Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
|Established||April 20, 1983; 37 years ago (1983-04-20)
Dedicated September 1, 1995
|Location||1100 Rock and Roll Boulevard|
|Public transit access||GCRTA East 9th–North Coast|
The museum documents the history of rock music and the artists, producers, engineers, and other notable figures who have influenced its development.
After a long search for the right city, Cleveland was chosen in 1986 as the Hall of Fame's permanent home.
Architect I. designed the new museum, and it was dedicated on September 1, 1995. M. Pei
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation
The RRHOF Foundation was established in 1983 by Ahmet Ertegun, who assembled a team that included Rolling Stone publisher Jann S. Wenner, record executives Seymour Stein, Bob Krasnow, and Noreen Woods, and attorneys Allen Grubman and Suzan Evans.
The Foundation began inducting artists in 1986, but the Hall of Fame still had no home.
The search committee considered several cities, including Philadelphia (home of Bill Haley and American Bandstand), Memphis (home of Sun Studios and Stax Records), Detroit (home of Motown Records), Cincinnati (home of King Records), New York City, and Cleveland.
Cleveland lobbied for the museum, with civic leaders in Cleveland pledging $65 million in public money to fund the construction, and citing that WJW disc jockey Alan Freed both coined the term "rock and roll" and heavily promoted the new genre—and that Cleveland was the location of Freed's Moondog Coronation Ball, often credited as the first major rock and roll concert.
Freed was also a member of the hall of fame's inaugural class of inductees in 1986.
In addition, Cleveland cited radio station WMMS, which played a key role in breaking several major acts in the U.S. during the 1970s and 1980s, including David Bowie, who began his first U.S. tour in the city, Bruce Springsteen, Roxy Music, and Rush among many others.
Cleveland business leaders and media companies organized a petition demonstrating the city's support that was signed by 600,000 Northeast Ohio residents, and Cleveland ranked first in a 1986 USA Today poll asking where the Hall of Fame should be located.
On May 5, 1986, the Hall of Fame Foundation chose Cleveland as the permanent home of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum.
Author Peter Guralnick said the hall should have been located in Memphis in a 2016 interview.
Cleveland may also have been chosen as the organization's site because the city offered the best financial package.
As The Plain Dealer music critic Michael Norman noted, "It was $65 million ... Cleveland wanted it here and put up the money."
During early discussions on where to build the Hall of Fame and Museum, the Foundation's board considered a site along the Cuyahoga River in downtown Cleveland.
At one point in the planning phase, when a financing gap existed, planners proposed locating the Rock Hall in the then-vacant May Company Building, but finally decided to commission architect I. to design a new building. M. Pei
Initial CEO Dr. Larry R. Thompson facilitated I. M. Pei in designs for the site.
Pei came up with the idea of a tower with a glass pyramid protruding from it.
Pei initially planned the tower to be 200 feet (61 m) high, but was forced to reduce it to 162 feet (49 m) due to the structure's proximity to Burke Lakefront Airport.
The building's base is approximately 150,000 square feet (14,000 m).
RRHOF and Museum building
The groundbreaking ceremony took place on June 7, 1993.
The following night an all-star concert was held at Cleveland Stadium.
In addition to the Hall of Fame inductees, the museum documents the entire history of rock and roll, regardless of induction status.
Hall of Fame inductees are honored in a special exhibit located in a wing that juts out over Lake Erie.
Since 1986, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame has selected new inductees.
The formal induction ceremony has been held in New York City 26 times (1986–92, 1994–96, 1998–2008, 2010–11, 2014, 2016, 2017, and 2019); twice in Los Angeles (1993 and 2013); and five times in the hall of fame's home in Cleveland (1997, 2009, 2012, 2015, and 2018).
As of 2018, the induction ceremonies alternate each year between New York and Cleveland.
The 2009 and 2012 induction weeks were made possible by a public–private partnership between the City of Cleveland, the State of Ohio, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and local foundations, corporations, civic organizations and individuals.
