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For other uses, see Romania (disambiguation). Romania_sentence_0



România  (Romanian)Romania_header_cell_0_0_0


and largest cityRomania_header_cell_0_1_0

Official languagesRomania_header_cell_0_2_0 RomanianRomania_cell_0_2_1
Recognised minority


See hereRomania_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2011)Romania_header_cell_0_4_0 Romania_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2011)Romania_header_cell_0_5_0 Romania_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Romania_header_cell_0_6_0 RomanianRomania_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentRomania_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary semi-presidential republicRomania_cell_0_7_1
PresidentRomania_header_cell_0_8_0 Klaus IohannisRomania_cell_0_8_1
Prime MinisterRomania_header_cell_0_9_0 Nicolae Ciucă (interim)Romania_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureRomania_header_cell_0_10_0 ParliamentRomania_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseRomania_header_cell_0_11_0 SenateRomania_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseRomania_header_cell_0_12_0 Chamber of DeputiesRomania_cell_0_12_1
Establishment historyRomania_header_cell_0_13_0
First Romanian politiesRomania_header_cell_0_14_0 c. 895 / 1247Romania_cell_0_14_1
Principality of WallachiaRomania_header_cell_0_15_0 1330Romania_cell_0_15_1
Principality of MoldaviaRomania_header_cell_0_16_0 c. 1360Romania_cell_0_16_1
Principality of TransylvaniaRomania_header_cell_0_17_0 1570Romania_cell_0_17_1
First common rule under Michael the BraveRomania_header_cell_0_18_0 1600Romania_cell_0_18_1
United PrincipalitiesRomania_header_cell_0_19_0 24 January 1859Romania_cell_0_19_1
Independence from the Ottoman EmpireRomania_header_cell_0_20_0 9 May 1877/1878Romania_cell_0_20_1
Kingdom of RomaniaRomania_header_cell_0_21_0 14 March 1881Romania_cell_0_21_1
Greater RomaniaRomania_header_cell_0_22_0 1918 / 1920Romania_cell_0_22_1
Current state formRomania_header_cell_0_23_0 29 December 1989Romania_cell_0_23_1
Area Romania_header_cell_0_24_0
TotalRomania_header_cell_0_25_0 238,397 km (92,046 sq mi) (81st)Romania_cell_0_25_1
Water (%)Romania_header_cell_0_26_0 3Romania_cell_0_26_1
01.01.2020 estimateRomania_header_cell_0_28_0 19,317,984 (61st)Romania_cell_0_28_1
2011 censusRomania_header_cell_0_29_0 20,121,641Romania_cell_0_29_1
DensityRomania_header_cell_0_30_0 84.4/km (218.6/sq mi) (117th)Romania_cell_0_30_1
GDP (PPP)Romania_header_cell_0_31_0 2020 estimateRomania_cell_0_31_1
TotalRomania_header_cell_0_32_0 $525.051 billion (40th)Romania_cell_0_32_1
Per capitaRomania_header_cell_0_33_0 $29,555 (54th)Romania_cell_0_33_1
GDP (nominal)Romania_header_cell_0_34_0 2020 estimateRomania_cell_0_34_1
TotalRomania_header_cell_0_35_0 $261.868 billion (45th)Romania_cell_0_35_1
Per capitaRomania_header_cell_0_36_0 $13,414 (57th)Romania_cell_0_36_1
Gini (2019)Romania_header_cell_0_37_0 34.8


HDI (2018)Romania_header_cell_0_38_0 0.816

very high · 52ndRomania_cell_0_38_1

CurrencyRomania_header_cell_0_39_0 Romanian leu (RON)Romania_cell_0_39_1
Time zoneRomania_header_cell_0_40_0 UTC+2 (EET)Romania_cell_0_40_1
Summer (DST)Romania_header_cell_0_41_0 UTC+3 (EEST)Romania_cell_0_41_1
Date formatRomania_header_cell_0_42_0 (AD)Romania_cell_0_42_1
Driving sideRomania_header_cell_0_43_0 rightRomania_cell_0_43_1
Calling codeRomania_header_cell_0_44_0 +40Romania_cell_0_44_1
ISO 3166 codeRomania_header_cell_0_45_0 RORomania_cell_0_45_1
Internet TLDRomania_header_cell_0_46_0 .roRomania_cell_0_46_1

Romania (/roʊˈmeɪniə/ (listen) ro-MAY-nee-ə; Romanian: România [romɨˈni. Romania_sentence_1 aRomanian (listen)) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Romania_sentence_2

It shares land borders with Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east and has its opening to the Black Sea. Romania_sentence_3

It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. Romania_sentence_4

With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 square miles), Romania is the twelfth-largest country in Europe and the seventh-most populous member state of the European Union, having approximately 19.3 million inhabitants (as of 2020). Romania_sentence_5

Its capital and largest city is Bucharest. Romania_sentence_6

Other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, Brașov, and Galați. Romania_sentence_7

The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a generally southeasterly direction for 2,857 km (1,775 mi), coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. Romania_sentence_8

The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m (8,346 ft). Romania_sentence_9

Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. Romania_sentence_10

The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Romania_sentence_11

Following the outbreak of World War I, after declaring its neutrality in 1914, Romania fought on the side of the Allied Powers beginning in 1916. Romania_sentence_12

Afterwards Bukovina, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, and Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. Romania_sentence_13

In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, and Northern Transylvania to Hungary. Romania_sentence_14

In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and, consequently, in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Romania_sentence_15

Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and a member of the Warsaw Pact. Romania_sentence_16

After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition towards democracy and a market economy. Romania_sentence_17

Romania ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index, and is a developing country with a high-income economy. Romania_sentence_18

It has the world's 45th largest economy by nominal GDP, with an annual economic growth rate of 3.5% as of 2020. Romania_sentence_19

Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy based predominantly on services and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. Romania_sentence_20

It has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. Romania_sentence_21

The vast majority of the population identifies as ethnic Romanian and Eastern Orthodox Christian and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania_sentence_22

Etymology Romania_section_0

Main article: Name of Romania Romania_sentence_23

Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome". Romania_sentence_24

The first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Romania_sentence_25

The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească (old spelling for "The Romanian Land"; țeara from the Latin terra, "land"; current spelling: Țara Românească). Romania_sentence_26

Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. Romania_sentence_27

After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Romania_sentence_28

Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia. Romania_sentence_29

The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. Romania_sentence_30

In English, the name of the country was formerly spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania_sentence_31

Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania_sentence_32

Romania is also the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. Romania_sentence_33

A handful of other languages (including Italian, Hungarian, Portuguese, and Norwegian) have also switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie, German and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania (the archaic form Rumanía is still in use in Spain), Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния (Rumyniya), and Japanese ルーマニア (Rūmania). Romania_sentence_34

Official names Romania_section_1


History Romania_section_2

Main article: History of Romania Romania_sentence_35

Prehistory Romania_section_3

Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase ("Cave with Bones"), radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Romania_sentence_36

Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millennium BC. Romania_sentence_37

Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; here salt production began between 5th millennium BC and 4th BC. Romania_sentence_38

The first permanent settlements also appeared in the Neolithic. Romania_sentence_39

Some of them developed into "proto-cities", which were larger than 320 hectares (800 acres). Romania_sentence_40

The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd millennium BC. Romania_sentence_41

The first fortified settlements appeared around 1800 BC, showing the militant character of Bronze Age societies. Romania_sentence_42

Antiquity Romania_section_4

Main article: Romania in Antiquity Romania_sentence_43

Greek colonies established on the Black Sea coast in the 7th century BC became important centres of commerce with the local tribes. Romania_sentence_44

Among the native peoples, Herodotus listed the Getae of the Lower Danube region, the Agathyrsi of Transylvania and the Syginnae of the plains along the river Tisza at the beginning of the 5th century BC. Romania_sentence_45

Centuries later, Strabo associated the Getae with the Dacians who dominated the lands along the southern Carpathian Mountains in the 1st century BC. Romania_sentence_46

Burebista was the first Dacian ruler to unite the local tribes. Romania_sentence_47

He also conquered the Greek colonies in Dobruja and the neighbouring peoples as far as the Middle Danube and the Balkan Mountains between around 55 and 44 BC. Romania_sentence_48

After Burebista was murdered in 44 BC, his empire collapsed. Romania_sentence_49

The Romans reached Dacia during Burebista's reign and conquered Dobruja in 46 AD. Romania_sentence_50

Dacia was again united under Decebalus around 85 AD. Romania_sentence_51

He resisted the Romans for decades, but the Roman army defeated his troops in 106 AD. Romania_sentence_52

Emperor Trajan transformed Banat, Oltenia and the greater part of Transylvania into the new Roman province of Dacia, but Dacian, Germanic and Sarmatian tribes continued to dominate the lands along the Roman frontiers. Romania_sentence_53

The Romans pursued an organised colonisation policy, and the provincials enjoyed a long period of peace and prosperity in the 2nd century. Romania_sentence_54

Scholars accepting the Daco-Roman continuity theory—one of the main theories about the origin of the Romanians—say that the cohabitation of the native Dacians and the Roman colonists in Roman Dacia was the first phase of the Romanians' ethnogenesis. Romania_sentence_55

The Carpians, Goths and other neighbouring tribes made regular raids against Dacia from the 210s. Romania_sentence_56

The Romans could not resist, and Emperor Aurelian ordered the evacuation of the province Dacia Trajana in 271. Romania_sentence_57

Scholars supporting the continuity theory are convinced that most Latin-speaking commoners stayed behind when the army and civil administration was withdrawn. Romania_sentence_58

The Romans did not abandon their fortresses along the northern banks of the Lower Danube for decades, and Dobruja (known as Scythia Minor) remained an integral part of the Roman Empire until the early 7th century. Romania_sentence_59

