Rome

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This article is about the capital and largest city in Italy. Rome_sentence_0

For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation) and Roma (disambiguation). Rome_sentence_1

Rome_table_infobox_0

Rome

RomaRome_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryRome_header_cell_0_1_0 Italy ItalyRome_cell_0_1_1
RegionRome_header_cell_0_2_0 LazioRome_cell_0_2_1
Metropolitan cityRome_header_cell_0_3_0 RomeRome_cell_0_3_1
FoundedRome_header_cell_0_4_0 c. 753 BCRome_cell_0_4_1
Founded byRome_header_cell_0_5_0 King RomulusRome_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentRome_header_cell_0_6_0
TypeRome_header_cell_0_7_0 Strong Mayor–CouncilRome_cell_0_7_1
MayorRome_header_cell_0_8_0 Virginia Raggi (M5S)Rome_cell_0_8_1
LegislatureRome_header_cell_0_9_0 Capitoline AssemblyRome_cell_0_9_1
AreaRome_header_cell_0_10_0
TotalRome_header_cell_0_11_0 1,285 km (496.3 sq mi)Rome_cell_0_11_1
ElevationRome_header_cell_0_12_0 21 m (69 ft)Rome_cell_0_12_1
Population (31 December 2019)Rome_header_cell_0_13_0
RankRome_header_cell_0_14_0 1 in Italy (3 in the EU)Rome_cell_0_14_1
DensityRome_header_cell_0_15_0 2,236/km (5,790/sq mi)Rome_cell_0_15_1
ComuneRome_header_cell_0_16_0 2,860,009Rome_cell_0_16_1
Metropolitan CityRome_header_cell_0_17_0 4,342,212Rome_cell_0_17_1
Demonym(s)Rome_header_cell_0_18_0 Italian: romano (masculine), romana (feminine)

English: RomanRome_cell_0_18_1

Time zoneRome_header_cell_0_19_0 UTC+1 (CET)Rome_cell_0_19_1
CAP code(s)Rome_header_cell_0_20_0 00100; 00118 to 00199Rome_cell_0_20_1
Area code(s)Rome_header_cell_0_21_0 06Rome_cell_0_21_1
WebsiteRome_header_cell_0_22_0 Rome_cell_0_22_1
UNESCO World Heritage SiteOfficial nameHistoric Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le MuraReferenceInscription1980 (4th session)Area1,431 ha (3,540 acres)Rome_cell_0_23_0
UNESCO World Heritage SiteRome_header_cell_0_24_0
Official nameRome_header_cell_0_25_0 Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le MuraRome_cell_0_25_1
ReferenceRome_header_cell_0_26_0 Rome_cell_0_26_1
InscriptionRome_header_cell_0_27_0 1980 (4th session)Rome_cell_0_27_1
AreaRome_header_cell_0_28_0 1,431 ha (3,540 acres)Rome_cell_0_28_1

Rome (Italian and Latin: Roma [ˈroːma (listen)) is the capital city and a special comune of Italy (named Comune di Roma Capitale), as well as the capital of the Lazio region. Rome_sentence_2

The city has been a major human settlement for almost three millennia. Rome_sentence_3

With 2,860,009 residents in 1,285 km (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. Rome_sentence_4

It is the third most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. Rome_sentence_5

It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome_sentence_6

Its metropolitan area is the third-most populous within Italy. Rome_sentence_7

Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. Rome_sentence_8

Vatican City (the smallest country in the world) is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city; for this reason Rome has sometimes been defined as the capital of two states. Rome_sentence_9

Rome's history spans 28 centuries. Rome_sentence_10

While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied cities in Europe. Rome_sentence_11

The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans, and Sabines. Rome_sentence_12

Eventually, the city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, and is regarded by many as the first ever Imperial City and metropolis. Rome_sentence_13

It was first called The Eternal City (Latin: Urbs Aeterna; Italian: La Città Eterna) by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was also taken up by Ovid, Virgil, and Livy. Rome_sentence_14

