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This article is about the genre of music. Rockabilly_sentence_0

For wrestler formerly known as Rockabilly, see Monty Sopp. Rockabilly_sentence_1

For the 1957 popular song, see Rock-a-Billy (song). Rockabilly_sentence_2


Stylistic originsRockabilly_header_cell_0_1_0 Rockabilly_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsRockabilly_header_cell_0_2_0 Early to mid-1950s, Southern United StatesRockabilly_cell_0_2_1
Derivative formsRockabilly_header_cell_0_3_0 Garage rockRockabilly_cell_0_3_1
Fusion genresRockabilly_header_cell_0_4_0
Other topicsRockabilly_header_cell_0_5_0

Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music. Rockabilly_sentence_3

It dates back to the early 1950s in the United States, especially the South. Rockabilly_sentence_4

As a genre it blends the sound of Western musical styles such as country with that of rhythm and blues, leading to what is considered "classic" rock and roll. Rockabilly_sentence_5

Some have also described it as a blend of bluegrass with rock and roll. Rockabilly_sentence_6

The term "rockabilly" itself is a portmanteau of "rock" (from "rock 'n' roll") and "hillbilly", the latter a reference to the country music (often called "hillbilly music" in the 1940s and 1950s) that contributed strongly to the style. Rockabilly_sentence_7

Other important influences on rockabilly include western swing, boogie-woogie, jump blues, and electric blues. Rockabilly_sentence_8

Defining features of the rockabilly sound included strong rhythms, vocal twangs, and common use of the tape echo; but progressive addition of different instruments and vocal harmonies led to its "dilution". Rockabilly_sentence_9

Initially popularized by artists such as Wanda Jackson, Billy Adams, Johnny Cash, Bill Haley, Buddy Holly, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Bob Luman, Eddie Cochran, and Jerry Lee Lewis, the rockabilly style waned in the late 1950s; nonetheless, during the late 1970s and early 1980s, rockabilly enjoyed a revival. Rockabilly_sentence_10

An interest in the genre endures even in the 21st century, often within musical subcultures. Rockabilly_sentence_11

Rockabilly has spawned a variety of sub-styles and influencing other genres such as punk rock. Rockabilly_sentence_12

Origins Rockabilly_section_0

See also: Origins of rock and roll Rockabilly_sentence_13

There was a close relationship between blues and country music from the very earliest country recordings in the 1920s. Rockabilly_sentence_14

The first nationwide country hit was "Wreck of the Old 97", backed with "Lonesome Road Blues", which also became quite popular. Rockabilly_sentence_15

Jimmie Rodgers, the "first true country star", was known as the "Blue Yodeler", and most of his songs used blues-based chord progressions, although with very different instrumentation and sound from the recordings of his black contemporaries like Blind Lemon Jefferson and Bessie Smith. Rockabilly_sentence_16

During the 1930s and 1940s, two new sounds emerged. Rockabilly_sentence_17

Bob Wills and his Texas Playboys were the leading proponents of Western Swing, which combined country singing and steel guitar with big band jazz influences and horn sections; Wills's music found massive popularity. Rockabilly_sentence_18

Recordings of Wills's from the mid 1940s to the early 1950s include "two beat jazz" rhythms, "jazz choruses", and guitar work that preceded early rockabilly recordings. Rockabilly_sentence_19

Wills is quoted as saying "Rock and Roll? Rockabilly_sentence_20

Why, man, that's the same kind of music we've been playin' since 1928!... Rockabilly_sentence_21

But it's just basic rhythm and has gone by a lot of different names in my time. Rockabilly_sentence_22

It's the same, whether you just follow a drum beat like in Africa or surround it with a lot of instruments. Rockabilly_sentence_23

The rhythm's what's important." Rockabilly_sentence_24

After blues artists like Meade Lux Lewis and Pete Johnson launched a nationwide boogie craze starting in 1938, country artists like Moon Mullican, the Delmore Brothers, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Speedy West, Jimmy Bryant, and the Maddox Brothers and Rose began recording what was known as "Hillbilly Boogie", which consisted of "hillbilly" vocals and instrumentation with a boogie bass line. Rockabilly_sentence_25

The Maddox Brothers and Rose were at "the leading edge of rockabilly with the slapped bass that Fred Maddox had developed". Rockabilly_sentence_26

Maddox said, "You've got to have somethin' they can tap their foot, or dance to, or to make 'em feel it." Rockabilly_sentence_27

After World War II the band shifted into higher gear leaning more toward a whimsical honky-tonk feel, with a heavy, manic bottom end - the slap bass of Fred Maddox. Rockabilly_sentence_28

"They played hillbilly music but it sounded real hot. Rockabilly_sentence_29

They played real loud for that time, too ..." The Maddoxes were also known for their lively "antics and stuff". Rockabilly_sentence_30

"We always put on a show ... Rockabilly_sentence_31

I mean it just wasn't us up there pickin' and singing. Rockabilly_sentence_32

There was something going on all the time." Rockabilly_sentence_33

"... the demonstrative Maddoxes, helped release white bodies from traditional motions of decorum... more and more younger white artists began to behave on stage like the lively Maddoxes." Rockabilly_sentence_34

Others believe that they were not only at the leading edge, but were one of the first Rockabilly groups, if not the first. Rockabilly_sentence_35

Along with country, swing and boogie influences, jump blues artists such as Wynonie Harris and Roy Brown, and electric blues acts such as Howlin' Wolf, Junior Parker, and Arthur Crudup, influenced the development of rockabilly. Rockabilly_sentence_36

The Memphis blues musician Junior Parker and his electric blues band, Little Junior's Blue Flames, featuring Pat Hare on the guitar, were a major influence on the rockabilly style, particularly with their songs "" and "Mystery Train" in 1953. Rockabilly_sentence_37

Zeb Turner's February 1953 recording of "Jersey Rock" with its mix of musical styles, lyrics about music and dancing, and guitar solo, is another example of the mixing of musical genres in the first half of the 1950s. Rockabilly_sentence_38

Bill Monroe is known as the Father of Bluegrass, a specific style of country music. Rockabilly_sentence_39

Many of his songs were in blues form, while others took the form of folk ballads, parlor songs, or waltzes. Rockabilly_sentence_40

Bluegrass was a staple of country music in the early 1950s and is often mentioned as an influence in the development of rockabilly. Rockabilly_sentence_41

The Honky Tonk sound, which "tended to focus on working-class life, with frequently tragic themes of lost love, adultery, loneliness, alcoholism, and self-pity", also included songs of energetic, uptempo Hillbilly Boogie. Rockabilly_sentence_42