Middle Ages Romania_section_5

Main articles: Romania in the Early Middle Ages, Romania in the Middle Ages, Foundation of Wallachia, and Founding of Moldavia Romania_sentence_60

The Goths were expanding towards the Lower Danube from the 230s, forcing the native peoples to flee to the Roman Empire or to accept their suzerainty. Romania_sentence_61

The Goths' rule ended abruptly when the Huns invaded their territory in 376, causing new waves of migrations. Romania_sentence_62

The Huns forced the remnants of the local population into submission, but their empire collapsed in 454. Romania_sentence_63

The Gepids took possession of the former Dacia province. Romania_sentence_64

The nomadic Avars defeated the Gepids and established a powerful empire around 570. Romania_sentence_65

The Bulgars, who also came from the Eurasian steppes, occupied the Lower Danube region in 680. Romania_sentence_66

Place names that are of Slavic origin abound in Romania, indicating that a significant Slavic-speaking population used to live in the territory. Romania_sentence_67

The first Slavic groups settled in Moldavia and Wallachia in the 6th century, in Transylvania around 600. Romania_sentence_68

After the Avar Khaganate collapsed in the 790s, Bulgaria became the dominant power of the region, occupying lands as far as the river Tisa. Romania_sentence_69

The Council of Preslav declared Old Church Slavonic the language of liturgy in the First Bulgarian Empire in 893. Romania_sentence_70

The Romanians also adopted Old Church Slavonic as their liturgical language. Romania_sentence_71

The Magyars (or Hungarians) took control of the steppes north of the Lower Danube in the 830s, but the Bulgarians and the Pechenegs jointly forced them to abandon this region for the lowlands along the Middle Danube around 894. Romania_sentence_72

Centuries later, the Gesta Hungarorum wrote of the invading Magyars' wars against three dukes—Glad, Menumorut and the Vlach Gelou—for Banat, Crișana and Transylvania. Romania_sentence_73

The Gesta also listed many peoples—Slavs, Bulgarians, Vlachs, Khazars, and Székelys—inhabiting the same regions. Romania_sentence_74

The reliability of the Gesta is debated. Romania_sentence_75

Some scholars regard it as a basically accurate account, others describe it as a literary work filled with invented details. Romania_sentence_76

The Pechenegs seized the lowlands abandoned by the Hungarians to the east of the Carpathians. Romania_sentence_77

Byzantine missionaries proselytised in the lands east of the Tisa from the 940s and Byzantine troops occupied Dobruja in the 970s. Romania_sentence_78

The first king of Hungary, Stephen I, who supported Western European missionaries, defeated the local chieftains and established Roman Catholic bishoprics (office of a bishop) in Transylvania and Banat in the early 11th century. Romania_sentence_79

Significant Pecheneg groups fled to the Byzantine Empire in the 1040s; the Oghuz Turks followed them, and the nomadic Cumans became the dominant power of the steppes in the 1060s. Romania_sentence_80

Cooperation between the Cumans and the Vlachs against the Byzantine Empire is well documented from the end of the 11th century. Romania_sentence_81

Scholars who reject the Daco-Roman continuity theory say that the first Vlach groups left their Balkan homeland for the mountain pastures of the eastern and southern Carpathians in the 11th century, establishing the Romanians' presence in the lands to the north of the Lower Danube. Romania_sentence_82

Exposed to nomadic incursions, Transylvania developed into an important border province of the Kingdom of Hungary. Romania_sentence_83

The Székelys—a community of free warriors—settled in central Transylvania around 1100 and moved to the easternmost regions around 1200. Romania_sentence_84

Colonists from the Holy Roman Empire—the Transylvanian Saxons' ancestors—came to the province in the 1150s. Romania_sentence_85

A high-ranking royal official, styled voivode, ruled the Transylvanian counties from the 1170s, but the Székely and Saxon seats (or districts) were not subject to the voivodes' authority. Romania_sentence_86

Royal charters wrote of the "Vlachs' land" in southern Transylvania in the early 13th century, indicating the existence of autonomous Romanian communities. Romania_sentence_87

Papal correspondence mentions the activities of Orthodox prelates among the Romanians in Muntenia in the 1230s. Romania_sentence_88

Also in the 13th century, during one of its greatest periods of expansion, the Republic of Genoa started establishing many colonies and commercial and military ports on the Black Sea, in the current territory of Romania. Romania_sentence_89

The largest Genoese colonies in present-day Romania were Calafat (still known as such), Constanța (Costanza), Galați (Caladda), Giurgiu (San Giorgio), Licostomo and Vicina (unknown modern location). Romania_sentence_90

These would last until the 15th century. Romania_sentence_91

The Mongols destroyed large territories during their invasion of Eastern and Central Europe in 1241 and 1242. Romania_sentence_92

The Mongols' Golden Horde emerged as the dominant power of Eastern Europe, but Béla IV of Hungary's land grant to the Knights Hospitallers in Oltenia and Muntenia shows that the local Vlach rulers were subject to the king's authority in 1247. Romania_sentence_93

Basarab I of Wallachia united the Romanian polities between the southern Carpathians and the Lower Danube in the 1310s. Romania_sentence_94

He defeated the Hungarian royal army in the Battle of Posada and secured the independence of Wallachia in 1330. Romania_sentence_95

The second Romanian principality, Moldavia, achieved full autonomy during the reign of Bogdan I around 1360. Romania_sentence_96

A local dynasty ruled the Despotate of Dobruja in the second half of the 14th century, but the Ottoman Empire took possession of the territory after 1388. Romania_sentence_97

Princes Mircea I and Vlad III of Wallachia, and Stephen III of Moldavia defended their countries' independence against the Ottomans. Romania_sentence_98

Most Wallachian and Moldavian princes paid a regular tribute to the Ottoman sultans from 1417 and 1456, respectively. Romania_sentence_99

A military commander of Romanian origin, John Hunyadi, organised the defence of the Kingdom of Hungary until his death in 1456. Romania_sentence_100

Increasing taxes outraged the Transylvanian peasants, and they rose up in an open rebellion in 1437, but the Hungarian nobles and the heads of the Saxon and Székely communities jointly suppressed their revolt. Romania_sentence_101

The formal alliance of the Hungarian, Saxon, and Székely leaders, known as the Union of the Three Nations, became an important element of the self-government of Transylvania. Romania_sentence_102

The Orthodox Romanian knezes ("chiefs") were excluded from the Union. Romania_sentence_103

Early Modern Times and national awakening Romania_section_6

Main articles: Early Modern Romania and National awakening of Romania Romania_sentence_104

The Kingdom of Hungary collapsed, and the Ottomans occupied parts of Banat and Crișana in 1541. Romania_sentence_105

Transylvania and Maramureș, along with the rest of Banat and Crișana developed into a new state under Ottoman suzerainty, the Principality of Transylvania. Romania_sentence_106

Reformation spread and four denominations—Calvinism, Lutheranism, Unitarianism, and Roman Catholicism—were officially acknowledged in 1568. Romania_sentence_107

The Romanians' Orthodox faith remained only tolerated, although they made up more than one-third of the population, according to 17th-century estimations. Romania_sentence_108

The princes of Transylvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia joined the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire in 1594. Romania_sentence_109

The Wallachian prince, Michael the Brave, united the three principalities under his rule in May 1600. Romania_sentence_110

The neighboring powers forced him to abdicate in September, but he became a symbol of the unification of the Romanian lands in the 19th century. Romania_sentence_111

Although the rulers of the three principalities continued to pay tribute to the Ottomans, the most talented princes—Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania, Matei Basarab of Wallachia, and Vasile Lupu of Moldavia—strengthened their autonomy. Romania_sentence_112

The united armies of the Holy League expelled the Ottoman troops from Central Europe between 1684 and 1699, and the Principality of Transylvania was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy. Romania_sentence_113

The Habsburgs supported the Catholic clergy and persuaded the Orthodox Romanian prelates to accept the union with the Roman Catholic Church in 1699. Romania_sentence_114

The Church Union strengthened the Romanian intellectuals' devotion to their Roman heritage. Romania_sentence_115

The Orthodox Church was restored in Transylvania only after Orthodox monks stirred up revolts in 1744 and 1759. Romania_sentence_116

The organization of the Transylvanian Military Frontier caused further disturbances, especially among the Székelys in 1764. Romania_sentence_117

Princes Dimitrie Cantemir of Moldavia and Constantin Brâncoveanu of Wallachia concluded alliances with the Habsburg Monarchy and Russia against the Ottomans, but they were dethroned in 1711 and 1714, respectively. Romania_sentence_118

The sultans lost confidence in the native princes and appointed Orthodox merchants from the Phanar district of Istanbul to rule Moldova and Wallachia. Romania_sentence_119

The Phanariot princes pursued oppressive fiscal policies and dissolved the army. Romania_sentence_120

The neighboring powers took advantage of the situation: the Habsburg Monarchy annexed the northwestern part of Moldavia, or Bukovina, in 1775, and the Russian Empire seized the eastern half of Moldavia, or Bessarabia, in 1812. Romania_sentence_121

A census revealed that the Romanians were more numerous than any other ethnic group in Transylvania in 1733, but legislation continued to use contemptuous adjectives (such as "tolerated" and "admitted") when referring to them. Romania_sentence_122

The Uniate bishop, Inocențiu Micu-Klein who demanded recognition of the Romanians as the fourth privileged nation was forced into exile. Romania_sentence_123

Uniate and Orthodox clerics and laymen jointly signed a plea for the Transylvanian Romanians' emancipation in 1791, but the monarch and the local authorities refused to grant their requests. Romania_sentence_124

Independence and monarchy Romania_section_7

Main articles: United Principalities, Romanian War of Independence, and Kingdom of Romania Romania_sentence_125