Rome is also called "Caput Mundi" (Capital of the World). Rome_sentence_15

After the fall of the Empire in the west, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome slowly fell under the political control of the Papacy, and in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Rome_sentence_16

Beginning with the Renaissance, almost all popes since Nicholas V (1447–1455) pursued a coherent architectural and urban programme over four hundred years, aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. Rome_sentence_17

In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Renaissance, and then the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Rome_sentence_18

Famous artists, painters, sculptors and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city. Rome_sentence_19

In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome_sentence_20

In 2019, Rome was the 11th most visited city in the world with 10.1 million tourists, the third most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist destination in Italy. Rome_sentence_21

Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Rome_sentence_22

Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is also the seat of several specialised agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Rome_sentence_23

The city also hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p.A., and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL. Rome_sentence_24

Rome's EUR business district is the home of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, and financial services. Rome_sentence_25

The presence of renowned international brands in the city have made Rome an important centre of fashion and design, and the Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. Rome_sentence_26

Etymology Rome_section_0

According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. Rome_sentence_27

However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. Rome_sentence_28

As early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Rome_sentence_29

Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: Rome_sentence_30

Rome_unordered_list_0

  • from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn is supposedly related to the Greek verb ῥέω (rhéō) 'to flow, stream' and the Latin verb ruō 'to hurry, rush';Rome_item_0_0
  • from the Etruscan word 𐌓𐌖𐌌𐌀 (ruma), whose root is *rum- "teat", with possible reference either to the totem wolf that adopted and suckled the cognately named twins Romulus and Remus, or to the shape of the Palatine and Aventine Hills;Rome_item_0_1
  • from the Greek word ῥώμη (rhṓmē), which means strength.Rome_item_0_2

History Rome_section_1

Main articles: History of Rome and Timeline of the city of Rome Rome_sentence_31

Earliest history Rome_section_2

Main article: Founding of Rome Rome_sentence_32

While there have been discoveries of archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago, the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites. Rome_sentence_33

Evidence of stone tools, pottery, and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Rome_sentence_34

Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Rome_sentence_35

Between the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village (on the Capitol Hill, a village is attested since the end of the 14th century BC). Rome_sentence_36

However, none of them yet had an urban quality. Rome_sentence_37

Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed gradually through the aggregation ("synoecism") of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. Rome_sentence_38

This aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which also allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. Rome_sentence_39

These, in turn, boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy (mainly Ischia and Cumae). Rome_sentence_40

These developments, which according to archaeological evidence took place during the mid-eighth century BC, can be considered as the "birth" of the city. Rome_sentence_41

Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome was founded deliberately in the middle of the eighth century BC, as the legend of Romulus suggests, remains a fringe hypothesis. Rome_sentence_42

Legend of the founding of Rome Rome_section_3

Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth. Rome_sentence_43

The most familiar of these myths, and perhaps the most famous of all Roman myths, is the story of Romulus and Remus, the twins who were suckled by a she-wolf. Rome_sentence_44

They decided to build a city, but after an argument, Romulus killed his brother and the city took his name. Rome_sentence_45

According to the Roman annalists, this happened on 21 April 753 BC. Rome_sentence_46

This legend had to be reconciled with a dual tradition, set earlier in time, that had the Trojan refugee Aeneas escape to Italy and found the line of Romans through his son Iulus, the namesake of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Rome_sentence_47

This was accomplished by the Roman poet Virgil in the first century BC. Rome_sentence_48

In addition, Strabo mentions an older story, that the city was an Arcadian colony founded by Evander. Rome_sentence_49

Strabo also writes that Lucius Coelius Antipater believed that Rome was founded by Greeks. Rome_sentence_50

Monarchy and republic Rome_section_4

Main articles: Ancient Rome, Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic, and Roman Empire Rome_sentence_51

After the legendary foundation by Romulus, Rome was ruled for a period of 244 years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings. Rome_sentence_52

The tradition handed down seven kings: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius and Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. Rome_sentence_53

In 509 BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city and established an oligarchic republic. Rome_sentence_54

