Richard Strauss

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For other people with similar names, see Richard Strauss (disambiguation). Richard Strauss_sentence_0

Richard Strauss_table_infobox_0

Richard StraussRichard Strauss_header_cell_0_0_0
BornRichard Strauss_header_cell_0_1_0 Richard Georg Strauss

(1864-06-11)11 June 1864 Munich, Kingdom of Bavaria, German ConfederationRichard Strauss_cell_0_1_1

DiedRichard Strauss_header_cell_0_2_0 8 September 1949(1949-09-08) (aged 85)

Garmisch-Partenkirchen, West GermanyRichard Strauss_cell_0_2_1

Resting placeRichard Strauss_header_cell_0_3_0 Strauss Villa []Richard Strauss_cell_0_3_1
OccupationRichard Strauss_header_cell_0_4_0 Richard Strauss_cell_0_4_1
WorksRichard Strauss_header_cell_0_5_0 List of compositions, especially operas and tone poemsRichard Strauss_cell_0_5_1
Spouse(s)Richard Strauss_header_cell_0_6_0 Pauline de Ahna ​(m. 1894)​Richard Strauss_cell_0_6_1
ChildrenRichard Strauss_header_cell_0_7_0 Franz StraussRichard Strauss_cell_0_7_1
ParentsRichard Strauss_header_cell_0_8_0 Richard Strauss_cell_0_8_1
SignatureRichard Strauss_header_cell_0_9_0

Richard Georg Strauss (German pronunciation: [ˈʁɪçaʁt ˈʃtʁaʊs; 11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, and violinist. Richard Strauss_sentence_1

Considered a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras, he has been described as a successor of Richard Wagner and Franz Liszt. Richard Strauss_sentence_2

Along with Gustav Mahler, he represents the late flowering of German Romanticism after Wagner, in which pioneering subtleties of orchestration are combined with an advanced harmonic style. Richard Strauss_sentence_3

Strauss's compositional output began in 1870 when he was just six years old and lasted until his death nearly eighty years later. Richard Strauss_sentence_4

While his output of works encompasses nearly every type of classical compositional form, Strauss achieved his greatest success with tone poems and operas. Richard Strauss_sentence_5

His first tone poem to achieve wide acclaim was Don Juan, and this was followed by other lauded works of this kind, including Death and Transfiguration, Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, Also sprach Zarathustra, Don Quixote, Ein Heldenleben, Symphonia Domestica, and An Alpine Symphony. Richard Strauss_sentence_6

His first opera to achieve international fame was Salome which used a libretto by Hedwig Lachmann that was a German translation of the French play Salomé by Oscar Wilde. Richard Strauss_sentence_7

This was followed by several critically acclaimed operas with librettist Hugo von Hofmannsthal: Elektra, Der Rosenkavalier, Ariadne auf Naxos, Die Frau ohne Schatten, Die ägyptische Helena, and Arabella. Richard Strauss_sentence_8

His last operas, Daphne, Friedenstag, Die Liebe der Danae and Capriccio used libretti written by Joseph Gregor, the Viennese theatre historian. Richard Strauss_sentence_9

Other well-known works by Strauss include two symphonies, lieder (especially the Four Last Songs), the Violin Concerto in D minor, the Horn Concerto No. Richard Strauss_sentence_10 1, Horn Concerto No. Richard Strauss_sentence_11 2, his Oboe Concerto and other instrumental works such as Metamorphosen. Richard Strauss_sentence_12

Strauss was also a prominent conductor in Western Europe and the Americas, enjoying quasi-celebrity status as his compositions became standards of orchestral and operatic repertoire. Richard Strauss_sentence_13

He was chiefly admired for his interpretations of the works of Liszt, Mozart, and Wagner in addition to his own works. Richard Strauss_sentence_14

A conducting disciple of Hans von Bülow, Strauss began his conducting career as Bülow's assistant with the Meiningen Court Orchestra in 1883. Richard Strauss_sentence_15

After Bülow resigned in 1885, Strauss served as that orchestra's primary conductor for five months before being appointed to the conducting staff of the Bavarian State Opera where he worked as third conductor from 1886–1889. Richard Strauss_sentence_16

He then served as principal conductor of the Deutsches Nationaltheater and Staatskapelle Weimar from 1889–1894. Richard Strauss_sentence_17

In 1894 he made his conducting debut at the Bayreuth Festival, conducting Wagner's Tannhäuser with his wife, soprano Pauline de Ahna, singing Elisabeth. Richard Strauss_sentence_18

He then returned to the Bavarian State Opera, this time as principal conductor, from 1894–1898, after which he was principal conductor of the Berlin State Opera from 1898–1913. Richard Strauss_sentence_19

From 1919–1924 he was principal conductor of the Vienna State Opera, and in 1920 he co-founded the Salzburg Festival. Richard Strauss_sentence_20

In addition to these posts, Strauss was a frequent guest conductor in opera houses and with orchestras internationally. Richard Strauss_sentence_21

In 1933 Strauss was appointed to two important positions in the musical life of Nazi Germany: head of the Reichsmusikkammer and principal conductor of the Bayreuth Festival. Richard Strauss_sentence_22

The latter role he accepted after conductor Arturo Toscanini had resigned from the position in protest of the Nazi party. Richard Strauss_sentence_23

These positions have led some to criticize Strauss for his seeming collaboration with the Nazis. Richard Strauss_sentence_24

However, Strauss's daughter-in-law, Alice Grab Strauss [née von Hermannswörth], was Jewish and much of his apparent acquiescence to the Nazi Party was done in order to save her life and the lives of her children (his Jewish grandchildren). Richard Strauss_sentence_25

He was also apolitical, and took the Reichsmusikkammer post in order to advance copyright protections for composers, attempting as well to preserve performances of works by banned composers such as Mahler, and Mendelssohn. Richard Strauss_sentence_26

Further, Strauss insisted on using a Jewish librettist, Stefan Zweig, for his opera Die schweigsame Frau which ultimately led to his firing from the Reichsmusikkammer and Bayreuth. Richard Strauss_sentence_27

His opera Friedenstag, which premiered just before the outbreak of World War II, was a thinly veiled criticism of the Nazi party that attempted to persuade Germans to abandon violence for peace. Richard Strauss_sentence_28

Thanks to his influence, his daughter-in-law was placed under protected house arrest during the war, but despite extensive efforts he was unable to save dozens of his in-laws from being killed in Nazi concentration camps. Richard Strauss_sentence_29

In 1948, a year before his death, he was cleared of any wrongdoing by a denazification tribunal in Munich. Richard Strauss_sentence_30