The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca authorised the Russian ambassador in Istanbul to defend the autonomy of Moldavia and Wallachia (known as the Danubian Principalities) in 1774. Romania_sentence_126

Taking advantage of the Greek War of Independence, a Wallachian lesser nobleman, Tudor Vladimirescu, stirred up a revolt against the Ottomans in January 1821, but he was murdered in June by Phanariot Greeks. Romania_sentence_127

After a new Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Adrianople strengthened the autonomy of the Danubian Principalities in 1829, although it also acknowledged the sultan's right to confirm the election of the princes. Romania_sentence_128

Mihail Kogălniceanu, Nicolae Bălcescu and other leaders of the 1848 revolutions in Moldavia and Wallachia demanded the emancipation of the peasants and the union of the two principalities, but Russian and Ottoman troops crushed their revolt. Romania_sentence_129

The Wallachian revolutionists were the first to adopt the blue, yellow and red tricolour as the national flag. Romania_sentence_130

In Transylvania, most Romanians supported the imperial government against the Hungarian revolutionaries after the Diet passed a law concerning the union of Transylvania and Hungary. Romania_sentence_131

Bishop Andrei Șaguna proposed the unification of the Romanians of the Habsburg Monarchy in a separate duchy, but the central government refused to change the internal borders. Romania_sentence_132

The Treaty of Paris put the Danubian Principalities under the collective guardianship of the Great Powers in 1856. Romania_sentence_133

After special assemblies convoked in Moldavia and Wallachia urged the unification of the two principalities, the Great Powers did not prevent the election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza as their collective domnitor (or ruling prince) in January 1859. Romania_sentence_134

The united principalities officially adopted the name Romania on 21 February 1862. Romania_sentence_135

Cuza's government carried out a series of reforms, including the secularisation of the property of monasteries and agrarian reform, but a coalition of conservative and radical politicians forced him to abdicate in February 1866. Romania_sentence_136

Cuza's successor, a German prince, Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (or Carol I), was elected in May. Romania_sentence_137

The parliament adopted the first constitution of Romania in the same year. Romania_sentence_138

The Great Powers acknowledged Romania's full independence at the Congress of Berlin and Carol I was crowned king in 1881. Romania_sentence_139

The Congress also granted the Danube Delta and Dobruja to Romania. Romania_sentence_140

Although Romanian scholars strove for the unification of all Romanians into a Greater Romania, the government did not openly support their irredentist projects. Romania_sentence_141

The Transylvanian Romanians and Saxons wanted to maintain the separate status of Transylvania in the Habsburg Monarchy, but the Austro-Hungarian Compromise brought about the union of the province with Hungary in 1867. Romania_sentence_142

Ethnic Romanian politicians sharply opposed the Hungarian government's attempts to transform Hungary into a national state, especially the laws prescribing the obligatory teaching of Hungarian. Romania_sentence_143

Leaders of the Romanian National Party proposed the federalisation of Austria-Hungary and the Romanian intellectuals established a cultural association to promote the use of Romanian. Romania_sentence_144

World Wars and Greater Romania Romania_section_8

Main articles: Romania during World War I, Greater Romania, and Romania in World War II Romania_sentence_145

Fearing Russian expansionism, Romania secretly joined the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy in 1883, but public opinion remained hostile to Austria-Hungary. Romania_sentence_146

Romania seized Southern Dobruja from Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War in 1913. Romania_sentence_147

German and Austrian-Hungarian diplomacy supported Bulgaria during the war, bringing about a rapprochement between Romania and the Triple Entente of France, Russia and the United Kingdom. Romania_sentence_148

The country remained neutral when World War I broke out in 1914, but Prime Minister Ion I. C. Brătianu started negotiations with the Entente Powers. Romania_sentence_149

After they promised Austrian-Hungarian territories with a majority of ethnic Romanian population to Romania in the Treaty of Bucharest, Romania entered the war against the Central Powers in 1916. Romania_sentence_150

The German and Austrian-Hungarian troops defeated the Romanian army and occupied three-quarters of the country by early 1917. Romania_sentence_151

After the October Revolution turned Russia from an ally into an enemy, Romania was forced to sign a harsh peace treaty with the Central Powers in May 1918, but the collapse of Russia also enabled the union of Bessarabia with Romania. Romania_sentence_152

King Ferdinand again mobilised the Romanian army on behalf of the Entente Powers a day before Germany capitulated on 11 November 1918. Romania_sentence_153

Austria-Hungary quickly disintegrated after the war. Romania_sentence_154

The General Congress of Bukovina proclaimed the union of the province with Romania on 28 November 1918, and the Grand National Assembly proclaimed the union of Transylvania, Banat, Crișana and Maramureș with the kingdom on 1 December. Romania_sentence_155

Peace treaties with Austria, Bulgaria and Hungary delineated the new borders in 1919 and 1920, but the Soviet Union did not acknowledge the loss of Bessarabia. Romania_sentence_156

Romania achieved its greatest territorial extent, expanding from the pre-war 137,000 to 295,000 km (53,000 to 114,000 sq mi). Romania_sentence_157

A new electoral system granted voting rights to all adult male citizens, and a series of radical agrarian reforms transformed the country into a "nation of small landowners" between 1918 and 1921. Romania_sentence_158

Gender equality as a principle was enacted, but women could not vote or be candidates. Romania_sentence_159

Calypso Botez established the National Council of Romanian Women to promote feminist ideas. Romania_sentence_160

Romania was a multiethnic country, with ethnic minorities making up about 30% of the population, but the new constitution declared it a unitary national state in 1923. Romania_sentence_161

Although minorities could establish their own schools, Romanian language, history and geography could only be taught in Romanian. Romania_sentence_162

Agriculture remained the principal sector of economy, but several branches of industry—especially the production of coal, oil, metals, synthetic rubber, explosives and cosmetics—developed during the interwar period. Romania_sentence_163

With oil production of 5.8 million tons in 1930, Romania ranked sixth in the world. Romania_sentence_164

Two parties, the National Liberal Party and the National Peasants' Party, dominated political life, but the Great Depression brought about significant changes in the 1930s. Romania_sentence_165

The democratic parties were squeezed between conflicts with the fascist and anti-Semitic Iron Guard and the authoritarian tendencies of King Carol II. Romania_sentence_166

The King promulgated a new constitution and dissolved the political parties in 1938, replacing the parliamentary system with a royal dictatorship. Romania_sentence_167

The 1938 Munich Agreement convinced King Carol II that France and the United Kingdom could not defend Romanian interests. Romania_sentence_168

German preparations for a new war required the regular supply of Romanian oil and agricultural products. Romania_sentence_169

The two countries concluded a treaty concerning the coordination of their economic policies in 1939, but the King could not persuade Adolf Hitler to guarantee Romania's frontiers. Romania_sentence_170

Romania was forced to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union on 26 June 1940, Northern Transylvania to Hungary on 30 August, and Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria in September. Romania_sentence_171

After the territorial losses, the King was forced to abdicate in favour of his minor son, Michael I, on 6 September, and Romania was transformed into a national-legionary state under the leadership of General Ion Antonescu. Romania_sentence_172

Antonescu signed the Tripartite Pact of Germany, Italy and Japan on 23 November. Romania_sentence_173

The Iron Guard staged a coup against Antonescu, but he crushed the riot with German support and introduced a military dictatorship in early 1941. Romania_sentence_174

Romania entered World War II soon after the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Romania_sentence_175

The country regained Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, and the Germans placed Transnistria (the territory between the rivers Dniester and Dnieper) under Romanian administration. Romania_sentence_176

Romanian and German troops massacred at least 160,000 local Jews in these territories; more than 105,000 Jews and about 11,000 Gypsies died during their deportation from Bessarabia to Transnistria. Romania_sentence_177

Most of the Jewish population of Moldavia, Wallachia, Banat and Southern Transylvania survived, but their fundamental rights were limited. Romania_sentence_178

After the German occupation of Hungary in March 1944, about 132,000 Jews – mainly Hungarian-speaking – were deported to extermination camps from Northern Transylvania with the Hungarian authorities' support. Romania_sentence_179

After the Soviet victory in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1943, Iuliu Maniu, a leader of the opposition to Antonescu, entered into secret negotiations with British diplomats who made it clear that Romania had to seek reconciliation with the Soviet Union. Romania_sentence_180

To facilitate the coordination of their activities against Antonescu's regime, the National Liberal and National Peasants' parties established the National Democratic Bloc, which also included the Social Democratic and Communist parties. Romania_sentence_181

After a successful Soviet offensive, the young King Michael I ordered Antonescu's arrest and appointed politicians from the National Democratic Bloc to form a new government on 23 August 1944. Romania_sentence_182

Romania switched sides during the war, and nearly 250,000 Romanian troops joined the Red Army's military campaign against Hungary and Germany, but Joseph Stalin regarded the country as an occupied territory within the Soviet sphere of influence. Romania_sentence_183

Stalin's deputy instructed the King to make the Communists' candidate, Petru Groza, the prime minister in March 1945. Romania_sentence_184

The Romanian administration in Northern Transylvania was soon restored, and Groza's government carried out an agrarian reform. Romania_sentence_185

In February 1947, the Paris Peace Treaties confirmed the return of Northern Transylvania to Romania, but they also legalised the presence of units of the Red Army in the country. Romania_sentence_186

Communism Romania_section_9

Main article: Socialist Republic of Romania Romania_sentence_187

During the Soviet occupation of Romania, the Communist-dominated government called for new elections in 1946, which they fraudulently won, with a fabricated 70% majority of the vote. Romania_sentence_188

Thus, they rapidly established themselves as the dominant political force. Romania_sentence_189

Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, a Communist party leader imprisoned in 1933, escaped in 1944 to become Romania's first Communist leader. Romania_sentence_190