Rome then began a period characterised by internal struggles between patricians (aristocrats) and plebeians (small landowners), and by constant warfare against the populations of central Italy: Etruscans, Latins, Volsci, Aequi, and Marsi. Rome_sentence_55

After becoming master of Latium, Rome led several wars (against the Gauls, Osci-Samnites and the Greek colony of Taranto, allied with Pyrrhus, king of Epirus) whose result was the conquest of the Italian peninsula, from the central area up to Magna Graecia. Rome_sentence_56

The third and second century BC saw the establishment of Roman hegemony over the Mediterranean and the Balkans, through the three Punic Wars (264–146 BC) fought against the city of Carthage and the three Macedonian Wars (212–168 BC) against Macedonia. Rome_sentence_57

The first Roman provinces were established at this time: Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, Hispania, Macedonia, Achaea and Africa. Rome_sentence_58

From the beginning of the 2nd century BC, power was contested between two groups of aristocrats: the optimates, representing the conservative part of the Senate, and the populares, which relied on the help of the plebs (urban lower class) to gain power. Rome_sentence_59

In the same period, the bankruptcy of the small farmers and the establishment of large slave estates caused large-scale migration to the city. Rome_sentence_60

The continuous warfare led to the establishment of a professional army, which turned out to be more loyal to its generals than to the republic. Rome_sentence_61

Because of this, in the second half of the second century and during the first century BC there were conflicts both abroad and internally: after the failed attempt of social reform of the populares Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, and the war against Jugurtha, there was a first civil war between Gaius Marius and Sulla. Rome_sentence_62

A major slave revolt under Spartacus followed, and then the establishment of the first Triumvirate with Caesar, Pompey and Crassus. Rome_sentence_63

The conquest of Gaul made Caesar immensely powerful and popular, which led to a second civil war against the Senate and Pompey. Rome_sentence_64

After his victory, Caesar established himself as dictator for life. Rome_sentence_65

His assassination led to a second Triumvirate among Octavian (Caesar's grandnephew and heir), Mark Antony and Lepidus, and to another civil war between Octavian and Antony. Rome_sentence_66

Empire Rome_section_5

In 27 BC, Octavian became princeps civitatis and took the title of Augustus, founding the principate, a diarchy between the princeps and the senate. Rome_sentence_67

During the reign of Nero, two thirds of the city was ruined after the Great Fire of Rome, and the persecution of Christians commenced. Rome_sentence_68

Rome was established as a de facto empire, which reached its greatest expansion in the second century under the Emperor Trajan. Rome_sentence_69

Rome was confirmed as caput Mundi, i.e. the capital of the known world, an expression which had already been used in the Republican period. Rome_sentence_70

During its first two centuries, the empire was ruled by emperors of the Julio-Claudian, Flavian (who also built an eponymous amphitheatre, known as the Colosseum), and Antonine dynasties. Rome_sentence_71

This time was also characterised by the spread of the Christian religion, preached by Jesus Christ in Judea in the first half of the first century (under Tiberius) and popularised by his apostles through the empire and beyond. Rome_sentence_72

The Antonine age is considered the apogee of the Empire, whose territory ranged from the Atlantic Ocean to the Euphrates and from Britain to Egypt. Rome_sentence_73

After the end of the Severan Dynasty in 235, the Empire entered into a 50-year period known as the Crisis of the Third Century during which there were numerous putsches by generals, who sought to secure the region of the empire they were entrusted with due to the weakness of central authority in Rome. Rome_sentence_74

There was the so-called Gallic Empire from 260 to 274 and the revolts of Zenobia and her father from the mid-260s which sought to fend off Persian incursions. Rome_sentence_75

Some regions – Britain, Spain, and North Africa – were hardly affected. Rome_sentence_76

Instability caused economic deterioration, and there was a rapid rise in inflation as the government debased the currency in order to meet expenses. Rome_sentence_77

The Germanic tribes along the Rhine and north of the Balkans made serious, uncoordinated incursions from the 250s-280s that were more like giant raiding parties rather than attempts to settle. Rome_sentence_78