Early life and career (1864–1886) Richard Strauss_section_0

Strauss was born on 11 June 1864 in Munich, the son of Josephine (née Pschorr) and Franz Strauss, who was the principal horn player at the Court Opera in Munich and a professor at the Königliche Musikschule. Richard Strauss_sentence_31

His mother was the daughter of Georg Pschorr, a financially prosperous brewer from Munich. Richard Strauss_sentence_32

Strauss began his musical studies at the age of four, studying piano with August Tombo who was the harpist in the Munich Court Orchestra. Richard Strauss_sentence_33

He soon after began attending the rehearsals of the orchestra, and began getting lessons in music theory and orchestration from the ensemble's assistant conductor. Richard Strauss_sentence_34

He wrote his first composition at the age of six, and continued to write music almost until his death. Richard Strauss_sentence_35

In 1872, he started receiving violin instruction from Benno Walter, the director of the Munich Court Orchestra and his father's cousin, and at 11 began five years of compositional study with Friedrich Wilhelm Meyer. Richard Strauss_sentence_36

In 1882 he graduated from the Ludwigsgymnasium and afterwards attended only one year at the University of Munich in 1882–1883. Richard Strauss_sentence_37

In addition to his formal teachers, Strauss was profoundly influenced musically by his father who made instrumental music-making central to the Strauss home. Richard Strauss_sentence_38

The Strauss family was frequently joined in their home for music making, meals, and other activities by the orphaned composer and music theorist Ludwig Thuille who was viewed as an adopted member of the family. Richard Strauss_sentence_39

Strauss's father taught his son the music of Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart, and Schubert. Richard Strauss_sentence_40

His father further assisted his son with his musical composition during the 1870s and into the early 1880s, providing advice, comments, and criticisms. Richard Strauss_sentence_41

His father also provided support by showcasing his son's compositions in performance with the ‘Wilde Gung'l’, an amateur orchestra he conducted from 1875–1896. Richard Strauss_sentence_42

Many of his early symphonic compositions were written for this ensemble. Richard Strauss_sentence_43

His compositions at this time were indebted to the style of Robert Schumann or Felix Mendelssohn, true to his father's teachings. Richard Strauss_sentence_44

His father undoubtedly had a crucial influence on his son's developing taste, not least in Strauss's abiding love for the horn. Richard Strauss_sentence_45

His Horn Concerto No. Richard Strauss_sentence_46 1, is representative of this period and is a staple of the modern horn repertoire. Richard Strauss_sentence_47

In 1874, Strauss heard his first Wagner operas, Lohengrin and Tannhäuser. Richard Strauss_sentence_48

In 1878 he attended performances of Die Walküre and Siegfried in Munich, and in 1879 he attended performances of the entire Ring Cycle, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, and Tristan und Isolde. Richard Strauss_sentence_49

The influence of Wagner's music on Strauss's style was to be profound, but at first his musically conservative father forbade him to study it. Richard Strauss_sentence_50

Indeed, in the Strauss household, the music of Richard Wagner was viewed with deep suspicion, and it was not until the age of 16 that Strauss was able to obtain a score of Tristan und Isolde. Richard Strauss_sentence_51

In 1882 he went to the Bayreuth Festival to hear his father perform in the world premiere of Wagner's Parsifal; after which surviving letters to his father and to Thuille detail his seemingly negative impression of Wagner and his music. Richard Strauss_sentence_52

In later life, Strauss said that he deeply regretted the conservative hostility to Wagner's progressive works. Richard Strauss_sentence_53

In early 1882, in Vienna, Strauss gave the first performance of his Violin Concerto in D minor, playing a piano reduction of the orchestral part himself, with his teacher Benno Walter as soloist. Richard Strauss_sentence_54

The same year he entered Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, where he studied philosophy and art history, but not music. Richard Strauss_sentence_55

He left a year later to go to Berlin, where he studied briefly before securing a post with the Meiningen Court Orchestra as assistant conductor to Hans von Bülow, who had been enormously impressed by the young composer's Serenade (Op. 7) for wind instruments, composed when he was only 16 years of age. Richard Strauss_sentence_56

Strauss learned the art of conducting by observing Bülow in rehearsal. Richard Strauss_sentence_57

Bülow was very fond of the young man, and Strauss considered him as his greatest conducting mentor, often crediting him as teaching him "the art of interpretation". Richard Strauss_sentence_58

Notably, under Bülow's baton he made his first major appearance as a concert pianist, performing Mozart's Piano Concerto No. Richard Strauss_sentence_59 24, for which he composed his own cadenzas. Richard Strauss_sentence_60

In December 1885, Bülow unexpectedly resigned from his post, and Strauss was left to lead the Meiningen Court Orchestra as interim principal conductor for the remainder of the artistic season through April 1886. Richard Strauss_sentence_61

He notably helped prepare the orchestra for the world premiere performance of Johannes Brahms's Symphony No. Richard Strauss_sentence_62 4, which Brahms himself conducted. Richard Strauss_sentence_63

He also conducted his Symphony No. Richard Strauss_sentence_64 2 for Brahms, who advised Strauss: "Your symphony contains too much playing about with themes. Richard Strauss_sentence_65

This piling up of many themes based on a triad, which differ from one another only in rhythm, has no value." Richard Strauss_sentence_66

Brahms' music, like Wagner's, also left a tremendous impression upon Strauss, and he often referred to this time of his life as his ‘Brahmsschwärmerei’ (‘Brahms adoration’) during which several his compositions clearly show Brahms' influence, including Wandrers Sturmlied (1884) and Burleske (1885–86)." Richard Strauss_sentence_67

Success in conducting and tone poems (1885–1898) Richard Strauss_section_1

In 1885 Strauss met the composer Alexander Ritter who was a violinist in the Meiningen orchestra and the husband of one of Richard Wagner's nieces. Richard Strauss_sentence_68

An avid champion of the ideals of Wagner and Franz Liszt, Ritter had a tremendous impact on the trajectory of Strauss' work as a composer from 1885 onward. Richard Strauss_sentence_69

Ritter convinced Strauss to abandon his more conservative style of composing and embrace the "music of the future" by modeling his compositional style off of Wagner and Liszt. Richard Strauss_sentence_70

He further influenced Strauss by engaging him in studies and conversations on the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer, Wagner, and Friedrich von Hausegger. Richard Strauss_sentence_71

All of this together gave a new aesthetic anchor to Strauss which first became evident in his embrace of the tone poem genre. Richard Strauss_sentence_72

