sentence_225

Alger Hiss appeared on the program, and many members of the public complained that it was unseemly to give a convicted felon air time to attack a former vice president. Richard Nixon_sentence_226

The furor drove Smith and his program from the air, and public sympathy for Nixon grew. Richard Nixon_sentence_227

In 1963 the Nixon family traveled to Europe, where Nixon gave press conferences and met with leaders of the countries he visited. Richard Nixon_sentence_228

The family moved to New York City, where Nixon became a senior partner in the leading law firm Nixon, Mudge, Rose, Guthrie & Alexander. Richard Nixon_sentence_229

When announcing his California campaign, Nixon had pledged not to run for president in 1964; even if he had not, he believed it would be difficult to defeat Kennedy, or after his assassination, Kennedy's successor, Lyndon Johnson. Richard Nixon_sentence_230

In 1964, he supported Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater for the Republican nomination for U.S. president; when Goldwater won the nomination, Nixon was selected to introduce him at the convention. Richard Nixon_sentence_231

Although he thought Goldwater unlikely to win, Nixon campaigned for him loyally. Richard Nixon_sentence_232

The election was a disaster for the Republicans; Goldwater's landslide loss to Johnson was matched by heavy losses for the party in Congress and among state governors. Richard Nixon_sentence_233

Nixon was one of the few leading Republicans not blamed for the disastrous results, and he sought to build on that in the 1966 Congressional elections. Richard Nixon_sentence_234

He campaigned for many Republicans, seeking to regain seats lost in the Johnson landslide, and received credit for helping the Republicans make major gains that year. Richard Nixon_sentence_235

1968 presidential election Richard Nixon_section_11

Main articles: Richard Nixon 1968 presidential campaign and 1968 United States presidential election Richard Nixon_sentence_236

At the end of 1967, Nixon told his family he planned to run for president a second time. Richard Nixon_sentence_237

Although Pat Nixon did not always enjoy public life (for example, she had been embarrassed by the need to reveal how little the family owned in the Checkers speech), she was supportive of her husband's ambitions. Richard Nixon_sentence_238

Nixon believed that with the Democrats torn over the issue of the Vietnam War, a Republican had a good chance of winning, although he expected the election to be as close as in 1960. Richard Nixon_sentence_239

One of the most tumultuous primary election seasons ever began as the Tet Offensive was launched in January 1968. Richard Nixon_sentence_240

President Johnson withdrew as a candidate in March, after doing unexpectedly poorly in the New Hampshire primary. Richard Nixon_sentence_241

In June, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, a Democratic candidate, was assassinated just moments after his victory in the California primary. Richard Nixon_sentence_242

On the Republican side, Nixon's main opposition was Michigan Governor George Romney, though New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller and California Governor Ronald Reagan each hoped to be nominated in a brokered convention. Richard Nixon_sentence_243

Nixon secured the nomination on the first ballot. Richard Nixon_sentence_244

He selected Maryland Governor Spiro Agnew as his running mate, a choice which Nixon believed would unite the party, appealing both to Northern moderates and to Southerners disaffected with the Democrats. Richard Nixon_sentence_245

Nixon's Democratic opponent in the general election was Vice President Hubert Humphrey, who was nominated at a convention marked by violent protests. Richard Nixon_sentence_246

Throughout the campaign, Nixon portrayed himself as a figure of stability during a period of national unrest and upheaval. Richard Nixon_sentence_247

He appealed to what he later called the "silent majority" of socially conservative Americans who disliked the hippie counterculture and the anti-war demonstrators. Richard Nixon_sentence_248

Agnew became an increasingly vocal critic of these groups, solidifying Nixon's position with the right. Richard Nixon_sentence_249

Nixon waged a prominent television advertising campaign, meeting with supporters in front of cameras. Richard Nixon_sentence_250

He stressed that the crime rate was too high, and attacked what he perceived as a surrender by the Democrats of the United States' nuclear superiority. Richard Nixon_sentence_251

Nixon promised "peace with honor" in the Vietnam War and proclaimed that "new leadership will end the war and win the peace in the Pacific". Richard Nixon_sentence_252

He did not release specifics of how he hoped to end the war, resulting in media intimations that he must have a "secret plan". Richard Nixon_sentence_253

His slogan of "Nixon's the One" proved to be effective. Richard Nixon_sentence_254

Johnson's negotiators hoped to reach a truce, or at least a cessation of bombings, in Vietnam prior to the election. Richard Nixon_sentence_255

On October 22, 1968, candidate Nixon received information that Johnson was preparing a so-called "October surprise" to elect Humphrey in the last days of the campaign, and his administration had abandoned three non-negotiable conditions for a bombing halt. Richard Nixon_sentence_256

Whether the Nixon campaign interfered with any ongoing negotiations between the Johnson administration and the South Vietnamese by engaging Anna Chennault, a prominent Chinese-American fundraiser for the Republican party, remains an ongoing controversy. Richard Nixon_sentence_257

While notes uncovered in 2016 may support such a contention, the context of said notes remains of debate. Richard Nixon_sentence_258

It is not clear whether the government of South Vietnam needed much encouragement to opt out of a peace process they considered disadvantageous. Richard Nixon_sentence_259

In a three-way race between Nixon, Humphrey, and American Independent Party candidate former Alabama Governor George Wallace, Nixon defeated Humphrey by nearly 500,000 votes (seven-tenths of a percentage point), with 301 electoral votes to 191 for Humphrey and 46 for Wallace. Richard Nixon_sentence_260

He became the first former vice president to have returned to private life and subsequently be elected president. Richard Nixon_sentence_261

In his victory speech, Nixon pledged that his administration would try to bring the divided nation together. Richard Nixon_sentence_262

Nixon said: "I have received a very gracious message from the Vice President, congratulating me for winning the election. Richard Nixon_sentence_263

I congratulated him for his gallant and courageous fight against great odds. Richard Nixon_sentence_264

I also told him that I know exactly how he felt. Richard Nixon_sentence_265

I know how it feels to lose a close one." Richard Nixon_sentence_266

President (1969–1974) Richard Nixon_section_12

Main article: Presidency of Richard Nixon Richard Nixon_sentence_267

Nixon was inaugurated as president on January 20, 1969, sworn in by his onetime political rival, Chief Justice Earl Warren. Richard Nixon_sentence_268

Pat Nixon held the family Bibles open at Isaiah 2:4, which reads, "They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks." Richard Nixon_sentence_269

In his inaugural address, which received almost uniformly positive reviews, Nixon remarked that "the greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker"—a phrase that would later be placed on his gravestone. Richard Nixon_sentence_270

He spoke about turning partisan politics into a new age of unity: Richard Nixon_sentence_271

Foreign policy Richard Nixon_section_13

Main article: Foreign policy of the Richard Nixon administration Richard Nixon_sentence_272

The relationship between Nixon and Henry Kissinger, his National Security Advisor was unusually close. Richard Nixon_sentence_273

It has been compared to the relationships of Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House, or Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Hopkins. Richard Nixon_sentence_274

In all three cases, State Department was relegated to a backseat role in developing foreign-policy. Richard Nixon_sentence_275

Historian David Rothkopf has compared the personalities of Nixon and Kissinger: Richard Nixon_sentence_276

Richard Nixon_description_list_0

  • They were a fascinating pair. In a way, they complemented each other perfectly. Kissinger was the charming and worldly Mr. Outside who provided the grace and intellectual-establishment respectability that Nixon lacked, disdained and aspired to. Kissinger was an international citizen. Nixon very much a classic American. Kissinger had a worldview and a facility for adjusting it to meet the times, Nixon had pragmatism and a strategic vision that provided the foundations for their policies. Kissinger would, of course, say he was not political like Nixon—but in fact he was just as political as Nixon, just as calculating, just as relentlessly ambitious ... these self-made men were driven as much by their need for approval and their neuroses as by their strengths.Richard Nixon_item_0_0