In February 1947, he and others forced King Michael I to abdicate and leave the country and proclaimed Romania a people's republic. Romania_sentence_191

Romania remained under the direct military occupation and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s. Romania_sentence_192

During this period, Romania's vast natural resources were drained continuously by mixed Soviet-Romanian companies (SovRoms) set up for unilateral exploitative purposes. Romania_sentence_193

In 1948, the state began to nationalise private firms and to collectivise agriculture. Romania_sentence_194

Until the early 1960s, the government severely curtailed political liberties and vigorously suppressed any dissent with the help of the Securitate—the Romanian secret police. Romania_sentence_195

During this period the regime launched several campaigns of purges during which numerous "enemies of the state" and "parasite elements" were targeted for different forms of punishment including: deportation, internal exile, internment in forced labour camps and prisons—sometimes for life—as well as extrajudicial killing. Romania_sentence_196

Nevertheless, anti-Communist resistance was one of the most long-lasting in the Eastern Bloc. Romania_sentence_197

A 2006 Commission estimated the number of direct victims of the Communist repression at two million people. Romania_sentence_198

In 1965, Nicolae Ceaușescu came to power and started to conduct the country's foreign policy more independently from the Soviet Union. Romania_sentence_199

Thus, Communist Romania was the only Warsaw Pact country which refused to participate in the Soviet-led 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia. Romania_sentence_200

Ceaușescu even publicly condemned the action as "a big mistake, [and] a serious danger to peace in Europe and to the fate of Communism in the world".) Romania_sentence_201

It was the only Communist state to maintain diplomatic relations with Israel after 1967's Six-Day War and established diplomatic relations with West Germany the same year. Romania_sentence_202

At the same time, close ties with the Arab countries and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) allowed Romania to play a key role in the Israel–Egypt and Israel–PLO peace talks. Romania_sentence_203

As Romania's foreign debt increased sharply between 1977 and 1981 (from US$3 billion to $10 billion), the influence of international financial organisations—such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank—grew, gradually conflicting with Ceaușescu's autocratic rule. Romania_sentence_204

He eventually initiated a policy of total reimbursement of the foreign debt by imposing austerity steps that impoverished the population and exhausted the economy. Romania_sentence_205

The process succeeded in repaying all of Romania's foreign government debt in 1989. Romania_sentence_206

At the same time, Ceaușescu greatly extended the authority of the Securitate secret police and imposed a severe cult of personality, which led to a dramatic decrease in the dictator's popularity and culminated in his overthrow and eventual execution, together with his wife, in the violent Romanian Revolution of December 1989 in which thousands were killed or injured. Romania_sentence_207

The charges for which they were executed were, among others, genocide by starvation. Romania_sentence_208

Contemporary period Romania_section_10

Main article: History of Romania since 1989 Romania_sentence_209

After the 1989 revolution, the National Salvation Front (NSF), led by Ion Iliescu, took partial multi-party democratic and free market measures. Romania_sentence_210

In April 1990, a sit-in protest contesting the results of that year's legislative elections and accusing the NSF, including Iliescu, of being made up of former Communists and members of the Securitate grew rapidly to become what was called the Golaniad. Romania_sentence_211

Peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence, prompting the intervention of coal miners summoned by Iliescu. Romania_sentence_212

This episode has been documented widely by both local and foreign media, and is remembered as the June 1990 Mineriad. Romania_sentence_213

The subsequent disintegration of the Front produced several political parties, including most notably the Social Democratic Party (PDSR then PSD) and the Democratic Party (PD and subsequently PDL). Romania_sentence_214

The former governed Romania from 1990 until 1996 through several coalitions and governments, with Ion Iliescu as head of state. Romania_sentence_215

Since then, there have been several other democratic changes of government: in 1996 Emil Constantinescu was elected president, in 2000 Iliescu returned to power, while Traian Băsescu was elected in 2004 and narrowly re-elected in 2009. Romania_sentence_216

In November 2014, Sibiu (German: Hermannstadt) former FDGR/DFDR mayor Klaus Iohannis was elected president, unexpectedly defeating former Prime Minister Victor Ponta, who had been previously leading in the opinion polls. Romania_sentence_217

This surprise victory was attributed by many analysts to the implication of the Romanian diaspora in the voting process, with almost 50% casting ballots for Klaus Iohannis in the first round, compared to only 16% for Ponta. Romania_sentence_218

In 2019, Iohannis was re-elected president in a landslide victory over former Prime Minister Viorica Dăncilă. Romania_sentence_219

The post–1989 period is also characterised by the fact that most of the former industrial and economic enterprises which were built and operated during the Communist period were closed, mainly as a result of the policies of privatisation of the post–1989 regimes. Romania_sentence_220

Corruption has also been a major issue in contemporary Romanian politics. Romania_sentence_221

In November 2015, massive anti-corruption protests which developed in the wake of the Colectiv nightclub fire led to the resignation of Romania's Prime Minister Victor Ponta. Romania_sentence_222

During 2017–2018, in response to measures which were perceived to weaken the fight against corruption, some of the biggest protests since 1989 took place in Romania, with over 500,000 people protesting across the country. Romania_sentence_223

Nevertheless, there have been efforts to tackle corruption. Romania_sentence_224

A National Anticorruption Directorate was formed in the country in 2002. Romania_sentence_225

In Transparency International's 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index, Romania's public sector corruption score deteriorated to 44 out of 100, reversing gains made in previous years. Romania_sentence_226

NATO and EU integration Romania_section_11

After the end of the Cold War, Romania developed closer ties with Western Europe and the United States, eventually joining NATO in 2004, and hosting the 2008 summit in Bucharest. Romania_sentence_227

The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an Acceding Country in 2004, and a full member on 1 January 2007. Romania_sentence_228

During the 2000s, Romania enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in Europe and has been referred at times as "the Tiger of Eastern Europe". Romania_sentence_229

This has been accompanied by a significant improvement in living standards as the country successfully reduced domestic poverty and established a functional democratic state. Romania_sentence_230

However, Romania's development suffered a major setback during the late-2000s' recession leading to a large gross domestic product contraction and a budget deficit in 2009. Romania_sentence_231

This led to Romania borrowing from the International Monetary Fund. Romania_sentence_232

Worsening economic conditions led to unrest and triggered a political crisis in 2012. Romania_sentence_233

Romania still faces problems related to infrastructure, medical services, education, and corruption. Romania_sentence_234

Near the end of 2013, The Economist reported Romania again enjoying "booming" economic growth at 4.1% that year, with wages rising fast and a lower unemployment than in Britain. Romania_sentence_235

Economic growth accelerated in the midst of government liberalisations in opening up new sectors to competition and investment—most notably, energy and telecoms. Romania_sentence_236

In 2016 the Human Development Index ranked Romania as a nation of "Very High Human Development". Romania_sentence_237

Following the experience of economic instability throughout the 1990s, and the implementation of a free travel agreement with the EU, a great number of Romanians emigrated to Western Europe and North America, with particularly large communities in Italy, Germany and Spain. Romania_sentence_238

In 2016, the Romanian diaspora was estimated to be over 3.6 million people, the fifth-highest emigrant population in the world. Romania_sentence_239

Geography and climate Romania_section_12

Main articles: Geography of Romania and Climate of Romania Romania_sentence_240

Romania is the largest country in Southeastern Europe and the twelfth-largest in Europe, having an area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi). Romania_sentence_241

It lies between latitudes 43° and 49° N and longitudes 20° and 30° E. Romania_sentence_242

The terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountains, hills, and plains. Romania_sentence_243

The Carpathian Mountains dominate the centre of Romania, with 14 mountain ranges reaching above 2,000 m or 6,600 ft—the highest is Moldoveanu Peak at 2,544 m or 8,346 ft. Romania_sentence_244

They are surrounded by the Moldavian and Transylvanian plateaus, the Carpathian Basin and the Wallachian plains. Romania_sentence_245

Natural and semi-natural ecosystems cover about 47% of the country's land area. Romania_sentence_246

There are almost 10,000 km (3,900 sq mi) (about 5% of the total area) of protected areas in Romania covering 13 national parks and three biosphere reserves. Romania_sentence_247

The Danube river forms a large part of the border with Serbia and Bulgaria, and flows into the Black Sea, forming the Danube Delta, which is the second-largest and best-preserved delta in Europe, and a biosphere reserve and a biodiversity World Heritage Site. Romania_sentence_248

At 5,800 km (2,200 sq mi), the Danube Delta is the largest continuous marshland in Europe, and supports 1,688 different plant species alone. Romania_sentence_249

Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe, covering almost 27% of its territory. Romania_sentence_250

Some 3,700 plant species have been identified in the country, from which to date 23 have been declared natural monuments, 74 extinct, 39 endangered, 171 vulnerable, and 1,253 rare. Romania_sentence_251

The fauna of Romania consists of 33,792 species of animals, 33,085 invertebrate and 707 vertebrate, with almost 400 unique species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, including about 50% of Europe's (excluding Russia) brown bears and 20% of its wolves. Romania_sentence_252

Climate Romania_section_13

Owing to its distance from open sea and its position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is temperate and continental, with four distinct seasons. Romania_sentence_253

The average annual temperature is 11 °C (52 °F) in the south and 8 °C (46 °F) in the north. Romania_sentence_254

In summer, average maximum temperatures in Bucharest rise to 28 °C (82 °F), and temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) are fairly common in the lower-lying areas of the country. Romania_sentence_255

In winter, the average maximum temperature is below 2 °C (36 °F). Romania_sentence_256

Precipitation is average, with over 750 mm (30 in) per year only on the highest western mountains, while around Bucharest it drops to approximately 570 mm (22 in). Romania_sentence_257