Collectively these entities invested $5.8 million in 2009 and $7.9 million in 2012 to produce a week of events including free concerts, a gospel celebration, exhibition openings, free admission to the museum, and induction ceremonies at Public Hall.
Millions viewed the television broadcast of the Cleveland inductions; tens of thousands traveled to Ohio during induction week to participate in the events.
The economic impact of the 2009 induction week activities was more than $13 million, and it provided an additional $20 million in media exposure for the region.
The 2012 induction week yielded similar results.
The building contains seven levels.
On the lower level is the Ahmet M. Ertegun Exhibition Hall, the museum's main gallery.
There are exhibits about soul music, the Fifties, Sun Records, hip hop music, Cleveland's rock and roll legacy, the music of the Midwest, rock and roll radio and dee-jays, and the many protests against rock and roll.
Finally, the Ahmet M. Ertegun Exhibition Hall includes a theatre that features films on various subjects such as American Bandstand.
The first floor of the museum is the entrance level.
It includes a cafe, a stage that the museum uses for various special performances and events throughout the year, and a section called "Backstage Stories."
The second floor includes several interactive kiosks that feature programs on one-hit wonders and the Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll.
Visitors enter the Hall of Fame section of the museum on the third floor.
This section includes "The Power of Rock Experience," which includes one of Jonathan Demme's final works, a film shown in the Connor Theater.
The film includes musical highlights from some of the Hall's induction ceremonies.
Visitors exit the Hall of Fame section on the fourth floor.
That level features the Foster Theater, a state-of-the-art 3-D theater that is used for special events and programs.
Finally, the top two levels of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame feature large, temporary exhibits.
Over the years, numerous exhibits have been installed on these two levels, including exhibits about Elvis Presley, hip-hop, the Supremes, the Who, U2, John Lennon, the Clash, the Grateful Dead, Bruce Springsteen, Women Who Rock, and the Rolling Stones.
Cleveland area musicians/bands who have performed at the Hall of Fame include The Pretenders (with Chrissie Hynde from Akron) in 1995 at the Hall's opening (they performed "My City Was Gone"), James Gang (with Joe Walsh) in 2001, Foo Fighters (with Warren-native Dave Grohl) in 2001, Velvet Revolver (with one-time Cleveland resident Scott Weiland) in 2007, The Raspberries in 2009, Bobby Womack in 2009, and Machine Gun Kelly in 2014.
It is a combination of geometric forms and cantilevered spaces that are anchored by a 162-foot tower.
The tower supports a dual-triangular-shaped glass "tent" that extends (at its base) onto a 65,000-square-foot plaza that provides a main entry facade.
The building houses more than 55,000 square feet of exhibition space, as well as administrative offices, a store, and a café.
"In designing this building," Pei said, "it was my intention to echo the energy of rock and roll.
I have consciously used an architectural vocabulary that is bold and new, and I hope the building will become a dramatic landmark for the city of Cleveland and for fans of rock and roll around the world."
New York City Annex
In 2006 the RRHOF partnered with three entertainment production companies to create a branch museum in New York City.
The branch museum operated in much the same way as its Cleveland parent, featuring archetypal display pieces like Prince's coat from Purple Rain, David Byrne's "big suit" from Stop Making Sense, and Elvis Presley's motorcycle jacket and his Bible.
But from its start the Annex also had a distinct New York area focus that made plenty of space for big items like the phone booth from CBGB, layered thick with band stickers over the decades; Bruce Springsteen's own 1957 Chevrolet; a special gallery reserved for the city's musicians; and an intricate 26-foot (7.9 m) scale model of Manhattan highlighting sites of rock history.
Jann Wenner served as chairman of the board of the Annex.
At its opening night gala, he inadvertently created a controversy after he told a reporter, "One of the small sad things is we didn't do it in New York in the first place."
He later expressed regret for his remark which he said had been misconstrued, and clarified that "I am absolutely delighted that the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum is in Cleveland."
The Annex closed on January 3, 2010, its quick demise reportedly due to the global financial crisis of 2007–2008 and a subsequent downturn in the city's tourism.