The Persian Empire invaded from the east several times during the 230s to 260s but were eventually defeated. Rome_sentence_79

Emperor Diocletian (284) undertook the restoration of the State. Rome_sentence_80

He ended the Principate and introduced the Tetrarchy which sought to increase state power. Rome_sentence_81

The most marked feature was the unprecedented intervention of the State down to the city level: whereas the State had submitted a tax demand to a city and allowed it to allocate the charges, from his reign the State did this down to the village level. Rome_sentence_82

In a vain attempt to control inflation, he imposed price controls which did not last. Rome_sentence_83

He or Constantine regionalised the administration of the empire which fundamentally changed the way it was governed by creating regional dioceses (the consensus seems to have shifted from 297 to 313/14 as the date of creation due to the argument of Constantin Zuckerman in 2002 "Sur la liste de Verone et la province de grande armenie, Melanges Gilber Dagron). Rome_sentence_84

The existence of regional fiscal units from 286 served as the model for this unprecedented innovation. Rome_sentence_85

The emperor quickened the process of removing military command from governors. Rome_sentence_86

Henceforth, civilian administration and military command would be separate. Rome_sentence_87

He gave governors more fiscal duties and placed them in charge of the army logistical support system as an attempt to control it by removing the support system from its control. Rome_sentence_88

Diocletian ruled the eastern half, residing in Nicomedia. Rome_sentence_89

In 296, he elevated Maximian to Augustus of the western half, where he ruled mostly from Mediolanum when not on the move. Rome_sentence_90

In 292, he created two 'junior' emperors, the Caesars, one for each Augustus, Constantius for Britain, Gaul, and Spain whose seat of power was in Trier and Licinius in Sirmium in the Balkans. Rome_sentence_91

The appointment of a Caesar was not unknown: Diocletian tried to turn into a system of non-dynastic succession. Rome_sentence_92

Upon abdication in 305, the Caesars succeeded and they, in turn, appointed two colleagues for themselves. Rome_sentence_93

After the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian in 305 and a series of civil wars between rival claimants to imperial power, during the years 306–313, the Tetrarchy was abandoned. Rome_sentence_94

Constantine the Great undertook a major reform of the bureaucracy, not by changing the structure but by rationalising the competencies of the several ministries during the years 325–330, after he defeated Licinius, emperor in the East, at the end of 324. Rome_sentence_95

The so-called Edict of Milan of 313, actually a fragment of a letter from Licinius to the governors of the eastern provinces, granted freedom of worship to everyone, including Christians, and ordered the restoration of confiscated church properties upon petition to the newly created vicars of dioceses. Rome_sentence_96

He funded the building of several churches and allowed clergy to act as arbitrators in civil suits (a measure that did not outlast him but which was restored in part much later). Rome_sentence_97

He transformed the town of Byzantium into his new residence, which, however, was not officially anything more than an imperial residence like Milan or Trier or Nicomedia until given a city prefect in May 359 by Constantius II; Constantinople. Rome_sentence_98

Christianity in the form of the Nicene Creed became the official religion of the empire in 380, via the Edict of Thessalonica issued in the name of three emperors – Gratian, Valentinian II, and Theodosius I – with Theodosius clearly the driving force behind it. Rome_sentence_99

He was the last emperor of a unified empire: after his death in 395, his sons, Arcadius and Honorius divided the empire into a western and an eastern part. Rome_sentence_100

The seat of government in the Western Roman Empire was transferred to Ravenna after the Siege of Milan in 402. Rome_sentence_101

During the 5th century, the emperors from the 430s mostly resided in the capital city, Rome. Rome_sentence_102

Rome, which had lost its central role in the administration of the empire, was sacked in 410 by the Visigoths led by Alaric I, but very little physical damage was done, most of which were repaired. Rome_sentence_103

What could not be so easily replaced were portable items such as artwork in precious metals and items for domestic use (loot). Rome_sentence_104