There are some regional differences: in western sections, such as Banat, the climate is milder and has some Mediterranean influences; the eastern part of the country has a more pronounced continental climate. Romania_sentence_258

In Dobruja, the Black Sea also exerts an influence over the region's climate. Romania_sentence_259


Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for the eight largest cities in RomaniaRomania_table_caption_1
LocationRomania_header_cell_1_0_0 July (°C)Romania_header_cell_1_0_1 July (°F)Romania_header_cell_1_0_2 January (°C)Romania_header_cell_1_0_3 January (°F)Romania_header_cell_1_0_4
BucharestRomania_cell_1_1_0 28.8/15.6Romania_cell_1_1_1 84/60Romania_cell_1_1_2 1.5/−5.5Romania_cell_1_1_3 35/22Romania_cell_1_1_4
Cluj-NapocaRomania_cell_1_2_0 24.5/12.7Romania_cell_1_2_1 76/55Romania_cell_1_2_2 0.3/−6.5Romania_cell_1_2_3 33/20Romania_cell_1_2_4
TimișoaraRomania_cell_1_3_0 27.8/14.6Romania_cell_1_3_1 82/58Romania_cell_1_3_2 2.3/−4.8Romania_cell_1_3_3 36/23Romania_cell_1_3_4
IașiRomania_cell_1_4_0 26.8/15Romania_cell_1_4_1 80/59Romania_cell_1_4_2 −0.1/−6.9Romania_cell_1_4_3 32/20Romania_cell_1_4_4
ConstanțaRomania_cell_1_5_0 25.9/18Romania_cell_1_5_1 79/64Romania_cell_1_5_2 3.7/−2.3Romania_cell_1_5_3 39/28Romania_cell_1_5_4
CraiovaRomania_cell_1_6_0 28.5/15.7Romania_cell_1_6_1 83/60Romania_cell_1_6_2 1.5/−5.6Romania_cell_1_6_3 35/22Romania_cell_1_6_4
BrașovRomania_cell_1_7_0 24.2/11.4Romania_cell_1_7_1 76/53Romania_cell_1_7_2 −0.1/−9.3Romania_cell_1_7_3 32/15Romania_cell_1_7_4
GalațiRomania_cell_1_8_0 27.9/16.2Romania_cell_1_8_1 82/61Romania_cell_1_8_2 1.1/–5.3Romania_cell_1_8_3 34/22Romania_cell_1_8_4

Governance Romania_section_14

Main articles: Politics of Romania and Government of Romania Romania_sentence_260

The Constitution of Romania is based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic and was approved in a national referendum on 8 December 1991 and amended in October 2003 to bring it into conformity with EU legislation. Romania_sentence_261

The country is governed on the basis of a multi-party democratic system and the separation of powers between the legislative, executive and judicial branches. Romania_sentence_262

It is a semi-presidential republic where executive functions are held by both the government and the president. Romania_sentence_263

The latter is elected by popular vote for a maximum of two terms of five years and appoints the prime minister who in turn appoints the Council of Ministers. Romania_sentence_264

The legislative branch of the government, collectively known as the Parliament (residing at the Palace of the Parliament), consists of two chambers (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) whose members are elected every four years by simple plurality. Romania_sentence_265

The justice system is independent of the other branches of government and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts with the High Court of Cassation and Justice being the supreme court of Romania. Romania_sentence_266

There are also courts of appeal, county courts and local courts. Romania_sentence_267

The Romanian judicial system is strongly influenced by the French model, is based on civil law and is inquisitorial in nature. Romania_sentence_268

The Constitutional Court (Curtea Constituțională) is responsible for judging the compliance of laws and other state regulations with the constitution, which is the fundamental law of the country and can only be amended through a public referendum. Romania_sentence_269

Romania's 2007 entry into the EU has been a significant influence on its domestic policy, and including judicial reforms, increased judicial cooperation with other member states, and measures to combat corruption. Romania_sentence_270

Foreign relations Romania_section_15

Main article: Foreign relations of Romania Romania_sentence_271

Since December 1989, Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union, albeit with limited relations involving the Russian Federation. Romania_sentence_272

It joined the NATO on 29 March 2004, the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007, while it joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1972, and is a founding member of the World Trade Organization. Romania_sentence_273

In the past, recent governments have stated that one of their goals is to strengthen ties with and helping other countries (in particular Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia) with the process of integration with the rest of the West. Romania_sentence_274

Romania has also made clear since the late 1990s that it supports NATO and EU membership for the democratic former Soviet republics in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. Romania_sentence_275

Romania also declared its public support for Turkey, and Croatia joining the European Union. Romania_sentence_276

Romania opted on 1 January 2007, to accede to the Schengen Area, and its bid to join was approved by the European Parliament in June 2011, but was rejected by the EU Council in September 2011. Romania_sentence_277

As of August 2019, its acceptance into the Schengen Area is hampered because the European Council has misgivings about Romania's adherence to the rule of law, a fundamental principle of EU membership. Romania_sentence_278

In December 2005, President Traian Băsescu and United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signed an agreement that would allow a U.S. military presence at several Romanian facilities primarily in the eastern part of the country. Romania_sentence_279

In May 2009, Hillary Clinton, US Secretary of State, declared that "Romania is one of the most trustworthy and respectable partners of the USA." Romania_sentence_280

Relations with Moldova are a special case given that the two countries share the same language and a common history. Romania_sentence_281

A movement for unification of Romania and Moldova appeared in the early 1990s after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule but lost ground in the mid-1990s when a new Moldovan government pursued an agenda towards preserving a Moldovan republic independent of Romania. Romania_sentence_282

After the 2009 protests in Moldova and the subsequent removal of Communists from power, relations between the two countries have improved considerably. Romania_sentence_283

Military Romania_section_16

Main articles: Romanian Armed Forces and Military history of Romania Romania_sentence_284

See also: Romania–United States relations Romania_sentence_285

The Romanian Armed Forces consist of land, air, and naval forces led by a Commander-in-chief under the supervision of the Ministry of National Defence, and by the president as the Supreme Commander during wartime. Romania_sentence_286

The Armed Forces consist of approximately 15,000 civilians and 75,000 military personnel—45,800 for land, 13,250 for air, 6,800 for naval forces, and 8,800 in other fields. Romania_sentence_287

Total defence spending in 2007 accounted for 2.05% of total national GDP, or approximately US$2.9 billion, with a total of $11 billion spent between 2006 and 2011 for modernization and acquisition of new equipment. Romania_sentence_288

The Air Force currently operates modernised Soviet MiG-21 Lancer fighters. Romania_sentence_289

The Air Force purchased seven new C-27J Spartan tactical airlifters, while the Naval Forces acquired two modernised Type 22 frigates from the British Royal Navy. Romania_sentence_290

Romania contributed troops to the international coalition in Afghanistan beginning in 2002, with a peak deployment of 1,600 troops in 2010 (which was the 4th largest contribution according to the US). Romania_sentence_291

Its combat mission in the country concluded in 2014. Romania_sentence_292

Romanian troops participated in the occupation of Iraq, reaching a peak of 730 soldiers before being slowly drawn down to 350 soldiers. Romania_sentence_293

Romania terminated its mission in Iraq and withdrew its last troops on 24 July 2009, among the last countries to do so. Romania_sentence_294

The frigate the Regele Ferdinand participated in the 2011 military intervention in Libya. Romania_sentence_295

In December 2011, the Romanian Senate unanimously adopted the draft law ratifying the Romania-United States agreement signed in September of the same year that would allow the establishment and operation of a US land-based ballistic missile defence system in Romania as part of NATO's efforts to build a continental missile shield. Romania_sentence_296

Administrative divisions Romania_section_17

Main article: Administrative divisions of Romania Romania_sentence_297

Romania is divided into 41 counties (județe, pronounced judetse) and the municipality of Bucharest. Romania_sentence_298

Each county is administered by a county council, responsible for local affairs, as well as a prefect responsible for the administration of national affairs at the county level. Romania_sentence_299

The prefect is appointed by the central government but cannot be a member of any political party. Romania_sentence_300

Each county is subdivided further into cities and communes, which have their own mayor and local council. Romania_sentence_301

There are a total of 320 cities and 2,861 communes in Romania. Romania_sentence_302

A total of 103 of the larger cities have municipality status, which gives them greater administrative power over local affairs. Romania_sentence_303

The municipality of Bucharest is a special case, as it enjoys a status on par to that of a county. Romania_sentence_304

It is further divided into six sectors and has a prefect, a general mayor (primar), and a general city council. Romania_sentence_305

The NUTS-3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level divisions of the European Union reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure and correspond to the 41 counties plus Bucharest. Romania_sentence_306

The cities and communes correspond to the NUTS-5 level divisions, but there are no current NUTS-4 level divisions. Romania_sentence_307

The NUTS-1 (four macroregions) and NUTS-2 (eight development regions) divisions exist but have no administrative capacity and are used instead for coordinating regional development projects and statistical purposes. Romania_sentence_308


Development regionRomania_header_cell_2_0_0 Area (km)Romania_header_cell_2_0_1 Population (2011)Romania_header_cell_2_0_2 Most populous urban centreRomania_header_cell_2_0_3
Nord-VestRomania_cell_2_1_0 34,159Romania_cell_2_1_1 2,600,132Romania_cell_2_1_2 Cluj-Napoca (411,379)Romania_cell_2_1_3
CentruRomania_cell_2_2_0 34,082Romania_cell_2_2_1 2,360,805Romania_cell_2_2_2 Brașov (369,896)Romania_cell_2_2_3
Nord-EstRomania_cell_2_3_0 36,850Romania_cell_2_3_1 3,302,217Romania_cell_2_3_2 Iași (382,484)Romania_cell_2_3_3
Sud-EstRomania_cell_2_4_0 35,762Romania_cell_2_4_1 2,545,923Romania_cell_2_4_2 Constanța (425,916)Romania_cell_2_4_3
Sud - MunteniaRomania_cell_2_5_0 34,489Romania_cell_2_5_1 3,136,446Romania_cell_2_5_2 Ploiești (276,279)Romania_cell_2_5_3
București - IlfovRomania_cell_2_6_0 1,811Romania_cell_2_6_1 2,272,163Romania_cell_2_6_2 Bucharest (2,272,163)Romania_cell_2_6_3
Sud-Vest OlteniaRomania_cell_2_7_0 29,212Romania_cell_2_7_1 2,075,642Romania_cell_2_7_2 Craiova (356,544)Romania_cell_2_7_3
VestRomania_cell_2_8_0 32,028Romania_cell_2_8_1 1,828,313Romania_cell_2_8_2 Timișoara (384,809)Romania_cell_2_8_3