Some of the better known musicians who recorded and performed these songs are: the Delmore Brothers, the Maddox Brothers and Rose, Merle Travis, Hank Williams, Hank Snow, and Tennessee Ernie Ford. Rockabilly_sentence_43

Curtis Gordon's 1953 "Rompin' and Stompin'", an uptempo hillbilly-boogie included the lyrics, "Way down south where I was born / They rocked all night 'til early morn' / They start rockin' / They start rockin' an rollin'." Rockabilly_sentence_44

Tennessee Rockabilly_section_1

Carl Perkins Rockabilly_section_2

Sharecroppers' sons Carl Perkins and his brothers Jay Perkins and Clayton Perkins, along with drummer W. Rockabilly_sentence_45 S. Holland, had been playing their music roughly ninety miles from Memphis. Rockabilly_sentence_46

The Perkins Brothers Band, featuring both Carl and Jay on lead vocals, quickly established themselves as the hottest band on the cutthroat, "get-hot-or-go-home" Jackson, Tennessee honky tonk circuit. Rockabilly_sentence_47

Most of the requests for songs were for hillbilly songs that were delivered as jived up versions—classic Hank Williams standards infused with a faster rhythm. Rockabilly_sentence_48

It was here that Carl started composing his first songs with an eye toward the future. Rockabilly_sentence_49

Watching the dance floor at all times for a reaction, working out a more rhythmically driving style of music that was neither country nor blues, but had elements of both, Perkins kept reshaping these loosely structured songs until he had a completed composition, which would then be finally put to paper. Rockabilly_sentence_50

Carl was already sending demos to New York record companies, who kept rejecting him, sometimes explaining that this strange new style of country with a pronounced rhythm fit no current commercial trend. Rockabilly_sentence_51

That would change in 1955 after recording the song "Blue Suede Shoes" (recorded 19 December 1955) on Sam Phillips' Memphis-based Sun Records. Rockabilly_sentence_52

Later made more famous by Elvis Presley, Perkins' original version was an early rock 'n' roll standard. Rockabilly_sentence_53

Memphis Rockabilly_section_3

In the early 1950s there was heavy competition among Memphis area bands playing an audience-savvy mix of covers, original songs, and hillbilly flavored blues. Rockabilly_sentence_54

One source mentions both local disc jockey Dewey Phillips and Sam Phillips as being influential. Rockabilly_sentence_55

Scotty Moore remembers that, "You could play ... As long as you could play, say, the top eight or ten songs from country, pop, R&B. Rockabilly_sentence_56

They didn't care what instruments you had, as long as people could dance." Rockabilly_sentence_57

The Saturday Night Jamboree Rockabilly_section_4

The Saturday Night Jamboree was a local stage show held every Saturday night at the Goodwyn Institute Auditorium in downtown Memphis, Tennessee in 1953–54. Rockabilly_sentence_58

But of more historical significance were the then-unknown artists who came to perform at the Jamboree. Rockabilly_sentence_59

They include: Elvis Presley, Johnny and Dorsey Burnette, Eddie Bond, Charlie Feathers, Jim Cannon, Reggie Young, Barbara Pittman, the Lazenby Twins, Bud Deckleman, Harmonica Frank Floyd, Marcus Van Story, Lloyd Arnold, and more. Rockabilly_sentence_60

The shows were sometimes broadcast on KWEM Radio Station in West Memphis, Arkansas by Joe Manuel, who fronted the Jamboree and was a KWEM personality. Rockabilly_sentence_61

Every Saturday night in 1953, the dressing rooms backstage were a gathering place where musicians would come together and experiment with new sounds—mixing fast country, gospel, blues and boogie woogie. Rockabilly_sentence_62

Guys were bringing in new "licks" that they had developed and were teaching them to other musicians and were learning new "licks" from yet other musicians backstage. Rockabilly_sentence_63

Soon these new sounds began to make their way out onto the stage of the Jamboree where they found a very receptive audience. Rockabilly_sentence_64

The Burnettes and Burlison Rockabilly_section_5

Younger musicians around Memphis were beginning to play a mix of musical styles. Rockabilly_sentence_65

Paul Burlison, for one, was playing in nondescript hillbilly bands in the very early 1950s. Rockabilly_sentence_66

One of these early groups secured a fifteen-minute show on radio station KWEM in West Memphis, Arkansas. Rockabilly_sentence_67

The time slot was adjacent to Howlin' Wolf's and the music quickly became a curious blend of blues, country and what would become known as rockabilly music. Rockabilly_sentence_68

In 1951 and 1952 the Burnettes (Johnny and Dorsey) and Burlison played around Memphis and established a reputation for wild music. Rockabilly_sentence_69

According to Burlison, "... when we started playing in 1951, we played an uptempo-style country beat with gospel, blues, and a little swing mixed in." Rockabilly_sentence_70

They played with Doc McQueen's swing band at the Hideaway Club but hated the type of music played by "chart musicians." Rockabilly_sentence_71

Soon they broke away and began playing their energetic brand of rockabilly to small, but appreciative, local audiences. Rockabilly_sentence_72

They wrote "Rock Billy Boogie," named after Johnny's new baby boy Rocky Burnette and Dorsey's new son Billy, who were both born in 1953, while working at the Hideaway. Rockabilly_sentence_73

Unfortunately for the Burnettes and Burlison, they did not record the song until 1957. Rockabilly_sentence_74

The trio released "Train Kept A-Rollin'" in 1956, listed by Rolling Stone magazine as one of the top 500 rock songs of all time, having been covered by the Yardbirds, Aerosmith, and many others. Rockabilly_sentence_75

Many consider this 1956 recording to be the first intentional use of a distortion guitar on a rock song, which was played by lead guitarist Paul Burlison. Rockabilly_sentence_76

Many rockabilly guitarists and historians now accept that on many of the classic recordings Johnny Burnette did in Nashville for Decca it was the legendary "A Team" of Grady Martin on guitar, Bob Moore on bass and Buddy Harmann on drums backing Johnny and Dorsey on vocals (the author of this comment has had discussions with Bob Moore where he confirms this). Rockabilly_sentence_77

In all likelihood both Paul Burlison and Grady Martin played on some of the Nashville recordings, with who played what lost in the mists of time. Rockabilly_sentence_78

The recordings done in the Pythian Temple in New York are undoubtedly all the work of Paul Burlison. Rockabilly_sentence_79

The use of distortion on a rock'n'roll record was more accurately "Rocket 88" by Jackie Brenston and the Delta Cats. Rockabilly_sentence_80

The legend of how the sound came about says that guitarist Willy Kizart's amplifier was damaged on Highway 61 when the band was driving from Mississippi to Memphis, Tennessee. Rockabilly_sentence_81