China Richard Nixon_section_14

Main article: 1972 Nixon visit to China Richard Nixon_sentence_277

Nixon laid the groundwork for his overture to China before he became president, writing in Foreign Affairs a year before his election: "There is no place on this small planet for a billion of its potentially most able people to live in angry isolation." Richard Nixon_sentence_278

Assisting him in this venture was Kissinger, in charge of his United States National Security Council and future Secretary of State. Richard Nixon_sentence_279

They collaborated closely, bypassing Cabinet officials. Richard Nixon_sentence_280

With relations between the Soviet Union and China at a nadir—border clashes between the two took place during Nixon's first year in office—Nixon sent private word to the Chinese that he desired closer relations. Richard Nixon_sentence_281

A breakthrough came in early 1971, when Chinese Communist Party (CCP) chairman Mao Zedong invited a team of American table tennis players to visit China and play against top Chinese players. Richard Nixon_sentence_282

Nixon followed up by sending Kissinger to China for clandestine meetings with Chinese officials. Richard Nixon_sentence_283

On July 15, 1971, it was simultaneously announced by Beijing and by Nixon (on television and radio) that the President would visit China the following February. Richard Nixon_sentence_284

The announcements astounded the world. Richard Nixon_sentence_285

The secrecy allowed both sets of leaders time to prepare the political climate in their countries for the contact. Richard Nixon_sentence_286

In February 1972, Nixon and his wife traveled to China. Richard Nixon_sentence_287

Kissinger briefed Nixon for over 40 hours in preparation. Richard Nixon_sentence_288

Upon touching down, the President and First Lady emerged from Air Force One and greeted Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. Richard Nixon_sentence_289

Nixon made a point of shaking Zhou's hand, something which then-Secretary of State John Foster Dulles had refused to do in 1954 when the two met in Geneva. Richard Nixon_sentence_290

More than a hundred television journalists accompanied the president. Richard Nixon_sentence_291

On Nixon's orders, television was strongly favored over printed publications, as Nixon felt that the medium would capture the visit much better than print. Richard Nixon_sentence_292

It also gave him the opportunity to snub the print journalists he despised. Richard Nixon_sentence_293

Nixon and Kissinger met for an hour with CCP Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou at Mao's official private residence, where they discussed a range of issues. Richard Nixon_sentence_294

Mao later told his doctor that he had been impressed by Nixon, whom he considered forthright, unlike the leftists and the Soviets. Richard Nixon_sentence_295

He said he was suspicious of Kissinger, though the National Security Advisor referred to their meeting as his "encounter with history". Richard Nixon_sentence_296

A formal banquet welcoming the presidential party was given that evening in the Great Hall of the People. Richard Nixon_sentence_297

The following day, Nixon met with Zhou; the joint communique following this meeting recognized Taiwan as a part of China, and looked forward to a peaceful solution to the problem of reunification. Richard Nixon_sentence_298

When not in meetings, Nixon toured architectural wonders including the Forbidden City, Ming Tombs, and the Great Wall. Richard Nixon_sentence_299

Americans received their first glimpse into Chinese life through the cameras which accompanied Pat Nixon, who toured the city of Beijing and visited communes, schools, factories, and hospitals. Richard Nixon_sentence_300

The visit ushered in a new era of Sino-American relations. Richard Nixon_sentence_301

Fearing the possibility of a Sino-American alliance, the Soviet Union yielded to pressure for détente with the United States. Richard Nixon_sentence_302

Vietnam War Richard Nixon_section_15

Main articles: Vietnam War, Vietnamization, and Role of the United States in the Vietnam War Richard Nixon_sentence_303

When Nixon took office, about 300 American soldiers were dying each week in Vietnam, and the war was broadly unpopular in the United States, with ongoing violent protests against the war. Richard Nixon_sentence_304

The Johnson administration had agreed to suspend bombing in exchange for negotiations without preconditions, but this agreement never fully took force. Richard Nixon_sentence_305

According to Walter Isaacson, soon after taking office, Nixon had concluded that the Vietnam War could not be won and he was determined to end the war quickly. Richard Nixon_sentence_306

He sought some arrangement which would permit American forces to withdraw, while leaving South Vietnam secure against attack. Richard Nixon_sentence_307

Nixon approved a secret B-52 carpet bombing campaign of North Vietnamese (and, later, allied Khmer Rouge) positions in Cambodia in March 1969 (code-named Operation Menu), without the consent of Cambodian leader Norodom Sihanouk. Richard Nixon_sentence_308

In mid-1969, Nixon began efforts to negotiate peace with the North Vietnamese, sending a personal letter to North Vietnamese leaders, and peace talks began in Paris. Richard Nixon_sentence_309

Initial talks, however, did not result in an agreement. Richard Nixon_sentence_310

In May 1969 he publicly proposed to withdraw all American troops from South Vietnam provided North Vietnam also did so and for South Vietnam to hold internationally supervised elections with Viet Cong participation. Richard Nixon_sentence_311

In July 1969, Nixon visited South Vietnam, where he met with his U.S. military commanders and President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu. Richard Nixon_sentence_312

Amid protests at home demanding an immediate pullout, he implemented a strategy of replacing American troops with Vietnamese troops, known as "Vietnamization". Richard Nixon_sentence_313

He soon instituted phased U.S. troop withdrawals, but also authorized incursions into Laos, in part to interrupt the Ho Chi Minh trail, which passed through Laos and Cambodia and was used to supply North Vietnamese forces. Richard Nixon_sentence_314

Nixon announced the ground invasion of Cambodia to the American public on April 30, 1970. Richard Nixon_sentence_315

Further protests erupted against what was perceived as an expansion of the conflict, and the unrest escalated to violence when Ohio National Guardsmen shot and killed four unarmed students on May 4. Richard Nixon_sentence_316

Nixon's responses to protesters included an impromptu, early morning meeting with them at the Lincoln Memorial on May 9, 1970. Richard Nixon_sentence_317

Documents uncovered from the Soviet archives after 1991 reveal that the North Vietnamese attempt to overrun Cambodia in 1970 was launched at the explicit request of the Khmer Rouge and negotiated by Pol Pot's then-second-in-command, Nuon Chea. Richard Nixon_sentence_318

Nixon's campaign promise to curb the war, contrasted with the escalated bombing, led to claims that Nixon had a "credibility gap" on the issue. Richard Nixon_sentence_319

It is estimated that between 50,000 and 150,000 people were killed during the bombing of Cambodia between 1970 and 1973. Richard Nixon_sentence_320

In 1971, excerpts from the "Pentagon Papers", which had been leaked by Daniel Ellsberg, were published by The New York Times and The Washington Post. Richard Nixon_sentence_321

When news of the leak first appeared, Nixon was inclined to do nothing; the Papers, a history of United States' involvement in Vietnam, mostly concerned the lies of prior administrations and contained few real revelations. Richard Nixon_sentence_322

He was persuaded by Kissinger that the Papers were more harmful than they appeared, and the President tried to prevent publication. Richard Nixon_sentence_323

The Supreme Court eventually ruled for the newspapers. Richard Nixon_sentence_324

As U.S. troop withdrawals continued, conscription was reduced and in 1973 ended; the armed forces became all-volunteer. Richard Nixon_sentence_325

After years of fighting, the Paris Peace Accords were signed at the beginning of 1973. Richard Nixon_sentence_326

The agreement implemented a cease fire and allowed for the withdrawal of remaining American troops without requiring the 160,000 North Vietnam Army regulars located in the South to withdraw. Richard Nixon_sentence_327

Once American combat support ended, there was a brief truce, before fighting broke out again. Richard Nixon_sentence_328

North Vietnam conquered South Vietnam in 1975. Richard Nixon_sentence_329

Latin American policy Richard Nixon_section_16

See also: U.S. Richard Nixon_sentence_330 intervention in Chile § 1973 coup, and Operation Condor Richard Nixon_sentence_331