After leaving his post in Meiningen in 1886, Strauss spent several weeks traveling throughout Italy before assuming a new post as third conductor at the Bavarian State Opera (then known as the Munich Hofoper). Richard Strauss_sentence_73

While traveling he wrote down descriptions of the various sites he was seeing along with tonal impressions that went with those descriptions. Richard Strauss_sentence_74

These he communicated in a letter to his mother, and they ultimately were used as the beginning of his first tone poem, Aus Italien (1886). Richard Strauss_sentence_75

Shortly after Strauss assumed his opera conducting duties in Munich, Ritter himself moved to the city in September 1886. Richard Strauss_sentence_76

For the next three years the two men would meet regularly, often joined by Thuille and Anton Seidl, in order to discuss music, particularly Wagner and Liszt, and discuss poetry, literature, and philosophy. Richard Strauss_sentence_77

Strauss's tenure at the Bavarian State Opera was not a happy one. Richard Strauss_sentence_78

With the death of Ludwig II of Bavaria in June 1886, the opera house was not as well financially supported by his successor Otto of Bavaria which meant that much of the more ambitious and expensive repertoire that he wanted to stage, such as Wagner's operas, were unfeasible. Richard Strauss_sentence_79

The opera assignments he was given, works by Boieldieu, Auber and Donizetti, bored him, and to make matters worse Hermann Levi, the senior conductor at the house, was often ill and Strauss was required to step in at the last minute to conduct performance for operas which he had never rehearsed. Richard Strauss_sentence_80

This caused problems for him, the singers, and the orchestra. Richard Strauss_sentence_81

During this time, Strauss did find much more enjoyable conducting work outside Munich in Berlin, Dresden, and Leipzig. Richard Strauss_sentence_82

In the latter city he met and befriended the composer Gustav Mahler in the autumn of 1887. Richard Strauss_sentence_83

Also happily, Strauss met his future wife, soprano Pauline de Ahna, in 1887. Richard Strauss_sentence_84

De Ahna was then a voice student at the Munich Musikschule, but soon switched to private lessons with Strauss who became her principal teacher. Richard Strauss_sentence_85

In May 1889 Strauss left his post with the Bavarian State Opera after being appointed Kapellmeister to Charles Alexander, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach in Weimar, beginning in the Autumn of 1889. Richard Strauss_sentence_86

During the Summer of 1889 he served as the assistant conductor of the Bayreuth Festival during which time he befriended Cosima Wagner who became a longterm close friend. Richard Strauss_sentence_87

Pauline De Ahna went with Strauss to Weimar and he later married her on 10 September 1894. Richard Strauss_sentence_88

She was famous for being irascible, garrulous, eccentric and outspoken, but to all appearances the marriage was essentially happy, and she was a great source of inspiration to him. Richard Strauss_sentence_89

Throughout his life, from his earliest songs to the final Four Last Songs of 1948, he preferred the soprano voice to all others, and all his operas contain important soprano roles. Richard Strauss_sentence_90

In Weimar she created the role of Freihild in Strauss's first opera, Guntram, in 1894. Richard Strauss_sentence_91

The opera was received with mixed reviews in Weimar, but its later production in Munich was met with scorn and was Strauss's first major failure. Richard Strauss_sentence_92

In spite of the failure of his first opera, Strauss's tenure in Weimar brought about several important successes for his career. Richard Strauss_sentence_93

His tone poem Don Juan premiered in Weimar on 11 November 1889 to tremendous critical response, and the work quickly brought him international fame and success. Richard Strauss_sentence_94

This was followed by another lauded achievement, the premiere of his tone poem Death and Transfiguration in 1890. Richard Strauss_sentence_95

Both of these works, along with the earlier Burleske, became internationally known and established him as a leading modernist composer. Richard Strauss_sentence_96

He also had much success as a conductor in Weimar, particularly with the symphonic poems of Liszt and an uncut production of Tristan und Isolde in 1892. Richard Strauss_sentence_97

In the Summer of 1894 Strauss made his conducting debut at the Bayreuth Festival, conducting Wagner's Tannhäuser with Pauline singing Elisabeth. Richard Strauss_sentence_98

Just prior to their marriage the following September, Strauss left his post in Weimar when he was appointed Kapellmeister, or first conductor, of the Bavarian State Opera where he became responsible for the operas of Wagner. Richard Strauss_sentence_99

While working in Munich for the next four years he had his largest creative period period of tone poem composition, producing Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks (1895), Also sprach Zarathustra (1896), Don Quixote (1897), and Ein Heldenleben (1898). Richard Strauss_sentence_100

He also served as principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic in 1894–1895. Richard Strauss_sentence_101

In 1897, the Strausses’ only child, their son Franz, was born. Richard Strauss_sentence_102

In 1906, Strauss purchased a block of land at Garmisch-Partenkirchen and had a villa (Strauss-Villa []) built there with the down payments from the publisher Adolph Fürstner for his opera Salome, residing there until his death. Richard Strauss_sentence_103

Fame and success with operas (1898–1933) Richard Strauss_section_2

Strauss left the Bavarian State Opera in 1898 when he became principal conductor of the Staatskapelle Berlin at the Berlin State Opera in the Fall of 1898; a position he remained in for 15 years. Richard Strauss_sentence_104

By this time in his career, he was in constant demand as a guest conductor internationally and enjoyed celebrity status as a conductor; particularly in the works of Wagner, Mozart, and Liszt in addition to his own compositions. Richard Strauss_sentence_105

He became president of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein in 1901, and that same year became leader of the Berliner Tonkünstlerverein. Richard Strauss_sentence_106

He also served as editor of the book series Die Musik. Richard Strauss_sentence_107

He used all of these posts to champion contemporary German composers like Mahler. Richard Strauss_sentence_108

His own compositions were becoming increasingly popular, and the first major orchestra to perform an entire concert of only his music was the Vienna Philharmonic in 1901. Richard Strauss_sentence_109

In 1903 Strauss Festivals dedicated to his music were established in London and Heidelberg. Richard Strauss_sentence_110

At the latter festival his cantata Taillefer was given its world premiere. Richard Strauss_sentence_111

In 1904 Strauss embarked on his first North American tour, with stops in Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York City, and Pittsburgh. Richard Strauss_sentence_112

At Carnegie Hall he conducted the world premiere of his Symphonia Domestica on March 21, 1904 with the Wetzler Symphony Orchestra. Richard Strauss_sentence_113

He also conducted several other works in collaboration with composer Hermann Hans Wetzler [] and his orchestra that year at Carnegie Hall, and also performed a concert of leider with his wife. Richard Strauss_sentence_114