The popes embellished the city with large basilicas, such as Santa Maria Maggiore (with the collaboration of the emperors). Rome_sentence_105

The population of the city had fallen from 800,000 to 450–500,000 by the time the city was sacked in 455 by Genseric, king of the Vandals. Rome_sentence_106

The weak emperors of the fifth century could not stop the decay, leading to the deposition of Romulus Augustus on 22 August 476, which marked the end of the Western Roman Empire and, for many historians, the beginning of the Middle Ages. Rome_sentence_107

The decline of the city's population was caused by the loss of grain shipments from North Africa, from 440 onward, and the unwillingness of the senatorial class to maintain donations to support a population that was too large for the resources available. Rome_sentence_108

Even so, strenuous efforts were made to maintain the monumental centre, the palatine, and the largest baths, which continued to function until the Gothic siege of 537. Rome_sentence_109

The large baths of Constantine on the Quirinale were even repaired in 443, and the extent of the damage exaggerated and dramatised. Rome_sentence_110

However, the city gave an appearance overall of shabbiness and decay because of the large abandoned areas due to population decline. Rome_sentence_111

The population declined to 500,000 by 452 and 100,000 by 500 AD (perhaps larger, though no certain figure can be known). Rome_sentence_112

After the Gothic siege of 537, the population dropped to 30,000 but had risen to 90,000 by the papacy of Gregory the Great. Rome_sentence_113

The population decline coincided with the general collapse of urban life in the West in the fifth and sixth centuries, with few exceptions. Rome_sentence_114

Subsidized state grain distributions to the poorer members of society continued right through the sixth century and probably prevented the population from falling further. Rome_sentence_115

The figure of 450,000–500,000 is based on the amount of pork, 3,629,000 lbs. Rome_sentence_116

distributed to poorer Romans during five winter months at the rate of five Roman lbs per person per month, enough for 145,000 persons or 1/4 or 1/3 of the total population. Rome_sentence_117

Grain distribution to 80,000 ticket holders at the same time suggests 400,000 (Augustus set the number at 200,000 or one-fifth of the population). Rome_sentence_118

Middle Ages Rome_section_6

The Bishop of Rome, called the Pope, was important since the early days of Christianity because of the martyrdom of both the apostles Peter and Paul there. Rome_sentence_119

The Bishops of Rome were also seen (and still are seen by Catholics) as the successors of Peter, who is considered the first Bishop of Rome. Rome_sentence_120

The city thus became of increasing importance as the centre of the Catholic Church. Rome_sentence_121

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, Rome was first under the control of Odoacer and then became part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom before returning to East Roman control after the Gothic War, which devastated the city in 546 and 550. Rome_sentence_122

Its population declined from more than a million in 210 AD to 500,000 in 273 to 35,000 after the Gothic War (535–554), reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins, vegetation, vineyards and market gardens. Rome_sentence_123

It is generally thought the population of the city until 300 AD was 1 million (estimates range from 2 million to 750,000) declining to 750–800,000 in 400 AD, 450–500,000 in 450 AD and down to 80–100,000 in 500 AD (though it may have been twice this). Rome_sentence_124

After the Lombard invasion of Italy, the city remained nominally Byzantine, but in reality, the popes pursued a policy of equilibrium between the Byzantines, the Franks, and the Lombards. Rome_sentence_125

In 729, the Lombard king Liutprand donated the north Latium town of Sutri to the Church, starting its temporal power. Rome_sentence_126

In 756, Pepin the Short, after having defeated the Lombards, gave the Pope temporal jurisdiction over the Roman Duchy and the Exarchate of Ravenna, thus creating the Papal States. Rome_sentence_127

Since this period, three powers tried to rule the city: the pope, the nobility (together with the chiefs of militias, the judges, the Senate and the populace), and the Frankish king, as king of the Lombards, patricius, and Emperor. Rome_sentence_128

These three parties (theocratic, republican, and imperial) were a characteristic of Roman life during the entire Middle Ages. Rome_sentence_129