Nixon had been a firm supporter of Kennedy during the 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion and 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Richard Nixon_sentence_332

On taking office in 1969, he stepped up covert operations against Cuba and its president, Fidel Castro. Richard Nixon_sentence_333

He maintained close relations with the Cuban-American exile community through his friend, Bebe Rebozo, who often suggested ways of irritating Castro. Richard Nixon_sentence_334

These activities concerned the Soviets and Cubans, who feared Nixon might attack Cuba and break the understanding between Kennedy and Khrushchev which had ended the missile crisis. Richard Nixon_sentence_335

In August 1970, the Soviets asked Nixon to reaffirm the understanding; despite his hard line against Castro, Nixon agreed. Richard Nixon_sentence_336

The process had not yet been completed when the Soviets began expanding their base at the Cuban port of Cienfuegos in October 1970. Richard Nixon_sentence_337

A minor confrontation ensued, which was concluded with an understanding that the Soviets would not use Cienfuegos for submarines bearing ballistic missiles. Richard Nixon_sentence_338

The final round of diplomatic notes, reaffirming the 1962 accord, were exchanged in November. Richard Nixon_sentence_339

The election of Marxist candidate Salvador Allende as President of Chile in September 1970 spurred Nixon and Kissinger to pursue a vigorous campaign of covert opposition to Allende, first designed to convince the Chilean congress to confirm Jorge Alessandri as the winner of the election and then messages to military officers in support of a coup. Richard Nixon_sentence_340

Other support included strikes organized against Allende and funding for Allende opponents. Richard Nixon_sentence_341

It was even alleged that "Nixon personally authorized" $700,000 in covert funds to print anti-Allende messages in a prominent Chilean newspaper. Richard Nixon_sentence_342

Following an extended period of social, political, and economic unrest, General Augusto Pinochet assumed power in a violent coup d'état on September 11, 1973; among the dead was Allende. Richard Nixon_sentence_343

Soviet Union Richard Nixon_section_17

Nixon used the improving international environment to address the topic of nuclear peace. Richard Nixon_sentence_344

Following the announcement of his visit to China, the Nixon administration concluded negotiations for him to visit the Soviet Union. Richard Nixon_sentence_345

The President and First Lady arrived in Moscow on May 22, 1972, and met with Leonid Brezhnev, the General Secretary of the Communist Party; Alexei Kosygin, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers; and Nikolai Podgorny, the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, among other leading Soviet officials. Richard Nixon_sentence_346

Nixon engaged in intense negotiations with Brezhnev. Richard Nixon_sentence_347

Out of the summit came agreements for increased trade and two landmark arms control treaties: SALT I, the first comprehensive limitation pact signed by the two superpowers, and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, which banned the development of systems designed to intercept incoming missiles. Richard Nixon_sentence_348

Nixon and Brezhnev proclaimed a new era of "peaceful coexistence". Richard Nixon_sentence_349

A banquet was held that evening at the Kremlin. Richard Nixon_sentence_350

Nixon and Kissinger planned to link arms control to détente and to the resolution of other urgent problems through what Nixon called "linkage." Richard Nixon_sentence_351

David Tal argues: Richard Nixon_sentence_352

Richard Nixon_description_list_1

  • The linkage between strategic arms limitations and outstanding issues such as the Middle East, Berlin and, foremost, Vietnam thus became central to Nixon's and Kissinger's policy of détente. Through employment of linkage, they hoped to change the nature and course of U.S. foreign policy, including U.S. nuclear disarmament and arms control policy, and to separate them from those practiced by Nixon's predecessors. They also intended, through linkage, to make U.S. arms control policy part of détente ... His policy of linkage had in fact failed. It failed mainly because it was based on flawed assumptions and false premises, the foremost of which was that the Soviet Union wanted strategic arms limitation agreement much more than the United States did.Richard Nixon_item_1_1

Seeking to foster better relations with the United States, China and the Soviet Union both cut back on their diplomatic support for North Vietnam and advised Hanoi to come to terms militarily. Richard Nixon_sentence_353

Nixon later described his strategy: Richard Nixon_sentence_354

During the previous two years, Nixon had made considerable progress in U.S.–Soviet relations, and he embarked on a second trip to the Soviet Union in 1974. Richard Nixon_sentence_355

He arrived in Moscow on June 27 to a welcome ceremony, cheering crowds, and a state dinner at the Grand Kremlin Palace that evening. Richard Nixon_sentence_356

Nixon and Brezhnev met in Yalta, where they discussed a proposed mutual defense pact, détente, and MIRVs. Richard Nixon_sentence_357

Nixon considered proposing a comprehensive test-ban treaty, but he felt he would not have time to complete it during his presidency. Richard Nixon_sentence_358

There were no significant breakthroughs in these negotiations. Richard Nixon_sentence_359

Middle Eastern policy Richard Nixon_section_18

As part of the Nixon Doctrine, the U.S. avoided giving direct combat assistance to its allies and instead gave them assistance to defend themselves. Richard Nixon_sentence_360

During the Nixon administration, the U.S. greatly increased arms sales to the Middle East, particularly Israel, Iran and Saudi Arabia. Richard Nixon_sentence_361

The Nixon administration strongly supported Israel, an American ally in the Middle East, but the support was not unconditional. Richard Nixon_sentence_362

Nixon believed Israel should make peace with its Arab neighbors and that the U.S. should encourage it. Richard Nixon_sentence_363

The president believed that—except during the Suez Crisis—the U.S. had failed to intervene with Israel, and should use the leverage of the large U.S. military aid to Israel to urge the parties to the negotiating table. Richard Nixon_sentence_364

The Arab-Israeli conflict was not a major focus of Nixon's attention during his first term—for one thing, he felt that no matter what he did, American Jews would oppose his reelection. Richard Nixon_sentence_365

On October 6, 1973, an Arab coalition led by Egypt and Syria, supported with arms and materiel by the Soviet Union, attacked Israel in the Yom Kippur War. Richard Nixon_sentence_366

Israel suffered heavy losses and Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses, cutting through inter-departmental squabbles and bureaucracy and taking personal responsibility for any response by Arab nations. Richard Nixon_sentence_367

More than a week later, by the time the U.S. and Soviet Union began negotiating a truce, Israel had penetrated deep into enemy territory. Richard Nixon_sentence_368

The truce negotiations rapidly escalated into a superpower crisis; when Israel gained the upper hand, Egyptian President Sadat requested a joint U.S.–USSR peacekeeping mission, which the U.S. refused. Richard Nixon_sentence_369

When Soviet Premier Brezhnev threatened to unilaterally enforce any peacekeeping mission militarily, Nixon ordered the U.S. military to DEFCON3, placing all U.S. military personnel and bases on alert for nuclear war. Richard Nixon_sentence_370

This was the closest the world had come to nuclear war since the Cuban Missile Crisis. Richard Nixon_sentence_371

Brezhnev backed down as a result of Nixon's actions. Richard Nixon_sentence_372

Because Israel's victory was largely due to U.S. support, the Arab OPEC nations retaliated by refusing to sell crude oil to the U.S., resulting in the 1973 oil crisis. Richard Nixon_sentence_373

The embargo caused gasoline shortages and rationing in the United States in late 1973, and was eventually ended by the oil-producing nations as peace in the Middle East took hold. Richard Nixon_sentence_374

After the war, and under Nixon's presidency, the U.S. reestablished relations with Egypt for the first time since 1967. Richard Nixon_sentence_375

Nixon used the Middle East crisis to restart the stalled Middle East Peace Negotiations; he wrote in a confidential memo to Kissinger on October 20: Richard Nixon_sentence_376

Nixon made one of his final international visits as president to the Middle East in June 1974, and became the first President to visit Israel. Richard Nixon_sentence_377