The museum closed with a final major exhibition on John Lennon and his years in New York City.
Since 1997, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame has featured numerous temporary exhibits that range in size from major exhibits that fill the top two floors of the museum to smaller exhibits that are often installed in the main exhibition hall on the lower level.
The museum's first major exhibit opened on May 10, 1997.
It was called I Want to Take You Higher: The Psychedelic Era, 1965–1969.
It included memorabilia from numerous artists including John Lennon, Eric Clapton, John Sebastian, Jefferson Airplane, and Janis Joplin, as well as items related to the 1967 Monterey Pop Festival and 1969's Woodstock.
That exhibit was followed by Elvis is in the Building, which ran from August 8, 1998, to September 5, 1999.
This year-long tribute was the first exhibit devoted to a single artist, Elvis Presley—the "King of Rock and Roll" and the first inductee into the RRHOF, in 1986.
Graceland supplied a significant selection of representative artifacts for this special tribute spanning Elvis' life and legendary career.
Next, the museum curated Roots, Rhymes and Rage: The Hip-Hop Story.
That was the first major museum exhibit to focus on hip-hop.
It ran from November 11, 1999, to August 6, 2000.
It was followed by Rock Style, an exhibit that focused on rock and roll and fashion.
After it closed in Cleveland, Rock Style traveled to other museums in the U.S.
Other temporary exhibits have included Lennon: His Life and Work, which ran from October 20, 2000, to January 1, 2003.
A major exhibition titled Louder than Words: Rock, Power, Politics was on display during the 2016 Republican National Convention in Cleveland.
Other large temporary exhibits have focused on the Clash (Revolution Rock: The Story of the Clash), the Doors (Break on Through: The Lasting Legacy of the Doors), the Who's Tommy (Tommy: The Amazing Journey), and Bruce Springsteen (From Asbury Park to the Promised Land: The Life and Music of Bruce Springsteen).
Another thematic temporary exhibit focused on the role of women in rock and roll (Women Who Rock: Vision, Passion, Power).
Many of these exhibits travel to other museums after closing in Cleveland.
A major temporary exhibit in 2017 told the story and impact of Rolling Stone magazine.
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame also curates many smaller temporary exhibits.
Over the years, these exhibits have focused on such topics as the Vans Warped Tour, the Concert for Bangladesh, Woodstock's 40th and 50th anniversaries, Austin City Limits, the Monterey International Pop Festival, Roy Orbison, Motown's 50th anniversary, Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, Marty Stuart, Paul Simon, Graham Nash, John Mellencamp, and Geddy Lee's basses.
The museum also devotes exhibits to photography and artwork related to rock and roll.
Among the photographers whose work has been featured at the Hall of Fame are George Kalinsky, Alfred Wertheimer, Tommy Edwards, Kevin Mazur, Janet Macoska, Lynn Goldsmith, Linda McCartney, Mike McCartney, Robert Alford, and George Shuba.
The museum also featured the artwork of Philip Burke in one of its temporary exhibits, and a later exhibit featured Herb Ritts.
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum produces numerous public programs, including concerts, interviews, lectures, film screenings, and other events that help tell the story of rock and roll.
Every February, the museum celebrates Black History Month by hosting concerts, film screenings and lectures that illustrate the important role African-Americans have played in the history of rock and roll.
Since the program began in 1996, such artists as Robert Lockwood, Jr., the Temptations, Charles Brown, Ruth Brown, the Ohio Players, Lloyd Price, Little Anthony and the Imperials, and Al Green have appeared at the museum during Black History Month.
Another program is the Hall of Fame Series.
This series began in April 1996 and features interviews with Hall of Fame inductees in a rare and intimate settings, most often in the Museum's Foster Theater.
The interviews are usually followed by a question-and-answer session with the audience and, often, a performance by the inductee.