On Christmas night of 800, Charlemagne was crowned in Rome as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo III: on that occasion, the city hosted for the first time the two powers whose struggle for control was to be a constant of the Middle Ages. Rome_sentence_130

In 846, Muslim Arabs unsuccessfully stormed the city's walls, but managed to loot St. Rome_sentence_131 Peter's and St. Paul's basilica, both outside the city wall. Rome_sentence_132

After the decay of Carolingian power, Rome fell prey to feudal chaos: several noble families fought against the pope, the emperor, and each other. Rome_sentence_133

These were the times of Theodora and her daughter Marozia, concubines and mothers of several popes, and of Crescentius, a powerful feudal lord, who fought against the Emperors Otto II and Otto III. Rome_sentence_134

The scandals of this period forced the papacy to reform itself: the election of the pope was reserved to the cardinals, and reform of the clergy was attempted. Rome_sentence_135

The driving force behind this renewal was the monk Ildebrando da Soana, who once elected pope under the name of Gregory VII became involved into the Investiture Controversy against Emperor Henry IV. Rome_sentence_136

Subsequently, Rome was sacked and burned by the Normans under Robert Guiscard who had entered the city in support of the Pope, then besieged in Castel Sant'Angelo. Rome_sentence_137

During this period, the city was autonomously ruled by a senatore or patrizio. Rome_sentence_138

In the 12th century, this administration, like other European cities, evolved into the commune, a new form of social organisation controlled by the new wealthy classes. Rome_sentence_139

Pope Lucius II fought against the Roman commune, and the struggle was continued by his successor Pope Eugenius III: by this stage, the commune, allied with the aristocracy, was supported by Arnaldo da Brescia, a monk who was a religious and social reformer. Rome_sentence_140

After the pope's death, Arnaldo was taken prisoner by Adrianus IV, which marked the end of the commune's autonomy. Rome_sentence_141

Under Pope Innocent III, whose reign marked the apogee of the papacy, the commune liquidated the senate, and replaced it with a Senatore, who was subject to the pope. Rome_sentence_142

In this period, the papacy played a role of secular importance in Western Europe, often acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs and exercising additional political powers. Rome_sentence_143

In 1266, Charles of Anjou, who was heading south to fight the Hohenstaufen on behalf of the pope, was appointed Senator. Rome_sentence_144

Charles founded the Sapienza, the university of Rome. Rome_sentence_145

In that period the pope died, and the cardinals, summoned in Viterbo, could not agree on his successor. Rome_sentence_146

This angered the people of the city, who then unroofed the building where they met and imprisoned them until they had nominated the new pope; this marked the birth of the conclave. Rome_sentence_147

In this period the city was also shattered by continuous fights between the aristocratic families: Annibaldi, Caetani, Colonna, Orsini, Conti, nested in their fortresses built above ancient Roman edifices, fought each other to control the papacy. Rome_sentence_148

Pope Boniface VIII, born Caetani, was the last pope to fight for the church's universal domain; he proclaimed a crusade against the Colonna family and, in 1300, called for the first Jubilee of Christianity, which brought millions of pilgrims to Rome. Rome_sentence_149

However, his hopes were crushed by the French king Philip the Fair, who took him prisoner and killed him in Anagni. Rome_sentence_150

Afterwards, a new pope faithful to the French was elected, and the papacy was briefly relocated to Avignon (1309–1377). Rome_sentence_151

During this period Rome was neglected, until a plebeian man, Cola di Rienzo, came to power. Rome_sentence_152

An idealist and a lover of ancient Rome, Cola dreamed about a rebirth of the Roman Empire: after assuming power with the title of Tribuno, his reforms were rejected by the populace. Rome_sentence_153

Forced to flee, Cola returned as part of the entourage of Cardinal Albornoz, who was charged with restoring the Church's power in Italy. Rome_sentence_154

Back in power for a short time, Cola was soon lynched by the populace, and Albornoz took possession of the city. Rome_sentence_155

In 1377, Rome became the seat of the papacy again under Gregory XI. Rome_sentence_156