Domestic policy Richard Nixon_section_19

Economy Richard Nixon_section_20

Further information: Nixon shock and 1970s energy crisis Richard Nixon_sentence_378

At the time Nixon took office in 1969, inflation was at 4.7 percent—its highest rate since the Korean War. Richard Nixon_sentence_379

The Great Society had been enacted under Johnson, which, together with the Vietnam War costs, was causing large budget deficits. Richard Nixon_sentence_380

Unemployment was low, but interest rates were at their highest in a century. Richard Nixon_sentence_381

Nixon's major economic goal was to reduce inflation; the most obvious means of doing so was to end the war. Richard Nixon_sentence_382

This could not be accomplished overnight, and the U.S. economy continued to struggle through 1970, contributing to a lackluster Republican performance in the midterm congressional elections (Democrats controlled both Houses of Congress throughout Nixon's presidency). Richard Nixon_sentence_383

According to political economist Nigel Bowles in his 2011 study of Nixon's economic record, the new president did little to alter Johnson's policies through the first year of his presidency. Richard Nixon_sentence_384

Nixon was far more interested in foreign affairs than domestic policies, but he believed that voters tend to focus on their own financial condition, and that economic conditions were a threat to his reelection. Richard Nixon_sentence_385

As part of his "New Federalism" views, he proposed grants to the states, but these proposals were for the most part lost in the congressional budget process. Richard Nixon_sentence_386

However, Nixon gained political credit for advocating them. Richard Nixon_sentence_387

In 1970, Congress had granted the President the power to impose wage and price freezes, though the Democratic majorities, knowing Nixon had opposed such controls through his career, did not expect Nixon to actually use the authority. Richard Nixon_sentence_388

With inflation unresolved by August 1971, and an election year looming, Nixon convened a summit of his economic advisers at Camp David. Richard Nixon_sentence_389

He then announced temporary wage and price controls, allowed the dollar to float against other currencies, and ended the convertibility of the dollar into gold. Richard Nixon_sentence_390

Bowles points out, Richard Nixon_sentence_391

Nixon's policies dampened inflation through 1972, although their aftereffects contributed to inflation during his second term and into the Ford administration. Richard Nixon_sentence_392

After Nixon won re-election, inflation was returning. Richard Nixon_sentence_393

He reimposed price controls in June 1973. Richard Nixon_sentence_394

The price controls became unpopular with the public and businesspeople, who saw powerful labor unions as preferable to the price board bureaucracy. Richard Nixon_sentence_395

The controls produced food shortages, as meat disappeared from grocery stores and farmers drowned chickens rather than sell them at a loss. Richard Nixon_sentence_396

Despite the failure to control inflation, controls were slowly ended, and on April 30, 1974, their statutory authorization lapsed. Richard Nixon_sentence_397

Governmental initiatives and organization Richard Nixon_section_21

Nixon advocated a "New Federalism", which would devolve power to state and local elected officials, though Congress was hostile to these ideas and enacted few of them. Richard Nixon_sentence_398

He eliminated the Cabinet-level United States Post Office Department, which in 1971 became the government-run United States Postal Service. Richard Nixon_sentence_399

Nixon was a late supporter of the conservation movement. Richard Nixon_sentence_400

Environmental policy had not been a significant issue in the 1968 election, and the candidates were rarely asked for their views on the subject. Richard Nixon_sentence_401

Nixon broke new ground by discussing environmental policy in his State of the Union speech in 1970. Richard Nixon_sentence_402

He saw that the first Earth Day in April 1970 presaged a wave of voter interest on the subject, and sought to use that to his benefit; in June he announced the formation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Richard Nixon_sentence_403

He relied on his domestic advisor John Ehrlichman, who favored protection of natural resources, to keep him "out of trouble on environmental issues." Richard Nixon_sentence_404

Other initiatives supported by Nixon included the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the National Environmental Policy Act required environmental impact statements for many Federal projects. Richard Nixon_sentence_405

Nixon vetoed the Clean Water Act of 1972—objecting not to the policy goals of the legislation but to the amount of money to be spent on them, which he deemed excessive. Richard Nixon_sentence_406

After Congress overrode his veto, Nixon impounded the funds he deemed unjustifiable. Richard Nixon_sentence_407

In 1971, Nixon proposed health insurance reform—a private health insurance employer mandate, federalization of Medicaid for poor families with dependent minor children, and support for health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Richard Nixon_sentence_408

A limited HMO bill was enacted in 1973. Richard Nixon_sentence_409

In 1974, Nixon proposed more comprehensive health insurance reform—a private health insurance employer mandate and replacement of Medicaid by state-run health insurance plans available to all, with income-based premiums and cost sharing. Richard Nixon_sentence_410

Nixon was concerned about the prevalence of domestic drug use in addition to drug use among American soldiers in Vietnam. Richard Nixon_sentence_411

He called for a War on Drugs and pledged to cut off sources of supply abroad. Richard Nixon_sentence_412

He also increased funds for education and for rehabilitation facilities. Richard Nixon_sentence_413

As one policy initiative, Nixon called for more money for sickle-cell research, treatment, and education in February 1971 and signed the National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act on May 16, 1972. Richard Nixon_sentence_414

While Nixon called for increased spending on such high-profile items as sickle-cell disease and for a War on Cancer, at the same time he sought to reduce overall spending at the National Institutes of Health. Richard Nixon_sentence_415

Civil rights Richard Nixon_section_22

The Nixon presidency witnessed the first large-scale integration of public schools in the South. Richard Nixon_sentence_416

Nixon sought a middle way between the segregationist Wallace and liberal Democrats, whose support of integration was alienating some Southern whites. Richard Nixon_sentence_417

Hopeful of doing well in the South in 1972, he sought to dispose of desegregation as a political issue before then. Richard Nixon_sentence_418

Soon after his inauguration, he appointed Vice President Agnew to lead a task force, which worked with local leaders—both white and black—to determine how to integrate local schools. Richard Nixon_sentence_419

Agnew had little interest in the work, and most of it was done by Labor Secretary George Shultz. Richard Nixon_sentence_420

Federal aid was available, and a meeting with President Nixon was a possible reward for compliant committees. Richard Nixon_sentence_421

By September 1970, less than ten percent of black children were attending segregated schools. Richard Nixon_sentence_422

By 1971, however, tensions over desegregation surfaced in Northern cities, with angry protests over the busing of children to schools outside their neighborhood to achieve racial balance. Richard Nixon_sentence_423

Nixon opposed busing personally but enforced court orders requiring its use. Richard Nixon_sentence_424

Some scholars, such as James Morton Turner and John Isenberg, believe that Nixon, who had advocated for civil rights in his 1960 campaign, slowed down desegregation as president, appealing to the racial conservatism of Southern whites, who were angered by the civil rights movement. Richard Nixon_sentence_425

This, he hoped, would boost his election chances in 1972. Richard Nixon_sentence_426

In addition to desegregating public schools, Nixon implemented the Philadelphia Plan in 1970—the first significant federal affirmative action program. Richard Nixon_sentence_427

He also endorsed the Equal Rights Amendment after it passed both houses of Congress in 1972 and went to the states for ratification. Richard Nixon_sentence_428

He also pushed for African American civil rights and economic equity through a concept known as black capitalism. Richard Nixon_sentence_429

Nixon had campaigned as an ERA supporter in 1968, though feminists criticized him for doing little to help the ERA or their cause after his election. Richard Nixon_sentence_430

Nevertheless, he appointed more women to administration positions than Lyndon Johnson had. Richard Nixon_sentence_431

Space policy Richard Nixon_section_23

Further information: Space policy of the United States Richard Nixon_sentence_432

After a nearly decade-long national effort, the United States won the race to land astronauts on the Moon on July 20, 1969, with the flight of Apollo 11. Richard Nixon_sentence_433

Nixon spoke with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during their moonwalk. Richard Nixon_sentence_434