Economy Romania_section_18

Main article: Economy of Romania Romania_sentence_309

Further information: Agriculture in Romania and Industry of Romania Romania_sentence_310

In 2019, Romania has a GDP (PPP) of around $547 billion and a GDP per capita (PPP) of $28,189. Romania_sentence_311

According to the World Bank, Romania is a high-income economy. Romania_sentence_312

According to Eurostat, Romania's GDP per capita (PPS) was 69% of the EU average (100%) in 2019, an increase from 44% in 2007 (the year of Romania's accession to the EU), making Romania one of the fastest growing economies in the EU. Romania_sentence_313

After 1989 the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform. Romania_sentence_314

From 2000 onward, however, the Romanian economy was transformed into one of relative macroeconomic stability, characterised by high growth, low unemployment and declining inflation. Romania_sentence_315

In 2006, according to the Romanian Statistics Office, GDP growth in real terms was recorded at 7.7%, one of the highest rates in Europe. Romania_sentence_316

However, a recession following the global financial crisis of 2008–2009 forced the government to borrow externally, including an IMF €20 billion bailout program. Romania_sentence_317

According to The World Bank, GDP per capita in purchasing power parity grew from $13,687 in 2007 to $28,206 in 2018. Romania_sentence_318

Romania's net average monthly wage increased to 666 euro as of 2020, and an inflation rate of −1.1% in 2016. Romania_sentence_319

Unemployment in Romania was at 4.3% in August 2018, which is low compared to other EU countries. Romania_sentence_320

Industrial output growth reached 6.5% year-on-year in February 2013, the highest in the Europe. Romania_sentence_321

The largest local companies include car maker Automobile Dacia, Petrom, Rompetrol, Ford Romania, Electrica, Romgaz, RCS & RDS and Banca Transilvania. Romania_sentence_322

As of 2020, there are around 6000 exports per month. Romania_sentence_323

Romania's main exports are: cars, software, clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgic products, raw materials, military equipment, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, and flowers). Romania_sentence_324

Trade is mostly centred on the member states of the European Union, with Germany and Italy being the country's single largest trading partners. Romania_sentence_325

The account balance in 2012 was estimated to be 4.52% of GDP. Romania_sentence_326

After a series of privatizations and reforms in the late 1990s and 2000s, government intervention in the Romanian economy is somewhat less than in other European economies. Romania_sentence_327

In 2005, the government replaced Romania's progressive tax system with a flat tax of 16% for both personal income and corporate profit, among the lowest rates in the European Union. Romania_sentence_328

The economy is based predominantly on services, which account for 56.2% of the country's total GDP as of 2017, with industry and agriculture accounting for 30% and 4.4% respectively. Romania_sentence_329

Approximately 25.8% of the Romanian workforce is employed in agriculture, one of the highest rates in Europe. Romania_sentence_330

Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment following the end of Communism, with the stock of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Romania rising to €83.8 billion in June 2019. Romania_sentence_331

Romania's FDI outward stock (an external or foreign business either investing in or purchasing the stock of a local economy) amounted to $745 million in December 2018, the lowest value among the 28 EU member states. Romania_sentence_332

According to a 2019 World Bank report, Romania ranks 52nd out of 190 economies in the ease of doing business, one place higher than neighbouring Hungary and one place lower than Italy. Romania_sentence_333

The report praised the consistent enforcement of contracts and access to credit in the country, while noting difficulties in access to electricity and dealing with construction permits. Romania_sentence_334

Since 1867 the official currency has been the Romanian leu ("lion") and following a denomination in 2005. Romania_sentence_335

After joining the EU in 2007, Romania is expected to adopt the Euro in 2024. Romania_sentence_336

In January 2020, Romania's external debt was reported to be US$122 billion according to CEIC data. Romania_sentence_337

Infrastructure Romania_section_19

Main articles: Transport in Romania and Energy in Romania Romania_sentence_338

According to the Romania's National Institute of Statistics (INSSE), Romania's total road network was estimated in 2015 at 86,080 kilometres (53,488 mi). Romania_sentence_339

The World Bank estimates the railway network at 22,298 kilometres (13,855 mi) of track, the fourth-largest railroad network in Europe. Romania_sentence_340

Romania's rail transport experienced a dramatic decline after 1989 and was estimated at 99 million passenger journeys in 2004, but has experienced a recent (2013) revival due to infrastructure improvements and partial privatisation of lines, accounting for 45% of all passenger and freight movements in the country. Romania_sentence_341

Bucharest Metro, the only underground railway system, was opened in 1979 and measures 61.41 km (38.16 mi) with an average ridership in 2007 of 600,000 passengers during the workweek in the country. Romania_sentence_342

There are sixteen international commercial airports in service today. Romania_sentence_343

Over 12.8 million passengers flew through Bucharest's Henri Coandă International Airport in 2017. Romania_sentence_344

Romania is a net exporter of electrical energy and is 52nd worldwide in terms of consumption of electric energy. Romania_sentence_345

Around a third of the produced energy comes from renewable sources, mostly as hydroelectric power. Romania_sentence_346

In 2015, the main sources were coal (28%), hydroelectric (30%), nuclear (18%), and hydrocarbons (14%). Romania_sentence_347

It has one of the largest refining capacities in Eastern Europe, even though oil and natural gas production has been decreasing for more than a decade. Romania_sentence_348

With one of the largest reserves of crude oil and shale gas in Europe it is among the most energy-independent countries in the European Union, and is looking to expand its nuclear power plant at Cernavodă further. Romania_sentence_349

There were almost 18.3 million connections to the Internet in June 2014. Romania_sentence_350

According to Bloomberg, in 2013 Romania ranked fifth in the world, and according to The Independent, it ranks number one in Europe at Internet speeds, with Timișoara ranked among the highest in the world. Romania_sentence_351

Tourism Romania_section_20

Main articles: Tourism in Romania and List of World Heritage Sites in Romania Romania_sentence_352

See also: Seven Natural Wonders of Romania and Seven Wonders of Romania Romania_sentence_353

Tourism is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy, generating around 5% of GDP. Romania_sentence_354

The number of tourists has been rising steadily, reaching 9.33 million foreign tourists in 2016, according to the Worldbank. Romania_sentence_355

Tourism in Romania attracted €400 million in investments in 2005. Romania_sentence_356

More than 60% of the foreign visitors in 2007 were from other EU countries. Romania_sentence_357

The popular summer attractions of Mamaia and other Black Sea Resorts attracted 1.3 million tourists in 2009. Romania_sentence_358

Most popular skiing resorts are along the Valea Prahovei and in Poiana Brașov. Romania_sentence_359

Castles, fortifications, or strongholds as well as preserved medieval Transylvanian cities or towns such as Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, Brașov, Bistrița, Mediaș, Cisnădie, or Sighișoara also attract a large number of tourists. Romania_sentence_360

Bran Castle, near Brașov, is one of the most famous attractions in Romania, drawing hundreds of thousands of tourists every year as it is often advertised as being Dracula's Castle. Romania_sentence_361

Rural tourism, focusing on folklore and traditions, has become an important alternative, and is targeted to promote such sites as Bran and its Dracula's Castle, the painted churches of northern Moldavia, and the wooden churches of Maramureș, or the villages with fortified churches in Transylvania. Romania_sentence_362

Other attractions include the Danube Delta or the Sculptural Ensemble of Constantin Brâncuși at Târgu Jiu. Romania_sentence_363

In 2014, Romania had 32,500 companies active in the hotel and restaurant industry, with a total turnover of €2.6 billion. Romania_sentence_364

More than 1.9 million foreign tourists visited Romania in 2014, 12% more than in 2013. Romania_sentence_365

According to the country's National Statistics Institute, some 77% came from Europe (particularly from Germany, Italy, and France), 12% from Asia, and less than 7% from North America. Romania_sentence_366

Science and technology Romania_section_21

Main articles: Science and technology in Romania and List of Romanian inventors and discoverers Romania_sentence_367

Historically, Romanian researchers and inventors have made notable contributions to several fields. Romania_sentence_368

In the history of flight, Traian Vuia built the first airplane to take off under its own power and Aurel Vlaicu built and flew some of the earliest successful aircraft, while Henri Coandă discovered the Coandă effect of fluidics. Romania_sentence_369

Victor Babeș discovered more than 50 types of bacteria; biologist Nicolae Paulescu discovered insulin, while Emil Palade received the Nobel Prize for his contributions to cell biology. Romania_sentence_370

Lazăr Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesise amphetamine, and he also invented the procedure of separating valuable petroleum components with selective solvents. Romania_sentence_371

During the 1990s and 2000s, the development of research was hampered by several factors, including: corruption, low funding, and a considerable brain drain. Romania_sentence_372

In recent years, Romania has ranked the lowest or second-lowest in the European Union by research and development spending as a percentage of GDP, standing at roughly 0.5% in 2016 and 2017, substantially below the EU average of just over 2%. Romania_sentence_373