The return of the pope to Rome in that year unleashed the Western Schism (1377–1418), and for the next forty years, the city was affected by the divisions which rocked the Church. Rome_sentence_157

Early modern history Rome_section_7

Main article: Roman Renaissance Rome_sentence_158

In 1418, the Council of Constance settled the Western Schism, and a Roman pope, Martin V, was elected. Rome_sentence_159

This brought to Rome a century of internal peace, which marked the beginning of the Renaissance. Rome_sentence_160

The ruling popes until the first half of the 16th century, from Nicholas V, founder of the Vatican Library, to Pius II, humanist and literate, from Sixtus IV, a warrior pope, to Alexander VI, immoral and nepotist, from Julius II, soldier and patron, to Leo X, who gave his name to this period ("the century of Leo X"), all devoted their energy to the greatness and the beauty of the Eternal City and to the patronage of the arts. Rome_sentence_161

During those years, the centre of the Italian Renaissance moved to Rome from Florence. Rome_sentence_162

Majestic works, as the new Saint Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and Ponte Sisto (the first bridge to be built across the Tiber since antiquity, although on Roman foundations) were created. Rome_sentence_163

To accomplish that, the Popes engaged the best artists of the time, including Michelangelo, Perugino, Raphael, Ghirlandaio, Luca Signorelli, Botticelli, and Cosimo Rosselli. Rome_sentence_164

The period was also infamous for papal corruption, with many Popes fathering children, and engaging in nepotism and simony. Rome_sentence_165

The corruption of the Popes and the huge expenses for their building projects led, in part, to the Reformation and, in turn, the Counter-Reformation. Rome_sentence_166

Under extravagant and rich popes, Rome was transformed into a centre of art, poetry, music, literature, education and culture. Rome_sentence_167

Rome became able to compete with other major European cities of the time in terms of wealth, grandeur, the arts, learning and architecture. Rome_sentence_168

The Renaissance period changed the face of Rome dramatically, with works like the Pietà by Michelangelo and the frescoes of the Borgia Apartments. Rome_sentence_169

Rome reached the highest point of splendour under Pope Julius II (1503–1513) and his successors Leo X and Clement VII, both members of the Medici family. Rome_sentence_170

In this twenty-year period, Rome became one of the greatest centres of art in the world. Rome_sentence_171

The old St. Peter's Basilica built by Emperor Constantine the Great (which by then was in a dilapidated state) was demolished and a new one begun. Rome_sentence_172

The city hosted artists like Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Botticelli and Bramante, who built the temple of San Pietro in Montorio and planned a great project to renovate the Vatican. Rome_sentence_173

Raphael, who in Rome became one of the most famous painters of Italy, created frescoes in the Villa Farnesina, the Raphael's Rooms, plus many other famous paintings. Rome_sentence_174

Michelangelo started the decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and executed the famous statue of the Moses for the tomb of Julius II. Rome_sentence_175

Its economy was rich, with the presence of several Tuscan bankers, including Agostino Chigi, who was a friend of Raphael and a patron of arts. Rome_sentence_176

Before his early death, Raphael also promoted for the first time the preservation of the ancient ruins. Rome_sentence_177

The War of the League of Cognac caused the first plunder of the city in more than five hundred years since the previous sack; in 1527, the Landsknechts of Emperor Charles V sacked the city, bringing an abrupt end to the golden age of the Renaissance in Rome. Rome_sentence_178

Beginning with the Council of Trent in 1545, the Church began the Counter-Reformation in response to the Reformation, a large-scale questioning of the Church's authority on spiritual matters and governmental affairs. Rome_sentence_179

This loss of confidence led to major shifts of power away from the Church. Rome_sentence_180

Under the popes from Pius IV to Sixtus V, Rome became the centre of a reformed Catholicism and saw the building of new monuments which celebrated the papacy. Rome_sentence_181

The popes and cardinals of the 17th and early 18th centuries continued the movement by having the city's landscape enriched with baroque buildings. Rome_sentence_182