During this trip he was working intensively on composing his third opera, Salome, based on Oscar Wilde's 1891 play Salome. Richard Strauss_sentence_115

The work, which premiered in Dresden in 1905, became Strauss's greatest triumph in his career up to that point, and opera houses all over the world quickly began programing the opera. Richard Strauss_sentence_116

After Salome, Strauss had a string of critically successful operas which he created with the librettist and poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Richard Strauss_sentence_117

These operas included Elektra (1909), Der Rosenkavalier (1911), Ariadne auf Naxos (1912, rev. Richard Strauss_sentence_118

1916), Die Frau ohne Schatten (1919), Die ägyptische Helena (1928), and Arabella (1933). Richard Strauss_sentence_119

While all of these works remain part of the opera repertoire, his opera Der Rosenkavalier is generally considered his finest achievement. Richard Strauss_sentence_120

During this time he continued to work internationally as a celebrity conductor, and from 1919–1924 he was principal conductor of the Vienna State Opera. Richard Strauss_sentence_121

In 1920 he co-founded the Salzburg Festival with Reinhardt and the set designer Alfred Rolle. Richard Strauss_sentence_122

In 1924 Strauss's opera Intermezzo premiered at the Dresden Semperoper with both the music and the libretto by Strauss. Richard Strauss_sentence_123

For this opera, Strauss wanted to move away from post-Wagnerian metaphysics which had been the philosophical framework of Hofmannsthal's libretti, and instead embrace a modern domestic comedy to Hofmannsthal's chagrin. Richard Strauss_sentence_124

The work proved to be a success. Richard Strauss_sentence_125

In 1924 Strauss's son Franz married Alice von Grab-Hermannswörth, daughter of a Jewish industrialist, in a Roman Catholic ceremony. Richard Strauss_sentence_126

Franz and Alice had two sons, Richard and Christian. Richard Strauss_sentence_127

Nazi Germany (1933–1945) Richard Strauss_section_3

Reichsmusikkammer Richard Strauss_section_4

In March 1933, when Strauss was 68, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power. Richard Strauss_sentence_128

Strauss never joined the Nazi party, and studiously avoided Nazi forms of greeting. Richard Strauss_sentence_129

For reasons of expediency, however, he was initially drawn into cooperating with the early Nazi regime in the hope that Hitler—an ardent Wagnerian and music lover who had admired Strauss' work since viewing Salome in 1907—would promote German art and culture. Richard Strauss_sentence_130

Strauss's need to protect his Jewish daughter-in-law and Jewish grandchildren also motivated his behavior, in addition to his determination to preserve and conduct the music of banned composers such as Gustav Mahler and Claude Debussy. Richard Strauss_sentence_131

In 1933, Strauss wrote in his private notebook: Richard Strauss_sentence_132

Meanwhile, far from being an admirer of Strauss's work, Joseph Goebbels maintained expedient cordiality with Strauss only for a period. Richard Strauss_sentence_133

Goebbels wrote in his diary: Richard Strauss_sentence_134

Nevertheless, because of Strauss's international eminence, in November 1933 he was appointed to the post of president of the newly founded Reichsmusikkammer, the Reich Music Chamber. Richard Strauss_sentence_135

Strauss, who had lived through numerous political regimes and had no interest in politics, decided to accept the position but to remain apolitical, a decision which would eventually become untenable. Richard Strauss_sentence_136

He wrote to his family, "I made music under the Kaiser, and under Ebert. Richard Strauss_sentence_137

I'll survive under this one as well." Richard Strauss_sentence_138

In 1935 he wrote in his journal: Richard Strauss_sentence_139

Strauss privately scorned Goebbels and called him "a pipsqueak". Richard Strauss_sentence_140

However, in 1933 he dedicated an orchestral song, "Das Bächlein" ("The Little Brook"), to Goebbels, in order to gain his cooperation in extending German music copyright laws from 30 years to 50 years. Richard Strauss_sentence_141

Also in 1933, he replaced Arturo Toscanini as director of the Bayreuth Festival after Toscanini had resigned in protest to the Nazi regime. Richard Strauss_sentence_142

Strauss attempted to ignore Nazi bans on performances of works by Debussy, Mahler, and Mendelssohn. Richard Strauss_sentence_143

He also continued to work on a comic opera, Die schweigsame Frau, with his Jewish friend and librettist Stefan Zweig. Richard Strauss_sentence_144

When the opera was premiered in Dresden in 1935, Strauss insisted that Zweig's name appear on the theatrical billing, much to the ire of the Nazi regime. Richard Strauss_sentence_145

Hitler and Goebbels avoided attending the opera, and it was halted after three performances and subsequently banned by the Third Reich. Richard Strauss_sentence_146

On 17 June 1935, Strauss wrote a letter to Stefan Zweig, in which he stated: Richard Strauss_sentence_147

This letter to Zweig was intercepted by the Gestapo and sent to Hitler. Richard Strauss_sentence_148

Strauss was subsequently dismissed from his post as Reichsmusikkammer president in 1935. Richard Strauss_sentence_149

The 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics nevertheless used Strauss's Olympische Hymne, which he had composed in 1934. Richard Strauss_sentence_150

Strauss's seeming relationship with the Nazis in the 1930s attracted criticism from some noted musicians, including Toscanini, who in 1933 had said, "To Strauss the composer I take off my hat; to Strauss the man I put it back on again", when Strauss had accepted the presidency of the Reichsmusikkammer. Richard Strauss_sentence_151

Much of Strauss's motivation in his conduct during the Third Reich was, however, to protect his Jewish daughter-in-law Alice and his Jewish grandchildren from persecution. Richard Strauss_sentence_152

Both of his grandsons were bullied at school, but Strauss used his considerable influence to prevent the boys or their mother being sent to concentration camps. Richard Strauss_sentence_153

Late operas and family tragedy Richard Strauss_section_5

Frustrated that he could no longer work with Zweig as his librettist, Strauss turned to Joseph Gregor, a Viennese theatre historian, at Gregor's request. Richard Strauss_sentence_154

The first opera they worked on together was Daphne, but it ultimately became the second of their operas to be premiered. Richard Strauss_sentence_155

Their first work to be staged was in 1938, when the entire nation was preparing for war, they presented Friedenstag (Peace Day), a one-act opera set in a besieged fortress during the Thirty Years' War. Richard Strauss_sentence_156

The work is essentially a hymn to peace and a thinly veiled criticism of the Third Reich. Richard Strauss_sentence_157