The country joined the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2011, and CERN in 2016. Romania_sentence_374

In 2018, however, Romania lost its voting rights in the ESA due to a failure to pay €56.8 million in membership contributions to the agency. Romania_sentence_375

In the early 2010s, the situation for science in Romania was characterised as "rapidly improving" albeit from a low base. Romania_sentence_376

In January 2011, Parliament passed a law that enforces "strict quality control on universities and introduces tough rules for funding evaluation and peer review". Romania_sentence_377

The nuclear physics facility of the European Union's proposed Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) laser will be built in Romania. Romania_sentence_378

In early 2012, Romania launched its first satellite from the Centre Spatial Guyanais in French Guyana. Romania_sentence_379

Starting in December 2014, Romania became a co-owner of the International Space Station. Romania_sentence_380

Demographics Romania_section_22

Main articles: Demographics of Romania, Demographic history of Romania, and Immigration to Romania Romania_sentence_381

See also: Minorities of Romania and Romanian diaspora Romania_sentence_382

According to the 2011 census, Romania's population was 20,121,641. Romania_sentence_383

Like other countries in the region, its population is expected to decline gradually as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates and negative net migration rate. Romania_sentence_384

In October 2011, Romanians made up 88.9% of the population. Romania_sentence_385

The largest ethnic minorities are the Hungarians, 6.1% of the population, and the Roma, 3.0% of the population. Romania_sentence_386

The Roma minority is usually underestimated in census data and may represent up to 10% of the population. Romania_sentence_387

Hungarians constitute a majority in the counties of Harghita and Covasna. Romania_sentence_388

Other minorities include Ukrainians, Germans, Turks, Lipovans, Aromanians, Tatars, and Serbs. Romania_sentence_389

In 1930, there were 745,421 Germans living in Romania, but only about 36,000 remained in the country to this day. Romania_sentence_390

As of 2009, there were also approximately 133,000 immigrants living in Romania, primarily from Moldova and China. Romania_sentence_391

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2018 was estimated at 1.36 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and one of the lowest in the world, it remains considerably below the high of 5.82 children born per woman in 1912. Romania_sentence_392

In 2014, 31.2% of births were to unmarried women. Romania_sentence_393

The birth rate (9.49‰, 2012) is much lower than the mortality rate (11.84‰, 2012), resulting in a shrinking (−0.26% per year, 2012) and aging population (median age: 41.6 years, 2018), one of the oldest populations in the world, with approximately 16.8% of total population aged 65 years and over. Romania_sentence_394

The life expectancy in 2015 was estimated at 74.92 years (71.46 years male, 78.59 years female). Romania_sentence_395

The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million. Romania_sentence_396

After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, a significant number of Romanians emigrated to other European countries, North America or Australia. Romania_sentence_397

For example, in 1990, 96,919 Romanians permanently settled abroad. Romania_sentence_398

Languages Romania_section_23

Main articles: Romanian language and Languages of Romania Romania_sentence_399

The official language is Romanian, a Romance language (the most widely spoken of the Eastern Romance branch), which presents a consistent degree of similarity to Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian, but shares many features equally with the rest of the Western Romance languages, specifically Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Catalan. Romania_sentence_400

The Romanian alphabet contains the same 26 letters of the standard Latin alphabet, as well as five additional ones (namely ă,â,î,ț, and ș), totaling 31. Romania_sentence_401

Romanian is spoken as a first language by approximately 90% of the entire population, while Hungarian and Vlax Romani are spoken by 6.2% and 1.2% of the population, respectively. Romania_sentence_402

There are also approximately 50,000 native speakers of Ukrainian (concentrated in some compact regions, near the border where they form local majorities), 25,000 native speakers of German, and 32,000 native speakers of Turkish living in Romania. Romania_sentence_403

According to the Constitution, local councils ensure linguistic rights to all minorities, with localities with ethnic minorities of over 20%, that minority's language can be used in the public administration, justice system, and education. Romania_sentence_404

Foreign citizens and stateless persons who live in Romania have access to justice and education in their own language. Romania_sentence_405

English and French are the main foreign languages taught in schools. Romania_sentence_406

In 2010, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie identified 4,756,100 French speakers in the country. Romania_sentence_407

According to the 2012 Eurobarometer, English is spoken by 31% of Romanians, French is spoken by 17%, as well as Italian and German, each by 7%. Romania_sentence_408

Religion Romania_section_24

Main articles: Religion in Romania and Romanian Orthodox Church Romania_sentence_409

Romania is a secular state and has no state religion. Romania_sentence_410

An overwhelming majority of the population identify themselves as Christians. Romania_sentence_411

At the country's 2011 census, 81.0% of respondents identified as Orthodox Christians belonging to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Romania_sentence_412

Other denominations include Protestantism (6.2%), Roman Catholicism (4.3%), and Greek Catholicism (0.8%). Romania_sentence_413

From the remaining population, 195,569 people belong to other Christian denominations or have another religion, which includes 64,337 Muslims (mostly of Turkish and Tatar ethnicity) and 3,519 Jewish (Jews once constituted 4% of the Romanian population—728,115 persons in the 1930 census). Romania_sentence_414

Moreover, 39,660 people have no religion or are atheist, whilst the religion of the rest is unknown. Romania_sentence_415

The Romanian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with other Orthodox churches, with a Patriarch as its leader. Romania_sentence_416

It is the fourth-largest Orthodox Church in the world, and unlike other Orthodox churches, it functions within a Latin culture and utilises a Romance liturgical language. Romania_sentence_417

Its canonical jurisdiction covers the territories of Romania and Moldova. Romania_sentence_418

Romania has the world's third-largest Eastern Orthodox population. Romania_sentence_419

Urbanisation Romania_section_25

Main articles: List of cities and towns in Romania and Metropolitan areas in Romania Romania_sentence_420

Although 54.0% of the population lived in urban areas in 2011, this percentage has been declining since 1996. Romania_sentence_421

Counties with over ⅔  urban population are Hunedoara, Brașov and Constanța, while those with less than a third are Dâmbovița (30.06%) and Giurgiu and Teleorman. Romania_sentence_422

Bucharest is the capital and the largest city in Romania, with a population of over 1.8 million in 2011. Romania_sentence_423

Its larger urban zone has a population of almost 2.2 million, which are planned to be included into a metropolitan area up to 20 times the area of the city proper. Romania_sentence_424

Another 19 cities have a population of over 100,000, with Cluj-Napoca and Timișoara of slightly more than 300,000 inhabitants, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov with over 250,000 inhabitants, and Galați and Ploiești with over 200,000 inhabitants. Romania_sentence_425

Metropolitan areas have been constituted for most of these cities. Romania_sentence_426

Education Romania_section_26

Main article: Education in Romania Romania_sentence_427

Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989, the Romanian educational system has been in a continuous process of reform that has received mixed criticism. Romania_sentence_428

In 2004, some 4.4 million individuals were enrolled in school. Romania_sentence_429

Of these, 650,000 were in kindergarten (three-six years), 3.11 million in primary and secondary level, and 650,000 in tertiary level (universities). Romania_sentence_430

In 2018, the adult literacy rate was 98.8%. Romania_sentence_431

Kindergarten is optional between three and six years. Romania_sentence_432

Since 2012, compulsory schooling starts at age 6 with the "preparatory school year" (clasa pregătitoare) and is compulsory until tenth grade. Romania_sentence_433

Primary and secondary education is divided into 12 or 13 grades. Romania_sentence_434

There is also a semi-legal, informal private tutoring system used mostly during secondary school, which prospered during the Communist regime. Romania_sentence_435

Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, University of Bucharest, and West University of Timișoara have been included in the QS World University Rankings' top 800. Romania_sentence_436

Romania ranks fifth in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 316 total medals, dating back to 1959. Romania_sentence_437

Ciprian Manolescu managed to write a perfect paper (42 points) for a gold medal more times than anybody else in the history of the competition, in 1995, 1996 and 1997. Romania_sentence_438

Romania has achieved the highest team score in the competition, after China, Russia, the United States and Hungary. Romania_sentence_439

Romania also ranks sixth in the all-time medal count at the International Olympiad in Informatics with 107 total medals, dating back to 1989. Romania_sentence_440

Healthcare Romania_section_27

Main article: Healthcare in Romania Romania_sentence_441

Romania has a universal health care system; total health expenditures by the government are roughly 5% of GDP. Romania_sentence_442

It covers medical examinations, any surgical interventions, and any post-operative medical care, and provides free or subsidised medicine for a range of diseases. Romania_sentence_443

The state is obliged to fund public hospitals and clinics. Romania_sentence_444

The most common causes of death are cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Romania_sentence_445

Transmissible diseases are quite common by European standards. Romania_sentence_446

In 2010, Romania had 428 state and 25 private hospitals, with 6.2 hospital beds per 1,000 people, and over 200,000 medical staff, including over 52,000 doctors. Romania_sentence_447

As of 2013, the emigration rate of doctors was 9%, higher than the European average of 2.5%. Romania_sentence_448

Culture Romania_section_28

Main articles: Culture of Romania and National symbols of Romania Romania_sentence_449

Arts and monuments Romania_section_29

Main articles: Romanian literature, Cinema of Romania, Music of Romania, and List of World Heritage Sites in Romania Romania_sentence_450

See also: List of films shot in Romania Romania_sentence_451

The topic of the origin of Romanian culture began to be discussed by the end of the 18th century among the Transylvanian School scholars. Romania_sentence_452

Several writers rose to prominence in the 19th century, including: George Coșbuc, Ioan Slavici, Mihail Kogălniceanu, Vasile Alecsandri, Nicolae Bălcescu, Ion Luca Caragiale, Ion Creangă, and Mihai Eminescu, the later being considered the greatest and most influential Romanian poet, particularly for the poem Luceafărul. Romania_sentence_453