He called the conversation "the most historic phone call ever made from the White House". Richard Nixon_sentence_435

Nixon was unwilling to keep funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the high level seen during the 1960s as NASA prepared to send men to the Moon. Richard Nixon_sentence_436

NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine drew up ambitious plans for the establishment of a permanent base on the Moon by the end of the 1970s and the launch of a crewed expedition to Mars as early as 1981. Richard Nixon_sentence_437

Nixon rejected both proposals due to the expense. Richard Nixon_sentence_438

Nixon also canceled the Air Force Manned Orbital Laboratory program in 1969, because unmanned spy satellites were a more cost-effective way to achieve the same reconnaissance objective. Richard Nixon_sentence_439

NASA cancelled the last three planned Apollo lunar missions to place Skylab in orbit more efficiently and free money up for the design and construction of the Space Shuttle. Richard Nixon_sentence_440

On May 24, 1972, Nixon approved a five-year cooperative program between NASA and the Soviet space program, culminating in the 1975 joint mission of an American Apollo and Soviet Soyuz spacecraft linking in space. Richard Nixon_sentence_441

Reelection, Watergate scandal, and resignation Richard Nixon_section_24

1972 presidential campaign Richard Nixon_section_25

Main article: 1972 United States presidential election Richard Nixon_sentence_442

Nixon believed his rise to power had peaked at a moment of political realignment. Richard Nixon_sentence_443

The Democratic "Solid South" had long been a source of frustration to Republican ambitions. Richard Nixon_sentence_444

Goldwater had won several Southern states by opposing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 but had alienated more moderate Southerners. Richard Nixon_sentence_445

Nixon's efforts to gain Southern support in 1968 were diluted by Wallace's candidacy. Richard Nixon_sentence_446

Through his first term, he pursued a Southern Strategy with policies, such as his desegregation plans, that would be broadly acceptable among Southern whites, encouraging them to realign with the Republicans in the aftermath of the civil rights movement. Richard Nixon_sentence_447

He nominated two Southern conservatives, Clement Haynsworth and G. Richard Nixon_sentence_448 Harrold Carswell to the Supreme Court, but neither was confirmed by the Senate. Richard Nixon_sentence_449

Nixon entered his name on the New Hampshire primary ballot on January 5, 1972, effectively announcing his candidacy for reelection. Richard Nixon_sentence_450

Virtually assured the Republican nomination, the President had initially expected his Democratic opponent to be Massachusetts Senator Edward M. Kennedy (brother of the late President), who was largely removed from contention after the July 1969 Chappaquiddick incident. Richard Nixon_sentence_451

Instead, Maine Senator Edmund Muskie became the front runner, with South Dakota Senator George McGovern in a close second place. Richard Nixon_sentence_452

On June 10, McGovern won the California primary and secured the Democratic nomination. Richard Nixon_sentence_453

The following month, Nixon was renominated at the 1972 Republican National Convention. Richard Nixon_sentence_454

He dismissed the Democratic platform as cowardly and divisive. Richard Nixon_sentence_455

McGovern intended to sharply reduce defense spending and supported amnesty for draft evaders as well as abortion rights. Richard Nixon_sentence_456

With some of his supporters believed to be in favor of drug legalization, McGovern was perceived as standing for "amnesty, abortion and acid". Richard Nixon_sentence_457

McGovern was also damaged by his vacillating support for his original running mate, Missouri Senator Thomas Eagleton, dumped from the ticket following revelations that he had received treatment for depression. Richard Nixon_sentence_458

Nixon was ahead in most polls for the entire election cycle, and was reelected on November 7, 1972, in one of the largest landslide election victories in American history. Richard Nixon_sentence_459

He defeated McGovern with over 60 percent of the popular vote, losing only in Massachusetts and D.C. Richard Nixon_sentence_460

Watergate Richard Nixon_section_26

Main articles: Watergate scandal and Impeachment process of Richard Nixon Richard Nixon_sentence_461

The term Watergate has come to encompass an array of clandestine and often illegal activities undertaken by members of the Nixon administration. Richard Nixon_sentence_462

Those activities included "dirty tricks," such as bugging the offices of political opponents, and the harassment of activist groups and political figures. Richard Nixon_sentence_463

The activities were brought to light after five men were caught breaking into the Democratic party headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972. Richard Nixon_sentence_464

The Washington Post picked up on the story; reporters Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward relied on an informant known as "Deep Throat"—later revealed to be Mark Felt, associate director at the FBI—to link the men to the Nixon administration. Richard Nixon_sentence_465

Nixon downplayed the scandal as mere politics, calling news articles biased and misleading. Richard Nixon_sentence_466

A series of revelations made it clear that the Committee to Re-elect President Nixon, and later the White House, were involved in attempts to sabotage the Democrats. Richard Nixon_sentence_467

Senior aides such as White House Counsel John Dean faced prosecution; in total 48 officials were convicted of wrongdoing. Richard Nixon_sentence_468

In July 1973, White House aide Alexander Butterfield testified under oath to Congress that Nixon had a secret taping system and recorded his conversations and phone calls in the Oval Office. Richard Nixon_sentence_469

These tapes were subpoenaed by Watergate Special Counsel Archibald Cox; Nixon provided transcripts of the conversations but not the actual tapes, citing executive privilege. Richard Nixon_sentence_470

With the White House and Cox at loggerheads, Nixon had Cox fired in October in the "Saturday Night Massacre"; he was replaced by Leon Jaworski. Richard Nixon_sentence_471

In November, Nixon's lawyers revealed that a tape of conversations held in the White House on June 20, 1972, had an ​18 ⁄2 minute gap. Richard Nixon_sentence_472

Rose Mary Woods, the President's personal secretary, claimed responsibility for the gap, saying that she had accidentally wiped the section while transcribing the tape, but her story was widely mocked. Richard Nixon_sentence_473

The gap, while not conclusive proof of wrongdoing by the President, cast doubt on Nixon's statement that he had been unaware of the cover-up. Richard Nixon_sentence_474

Though Nixon lost much popular support, even from his own party, he rejected accusations of wrongdoing and vowed to stay in office. Richard Nixon_sentence_475

He admitted he had made mistakes but insisted he had no prior knowledge of the burglary, did not break any laws, and did not learn of the cover-up until early 1973. Richard Nixon_sentence_476

On October 10, 1973, Vice President Agnew resigned for reasons unrelated to Watergate: he was convicted on charges of bribery, tax evasion and money laundering during his tenure as governor of Maryland. Richard Nixon_sentence_477

Believing his first choice, John Connally, would not be confirmed by Congress, Nixon chose Gerald Ford, Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, to replace Agnew. Richard Nixon_sentence_478

One researcher suggests Nixon effectively disengaged from his own administration after Ford was sworn in as vice president on December 6, 1973. Richard Nixon_sentence_479

On November 17, 1973, during a televised question-and-answer session, with 400 Associated Press managing editors Nixon said, "People have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Richard Nixon_sentence_480

Well, I'm not a crook. Richard Nixon_sentence_481

I've earned everything I've got." Richard Nixon_sentence_482

The legal battle over the tapes continued through early 1974, and in April Nixon announced the release of 1,200 pages of transcripts of White House conversations between himself and his aides. Richard Nixon_sentence_483

The House Judiciary Committee opened impeachment hearings against the President on May 9, 1974, which were televised on the major TV networks. Richard Nixon_sentence_484

These hearings culminated in votes for impeachment. Richard Nixon_sentence_485

On July 24, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the full tapes, not just selected transcripts, must be released. Richard Nixon_sentence_486

The scandal grew to involve a slew of additional allegations against the President, ranging from the improper use of government agencies to accepting gifts in office and his personal finances and taxes; Nixon repeatedly stated his willingness to pay any outstanding taxes due, and later paid $465,000 (equivalent to $2.4 million in 2019) in back taxes in 1974. Richard Nixon_sentence_487