With its contrasts between freedom and enslavement, war and peace, light and dark, this work has a close affinity with Beethoven's Fidelio. Richard Strauss_sentence_158

Productions of the opera ceased shortly after the outbreak of war in 1939. Richard Strauss_sentence_159

The two men collaborated on two more operas which proved to be Strauss's last: Die Liebe der Danae (1940) and Capriccio (1942). Richard Strauss_sentence_160

When his Jewish daughter-in-law Alice was placed under house arrest in Garmisch-Partenkirchen in 1938, Strauss used his connections in Berlin, including opera-house General Intendant Heinz Tietjen, to secure her safety. Richard Strauss_sentence_161

He drove to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in order to argue, albeit unsuccessfully, for the release of Alice's grandmother, Paula Neumann. Richard Strauss_sentence_162

In the end, Neumann and 25 other relatives were murdered in the camps. Richard Strauss_sentence_163

While Alice's mother, Marie von Grab, was safe in Lucerne, Switzerland, Strauss also wrote several letters to the SS pleading for the release of her children who were also held in camps; his letters were ignored. Richard Strauss_sentence_164

In 1942, Strauss moved with his family back to Vienna, where Alice and her children could be protected by Baldur von Schirach, the Gauleiter of Vienna. Richard Strauss_sentence_165

However, Strauss was unable to protect his Jewish relatives completely; in early 1944, while Strauss was away, Alice and her son Franz were abducted by the Gestapo and imprisoned for two nights. Richard Strauss_sentence_166

Strauss's personal intervention at this point saved them, and he was able to take them back to Garmisch, where the two remained under house arrest until the end of the war. Richard Strauss_sentence_167

Metamorphosen and apprehension by US troops Richard Strauss_section_6

Strauss completed the composition of Metamorphosen, a work for 23 solo strings, in 1945. Richard Strauss_sentence_168

The title and inspiration for the work comes from a profoundly self-examining poem by Goethe, which Strauss had considered setting as a choral work. Richard Strauss_sentence_169

Generally regarded as one of the masterpieces of the string repertoire, Metamorphosen contains Strauss's most sustained outpouring of tragic emotion. Richard Strauss_sentence_170

Conceived and written during the blackest days of World War II, the piece expresses Strauss's mourning of, among other things, the destruction of German culture—including the bombing of every great opera house in the nation. Richard Strauss_sentence_171

At the end of the war, Strauss wrote in his private diary: Richard Strauss_sentence_172

In April 1945, Strauss was apprehended by American soldiers at his Garmisch estate. Richard Strauss_sentence_173

As he descended the staircase he announced to Lieutenant Milton Weiss of the U.S. Army, "I am Richard Strauss, the composer of Rosenkavalier and Salome." Richard Strauss_sentence_174

Lt. Weiss, who was also a musician, nodded in recognition. Richard Strauss_sentence_175

An "Off Limits" sign was subsequently placed on the lawn to protect Strauss. Richard Strauss_sentence_176

The American oboist John de Lancie, who knew Strauss's orchestral writing for oboe thoroughly, was in the army unit, and asked Strauss to compose an oboe concerto. Richard Strauss_sentence_177

Initially dismissive of the idea, Strauss completed this late work, his Oboe Concerto, before the end of the year. Richard Strauss_sentence_178

Final years and death (1942–1949) Richard Strauss_section_7

The metaphor "Indian Summer" is often used by journalists, biographers, and music critics to describe Strauss's late creative upsurge from 1942 to the end of his life. Richard Strauss_sentence_179

The events of World War II seemed to bring the composer—who had grown old, tired, and a little jaded—into focus. Richard Strauss_sentence_180

The major works of the last years of Strauss's life, written in his late 70s and 80s, include, among others, his Horn Concerto No. Richard Strauss_sentence_181 2, Metamorphosen, his Oboe Concerto, his Duet Concertino for clarinet and bassoon, and his Four Last Songs. Richard Strauss_sentence_182

Like most Germans, Strauss's bank accounts were frozen and many of his assets seized by American forces. Richard Strauss_sentence_183

Now elderly and with very few resources remaining, Strauss and his wife left Germany for Switzerland in October 1945 where they settled in a hotel just outside Zürich. Richard Strauss_sentence_184

There they met the Swiss music critic Willy Schuh, who became Strauss's biographer. Richard Strauss_sentence_185

Strapped for cash, in 1947 Strauss embarked on his last international tour, a three-week trip to London, in which he conducted several of his tone poems and excerpts of his operas, and was present during a complete staging of Elektra by the BBC. Richard Strauss_sentence_186

The trip was a critical success and provided him and his wife with some much needed money. Richard Strauss_sentence_187

From May to September 1948, just before his death, Strauss composed the Four Last Songs which deal with the subject of dying. Richard Strauss_sentence_188

The last one, "Im Abendrot" (At Sunset), ends with the line "Is this perhaps death?" Richard Strauss_sentence_189

The question is not answered in words, but instead Strauss quotes the "transfiguration theme" from his earlier tone poem Death and Transfiguration—meant to symbolize the transfiguration and fulfilment of the soul after death. Richard Strauss_sentence_190

In June 1948, he was cleared of any wrong-doing by a denazification tribunal in Munich. Richard Strauss_sentence_191

That same month he orchestrated Ruhe, meine Seele! Richard Strauss_sentence_192 , a song that he had originally composed in 1894. Richard Strauss_sentence_193

In December 1948 Strauss was hospitalized for several weeks after undergoing bladder surgery. Richard Strauss_sentence_194

His health rapidly deteriorated after that, and he conducted his last performance, the end of Act 2 of Der Rosenkavalier at the Prinzregententheater in Munich, during celebrations of his 85th birthday on 10 June 1949. Richard Strauss_sentence_195

On 15 August he suffered from a heart attack and he died of kidney failure quietly, in his sleep, shortly after 2 p.m. on 8 September 1949, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, West Germany. Richard Strauss_sentence_196

From his death-bed, typical for his enduring sense of humour, he commented to his daughter-in-law Alice, "dying is just as I composed it in Tod und Verklärung". Richard Strauss_sentence_197

Georg Solti, who had arranged Strauss's 85th birthday celebration, also directed an orchestra during Strauss's burial. Richard Strauss_sentence_198

The conductor later described how, during the singing of the famous trio from Rosenkavalier, "each singer broke down in tears and dropped out of the ensemble, but they recovered themselves and we all ended together". Richard Strauss_sentence_199