An attempt was made to hold the cone in place by stuffing the amplifier with wadded newspapers, which unintentionally created a distorted sound; Phillips liked the sound and used it. Rockabilly_sentence_82

Robert Palmer has written that the amplifier "had fallen from the top of the car", and attributes this information to Sam Phillips. Rockabilly_sentence_83

However, in a recorded interview at the Experience Music Project in Seattle, Washington, Ike Turner stated that the amplifier was in the trunk of the car and that rain may have caused the damage; he is certain that it did not fall from the roof of the car. Rockabilly_sentence_84

Elvis Presley Rockabilly_section_6

Presley's first recording, a blues song titled "That's All Right Mama", was previously recorded in 1946 by Arthur Crudup. Rockabilly_sentence_85

In this recording Presley married "black" and "white" genres to an extent that it was denied airplay on (white) country radio stations and (black) R&B stations, dismissed for being defined as both "black" and "white" music. Rockabilly_sentence_86

Record Producer Sam Phillips was told by country deejays that Presley's "That's Alright Mama" was "black music" and lamented they would be "run out of town" for playing it. Rockabilly_sentence_87

Similarly, R&B deejays categorized it as a (white) country song. Rockabilly_sentence_88

When the song was finally played by one rogue deejay, Dewey Phillips, Presley's recording created so much excitement it was described as having waged war on segregated radio stations. Rockabilly_sentence_89

"The Sun recordings were the first salvos in an undeclared war on segregated radio stations nationwide." Rockabilly_sentence_90

All of Presley's early records combined a blues song on one side and a country song on the other, but both sung in the same vein. Rockabilly_sentence_91

Presley's unique musical style rocketed him into the spotlight, and drew masses of followers: "But it's Presley's singing, halfway between a country western and a R&B rock 'n' roll style that has sent teenagers into a trance. Rockabilly_sentence_92

Whether you like it or not, there will always be an Elvis Presley." Rockabilly_sentence_93

Presley's first, historical recordings took place at Sun Records, a small independent label run by Sam Phillips in Memphis, Tennessee. Rockabilly_sentence_94

The historical significance of these first Presley recordings and their impact on future musical artists is well exemplified by the actions of legendary musical artist Bob Dylan, who is said to have gone to Sun Records and kissed the "x" where Elvis had stood to record his first recordings. Rockabilly_sentence_95

Further stated by Dylan: "I thank God for Elvis Presley". Rockabilly_sentence_96

For several years, Phillips had been recording and releasing performances by blues and country musicians in the area. Rockabilly_sentence_97

He also ran a service allowing anyone to come in off the street and for $3.98 (plus tax) record himself on a two-song vanity record. Rockabilly_sentence_98

One young man who came to record himself as a surprise for his mother, he claimed, was Elvis Presley. Rockabilly_sentence_99

According to Phillips, "Ninety-five percent of the people I had been working with were black, most of them of course no name people. Rockabilly_sentence_100

Elvis fit right in. Rockabilly_sentence_101

He was born and raised in poverty. Rockabilly_sentence_102

He was around people that had very little in the way of worldly goods." Rockabilly_sentence_103

Presley made enough of an impression that Phillips deputized guitarist Scotty Moore, who then enlisted bassist Bill Black, both from the Starlight Wranglers, a local western swing band, to work with the green young Elvis. Rockabilly_sentence_104

The trio rehearsed dozens of songs, from traditional country, to "Harbor Lights", a hit for crooner Bing Crosby to gospel. Rockabilly_sentence_105

During a break on July 5, 1954, Elvis "jumped up ... and started frailin' guitar and singin' "That's All Right, Mama" (a 1946 blues song by Arthur "Big Boy" Crudup). Rockabilly_sentence_106

Scotty and Bill began playing along. Rockabilly_sentence_107

Excited, Phillips told them to "back up and start from the beginning." Rockabilly_sentence_108

Two or three takes later, Phillips had a satisfactory recording, and released "That's All Right", on July 19, 1954, along with an "Elvis Presley Scotty and Bill" version of Bill Monroe's waltz, Blue Moon of Kentucky, a country standard. Rockabilly_sentence_109

Presley's Sun recordings feature his vocals and rhythm guitar, Bill Black's percussive slapped bass, and Scotty Moore on an amplified guitar. Rockabilly_sentence_110

Slap bass had been a staple of both Western Swing and Hillbilly Boogie since the 1940s. Rockabilly_sentence_111

Commenting on his own guitar playing, Scotty Moore said, "All I can tell you is I just stole from every guitar player I heard over the years. Rockabilly_sentence_112

Put it in my data bank. Rockabilly_sentence_113

An' when I played that's just what come out." Rockabilly_sentence_114

Scotty Moore described their first session, resulting in the recording of "That's Alright Mama": Rockabilly_sentence_115

Tillman Franks has been quoted as saying, "I want you to give Bill Black the credit. Rockabilly_sentence_116

… on 'That's All Right (Mama)' and 'Blue Moon of Kentucky.' Rockabilly_sentence_117

Elvis sang the way Bill Black played bass." Rockabilly_sentence_118

Some have claimed that the sound of "That's Alright" was not entirely new, "It wasn't that they said 'I never heard anything like it before.' Rockabilly_sentence_119

It wasn't as if this started a revolution, it galvanized a revolution. Rockabilly_sentence_120

Not because Elvis had expressed something new, but he expressed something they had all been trying to express." Rockabilly_sentence_121

Sam Phillips indicated that for him it was a new sound, saying "It just broke me up". Rockabilly_sentence_122

And many echo the sentiment that it was a sound like no other they had heard: "When I first heard Elvis singing 'That's Alright Mama'. Rockabilly_sentence_123

The time just stood still. Rockabilly_sentence_124

It knocked my socks off." Rockabilly_sentence_125

--Ramon Maupin. Rockabilly_sentence_126

Nobody was sure what to call Presley's music, so Elvis was described as "The Hillbilly Cat" and "King of Western Bop." Rockabilly_sentence_127

Over the next year, Elvis would record four more singles for Sun. Rockabilly_sentence_128

Rockabilly recorded by artists prior to Presley can be described as being in the long-standing country style of Rockabilly. Rockabilly_sentence_129

Presley's recordings are described by some as quintessential rockabilly for their true union of country and R&B, which can be described as the true realization of the Rockabilly genre. Rockabilly_sentence_130

In addition to the fusion of distinct genres, Presley's recordings contain some traditional as well as new traits: "nervously up tempo" (as Peter Guralnick describes it), with slap bass, fancy guitar picking, much echo, shouts of encouragement, and vocals full of histrionics such as hiccups, stutters, and swoops from falsetto to bass and back again. Rockabilly_sentence_131