Even with support diminished by the continuing series of revelations, Nixon hoped to fight the charges. Richard Nixon_sentence_488

But one of the new tapes, recorded soon after the break-in, demonstrated that Nixon had been told of the White House connection to the Watergate burglaries soon after they took place, and had approved plans to thwart the investigation. Richard Nixon_sentence_489

In a statement accompanying the release of what became known as the "Smoking Gun Tape" on August 5, 1974, Nixon accepted blame for misleading the country about when he had been told of White House involvement, stating that he had had a lapse of memory. Richard Nixon_sentence_490

Senate Minority Leader Hugh Scott, Senator Barry Goldwater, and House Minority Leader John Jacob Rhodes met with Nixon soon after. Richard Nixon_sentence_491

Rhodes told Nixon he faced certain impeachment in the House. Richard Nixon_sentence_492

Scott and Goldwater told the president that he had, at most, only 15 votes in his favor in the Senate, far fewer than the 34 needed to avoid removal from office. Richard Nixon_sentence_493

Resignation Richard Nixon_section_27

In light of his loss of political support and the near-certainty that he would be impeached and removed from office, Nixon resigned the presidency on August 9, 1974, after addressing the nation on television the previous evening. Richard Nixon_sentence_494

The resignation speech was delivered from the Oval Office and was carried live on radio and television. Richard Nixon_sentence_495

Nixon said he was resigning for the good of the country and asked the nation to support the new president, Gerald Ford. Richard Nixon_sentence_496

Nixon went on to review the accomplishments of his presidency, especially in foreign policy. Richard Nixon_sentence_497

He defended his record as president, quoting from Theodore Roosevelt's 1910 speech Citizenship in a Republic: Richard Nixon_sentence_498

Nixon's speech received generally favorable initial responses from network commentators, with only Roger Mudd of CBS stating that Nixon had not admitted wrongdoing. Richard Nixon_sentence_499

It was termed "a masterpiece" by Conrad Black, one of his biographers. Richard Nixon_sentence_500

Black opined that "What was intended to be an unprecedented humiliation for any American president, Nixon converted into a virtual parliamentary acknowledgement of almost blameless insufficiency of legislative support to continue. Richard Nixon_sentence_501

He left while devoting half his address to a recitation of his accomplishments in office." Richard Nixon_sentence_502

Post-presidency (1974–1994) Richard Nixon_section_28

Pardon and illness Richard Nixon_section_29

Further information: Pardon of Richard Nixon Richard Nixon_sentence_503

Following his resignation, the Nixons flew to their home La Casa Pacifica in San Clemente, California. Richard Nixon_sentence_504

According to his biographer, Jonathan Aitken, "Nixon was a soul in torment" after his resignation. Richard Nixon_sentence_505

Congress had funded Nixon's transition costs, including some salary expenses, though reducing the appropriation from $850,000 to $200,000. Richard Nixon_sentence_506

With some of his staff still with him, Nixon was at his desk by 7:00 a.m.—with little to do. Richard Nixon_sentence_507

His former press secretary, Ron Ziegler, sat with him alone for hours each day. Richard Nixon_sentence_508

Nixon's resignation had not put an end to the desire among many to see him punished. Richard Nixon_sentence_509

The Ford White House considered a pardon of Nixon, even though it would be unpopular in the country. Richard Nixon_sentence_510

Nixon, contacted by Ford emissaries, was initially reluctant to accept the pardon, but then agreed to do so. Richard Nixon_sentence_511

Ford insisted on a statement of contrition, but Nixon felt he had not committed any crimes and should not have to issue such a document. Richard Nixon_sentence_512

Ford eventually agreed, and on September 8, 1974, he granted Nixon a "full, free, and absolute pardon", which ended any possibility of an indictment. Richard Nixon_sentence_513

Nixon then released a statement: Richard Nixon_sentence_514

In October 1974, Nixon fell ill with phlebitis. Richard Nixon_sentence_515

Told by his doctors that he could either be operated on or die, a reluctant Nixon chose surgery, and President Ford visited him in the hospital. Richard Nixon_sentence_516

Nixon was under subpoena for the trial of three of his former aides—Dean, Haldeman, and John Ehrlichman—and The Washington Post, disbelieving his illness, printed a cartoon showing Nixon with a cast on the "wrong foot". Richard Nixon_sentence_517

Judge John Sirica excused Nixon's presence despite the defendants' objections. Richard Nixon_sentence_518

Congress instructed Ford to retain Nixon's presidential papers—beginning a three-decade legal battle over the documents that was eventually won by the former president and his estate. Richard Nixon_sentence_519

Nixon was in the hospital when the 1974 midterm elections were held, and Watergate and the pardon were contributing factors to the Republican loss of 43 seats in the House and three in the Senate. Richard Nixon_sentence_520

Return to public life Richard Nixon_section_30

In December 1974, Nixon began planning his comeback despite the considerable ill will against him in the country. Richard Nixon_sentence_521

He wrote in his diary, referring to himself and Pat, Richard Nixon_sentence_522

By early 1975, Nixon's health was improving. Richard Nixon_sentence_523

He maintained an office in a Coast Guard station 300 yards from his home, at first taking a golf cart and later walking the route each day; he mainly worked on his memoirs. Richard Nixon_sentence_524

He had hoped to wait before writing his memoirs; the fact that his assets were being eaten away by expenses and lawyer fees compelled him to begin work quickly. Richard Nixon_sentence_525

He was handicapped in this work by the end of his transition allowance in February, which compelled him to part with many of his staff, including Ziegler. Richard Nixon_sentence_526

In August of that year, he met with British talk-show host and producer David Frost, who paid him $600,000 (equivalent to $2.9 million in 2019) for a series of sit-down interviews, filmed and aired in 1977. Richard Nixon_sentence_527

They began on the topic of foreign policy, recounting the leaders he had known, but the most remembered section of the interviews was that on Watergate. Richard Nixon_sentence_528

Nixon admitted he had "let down the country" and that "I brought myself down. Richard Nixon_sentence_529

I gave them a sword and they stuck it in. Richard Nixon_sentence_530

And they twisted it with relish. Richard Nixon_sentence_531

And, I guess, if I'd been in their position, I'd have done the same thing." Richard Nixon_sentence_532

The interviews garnered 45–50 million viewers—becoming the most-watched program of its kind in television history. Richard Nixon_sentence_533

The interviews helped improve Nixon's financial position—at one point in early 1975 he had only $500 in the bank—as did the sale of his Key Biscayne property to a trust set up by wealthy friends of Nixon, such as Bebe Rebozo. Richard Nixon_sentence_534

In February 1976, Nixon visited China at the personal invitation of Mao. Richard Nixon_sentence_535

Nixon had wanted to return to China, but chose to wait until after Ford's own visit in 1975. Richard Nixon_sentence_536

Nixon remained neutral in the close 1976 primary battle between Ford and Reagan. Richard Nixon_sentence_537

Ford won, but was defeated by Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter in the general election. Richard Nixon_sentence_538

The Carter administration had little use for Nixon and blocked his planned trip to Australia, causing the government of Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser to withhold its official invitation. Richard Nixon_sentence_539

In 1976, Nixon was disbarred by the New York State Bar Association for obstruction of justice in the Watergate affair. Richard Nixon_sentence_540

Nixon chose not to present any defense. Richard Nixon_sentence_541

In early 1978, Nixon went to the United Kingdom. Richard Nixon_sentence_542

He was shunned by American diplomats and by most ministers of the James Callaghan government. Richard Nixon_sentence_543

He was welcomed, however, by the Leader of the Opposition, Margaret Thatcher, as well as by former prime ministers Lord Home and Sir Harold Wilson. Richard Nixon_sentence_544

Two other former prime ministers, Harold Macmillan and Edward Heath, declined to meet him. Richard Nixon_sentence_545