Strauss's wife, Pauline de Ahna, died eight months later, on 13 May 1950, at the age of 88. Richard Strauss_sentence_200

Strauss's late works, modelled on "the divine Mozart at the end of a life full of thankfulness", are widely considered by music critics as the greatest works by any octogenarian composer. Richard Strauss_sentence_201

Strauss himself declared in 1947 with characteristic self-deprecation: "I may not be a first-rate composer, but I am a first-class second-rate composer." Richard Strauss_sentence_202

The Canadian pianist Glenn Gould described Strauss in 1962 as "the greatest musical figure who has lived in this century". Richard Strauss_sentence_203

Strauss as composer Richard Strauss_section_8

Solo and chamber works Richard Strauss_section_9

Some of Strauss's first compositions were solo instrumental and chamber works. Richard Strauss_sentence_204

These pieces include early compositions for piano solo in a conservative harmonic style, many of which are lost: two piano trios (1877 and 1878), a string quartet (1881), a piano sonata (1882), a cello sonata (1883), a piano quartet (1885), a violin sonata (1888), as well as a serenade (1882) and a longer suite (1884), both scored for double wind quintet plus two additional horns and contrabassoon. Richard Strauss_sentence_205

After 1890, Strauss composed very infrequently for chamber groups, his energies being almost completely absorbed with large-scale orchestral works and operas. Richard Strauss_sentence_206

Four of his chamber pieces are actually arrangements of portions of his operas, including the Daphne-Etude for solo violin and the String Sextet, which is the overture to his final opera Capriccio. Richard Strauss_sentence_207

His last independent chamber work, an Allegretto in E major for violin and piano, dates from 1948. Richard Strauss_sentence_208

He also composed two large-scale works for wind ensemble during this period: Sonatina No. Richard Strauss_sentence_209

1 "From an Invalid's Workshop" (1943) and Sonatina No. Richard Strauss_sentence_210

2 "Happy Workshop" (1946)—both scored for double wind quintet plus two additional horns, a third clarinet in C, bassett horn, bass clarinet, and contrabassoon. Richard Strauss_sentence_211

Tone poems and other orchestral works Richard Strauss_section_10

Main article: Tone poems (Strauss) Richard Strauss_sentence_212

Strauss wrote two early symphonies: Symphony No. Richard Strauss_sentence_213 1 (1880) and Symphony No. Richard Strauss_sentence_214 2 (1884). Richard Strauss_sentence_215

However, Strauss's style began to truly develop and change when, in 1885, he met Alexander Ritter, a noted composer and violinist, and the husband of one of Richard Wagner's nieces. Richard Strauss_sentence_216

It was Ritter who persuaded Strauss to abandon the conservative style of his youth and begin writing tone poems. Richard Strauss_sentence_217

He also introduced Strauss to the essays of Wagner and the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer. Richard Strauss_sentence_218

Strauss went on to conduct one of Ritter's operas, and at Strauss's request Ritter later wrote a poem describing the events depicted in Strauss's tone poem Death and Transfiguration. Richard Strauss_sentence_219

The new influences from Ritter resulted in what is widely regarded as Strauss's first piece to show his mature personality, the tone poem Don Juan (1888), which displays a new kind of virtuosity in its bravura orchestral manner. Richard Strauss_sentence_220

Strauss went on to write a series of increasingly ambitious tone poems: Death and Transfiguration (1889), Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks (1895), Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1896), Don Quixote (1897), Ein Heldenleben (1898), Symphonia Domestica (1903) and An Alpine Symphony (1911–1915). Richard Strauss_sentence_221

One commentator has observed of these works that "no orchestra could exist without his tone poems, written to celebrate the glories of the post-Wagnerian symphony orchestra." Richard Strauss_sentence_222

James Hepokoski notes a shift in Strauss's technique in the tone poems, occurring between 1892 and 1893. Richard Strauss_sentence_223

It was after this point that Strauss rejected the philosophy of Schopenhauer and began more forcefully critiquing the institution of the symphony and the symphonic poem, thereby differentiating the second cycle of tone poems from the first. Richard Strauss_sentence_224

Concertos Richard Strauss_section_11

Strauss's output of works for solo instrument or instruments with orchestra was fairly extensive. Richard Strauss_sentence_225

The most famous include two concertos for horn, which are still part of the standard repertoire of most horn soloists—Horn Concerto No. Richard Strauss_sentence_226 1 (1883) and Horn Concerto No. Richard Strauss_sentence_227 2 (1942); the Romanze for cello and orchestra (1883); a Violin Concerto in D minor (1882); the Burleske for piano and orchestra (1885, revised 1889); the tone poem Don Quixote for cello, viola and orchestra (1897); the well-known late Oboe Concerto in D major (1945); and the Duett-Concertino for clarinet and bassoon with string orchestra, which was one of his last works (1948). Richard Strauss_sentence_228

Opera Richard Strauss_section_12

See also: List of operas by Richard Strauss Richard Strauss_sentence_229

Around the end of the 19th century, Strauss turned his attention to opera. Richard Strauss_sentence_230

His first two attempts in the genre, Guntram (1894) and Feuersnot (1901), were controversial works; Guntram was the first significant critical failure of Strauss's career, and Feuersnot was considered obscene by some critics. Richard Strauss_sentence_231

In 1905, Strauss produced Salome, a somewhat dissonant modernist opera based on the play by Oscar Wilde, which produced a passionate reaction from audiences. Richard Strauss_sentence_232

The premiere was a major success, with the artists taking more than 38 curtain calls. Richard Strauss_sentence_233

Many later performances of the opera were also successful, not only with the general public but also with Strauss's peers: Maurice Ravel said that Salome was "stupendous", and Gustav Mahler described it as "a live volcano, a subterranean fire". Richard Strauss_sentence_234

Strauss reputedly financed his house in Garmisch-Partenkirchen completely from the revenues generated by the opera. Richard Strauss_sentence_235

As with the later Elektra, Salome features an extremely taxing lead soprano role. Richard Strauss_sentence_236

Strauss often remarked that he preferred writing for the female voice, which is apparent in these two sister operas—the male parts are almost entirely smaller roles, included only to supplement the soprano's performance. Richard Strauss_sentence_237

Strauss's next opera was Elektra (1909), which took his use of dissonance even further, in particular with the Elektra chord. Richard Strauss_sentence_238

Elektra was also the first opera in which Strauss collaborated with the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal as his librettist. Richard Strauss_sentence_239

The two subsequently worked together on numerous occasions. Richard Strauss_sentence_240