By end of 1954 Elvis asked D.J. Rockabilly_sentence_132 Fontana, who was the underutilized drummer for the Louisiana Hayride, "Would you go with us if we got any more dates?" Rockabilly_sentence_133

Presley was now using drums, as did many other rockabilly performers; drums were then uncommon in country music. Rockabilly_sentence_134

In the 1956 sessions shortly after Presley's move from Sun Records to RCA, Presley was backed by a band that included Moore, Black, Fontana, and pianist Floyd Cramer. Rockabilly_sentence_135

In 1956 Elvis also acquired vocal backup via the Jordanaires. Rockabilly_sentence_136

North of the Mason-Dixon Line Rockabilly_section_7

Bill Haley Rockabilly_section_8

In 1951 a western swing bandleader named Bill Haley recorded a version of "Rocket 88" with his group, the Saddlemen. Rockabilly_sentence_137

It is considered one of the earliest recognized rockabilly recordings. Rockabilly_sentence_138

Haley and his bandmates crafted a rockabilly sound during this period as the Saddlemen. Rockabilly_sentence_139

It was followed by versions of "Rock the Joint" in 1952, and original works such as "Real Rock Drive" and "Crazy Man, Crazy", the latter of which reached number 12 on the American Billboard chart in 1953. Rockabilly_sentence_140

On April 12, 1954, Haley with his band (now known as Bill Haley and His Comets) recorded "Rock Around the Clock" for Decca Records of New York City. Rockabilly_sentence_141

When first released in May 1954, "Rock Around the Clock" made the charts for one week at number 23, and sold 75,000 copies. Rockabilly_sentence_142

A year later it was featured in the film Blackboard Jungle, and soon afterwards it was topping charts all over the world and opening up a new genre of entertainment. Rockabilly_sentence_143

"Rock Around the Clock" hit No. Rockabilly_sentence_144

1, held that position for eight weeks, and was the number two song on the Billboard Hot 100 chart for 1955. Rockabilly_sentence_145

The recording was, until the late 1990s, recognized by Guinness World Records as having the highest sales claim for a pop vinyl recording, with an "unaudited" claim of 25 million copies sold. Rockabilly_sentence_146

Rock 'n' roll, an expansive term coined a couple years earlier by DJ Alan Freed, had now been to the pop mountaintop, a position it would never quite relinquish. Rockabilly_sentence_147

Bill Flagg Rockabilly_section_9

Maine native and Connecticut resident Bill Flagg began using the term rockabilly for his combination of rock 'n' roll and hillbilly music as early as 1953 He cut several songs for Tetra Records in 1956 and 1957. Rockabilly_sentence_148

"Go Cat Go" went into the National Billboard charts in 1956, and his "Guitar Rock" is cited as classic rockabilly. Rockabilly_sentence_149

Janis Martin on The Old Dominion Barn Dance Show Rockabilly_section_10

In 1953 at the age of 13 Janis Martin was developing her own proto-rockabilly style on WRVA's Old Dominion Barn Dance, which broadcast out of Richmond, VA. Rockabilly_sentence_150

Although Martin performed mostly country songs for the show, she also did songs by Rhythm and blues singers Ruth Brown and LaVern Baker, as well as a few Dinah Washington songs. Rockabilly_sentence_151

"The audience didn't know what to make of it. Rockabilly_sentence_152

They didn't hardly allow electric instruments, and I was doing some songs by black artists—stuff like Ruth Brown's "(Mama) He Treats Your Daughter Mean." Rockabilly_sentence_153

Cash, Perkins and Presley Rockabilly_section_11

In 1954, both Johnny Cash and Carl Perkins auditioned for Sam Phillips. Rockabilly_sentence_154

Cash hoped to record gospel music, but Phillips immediately nixed that idea. Rockabilly_sentence_155

Cash did not return until 1955. Rockabilly_sentence_156

In October 1954 Carl Perkins and "The Perkins Brothers Band" showed up at the Sun Studios. Rockabilly_sentence_157

Phillips recorded Perkins's original song Movie Magg, which was released early March 1955 on Phillips's Flip label, which was all country. Rockabilly_sentence_158

Presley's second and third records were not as successful as the first. Rockabilly_sentence_159

The fourth release in May 1955 Baby, Let's Play House peaked at number five on the national Billboard Country Chart. Rockabilly_sentence_160

The Sun label correctly lists "Gunter" (Arthur) as the songwriter, a song which he recorded in 1954. Rockabilly_sentence_161

In 1951 Eddy Arnold recorded a song titled "I Want to Play House with You" by Cy Coben that sounds nothing like the Arthur Gunter song recorded by Presley. Rockabilly_sentence_162

Cash returned to Sun in 1955 with his song Hey, Porter, and his group the Tennessee Three, who became the Tennessee Two before the session was over. Rockabilly_sentence_163

This song and another Cash original, Cry! Rockabilly_sentence_164 Cry! Rockabilly_sentence_165 Cry! Rockabilly_sentence_166

were released in July. Rockabilly_sentence_167

Cry! Rockabilly_sentence_168

Cry! Rockabilly_sentence_169

Cry! Rockabilly_sentence_170

managed to crack Billboard's Top 20, peaking at No. Rockabilly_sentence_171

14. Rockabilly_sentence_172

In August Sun released Elvis's versions of "I Forgot to Remember to Forget" and "Mystery Train". Rockabilly_sentence_173

"Forgot ...", written by Sun country artists Stan Kesler and Charlie Feathers, spent a total of 39 weeks on the Billboard Country Chart, with five of those weeks at the number one spot. Rockabilly_sentence_174

"Mystery Train", with writing credits for both Herman Little Junior Parker and Sam Phillips, peaked at number 11. Rockabilly_sentence_175

Through most of 1955, Cash, Perkins, Presley, and other Louisiana Hayride performers toured through Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Louisiana and Mississippi. Rockabilly_sentence_176

Sun released two more Perkins songs in October: "Gone, Gone, Gone" and "Let the Jukebox Keep on Playing". Rockabilly_sentence_177

Scotty Moore commented on the different roles of Elvis and Perkins, "Carl was a nice-looking big hunk, like out in the cornfield type. Rockabilly_sentence_178

Elvis was more like an Adonis. Rockabilly_sentence_179

But as a rockabilly, Carl was the king of that." Rockabilly_sentence_180

1955 was also the year in which Chuck Berry's hillbilly-influenced Maybellene reached high in the charts as a crossover hit, and Bill Haley and His Comets' Rock Around the Clock was not only number one for eight weeks, but was the number two record for the year. Rockabilly_sentence_181