Nixon addressed the Oxford Union regarding Watergate: Richard Nixon_sentence_546

Author and elder statesman Richard Nixon_section_31

In 1978, Nixon published his memoirs, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon, the first of ten books he was to author in his retirement. Richard Nixon_sentence_547

The book was a bestseller and attracted a generally positive critical response. Richard Nixon_sentence_548

Nixon visited the White House in 1979, invited by Carter for the state dinner for Chinese Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping. Richard Nixon_sentence_549

Carter had not wanted to invite Nixon, but Deng had said he would visit Nixon in California if the former president was not invited. Richard Nixon_sentence_550

Nixon had a private meeting with Deng and visited Beijing again in mid-1979. Richard Nixon_sentence_551

On August 10, 1979, the Nixons purchased a 12‐room condominium occupying the seventh floor of 817 Fifth Avenue New York City after being rejected by two Manhattan co-ops. Richard Nixon_sentence_552

When the deposed Shah of Iran died in Egypt in July 1980, Nixon defied the State Department, which intended to send no U.S. representative, by attending the funeral. Richard Nixon_sentence_553

Though Nixon had no official credentials, as a former president he was seen as the American presence at its former ally's funeral. Richard Nixon_sentence_554

Nixon supported Ronald Reagan for president in 1980, making television appearances portraying himself as, in biographer Stephen Ambrose's words, "the senior statesman above the fray". Richard Nixon_sentence_555

He wrote guest articles for many publications both during the campaign and after Reagan's victory. Richard Nixon_sentence_556

After eighteen months in the New York City townhouse, Nixon and his wife moved in 1981 to Saddle River, New Jersey. Richard Nixon_sentence_557

Throughout the 1980s, Nixon maintained an ambitious schedule of speaking engagements and writing, traveled, and met with many foreign leaders, especially those of Third World countries. Richard Nixon_sentence_558

He joined former Presidents Ford and Carter as representatives of the United States at the funeral of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat. Richard Nixon_sentence_559

On a trip to the Middle East, Nixon made his views known regarding Saudi Arabia and Libya, which attracted significant U.S. media attention; The Washington Post ran stories on Nixon's "rehabilitation". Richard Nixon_sentence_560

Nixon visited the Soviet Union in 1986 and on his return sent President Reagan a lengthy memorandum containing foreign policy suggestions and his personal impressions of Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. Richard Nixon_sentence_561

Following this trip, Nixon was ranked in a Gallup poll as one of the ten most admired men in the world. Richard Nixon_sentence_562

In 1986, Nixon addressed a convention of newspaper publishers, impressing his audience with his tour d'horizon of the world. Richard Nixon_sentence_563

At the time, political pundit Elizabeth Drew wrote, "Even when he was wrong, Nixon still showed that he knew a great deal and had a capacious memory, as well as the capacity to speak with apparent authority, enough to impress people who had little regard for him in earlier times." Richard Nixon_sentence_564

Newsweek ran a story on "Nixon's comeback" with the headline "He's back". Richard Nixon_sentence_565

On July 19, 1990, the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California opened as a private institution with the Nixons in attendance. Richard Nixon_sentence_566

They were joined by a large crowd of people, including Presidents Ford, Reagan, and George H. W. Bush, as well as their wives, Betty, Nancy, and Barbara. Richard Nixon_sentence_567

In January 1994, the former president founded the Nixon Center (today the Center for the National Interest), a Washington policy think tank and conference center. Richard Nixon_sentence_568

Pat Nixon died on June 22, 1993, of emphysema and lung cancer. Richard Nixon_sentence_569

Her funeral services were held on the grounds of the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace. Richard Nixon_sentence_570

Former President Nixon was distraught throughout the interment and delivered a tribute to her inside the library building. Richard Nixon_sentence_571

Death and funeral Richard Nixon_section_32

Main article: Death and funeral of Richard Nixon Richard Nixon_sentence_572

Nixon suffered a severe stroke on April 18, 1994, while preparing to eat dinner in his Park Ridge, New Jersey home. Richard Nixon_sentence_573

A blood clot resulting from the atrial fibrillation he had suffered for many years had formed in his upper heart, broken off, and traveled to his brain. Richard Nixon_sentence_574

He was taken to New York Hospital–Cornell Medical Center in Manhattan, initially alert but unable to speak or to move his right arm or leg. Richard Nixon_sentence_575

Damage to the brain caused swelling (cerebral edema), and Nixon slipped into a deep coma. Richard Nixon_sentence_576

He died at 9:08 p.m. on April 22, 1994, with his daughters at his bedside. Richard Nixon_sentence_577

He was 81 years old. Richard Nixon_sentence_578

Nixon's funeral took place on April 27, 1994, in Yorba Linda, California. Richard Nixon_sentence_579

Eulogists at the Nixon Library ceremony included President Bill Clinton, former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole, California Governor Pete Wilson, and the Reverend Billy Graham. Richard Nixon_sentence_580

Also in attendance were former Presidents Ford, Carter, Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and their wives. Richard Nixon_sentence_581

Richard Nixon was buried beside his wife Pat on the grounds of the Nixon Library. Richard Nixon_sentence_582

He was survived by his two daughters, Tricia and Julie, and four grandchildren. Richard Nixon_sentence_583

In keeping with his wishes, his funeral was not a full state funeral, though his body did lie in repose in the Nixon Library lobby from April 26 to the morning of the funeral service. Richard Nixon_sentence_584

Mourners waited in line for up to eight hours in chilly, wet weather to pay their respects. Richard Nixon_sentence_585

At its peak, the line to pass by Nixon's casket was three miles long with an estimated 42,000 people waiting. Richard Nixon_sentence_586

John F. Stacks of Time magazine said of Nixon shortly after his death, Richard Nixon_sentence_587

Tom Wicker of The New York Times noted that Nixon had been equalled only by Franklin Roosevelt in being five times nominated on a major party ticket and, quoting Nixon's 1962 farewell speech, wrote, Richard Nixon_sentence_588

Ambrose said of the reaction to Nixon's death, "To everyone's amazement, except his, he's our beloved elder statesman." Richard Nixon_sentence_589

Upon Nixon's death, almost all the news coverage mentioned Watergate, but for the most part, the coverage was favorable to the former president. Richard Nixon_sentence_590

The Dallas Morning News stated, "History ultimately should show that despite his flaws, he was one of our most farsighted chief executives." Richard Nixon_sentence_591

This offended some; columnist Russell Baker complained of "a group conspiracy to grant him absolution". Richard Nixon_sentence_592

Cartoonist Jeff Koterba of the Omaha World-Herald depicted History before a blank canvas, his subject Nixon, as America looks on eagerly. Richard Nixon_sentence_593

The artist urges his audience to sit down; the work will take some time to complete, as "this portrait is a little more complicated than most". Richard Nixon_sentence_594

Hunter S. Thompson wrote a scathing piece denouncing Nixon for Rolling Stone, entitled "He Was a Crook" (which also appeared a month later in The Atlantic). Richard Nixon_sentence_595

In his article, Thompson described Nixon as "a political monster straight out of Grendel and a very dangerous enemy." Richard Nixon_sentence_596

Legacy Richard Nixon_section_33

Historian and political scientist James MacGregor Burns asked of Nixon, "How can one evaluate such an idiosyncratic president, so brilliant and so morally lacking?" Richard Nixon_sentence_597

Nixon's biographers disagree on how he will be perceived by posterity. Richard Nixon_sentence_598

According to Ambrose, "Nixon wanted to be judged by what he accomplished. Richard Nixon_sentence_599

What he will be remembered for is the nightmare he put the country through in his second term and for his resignation." Richard Nixon_sentence_600

Irwin Gellman, who chronicled Nixon's Congressional career, suggests, "He was remarkable among his congressional peers, a success story in a troubled era, one who steered a sensible anti-Communist course against the excess of McCarthy." Richard Nixon_sentence_601