For his later works with Hofmannsthal, Strauss moderated his harmonic language: he used a more lush, melodic late-Romantic style based on Wagnerian chromatic harmonies that he had used in his tone poems, with much less dissonance, and exhibiting immense virtuosity in orchestral writing and tone color. Richard Strauss_sentence_241

This resulted in operas such as Der Rosenkavalier (1911) having great public success. Richard Strauss_sentence_242

Strauss continued to produce operas at regular intervals until 1942. Richard Strauss_sentence_243

With Hofmannsthal he created Ariadne auf Naxos (1912), Die Frau ohne Schatten (1919), Die ägyptische Helena (1928), and Arabella (1933). Richard Strauss_sentence_244

For Intermezzo (1924) Strauss provided his own libretto. Richard Strauss_sentence_245

Die schweigsame Frau (1935) was composed with Stefan Zweig as librettist; Friedenstag (1935–36) and Daphne (1937) both had a libretto by Joseph Gregor and Stefan Zweig; and Die Liebe der Danae (1940) was with Joseph Gregor. Richard Strauss_sentence_246

Strauss's final opera, Capriccio (1942), had a libretto by Clemens Krauss, although the genesis for it came from Stefan Zweig and Joseph Gregor. Richard Strauss_sentence_247

According to statistics compiled by Operabase, in number of operas performed worldwide over the five seasons from 2008/09 to 2012/13, Strauss was the second-most performed 20th-century opera composer, ahead of Benjamin Britten and behind only Giacomo Puccini. Richard Strauss_sentence_248

Strauss tied with Handel as the eighth most-performed opera composer from any century over those five seasons. Richard Strauss_sentence_249

Over the five seasons from 2008/09 to 2012/13, Strauss's top five most performed operas were Salome, Ariadne auf Naxos, Der Rosenkavalier, Elektra, and Die Frau ohne Schatten. Richard Strauss_sentence_250

The most recent figures covering the five seasons 2011/12 to 2015/16 show that Strauss was the tenth most performed opera composer, with Der Rosenkavalier overtaking Salome to become his most performed opera (the ranking of the other four remains the same). Richard Strauss_sentence_251

Lieder Richard Strauss_section_13

Strauss was a prolific composer of lieder. Richard Strauss_sentence_252

He often composed them with the voice of his wife in mind. Richard Strauss_sentence_253

His lieder were written for voice and piano, and he orchestrated several of them after the fact. Richard Strauss_sentence_254

In 1894–1895, around the age of 30, he published several well-known songs including "Ruhe, meine Seele! Richard Strauss_sentence_255 ", "Cäcilie", "Morgen! Richard Strauss_sentence_256 ", "Heimliche Aufforderung", and "Traum durch die Dämmerung". Richard Strauss_sentence_257

In 1918, after a long hiatus devoted to opera, he wrote Sechs Lieder, Op. 68, also called Brentano Lieder. Richard Strauss_sentence_258

He completed his works in the genre in 1948 with Four Last Songs for soprano and orchestra. Richard Strauss_sentence_259

He reportedly composed these with Kirsten Flagstad in mind and she gave the first performance, which was recorded. Richard Strauss_sentence_260

Strauss's songs have always been popular with audiences and performers, and are generally considered by musicologists—along with many of his other compositions—to be masterpieces. Richard Strauss_sentence_261

Legacy Richard Strauss_section_14

Until the 1980s, Strauss was regarded by some post-modern musicologists as a conservative, backward-looking composer, but re-examination of and new research on the composer has re-evaluated his place as that of a modernist, albeit one who still utilized and sometimes revered tonality and lush orchestration. Richard Strauss_sentence_262

Strauss is noted for his pioneering subtleties of orchestration, combined with an advanced harmonic style; when he first played Strauss at a university production of Ariadne auf Naxos, the conductor Mark Elder "was flabbergasted. Richard Strauss_sentence_263

I had no idea music could do the things he was doing with harmony and melody." Richard Strauss_sentence_264

Strauss's music had a considerable influence on composers at the start of the 20th century. Richard Strauss_sentence_265

Béla Bartók heard Also sprach Zarathustra in 1902, and later said that the work "contained the seeds for a new life"; a Straussian influence is clearly present in his works of that period, including his First String Quartet, Kossuth, and Bluebeard's Castle. Richard Strauss_sentence_266

Karol Szymanowski was also greatly influenced by Strauss, reflected in such pieces as his Concert Overture and his first and second symphonies, and his opera Hagith which was modeled after Salome. Richard Strauss_sentence_267

English composers were also influenced by Strauss, from Edward Elgar in his concert overture In the South (Alassio) and other works to Benjamin Britten in his opera writing. Richard Strauss_sentence_268

Many contemporary composers recognise a debt to Strauss, including John Adams and John Corigliano. Richard Strauss_sentence_269

Strauss's musical style played a major role in the development of film music in the middle of the 20th century. Richard Strauss_sentence_270

The style of his musical depictions of character (Don Juan, Till Eulenspiegel, the Hero) and emotions found their way into the lexicon of film music. Richard Strauss_sentence_271

Film music historian Timothy Schuerer wrote, "The elements of post (late) romantic music that had greatest impact on scoring are its lush sound, expanded harmonic language, chromaticism, use of program music and use of Leitmotifs. Richard Strauss_sentence_272

Hollywood composers found the post-romantic idiom compatible with their efforts in scoring film". Richard Strauss_sentence_273

Max Steiner and Erich Korngold came from the same musical world as Strauss and were quite naturally drawn to write in his style. Richard Strauss_sentence_274

As film historian Roy Prendergast wrote, "When confronted with the kind of dramatic problem films presented to them, Steiner, Korngold and Newman ... looked to Wagner, Puccini, Verdi and Strauss for the answers to dramatic film scoring." Richard Strauss_sentence_275

Later, the opening to Also sprach Zarathustra became one of the best-known pieces of film music when Stanley Kubrick used it in his 1968 movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. Richard Strauss_sentence_276

The film music of John Williams has continued the Strauss influence, in scores for mainstream hits such as Superman and Star Wars. Richard Strauss_sentence_277

Strauss has always been popular with audiences in the concert hall and continues to be so. Richard Strauss_sentence_278

He has consistently been in the top 10 composers most performed by symphony orchestras in the US and Canada over the period 2002–2010. Richard Strauss_sentence_279

He is also in the top 5 of 20th-century composers (born after 1860) in terms of the number of currently available recordings of his works. Richard Strauss_sentence_280

Strauss as a conductor Richard Strauss_section_15

Strauss, as conductor, made a large number of recordings, both of his own music as well as music by German and Austrian composers. Richard Strauss_sentence_281