Rock 'n' Roll in general, and rockabilly in particular, was at critical mass and the next year, Elvis Presley's Heartbreak Hotel and Don't Be Cruel would top the Billboard Charts as well. Rockabilly_sentence_182

Rockabilly goes national: 1956 Rockabilly_section_12

In January 1956 three new classic songs by Cash, Perkins, and Presley were released: "Folsom Prison Blues" by Cash, and "Blue Suede Shoes" by Perkins, both on Sun; and "Heartbreak Hotel" by Presley on RCA. Rockabilly_sentence_183

Other rockabilly tunes released this month included "See You Later, Alligator" by Roy Hall and "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On" by the Commodores (no relation to the '70s Motown group). Rockabilly_sentence_184

Perkins's "Blue Suede Shoes" sold 20,000 records a day at one point, and it was the first million-selling country song to cross over to both rhythm and blues and pop charts. Rockabilly_sentence_185

On February 11, Presley appeared on the Dorsey Brothers' Stage Show for the third time, singing "Blue Suede Shoes" and "Heartbreak Hotel." Rockabilly_sentence_186

He performed "Blue Suede Shoes" two more times on national television, and "Heartbreak Hotel" three times throughout 1956. Rockabilly_sentence_187

Both songs topped the Billboard charts. Rockabilly_sentence_188

Perkins first performed "Blue Suede Shoes" on television March 17 on Ozark Jubilee, a weekly ABC-TV program. Rockabilly_sentence_189

From 1955 to 1960, the live national radio and TV show from Springfield, Missouri featured Brenda Lee and Wanda Jackson and guests included Gene Vincent and other rockabilly artists. Rockabilly_sentence_190

Sun and RCA weren't the only record companies releasing rockabilly music. Rockabilly_sentence_191

In March Columbia released "Honky Tonk Man" by Johnny Horton, King put out "Seven Nights to Rock" by Moon Mullican, Mercury issued "Rockin' Daddy" by Eddie Bond, and Starday released Bill Mack's "Fat Woman". Rockabilly_sentence_192

Carl Perkins, meanwhile, was involved in a major automobile accident on his way to appear on national television. Rockabilly_sentence_193

Two young men from Texas made their record debuts in April 1956: Buddy Holly on the Decca label, and, as a member of the Teen Kings, Roy Orbison with "Ooby Dooby" on the New Mexico/Texas based Je-wel label. Rockabilly_sentence_194

Holly's big hits would not be released until 1957. Rockabilly_sentence_195

Janis Martin was all of fifteen years old when RCA issued a record with "Will You, Willyum" and the Martin composed "Drugstore Rock 'n' Roll", which sold over 750,000 copies. Rockabilly_sentence_196

King records issued a new disk by forty-seven-year-old Moon Mullican: "Seven Nights to Rock" and "Rock 'N' Roll Mr. Bullfrog". Rockabilly_sentence_197

Twenty more sides were issued by various labels including 4 Star, Blue Hen, Dot, Cold Bond, Mercury, Reject, Republic, Rodeo, and Starday. Rockabilly_sentence_198

In April and May 1956, The Rock and Roll Trio played on Ted Mack's TV talent show in New York City. Rockabilly_sentence_199

They won all three times and guaranteed them a finalist position in the September supershow. Rockabilly_sentence_200

Gene Vincent and His Blue Caps' recording of "Be-Bop-A-Lula" was released on June 2, 1956, backed by "Woman Love." Rockabilly_sentence_201

Within twenty-one days it sold over two hundred thousand records, stayed at the top of national pop and country charts for twenty weeks, and sold more than a million copies. Rockabilly_sentence_202

These same musicians would have two more releases in 1956, followed by another in January 1957. Rockabilly_sentence_203

"Queen of Rockabilly" Wanda Jackson's first record came out in July, "I Gotta Know" on the Capitol label; followed by "Hot Dog That Made Him Mad" in November. Rockabilly_sentence_204

Capitol would release nine more records by Jackson, some with songs she had written herself, before the 1950s were over. Rockabilly_sentence_205

The first record by Jerry Lee Lewis came out on December 22, 1956 and featured the song "Crazy Arms" (which had been a #1 hit for Ray Price some twenty weeks earlier in the year) along with "End of the Road". Rockabilly_sentence_206

Lewis would have big hits in 1957 with his version of "Whole Lot of Shakin' Going On", issued in May, and "Great Balls Of Fire" on Sun. Rockabilly_sentence_207

Additional performers and information Rockabilly_section_13

There were thousands of musicians who recorded songs in the rockabilly style. Rockabilly_sentence_208

An online database lists 262 musicians with names beginning with "A". Rockabilly_sentence_209

And many record companies released rockabilly records. Rockabilly_sentence_210

Some enjoyed major chart success and were important influences on future rock musicians. Rockabilly_sentence_211

Sun also hosted performers, such as Billy Lee Riley, Sonny Burgess, Charlie Feathers, and Warren Smith. Rockabilly_sentence_212

There were also several female performers like Wanda Jackson who recorded rockabilly music long after the other ladies, Janis Martin, the female Elvis Jo Ann Campbell, and Alis Lesley, who also sang in the rockabilly style. Rockabilly_sentence_213

Mel Kimbrough -"Slim", recorded "I Get Lonesome Too" and "Ha Ha, Hey Hey" for Glenn Records along with "Love in West Virginia" and "Country Rock Sound" for Checkmate a division of Caprice Records. Rockabilly_sentence_214

Gene Summers, a Dallas native and Rockabilly Hall of Fame inductee, released his classic Jan/Jane 45s in 1958–59. Rockabilly_sentence_215

He continued to record rockabilly music well into 1964 with the release of "Alabama Shake". Rockabilly_sentence_216

In 2005, Summers's most popular recording, School of Rock 'n Roll, was selected by Bob Solly and Record Collector Magazine as one of the "100 Greatest Rock 'n' Roll Records". Rockabilly_sentence_217

Tommy Sleepy LaBeef (LaBeff) recorded rockabilly tunes on a number of labels from 1957 through 1963. Rockabilly_sentence_218

Rockabilly pioneers the Maddox Brothers and Rose, both as a group, and with Rose as a solo act, added onto their two decades of performing by making records that were even more rocking. Rockabilly_sentence_219

However, none of these artists had any major hits and their influence would not be felt until decades later. Rockabilly_sentence_220

In the summer of 1958 Eddie Cochran had a chart-topping hit with "Summertime Blues". Rockabilly_sentence_221