Among the inductees who have taken part in this series are Darryl "DMC" McDaniels of Run-D.M.C., Lloyd Price, Martha Reeves, Marky Ramone, Seymour Stein, Ray Manzarek of the Doors, Mary Wilson of the Supremes, Ronnie Spector, Bootsy Collins, Ann and Nancy Wilson of Heart, Dennis Edwards of the Temptations, and Jorma Kaukonen of the Jefferson Airplane.
A similar program is the Legends Series.
The only real difference between this program and the Hall of Fame Series is that it features artists who have not yet been inducted into the Hall of Fame.
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum's most acclaimed program is the annual American Music Masters series.
Each year the museum celebrates one of the Hall's inductees with a week-long series of programs that include interviews, film screenings, and, often, a special exhibit.
The celebration ends with an all-star concert held at a Cleveland theater.
The concerts include a diverse mix of artists, from Hall of Fame inductees to contemporary musicians.
The American Music Masters series began in 1996 with Hard Travelin': The Life and Legacy of Pete Seeger.
Since then, the programs have honored the following inductees: Jimmie Rodgers (1997), Robert Johnson (1998), Louis Jordan (1999), Muddy Waters (2000), Bessie Smith (2001), Hank Williams (2002), Buddy Holly (2003), Lead Belly (2004), Sam Cooke (2005), Roy Orbison (2006), Jerry Lee Lewis (2007), Les Paul (2008), Janis Joplin (2009), Fats Domino and Dave Bartholomew (2010), Aretha Franklin (2011), Chuck Berry (2012), The Everly Brothers (2014) and Johnny Cash (2017).
In 2019 the concert series' format was retooled and the event was renamed the Rock Hall Honors, in which the honored performer is joined in concert by guests of their choice.
The first Rock Hall Honors concert, featuring Mavis Staples, was performed in Cleveland in September 2019.
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame won the 2020 Webby People’s Voice Award for Cultural Institution in the category Web.
Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll
Hall of Fame museum curator James Henke, along with "the museum's curatorial staff and numerous rock critics and music experts", created an unordered list of "500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll".
The list is part of a permanent exhibit at the museum, and was envisioned as part of the museum from its opening in 1995.
It contains songs recorded from the 1920s through the 1990s.
The oldest song on the list is "Wabash Cannonball", written circa 1882 and credited to J. A. Roff.
Since then, however, an additional 160 songs have been added, and the list is now simply referred to as "The Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll".
The Beatles and the Rolling Stones are the most represented on the 660-song list, with eight songs each.
Artists with four or more songs
25th anniversary concert
Main article: 25th Anniversary Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Concerts
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame celebrated its 25th anniversary with a concert series over two days on October 29 and 30, 2009 at Madison Square Garden in New York.
The celebration included performances by Jerry Lee Lewis, U2, Patti Smith, Bruce Springsteen & the E Street Band, Simon & Garfunkel, Dion DiMucci, Metallica, James Taylor, Bonnie Raitt, Fergie, Mick Jagger, Lou Reed, Ray Davies, Ozzy Osbourne, Paul Simon, Jeff Beck, Buddy Guy, Aretha Franklin, Stevie Wonder, Sting, Little Anthony & the Imperials, and Crosby, Stills and Nash.
The first night ran almost six hours with Bruce Springsteen & the E Street Band closing the concert with special guests John Fogerty, Darlene Love, Tom Morello, Sam Moore, Jackson Browne, Peter Wolf, and Billy Joel.
Artists are inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at an annual induction ceremony.
Over the years, the majority of the ceremonies have been held at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City.
However, on January 12, 1993, the ceremony was held in Los Angeles, and was held there again in 2013.
On May 6, 1997, about a year and a half after the opening of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, the ceremony was held in Cleveland.
It returned to Cleveland in 2009 and again in 2012.
Current plans call for the ceremony to be in Cleveland every three years.
Generally, the number of inductees ranges from about a half-dozen to a dozen.
Virtually all living inductees have attended the ceremonies, and they are presented with their Hall of Fame award by an artist who was influenced by that inductee's music.
Both the presenter and the inductee speak at the ceremonies, which also include numerous musical performances, by both the inductees and the presenters.