In the 20th century, a number of Romanian artists and writers achieved international acclaim, including: Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco, Mircea Eliade, Nicolae Grigorescu, Marin Preda, Liviu Rebreanu, Eugène Ionesco, Emil Cioran, and Constantin Brâncuși. Romania_sentence_454

Brâncuși has a sculptural ensemble in Târgu Jiu, while his sculpture Bird in Space, was auctioned in 2005 for $27.5 million. Romania_sentence_455

Romanian-born Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986, while Banat Swabian writer Herta Müller received the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature. Romania_sentence_456

Prominent Romanian painters include: Nicolae Grigorescu, Ștefan Luchian, Ion Andreescu Nicolae Tonitza and Theodor Aman. Romania_sentence_457

Notable Romanian classical composers of the 19th and 20th centuries include: Ciprian Porumbescu, Anton Pann, Eduard Caudella, Mihail Jora, Dinu Lipatti and especially George Enescu. Romania_sentence_458

The annual George Enescu Festival is held in Bucharest in honour of the 20th-century composer. Romania_sentence_459

Contemporary musicians like Angela Gheorghiu, Gheorghe Zamfir, Inna, Alexandra Stan and many others have achieved various levels of international acclaim. Romania_sentence_460

At the Eurovision Song Contest Romanian singers achieved third place in 2005 and 2010. Romania_sentence_461

In cinema, several movies of the Romanian New Wave have achieved international acclaim. Romania_sentence_462

At the Cannes Film Festival, The Death of Mr. Lazarescu by Cristi Puiu won the Prix Un Certain Regard in 2005, while 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days by Cristian Mungiu won the festival's top prize, the Palme d'Or, in 2007. Romania_sentence_463

At the Berlin International Film Festival, Child's Pose by Călin Peter Netzer won the Golden Bear in 2013. Romania_sentence_464

The list of World Heritage Sites includes six cultural sites located within Romania, including eight painted churches of northern Moldavia, eight wooden churches of Maramureș, seven villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, the Horezu Monastery, and the Historic Centre of Sighișoara. Romania_sentence_465

The city of Sibiu, with its Brukenthal National Museum, was selected as the 2007 European Capital of Culture. Romania_sentence_466

Multiple castles exist in Romania, including the popular tourist attractions of Peleș Castle, Corvin Castle, and Bran Castle or "Dracula's Castle". Romania_sentence_467

Holidays, traditions, and cuisine Romania_section_30

See also: Romanian dress, Folklore of Romania, and Romanian cuisine Romania_sentence_468

There are 12 non-working public holidays, including the Great Union Day, celebrated on 1 December in commemoration of the 1918 union of Transylvania with Romania. Romania_sentence_469

Winter holidays include the Christmas and New Year festivities during which various unique folklore dances and games are common: plugușorul, sorcova, ursul, and capra. Romania_sentence_470

The traditional Romanian dress that otherwise has largely fallen out of use during the 20th century, is a popular ceremonial vestment worn on these festivities, especially in rural areas. Romania_sentence_471

There are sacrifices of live pigs during Christmas and lambs during Easter that has required a special exemption from EU law after 2007. Romania_sentence_472

In the Easter, traditions such as painting the eggs are very common. Romania_sentence_473

On 1 March features mărțișor gifting, which is a tradition that females are gifted with a type of talisman that is given for good luck. Romania_sentence_474

Romanian cuisine has been influenced by Austrian and German cuisine (especially in the historical regions that had been formerly administered by the Habsburg Monarchy), but also shares some similarities with other cuisines in the Balkan region such as the Greek, Bulgarian, or Serbian cuisine. Romania_sentence_475

Ciorbă includes a wide range of sour soups, while mititei, mămăligă (similar to polenta), and sarmale are featured commonly in main courses. Romania_sentence_476

Pork, chicken, and beef are the preferred types of meat, but lamb and fish are also quite popular. Romania_sentence_477

Certain traditional recipes are made in direct connection with the holidays: chiftele, tobă and tochitura at Christmas; drob, pască and cozonac at Easter and other Romanian holidays. Romania_sentence_478

Țuică is a strong plum brandy reaching a 70% alcohol content which is the country's traditional alcoholic beverage, taking as much as 75% of the national crop (Romania is one of the largest plum producers in the world). Romania_sentence_479

Traditional alcoholic beverages also include wine, rachiu, palincă and vișinată, but beer consumption has increased dramatically over recent years. Romania_sentence_480

Sports Romania_section_31

Main article: Sport in Romania Romania_sentence_481

Football is the most popular sport in Romania with over 219,000 registered players as of 2018. Romania_sentence_482

The market for professional football in Romania is roughly €740 million according to UEFA. Romania_sentence_483

The governing body is the Romanian Football Federation, which belongs to UEFA. Romania_sentence_484

The Romania national football team played its first match in 1922 and is one of only four national teams to have taken part in the first three FIFA World Cups, the other three being Brazil, France, and Belgium. Romania_sentence_485

Overall, it has played in seven World Cups and had its most successful period during the 1990s, when it finished 6th at the 1994 FIFA World Cup, eventually being ranked 3rd by FIFA in 1997. Romania_sentence_486

The core player of this golden generation was Gheorghe Hagi, who was nicknamed "Maradona of the Carpathians". Romania_sentence_487

Other successful players include the European Golden Shoe winners: Dudu Georgescu, Dorin Mateuț and Rodion Cămătaru, Nicolae Dobrin, Ilie Balaci, Florea Dumitrache, Mihai Mocanu, Michael Klein, Mircea Rednic, Cornel Dinu, Mircea Lucescu, Costică Ștefănescu, Liță Dumitru, Lajos Sătmăreanu, Ștefan Sameș, Ladislau Bölöni, Anghel Iordănescu, Miodrag Belodedici, Helmuth Duckadam, Marius Lăcătuș, Victor Pițurcă and many others, and most recently Gheorghe Popescu, Florin Răducioiu, Dorinel Munteanu, Dan Petrescu, Adrian Mutu, Cristian Chivu, or Cosmin Contra. Romania_sentence_488

Romania's home ground is the Arena Națională in Bucharest. Romania_sentence_489

The most successful club is Steaua București, who were the first Eastern European team to win the Champions League in 1986, and were runners-up in 1989. Romania_sentence_490

They were also Europa League semi-finalists in 2006. Romania_sentence_491

Dinamo București reached the Champions League semi-final in 1984 and the Cup Winners' Cup semi-final in 1990. Romania_sentence_492

Other important Romanian football clubs are Rapid București, UTA Arad, Universitatea Craiova, Petrolul Ploiești, CFR Cluj, Astra Giurgiu, and Viitorul Constanța. Romania_sentence_493

Tennis is the second most popular sport. Romania_sentence_494

Romania reached the Davis Cup finals three times in 1969, 1971 and 1972. Romania_sentence_495

In singles, Ilie Năstase was the first year-end World Number 1 in the ATP Rankings in 1973, winning several Grand Slam titles. Romania_sentence_496

Also Virginia Ruzici won the French Open in 1978, and was runner-up in 1980, Simona Halep won the French Open in 2018 and Wimbledon in 2019 after losing her first three Grand Slam finals. Romania_sentence_497

She has ended 2017 and 2018 as WTA's World Number 1. Romania_sentence_498

And in doubles Horia Tecău won three Grand Slams and the ATP Finals final. Romania_sentence_499

He was World Number 2 in 2015. Romania_sentence_500

The second most popular team sport is handball. Romania_sentence_501

The men's team won the handball world championship in 1961, 1964, 1970, 1974 making them the third most successful nation ever in the tournament. Romania_sentence_502

The women's team won the world championship in 1962 and have enjoyed more success than their male counterparts in recent years. Romania_sentence_503

In the club competition Romanian teams have won the EHF Champions League a total of three times, Steaua București won in 1968 as well as 1977 and Dinamo București won in 1965. Romania_sentence_504

The most notable players include Ștefan Birtalan, Vasile Stîngă (all-time top scorer in the national team) and Gheorghe Gruia who was named the best player ever in 1992. Romania_sentence_505

In present-day Cristina Neagu is the most notable player and has a record four IHF World Player of the Year awards. Romania_sentence_506

In women's handball, powerhouse CSM București lifted the EHF Champions League trophy in 2016. Romania_sentence_507

Popular individual sports include combat sports, martial arts, and swimming. Romania_sentence_508

In professional boxing, Romania has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by governing bodies. Romania_sentence_509

World champions include Lucian Bute, Leonard Dorin Doroftei, Adrian Diaconu, and Michael Loewe. Romania_sentence_510

Another popular combat sport is professional kickboxing, which has produced prominent practitioners including Daniel Ghiță, and Benjamin Adegbuyi. Romania_sentence_511

Romania's 306 all-time Summer Olympics medals would rank 12th most among all countries, while its 89 gold medals would be 14th most. Romania_sentence_512

The 1984 Summer Olympics was their most successful run, where they won 53 medals in total, 20 of them gold, ultimately placing 2nd to the hosts United States in the medal rankings. Romania_sentence_513

Amongst countries who have never hosted the event themselves, they are second in the total number of medals earned. Romania_sentence_514

Gymnastics is country's major medal-producing sport, with Olympic and sport icon Nadia Comăneci becoming the first gymnast ever to score a perfect ten in an Olympic event at the 1976 Summer Olympics. Romania_sentence_515

Other Romanian athletes who collected five gold medals like Comăneci are rowers Elisabeta Lipa (1984-2004) and Georgeta Damian (2000-2008). Romania_sentence_516

The Romanian competitors have won gold medals in other Olympic sports: athletics, canoeing, wrestling, shooting, fencing, swimming, weightlifting, boxing, and judo. Romania_sentence_517

See also Romania_section_32


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