Aitken feels that "Nixon, both as a man and as a statesman, has been excessively maligned for his faults and inadequately recognised for his virtues. Richard Nixon_sentence_602

Yet even in a spirit of historical revisionism, no simple verdict is possible." Richard Nixon_sentence_603

Some historians say Nixon's Southern Strategy turned the Southern United States into a Republican stronghold, while others deem economic factors more important in the change. Richard Nixon_sentence_604

Throughout his career, Nixon moved his party away from the control of isolationists, and as a Congressman he was a persuasive advocate of containing Soviet communism. Richard Nixon_sentence_605

According to his biographer Herbert Parmet, "Nixon's role was to steer the Republican party along a middle course, somewhere between the competitive impulses of the Rockefellers, the Goldwaters, and the Reagans." Richard Nixon_sentence_606

Nixon's stance on domestic affairs has been credited with the passage and enforcement of environmental and regulatory legislation. Richard Nixon_sentence_607

In a 2011 paper on Nixon and the environment, historian Paul Charles Milazzo points to Nixon's creation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and to his enforcement of legislation such as the 1973 Endangered Species Act, stating that "though unsought and unacknowledged, Richard Nixon's environmental legacy is secure". Richard Nixon_sentence_608

Nixon himself did not consider the environmental advances he made in office an important part of his legacy; some historians contend that his choices were driven more by political expediency than any strong environmentalism. Richard Nixon_sentence_609

Nixon saw his policies on Vietnam, China, and the Soviet Union as central to his place in history. Richard Nixon_sentence_610

Nixon's onetime opponent George McGovern commented in 1983, "President Nixon probably had a more practical approach to the two superpowers, China and the Soviet Union, than any other president since World War II [...] With the exception of his inexcusable continuation of the war in Vietnam, Nixon really will get high marks in history." Richard Nixon_sentence_611

Political scientist Jussi Hanhimäki disagrees, saying that Nixon's diplomacy was merely a continuation of the Cold War policy of containment by diplomatic, rather than military means. Richard Nixon_sentence_612

Historian Christopher Andrew concludes that "Nixon was a great statesman on the world stage as well as a shabby practitioner of electoral politics in the domestic arena. Richard Nixon_sentence_613

While the criminal farce of Watergate was in the making, Nixon's inspirational statesmanship was establishing new working relationships both with Communist China and with the Soviet Union." Richard Nixon_sentence_614

Historian Keith W. Olson has written that Nixon left a legacy of fundamental mistrust of government, rooted in Vietnam and Watergate. Richard Nixon_sentence_615

In surveys of historians and political scientists, Nixon is generally ranked as a below average president. Richard Nixon_sentence_616

During the impeachment of Bill Clinton in 1998, both sides tried to use Nixon and Watergate to their advantage: Republicans suggested that Clinton's misconduct was comparable to Nixon's, while Democrats contended that Nixon's actions had been far more serious than Clinton's. Richard Nixon_sentence_617

Another legacy, for a time, was a decrease in the power of the presidency as Congress passed restrictive legislation in the wake of Watergate. Richard Nixon_sentence_618

Olson suggests that legislation in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks restored the president's power. Richard Nixon_sentence_619

Personality and public image Richard Nixon_section_34

Nixon's career was frequently dogged by his persona and the public's perception of it. Richard Nixon_sentence_620

Editorial cartoonists and comedians often exaggerated his appearance and mannerisms, to the point where the line between the human and the caricature became increasingly blurred. Richard Nixon_sentence_621

He was often portrayed with unshaven jowls, slumped shoulders, and a furrowed, sweaty brow. Richard Nixon_sentence_622

Nixon had a complex personality, both very secretive and awkward, yet strikingly reflective about himself. Richard Nixon_sentence_623

He was inclined to distance himself from people and was formal in all aspects, wearing a coat and tie even when home alone. Richard Nixon_sentence_624

Nixon biographer Conrad Black described him as being "driven" though also "uneasy with himself in some ways". Richard Nixon_sentence_625

According to Black, Nixon Richard Nixon_sentence_626

Nixon sometimes drank to excess, especially during 1970 when things were not going well for him. Richard Nixon_sentence_627

He also had trouble battling insomnia, for which he was prescribed sleeping pills. Richard Nixon_sentence_628

According to Ray Price, he sometimes took them in together. Richard Nixon_sentence_629

Nixon also took dilantin, recommended by Jack Dreyfus. Richard Nixon_sentence_630

That medicine is usually prescribed to treat and prevent seizures, but in Nixon's case it was to battle depression. Richard Nixon_sentence_631

His periodic overindulgences, especially during stressful times such as during Apollo 13, concerned Price and others, including then-advisor Ehrlichman and long-time valet Manolo Sanchez. Richard Nixon_sentence_632

Author and former British politician David Owen deemed Nixon an alcoholic. Richard Nixon_sentence_633

Biographer Elizabeth Drew summarized Nixon as a "smart, talented man, but most peculiar and haunted of presidents". Richard Nixon_sentence_634

In his account of the Nixon presidency, author Richard Reeves described Nixon as "a strange man of uncomfortable shyness, who functioned best alone with his thoughts". Richard Nixon_sentence_635

Nixon's presidency was doomed by his personality, Reeves argues: Richard Nixon_sentence_636

In October 1999, a volume of 1971 White House audio tapes was released which contained multiple statements by Nixon deemed derogatory toward Jews. Richard Nixon_sentence_637

In one conversation with H. Richard Nixon_sentence_638 R. Haldeman, Nixon said that Washington was "full of Jews" and that "most Jews are disloyal", making exceptions for some of his top aides. Richard Nixon_sentence_639

He then added, "But, Bob, generally speaking, you can't trust the bastards. Richard Nixon_sentence_640

They turn on you. Richard Nixon_sentence_641

Am I wrong or right?" Richard Nixon_sentence_642

Elsewhere on the 1971 recordings, Nixon denies being anti-Semitic, saying, "If anybody who's been in this chair ever had reason to be anti-Semitic, I did ... And I'm not, you know what I mean?" Richard Nixon_sentence_643

Nixon believed that putting distance between himself and other people was necessary for him as he advanced in his political career and became president. Richard Nixon_sentence_644

Even Bebe Rebozo, by some accounts his closest friend, did not call him by his first name. Richard Nixon_sentence_645

Nixon said of this, Richard Nixon_sentence_646

When Nixon was told that most Americans felt they did not know him even at the end of his career, he replied, "Yeah, it's true. Richard Nixon_sentence_647

And it's not necessary for them to know." Richard Nixon_sentence_648

Books Richard Nixon_section_35

Richard Nixon_unordered_list_2

Richard Nixon_table_infobox_2

External videoRichard Nixon_header_cell_2_0_0

Richard Nixon_unordered_list_3

  • Nixon, Richard M. (1987) No More Vietnams, Arbor House Publishing ISBN 0-87795-668-5Richard Nixon_item_3_8
  • Nixon, Richard M. (1988) 1999: Victory Without War, Simon & Schuster ISBN 0-671-62712-0Richard Nixon_item_3_9
  • Nixon, Richard M. (1990) In the Arena: A Memoir of Victory, Defeat, and Renewal, Simon & Schuster ISBN 0-671-72318-9.Richard Nixon_item_3_10
  • Nixon, Richard M. (1992) Seize the Moment: America's Challenge in a One-Superpower World, Simon & Schuster ISBN 0-671-74343-0Richard Nixon_item_3_11
  • Nixon, Richard M. (1994) Beyond Peace, Random House (1994) ISBN 0-679-43323-6.Richard Nixon_item_3_12

See also Richard Nixon_section_36

Richard Nixon_unordered_list_4

  • Murray Chotiner, Nixon's campaign manager and aideRichard Nixon_item_4_13

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Nixon.