The first group of inductees, inducted on January 23, 1986, included Elvis Presley, James Brown, Little Richard, Fats Domino, Ray Charles, Chuck Berry, Sam Cooke, the Everly Brothers, Buddy Holly, and Jerry Lee Lewis.
Robert Johnson, Jimmie Rodgers, and Jimmy Yancey were inducted as Early Influences, John Hammond received the Lifetime Achievement Award and Alan Freed and Sam Phillips were inducted as Non-Performers.
A nominating committee composed of rock and roll historians selects names for the "Performers" category (singers, vocal groups, bands, and instrumentalists of all kinds), which are then voted on by roughly 500 experts across the world.
Those selected to vote include academics, journalists, producers, and others with music industry experience.
Artists become eligible for induction 25 years after the release of their first record.
Criteria include the influence and significance of the artists' contributions to the development and perpetuation of rock and roll.
Block approval voting is used, with those nominees who receive the most votes being inducted, subject to a minimum of 50% approval.
Around five to seven performers are inducted each year.
In 2012, six additional groups, the Miracles, the Famous Flames, the Comets, the Blue Caps, the Midnighters, and the Crickets, were inducted as performers by a special committee due to the controversial exclusions when their lead singer was inducted.
"There was a lot of discussion about this," said Terry Stewart, a member of the nominating committee.
"There had always been conversations about why the groups weren't included when the lead singers were inducted.
Very honestly, nobody could really answer that question – it was so long ago ... We decided we'd sit down as an organization and look at that.
This is the result."
Other notable artists that have been inducted as Early Influences include Bill Kenny & The Ink Spots, country musicians Jimmie Rodgers and Hank Williams, blues musicians Howlin' Wolf and Muddy Waters, and jazz musicians Jelly Roll Morton and Louis Armstrong.
Unlike earlier inductees in this category, Jackson's career almost entirely took place after the traditional 1955 start of the "rock era".
Ahmet Ertegun Award for Lifetime Achievement
Formerly the "Non-Performers" award, this category encompasses those who primarily work behind the scenes in the music industry, including record label executives, songwriters, record producers, disc jockeys, concert promoters and music journalists.
This category has had at least one inductee every year except 2007 and 2009.
Following the death of the Hall of Fame's co-founder Ahmet Ertegun, this award was renamed in his honor in 2008.
Award for Musical Excellence
Formerly the "Sidemen" award, this category was introduced in 2000 and honors veteran session and concert players who are selected by a committee composed primarily of producers.
The category was dormant from 2004 through 2007 and re-activated in 2008.
This honor was renamed the "Award for Musical Excellence" in 2010.
According to Joel Peresman, the president of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation, "This award gives us flexibility to dive into some things and recognize some people who might not ordinarily get recognized."
Library and archives
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum's Library and Archives is the world's most comprehensive repository of materials related to the history of rock and roll.
The Library and Archives' mission is to collect, preserve and provide access to these materials.
The Library and Archives operates on two levels: people may come into the library and read the books and magazines, listen to music and other recordings, and watch videos and films.
More serious scholars, historians and journalists may also make an appointment for access to the archival collections under the supervision of the staff archivists.
The library is composed of books, academic dissertations, and other references.
It also includes popular magazines, scholarly journals and trade publications; commercial audio and video recordings, and research databases.
The archival collections include music-business records from record executives, artist managers, labels, historic venues, recording studios, specialists in stage design and lighting, and long-running concert tours.
The collections also contain important individual items, such as personal letters penned by Aretha Franklin and Madonna, handwritten working lyrics by Jimi Hendrix and LL Cool J, papers from music journalists such as Sue Cassidy Clark, and rare concert recordings from CBGB in the 1970s.
The most frequent criticism of the Hall of Fame is that the nomination process is controlled by a few individuals who are not themselves musicians, such as founders Jann Wenner and Suzan Evans, and writer Dave Marsh, reflecting their personal tastes rather than public opinion as a whole.
A former member of the nominations board once commented that "At one point Suzan Evans lamented the choices being made because there weren't enough big names that would sell tickets to the dinner.