Cochran's brief career included only a few more hits, such as "Sitting in the Balcony" released in early 1957, "C'mon Everybody" released in October 1958, and "Somethin' Else" released in July 1959. Rockabilly_sentence_222

Then in April 1960, while touring with Gene Vincent in the UK, their taxi crashed into a concrete lamp post, killing Eddie at the young age of 21. Rockabilly_sentence_223

The grim coincidence in this all was that his posthumous UK number-one hit was called "Three Steps to Heaven". Rockabilly_sentence_224

Rockabilly music enjoyed great popularity in the United States during 1956 and 1957, but radio play declined after 1960. Rockabilly_sentence_225

Factors contributing to this decline are usually cited as the 1959 death of Buddy Holly in an airplane crash (along with Ritchie Valens and the Big Bopper), the induction of Elvis Presley into the army in 1958, and a general change in American musical tastes. Rockabilly_sentence_226

The style remained popular longer in England, where it attracted a fanatical following right up through the mid-1960s. Rockabilly_sentence_227

Rockabilly music cultivated an attitude that assured its enduring appeal to teenagers. Rockabilly_sentence_228

This was a combination of rebellion, sexuality, and freedom—a sneering expression of disdain for the workaday world of parents and authority figures. Rockabilly_sentence_229

It was the first rock ‘n' roll style to be performed primarily by white musicians, thus setting off a cultural revolution that is still reverberating today. Rockabilly_sentence_230

"Rockabilly" deviance from social norms, however, was more symbolic than real; and eventual public professions of faith by aging rockabillies were not uncommon. Rockabilly_sentence_231

Use of the term "rockabilly" Rockabilly_section_14

In an interview that can be viewed at the Experience Music Project, Barbara Pittman states that, "It was so new and it was so easy. Rockabilly_sentence_232

It was a three chord change. Rockabilly_sentence_233

Rockabilly was actually an insult to the southern rockers at that time. Rockabilly_sentence_234

Over the years it has picked up a little dignity. Rockabilly_sentence_235

It was their way of calling us 'hillbillies'." Rockabilly_sentence_236

One of the first written uses of the term rockabilly was in a June 23, 1956, Billboard review of Ruckus Tyler's "Rock Town Rock". Rockabilly_sentence_237

Three weeks earlier, rockabilly was used in a press release describing Gene Vincent's "Be-Bop-A-Lula". Rockabilly_sentence_238

The first record to contain the word rockabilly in a song title was issued in November 1956 "Rock a Billy Gal"; although, Johnny and Dorsey Burnette recorded "Rock Billy Boogie" for the Coral label on July 4, 1956. Rockabilly_sentence_239

The song had been written and performed much earlier, and refer to the birth of Johnny's son Rocky and Dorsey's son Billy, who were born around the same time in 1953, and were firstborns for each of the brothers. Rockabilly_sentence_240

The song was part of their repertoire in 1956 when they were living in New York City and performing with Gene Vincent. Rockabilly_sentence_241

It's easy to understand how the New York audience might have thought the Burnettes were singing "Rockabilly Boogie," but they never would, because the term hillbilly was derogatory and would never have been used by the artists themselves. Rockabilly_sentence_242

Rocky Burnette, who later would become a rockabilly artist himself, has stated on his website that the term rockabilly derives from that song. Rockabilly_sentence_243

It's also interesting that this song has been covered by hundreds of artists in the years since, and it is always called "Rockabilly Boogie". Rockabilly_sentence_244

The lyrics of rockabilly boogie would suggest that it has nothing to do with the birth of their sons. Rockabilly_sentence_245

One verse goes: "Well, there's little ol' Suzie, turnin' seventeen Well, everybody knows her as a rockabilly queen And there's Ol' Slim, as quiet as a mouse He grabs Ol' Suzie, they'll tear up the house". Rockabilly_sentence_246

Recording techniques Rockabilly_section_15

Slapback, slapback echo, flutter echo, tape delay echo, echo, and reverb are some of the terms used to describe one particular aspect of rockabilly recordings. Rockabilly_sentence_247

The distinctive reverberation on the early hit records such as "Rock Around The Clock" (April 12, 1954, released May 15) by Bill Haley & His Comets was created by recording the band under the domed ceiling of Decca's studio in New York, located in a former ballroom called The Pythian Temple. Rockabilly_sentence_248

It was a big, barn-like building with great echo. Rockabilly_sentence_249

This same facility would also be used to record other rockabilly musicians such as Buddy Holly and The Rock and Roll Trio. Rockabilly_sentence_250

In Memphis Sam Phillips used various techniques to create similar acoustics at his Memphis Recording Services Studio. Rockabilly_sentence_251

The shape of the ceiling, corrugated tiles, and the setup of the studio were augmented by "slap-back" tape echo which involved feeding the original signal from one tape machine through a second machine. Rockabilly_sentence_252

The echo effect had been used, less subtly, on Wilf Carter Victor records of the 1930s, and in Eddy Arnold's 1945 "Cattle Call". Rockabilly_sentence_253

According to Cowboy Jack Clement, who took over production duties from Sam Phillips, "There's two heads; one records, and one plays back. Rockabilly_sentence_254

The sound comes along and it's recorded on this head, and a split second later, it goes to the playback head. Rockabilly_sentence_255

But you can take that and loop it to where it plays a split second after it was recorded and it flips right back into the record head. Rockabilly_sentence_256

Or, you can have a separate machine and do that. Rockabilly_sentence_257

if you do it on one machine, you have to echo everything." Rockabilly_sentence_258

In more technical terms a tape delay and a 7​⁄2-ips, instead of the more advanced 15-ips. Rockabilly_sentence_259

The recordings were thus an idealized representation of the customary live sound. Rockabilly_sentence_260

When Elvis Presley left Phillips' Sun Records and recorded "Heartbreak Hotel" for RCA, the RCA producers placed microphones at the end of a hallway to achieve a similar effect. Rockabilly_sentence_261

A comparison of rockabilly versions of country songs shows that while form, lyrics, chord progressions and arrangements are simplified and with sparser instrumentation, a fuller sound was achieved by more percussive playing—i.e., subdivisions of the beat receive more emphasis. Rockabilly_sentence_262

Tempos were increased, texts are altered with deletions, additions, more intense, flamboyant loose singing, along with variation in melody from verse to verse. Rockabilly_sentence_263

Influence on the Beatles and the British Invasion Rockabilly_section_16

The first wave of rockabilly fans in the United Kingdom were called Teddy Boys because they wore long, Edwardian-style frock coats, along with tight black drainpipe trousers and brothel creeper shoes. Rockabilly_sentence_264

Another group in the 1950s that were followers of rockabilly were the Ton-Up boys, who rode British motorcycles and would later be known as rockers in the early 1960s. Rockabilly_sentence_265