His 1929 performances of Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks and Don Juan with the Berlin State Opera Orchestra have long been considered the best of his early electrical recordings. Richard Strauss_sentence_282

In the first complete performance of his An Alpine Symphony, made in 1941 and later released by EMI, Strauss used the full complement of percussion instruments required in this work. Richard Strauss_sentence_283

Koch Legacy has also released Strauss's recordings of overtures by Gluck, Carl Maria von Weber, Peter Cornelius, and Wagner. Richard Strauss_sentence_284

The preference for German and Austrian composers in Germany in the 1920s through the 1940s was typical of the German nationalism that existed after World War I. Richard Strauss_sentence_285

Strauss clearly capitalized on national pride for the great German-speaking composers. Richard Strauss_sentence_286

There were many other recordings, including some taken from radio broadcasts and concerts during the 1930s and early 1940s. Richard Strauss_sentence_287

The sheer volume of recorded performances would undoubtedly yield some definitive performances from a very capable and rather forward-looking conductor. Richard Strauss_sentence_288

In 1944, Strauss celebrated his 80th birthday and conducted the Vienna Philharmonic in recordings of his own major orchestral works, as well as his seldom-heard Schlagobers (Whipped Cream) ballet music. Richard Strauss_sentence_289

Some find more feeling in these performances than in Strauss's earlier recordings, which were recorded on the Magnetophon tape recording equipment. Richard Strauss_sentence_290

Vanguard Records later issued the recordings on LPs. Richard Strauss_sentence_291

Some of these recordings have been reissued on CD by Preiser. Richard Strauss_sentence_292

The last recording made by Strauss was on 19 October 1947 live at the Royal Albert Hall in London, where he conducted the Philharmonia Orchestra in his Burleske for piano and orchestra (Alfred Blumen piano), Don Juan and Sinfonia Domestica. Richard Strauss_sentence_293

Strauss also made live-recording player piano music rolls for the Hupfeld system and in 1906 ten recordings for the reproducing piano Welte-Mignon all of which survive today. Richard Strauss_sentence_294

Strauss was also the composer of the music on the first CD to be commercially released: Deutsche Grammophon's 1983 release of their 1980 recording of Herbert von Karajan conducting the Alpine Symphony. Richard Strauss_sentence_295

Recordings as a conductor Richard Strauss_section_16

Pierre Boulez has said that Strauss the conductor was "a complete master of his trade". Richard Strauss_sentence_296

Music critic Harold C. Schonberg writes that, while Strauss was a very fine conductor, he often put scant effort into his recordings. Richard Strauss_sentence_297

Schonberg focused primarily on Strauss's recordings of Mozart's Symphony No. Richard Strauss_sentence_298 40 and Beethoven's Symphony No. Richard Strauss_sentence_299 7, as well as noting that Strauss played a breakneck version of Beethoven's 9th Symphony in about 45 minutes. Richard Strauss_sentence_300

Concerning Beethoven's 7th Symphony, Schonberg wrote, "There is almost never a ritard or a change in expression or nuance. Richard Strauss_sentence_301

The slow movement is almost as fast as the following vivace; and the last movement, with a big cut in it, is finished in 4 minutes, 25 seconds. Richard Strauss_sentence_302

(It should run between 7 and 8 minutes.)" Richard Strauss_sentence_303

He also complained that the Mozart symphony had "no force, no charm, no inflection, with a metronomic rigidity". Richard Strauss_sentence_304

Peter Gutmann's 1994 review for ClassicalNotes.com says the performances of the Beethoven 5th and 7th symphonies, as well as Mozart's last three symphonies, are actually quite good, even if they are sometimes unconventional. Richard Strauss_sentence_305

Gutmann wrote: Richard Strauss_sentence_306

Anecdotes Richard Strauss_section_17

In May 1891 Strauss came down with a serious pneumonia. Richard Strauss_sentence_307

While convalescing in Feldafing, he wrote to the critic Arthur Seidl: "Dying may not be so bad, but I should first like to conduct Tristan." Richard Strauss_sentence_308

In 1934 Strauss told his friend and librettist Stefan Zweig: "What suit me best, South German bourgeois that I am, are sentimental jobs; but such bullseyes as the Arabella duet and the Rosenkavalier trio don't happen every day. Richard Strauss_sentence_309

Must one become seventy to recognize that one's greatest strength lies in creating kitsch?" Richard Strauss_sentence_310

In 1948 during a visit by his son Franz in Montreux, Strauss was prompted again to compose. Richard Strauss_sentence_311

Franz had told him "Papa, stop writing letters and brooding, it does no good. Richard Strauss_sentence_312

Write a few nice songs instead." Richard Strauss_sentence_313

A few months later Franz' wife Alice was visiting, and just before she left, Strauss put some scores on the table and told her off-the-cuff: "Here are the songs your husband ordered". Richard Strauss_sentence_314

These were the Four Last Songs. Richard Strauss_sentence_315

Honors Richard Strauss_section_18

His honors included: Richard Strauss_sentence_316

Richard Strauss_unordered_list_0

Selected works Richard Strauss_section_19

Main article: List of compositions by Richard Strauss Richard Strauss_sentence_317

Keyboard and chamber Richard Strauss_section_20

Richard Strauss_unordered_list_1

Tone poems and other orchestral works Richard Strauss_section_21

Main article: Tone poems (Strauss) Richard Strauss_sentence_318

First cycle of tone poems Richard Strauss_section_22

Richard Strauss_unordered_list_2

  • Aus Italien (From Italy), Op. 16 (1886)Richard Strauss_item_2_13
  • Don Juan, Op. 20 (1888)Richard Strauss_item_2_14
  • Macbeth, Op. 23 (1888/90)Richard Strauss_item_2_15
  • Tod und Verklärung (Death and Transfiguration), Op. 24 (1888–89)Richard Strauss_item_2_16

Second cycle of tone poems Richard Strauss_section_23

Richard Strauss_unordered_list_3

Ballet music Richard Strauss_section_24

Richard Strauss_unordered_list_4

Other orchestral works Richard Strauss_section_25

Richard Strauss_unordered_list_5

Solo instrument with orchestra Richard Strauss_section_26

Richard Strauss_unordered_list_6

Opera Richard Strauss_section_27

Main article: List of operas by Richard Strauss Richard Strauss_sentence_319

Vocal/choral Richard Strauss_section_28

Richard Strauss_unordered_list_7

See also Richard Strauss_section_29

Richard Strauss_unordered_list_8


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard Strauss.