That was quickly remedied by dropping one of the doo-wop groups being considered in favor of a 'name' artist ...
I saw how certain pioneering artists of the '50s and early '60s were shunned because there needed to be more name power on the list, resulting in '70s superstars getting in before the people who made it possible for them.
Some of those pioneers still aren't in today."
Sister Rosetta Tharpe is often considered "The Godmother/Grandmother of Rock & Roll", but was not chosen for induction until 2017.
There was also criticism of the opacity in the selection process.
Janet Morrissey of The New York Times wrote:
Jon Landau, the chairman of the nominating committee, says they prefer it that way.
"We've done a good job of keeping the proceedings nontransparent.
It all dies in the room."
According to Fox News, petitions with tens of thousands of signatures were also being ignored, and some groups that were signed with certain labels or companies or were affiliated with various committee members have even been put up for nomination with no discussion at all.
The committee has also been accused of largely ignoring certain genres.
Another criticism is that too many artists are inducted.
In fifteen years, 97 different artists were inducted.
A minimum of 50% of the vote is needed to be inducted, although the final percentages are not announced and a certain number of inductees (five in 2011) is set before the ballots are shipped.
The committee usually nominates a small number of artists (12 in 2010) from an increasing number of different genres.
Several voters, including Joel Selvin, himself a former member of the nominating committee, did not submit their ballots in 2007 because they did not feel that any of the candidates were truly worthy.
In BBC Radio 6 Music's Annual John Peel Lecture in 2013, the singer Charlotte Church accused the museum of gender bias, stating, "Out of 295 acts and artists in the Rock n' Roll Hall of Fame, 259 are entirely male, meaning that Tina Weymouth's part in Talking Heads makes them one of the 36 female acts."
In fact, the actual percentage of woman inductees is 8.5%.
Combining all the categories, there have been 719 inductees, of which 61 have been women.
2016 inductee Steve Miller directed a litany of complaints at the hall, both during his induction speech and, especially, in interviews after it.
His criticisms included his opinions that there is a general lack of female inductees, that there is not enough support by the hall for music education, and that inductees are treated poorly at the award ceremony.
In 2018, Bruce Dickinson of Iron Maiden criticized the Hall of Fame by calling it "an utter and complete load of bollocks ... run by a bunch of sanctimonious bloody Americans who wouldn’t know rock 'n' roll if it hit them in the face."
Dickinson has also expressed an overall distaste for the Hall of Fame entity, arguing that "if you put [music] in a museum, then it's dead."
Iron Maiden had been eligible for induction since 2004.
Several people criticized the 2020 inductions because Dave Matthews Band were not part of the class, despite them topping the fan vote.
Dave Clark Five
On March 14, 2007, two days after that year's induction ceremony, Roger Friedman of Fox News published an article claiming that the Dave Clark Five should have been the fifth inductee, as they had more votes than inductee Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five.
The article went on to say that Jann Wenner availed himself of a technicality on the day votes were due in.
In reality, The Dave Clark Five got six more votes than Grandmaster Flash.
But he felt "we couldn't go another year without a rap act."
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation responded "There is a format and rules and procedure.
There is a specific time when the votes have to be in, and then they are counted.
The bands with the top five votes got in."
The Dave Clark Five was subsequently nominated again and then inducted the following year.
In a Facebook post, fellow Monkee Michael Nesmith stated that he did not know if the Monkees belonged in the Hall of Fame because he could only see the impact of the Monkees from the inside, and went on to say: "I can see the HOF (Hall of Fame) is a private enterprise.
It seems to operate as a business, and the inductees are there by some action of the owners of the Enterprise.
The inductees appear to be chosen at the owner's pleasure.
This seems proper to me.
It is their business in any case.
It does not seem to me that the HOF carries a public mandate, nor should it be compelled to conform to one."
Various magazines and news outlets, such as Time, NPR radio, The Christian Science Monitor, Goldmine magazine, Yahoo Music and MSNBC have argued that the Monkees belong in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.