The rockers had adopted the classic greaser look of T-shirts, jeans, and leather jackets to go with their heavily slicked pompadour haircuts. Rockabilly_sentence_266

The rockers loved 1950s rock and roll artists such as Gene Vincent, and some British rockabilly fans formed bands and played their own version of the music. Rockabilly_sentence_267

The most notable of these bands was The Beatles. Rockabilly_sentence_268

When John Lennon first met Paul McCartney, he was impressed that McCartney knew all the chords and the words to Eddie Cochran's "Twenty Flight Rock". Rockabilly_sentence_269

As the band became more professional and began playing in Hamburg, they took on the "Beatle" name (inspired by Buddy Holly's Crickets ) and they adopted the black leather look of Gene Vincent. Rockabilly_sentence_270

Musically, they combined Holly's melodic songwriting sensibility with the rough rock and roll sound of Vincent and Carl Perkins. Rockabilly_sentence_271

When The Beatles became worldwide stars, they released versions of three different Carl Perkins songs, more than any other songwriter outside the band, except Larry Williams, who also added three songs to their discography. Rockabilly_sentence_272

(Curiously, none of these three were sung by the Beatles' regular lead vocalists—"Honey Don't" (sung by Ringo) and "Everybody's Trying to be my Baby" (sung by George) from Beatles for Sale (1964) and "Matchbox" (sung by Ringo) on the Long Tall Sally EP (1964)). Rockabilly_sentence_273

Long after the band broke up, the members continued to show their interest in rockabilly. Rockabilly_sentence_274

In 1975, Lennon recorded an album called Rock 'n' Roll, featuring versions of rockabilly hits and a cover photo showing him in full Gene Vincent leather. Rockabilly_sentence_275

About the same time, Ringo Starr had a hit with a version of Johnny Burnette's "You're Sixteen". Rockabilly_sentence_276

In the 1980s, McCartney recorded a duet with Carl Perkins, and George Harrison collaborated with Roy Orbison in the Traveling Wilburys. Rockabilly_sentence_277

In 1999, McCartney released Run Devil Run, his own record of rockabilly covers. Rockabilly_sentence_278

The Beatles were not the only British Invasion artists influenced by rockabilly. Rockabilly_sentence_279

The Rolling Stones recorded Buddy Holly's "Not Fade Away" on an early single and later a rockabilly-style song, "Rip This Joint", on Exile on Main St. The Who, despite being mod favourites, covered Eddie Cochran's "Summertime Blues" and Johnny Kidd and The Pirates' Shakin' All Over on their Live at Leeds album. Rockabilly_sentence_280

Even heavy guitar heroes such as Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page were influenced by rockabilly musicians. Rockabilly_sentence_281

Beck recorded his own tribute album to Gene Vincent's guitarist Cliff GallupCrazy Legs—and Page's band, Led Zeppelin, offered to work as Elvis Presley's backing band in the 1970s. Rockabilly_sentence_282

However, Presley never took them up on that offer. Rockabilly_sentence_283

Years later, Led Zeppelin's Page and Robert Plant recorded a tribute to the music of the 1950s called The Honeydrippers: Volume One. Rockabilly_sentence_284

Rockabilly revival: 1970–1990 Rockabilly_section_17

The 1968 Elvis "comeback" and acts such as Sha Na Na, Creedence Clearwater Revival, John Roman Jackson, Don McLean, Linda Ronstadt and the Everly Brothers, the film American Graffiti, the television show Happy Days and the Teddy Boy revival created curiosity about the real music of the 1950s, particularly in England, where a rockabilly revival scene began to develop from the 1970s in record collecting and clubs. Rockabilly_sentence_285

The most successful early product of the scene was Dave Edmunds, who joined up with songwriter Nick Lowe to form a band called Rockpile in 1975. Rockabilly_sentence_286

They had a string of minor rockabilly-style hits like "I Knew the Bride (When She Used to Rock 'n' Roll)". Rockabilly_sentence_287

The group became a popular touring act in the UK and the US, leading to respectable album sales. Rockabilly_sentence_288

Edmunds also nurtured and produced many younger artists who shared his love of rockabilly, most notably the Stray Cats. Rockabilly_sentence_289

Robert Gordon emerged from late 1970s CBGB punk act Tuff Darts to reinvent himself as a rockabilly revival solo artist. Rockabilly_sentence_290

He recorded first with 1950s guitar legend Link Wray and later with UK studio guitar veteran Chris Spedding and found borderline mainstream success. Rockabilly_sentence_291

Also festering at CBGB's punk environs were The Cramps, who combined primitive and wild rockabilly sounds with lyrics inspired by old drive-in horror movies in songs like "Human Fly" and "I Was a Teenage Werewolf". Rockabilly_sentence_292

Lead singer Lux Interior's energetic and unpredictable live shows attracted a fervent cult audience. Rockabilly_sentence_293

Their "psychobilly" music influenced The Meteors and Reverend Horton Heat. Rockabilly_sentence_294

In the early '80s, the Latin genre was born in Colombia by Marco T (Marco Tulio Sanchez), with The Gatos Montañeros. Rockabilly_sentence_295

The Polecats, from North London, were originally called The Cult Heroes; they couldn't get any gigs at rockabilly clubs with a name that sounded "punk", so the original drummer Chris Hawkes came up with the name "Polecats". Rockabilly_sentence_296

Tim Polecat and Boz Boorer started playing together in 1976, then hooked up with Phil Bloomberg and Chris Hawkes at the end of 1977. Rockabilly_sentence_297

The Polecats played rockabilly with a punk sense of anarchy and helped revive the genre for a new generation in the early 1980s. Rockabilly_sentence_298

In 1980, Queen scored a number-one hit on the Billboard Hot 100 with the rockabilly-inspired single "Crazy Little Thing Called Love". Rockabilly_sentence_299

The Stray Cats were the most commercially successful of the new rockabilly artists. Rockabilly_sentence_300

The band formed on Long Island in 1979 when Brian Setzer teamed up with two school chums calling themselves Lee Rocker and Slim Jim Phantom. Rockabilly_sentence_301

Attracting little attention in New York, they flew to London in 1980, where they had heard that there was an active rockabilly scene. Rockabilly_sentence_302

Early shows were attended by the Rolling Stones and Dave Edmunds, who quickly ushered the boys into a recording studio. Rockabilly_sentence_303

The Stray Cats had three UK Top Ten singles to their credit and two best-selling albums. Rockabilly_sentence_304

They returned to the US, performing on the TV show Fridays with a message flashing across the screen that they had no record deal in the States. Rockabilly_sentence_305

Soon EMI picked them up, their first videos appeared on MTV, and they stormed up the charts stateside. Rockabilly_sentence_306

Their third LP, Rant 'N' Rave with the Stray Cats, topped charts across the US and Europe as they sold-out shows everywhere during 1983. Rockabilly_sentence_307

However, personal conflicts led the band to break up at the height of their popularity. Rockabilly_sentence_308

Brian Setzer went on to solo success working in both rockabilly and swing styles, while Rocker and Phantom continued to record in bands both together and singly. Rockabilly_sentence_309

The group has reconvened several times to make new records or tours and continue to attract large audiences live, although record sales have never again approached their early '80s success. Rockabilly_sentence_310

The Jime entered the rockabilly scene in 1983, when Vince Gordon formed his band. Rockabilly_sentence_311

The Jime was a Danish Band. Rockabilly_sentence_312

The Jime was the band of Vince Gordon, rockabilly guitarist. Rockabilly_sentence_313

Not only was he the nerve of the band, Vince Gordon was the band. Rockabilly_sentence_314

He composed nearly all its songs and hits. Rockabilly_sentence_315

Vince Gordon also left his mark on the rockabilly scene in many ways. Rockabilly_sentence_316

Expert Fred Sokolow talks about the Vince Gordon style in Rockabilly due to his composing. Rockabilly_sentence_317

Vince Gordon had many different musicians in his band. Rockabilly_sentence_318

The lifetime of the Jime ended with the death of Vince Gordon in 2016. Rockabilly_sentence_319

Shakin' Stevens was a Welsh singer who gained fame in the UK portraying Elvis in a stage play. Rockabilly_sentence_320

In 1980, he took a cover of The Blasters' "Marie Marie" into the UK Top 20. Rockabilly_sentence_321

His hopped-up versions of songs like "This Ole House" and "Green Door" were giant sellers across Europe. Rockabilly_sentence_322

Shakin' Stevens was the biggest selling singles artist of the 1980s in the UK and number two across Europe, outstripping Michael Jackson, Prince, and Bruce Springsteen. Rockabilly_sentence_323

Despite his popularity in Europe, he never became popular in the US. Rockabilly_sentence_324

In 2005, his greatest hits album topped the charts in England. Rockabilly_sentence_325

Other notable British rockabilly bands of the 1980s included The Jets, Crazy Cavan, Matchbox, and the Rockats. Rockabilly_sentence_326

Jason & the Scorchers combined heavy metal, Chuck Berry and Hank Williams to create a punk-influenced style of rockabilly, often labelled as alt-country or cowpunk. Rockabilly_sentence_327

They achieved critical acclaim and a following in America but never managed a major hit. Rockabilly_sentence_328

The revival was related to the "roots rock" movement, which continued through the 1980s, led by artists like James Intveld, who later toured as lead guitar for The Blasters, High Noon, the Beat Farmers, The Paladins, Forbidden Pigs, Del-Lords, Long Ryders, The Last Wild Sons, The Fabulous Thunderbirds, Los Lobos, The Fleshtones, Del Fuegos, Reverend Horton Heat and Barrence Whitfield and the Savages. Rockabilly_sentence_329

These bands, like the Blasters, were inspired by a full range of historic American styles: blues, country, rockabilly, R&B and New Orleans jazz. Rockabilly_sentence_330

They held a strong appeal for listeners who were tired of the commercially oriented MTV-style synthpop and glam metal bands that dominated radio play during this time period, but none of these musicians became major stars. Rockabilly_sentence_331

In 1983, Neil Young recorded a rockabilly album titled Everybody's Rockin'. Rockabilly_sentence_332

The album was not a commercial success and Young was involved in a widely publicized legal fight with Geffen Records who sued him for making a record that didn't sound "like a Neil Young record". Rockabilly_sentence_333

Young made no further albums in the rockabilly style. Rockabilly_sentence_334

During the 1980s, a number of country music stars scored hits recording in a rockabilly style. Rockabilly_sentence_335

Marty Stuart's "Hillbilly Rock" and Hank Williams, Jr.'s "All My Rowdy Friends Are Coming Over Tonight" were the most noteworthy examples of this trend, but they and other artists like Steve Earle and the Kentucky Headhunters charted many records with this approach. Rockabilly_sentence_336

Neo-rockabilly (1990–present) Rockabilly_section_18

While not true rockabilly, many contemporary indie pop, blues rock, and country rock groups from the US, like Kings of Leon, Black Keys, Blackfoot, and the White Stripes, were heavily influenced by rockabilly. Rockabilly_sentence_337

Morrissey adopted a rockabilly style during the early 1990s, being largely influenced by his guitarists Boz Boorer and Alain Whyte and working with former Fairground Attraction bass-guitarist and songwriter Mark E. Nevin. Rockabilly_sentence_338

His rockabilly style was emphasised in the singles "Pregnant for the Last Time" and "Sing Your Life", as well as his second solo album and tour Kill Uncle. Rockabilly_sentence_339

Irish rockabilly artist Imelda May has been partly responsible for a resurgence of European interest in the genre, scoring three successive number one albums in Ireland, with two of those also reaching the top ten in the UK charts. Rockabilly_sentence_340

Drake Bell, a pop rock singer-songwriter and actor, revived rockabilly with his 2014 album, Ready Steady Go! Rockabilly_sentence_341 , which was produced by Brian Setzer, frontman of the rockabilly revival band, The Stray Cats. Rockabilly_sentence_342

The album peaked at #182 on the Billboard 200 and sold over 2,000 copies in its first week of release. Rockabilly_sentence_343

The album received positive reviews from critics. Rockabilly_sentence_344

Neo-rockabilly UK band Restless, played neo-rockabilly from the early 80s. Rockabilly_sentence_345

The style was to mix any popular music to a rockabilly set up, drums, slap bass and guitar. Rockabilly_sentence_346

This was followed by many other artists at the time in London. Rockabilly_sentence_347

Today, bands like Lower The Tone are more aligned to neo-rockabilly that suits popular music venues instead of the dedicated rockabilly clubs that expect only original rockabilly. Rockabilly_sentence_348

Rockabilly Hall of Fame Rockabilly_section_19

The original Rockabilly Hall of Fame was established by Bob Timmers on March 21, 1997, to present early rock and roll history and information relative to the original artists and personalities involved in this pioneering American music genre. Rockabilly_sentence_349

It is headquartered in Nashville. Rockabilly_sentence_350

In 2000, an International Rock-A-Billy Hall of Fame Museum was established in Jackson, Tennessee. Rockabilly_sentence_351

See also Rockabilly_section_20


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