This was another nepotistic age; the new aristocratic families (Barberini, Pamphili, Chigi, Rospigliosi, Altieri, Odescalchi) were protected by their respective popes, who built huge baroque buildings for their relatives. Rome_sentence_183

During the Age of Enlightenment, new ideas reached the Eternal City, where the papacy supported archaeological studies and improved the people's welfare. Rome_sentence_184

But not everything went well for the Church during the Counter-Reformation. Rome_sentence_185

There were setbacks in the attempts to assert the Church's power, a notable example being in 1773 when Pope Clement XIV was forced by secular powers to have the Jesuit order suppressed. Rome_sentence_186

Late modern and contemporary Rome_section_8

The rule of the Popes was interrupted by the short-lived Roman Republic (1798–1800), which was established under the influence of the French Revolution. Rome_sentence_187

The Papal States were restored in June 1800, but during Napoleon's reign Rome was annexed as a Département of the French Empire: first as Département du Tibre (1808–1810) and then as Département Rome (1810–1814). Rome_sentence_188

After the fall of Napoleon, the Papal States were reconstituted by a decision of the Congress of Vienna of 1814. Rome_sentence_189

In 1849, a second Roman Republic was proclaimed during a year of revolutions in 1848. Rome_sentence_190

Two of the most influential figures of the Italian unification, Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, fought for the short-lived republic. Rome_sentence_191

Rome then became the focus of hopes of Italian reunification after the rest of Italy was united as the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 with the temporary capital in Florence. Rome_sentence_192

That year Rome was declared the capital of Italy even though it was still under the Pope's control. Rome_sentence_193

During the 1860s, the last vestiges of the Papal States were under French protection thanks to the foreign policy of Napoleon III. Rome_sentence_194

French troops were stationed in the region under Papal control. Rome_sentence_195

in 1870 the French troops were withdrawn due to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. Rome_sentence_196

Italian troops were able to capture Rome entering the city through a breach near Porta Pia. Rome_sentence_197

Pope Pius IX declared himself a prisoner in the Vatican. Rome_sentence_198

In 1871 the capital of Italy was moved from Florence to Rome. Rome_sentence_199

In 1870 the population of the city was 212,000, all of whom lived with the area circumscribed by the ancient city, and in 1920, the population was 660,000. Rome_sentence_200

A significant portion lived outside the walls in the north and across the Tiber in the Vatican area. Rome_sentence_201

Soon after World War I in late 1922 Rome witnessed the rise of Italian Fascism led by Benito Mussolini, who led a march on the city. Rome_sentence_202

He did away with democracy by 1926, eventually declaring a new Italian Empire and allying Italy with Nazi Germany in 1938. Rome_sentence_203

Mussolini demolished fairly large parts of the city centre in order to build wide avenues and squares which were supposed to celebrate the fascist regime and the resurgence and glorification of classical Rome. Rome_sentence_204

The interwar period saw a rapid growth in the city's population which surpassed one million inhabitants soon after 1930. Rome_sentence_205

During World War II, due to the art treasuries and the presence of the Vatican, Rome largely escaped the tragic destiny of other European cities. Rome_sentence_206

However, on 19 July 1943, the San Lorenzo district was bombed by Anglo-American forces, resulting in about 3,000 immediate deaths and 11,000 wounded of whom another 1,500 died. Rome_sentence_207

Mussolini was arrested on 25 July 1943. Rome_sentence_208

On the date of the Italian Armistice 8 September 1943 the city was occupied by the Germans. Rome_sentence_209

The Pope declared Rome an open city. Rome_sentence_210

It was liberated on 4 June 1944. Rome_sentence_211

Rome developed greatly after the war as part of the "Italian economic miracle" of post-war reconstruction and modernisation in the 1950s and early 1960s. Rome_sentence_212

During this period, the years of la dolce vita ("the sweet life"), Rome became a fashionable city, with popular classic films such as Ben Hur, Quo Vadis, Roman Holiday and La Dolce Vita filmed in the city's iconic Cinecittà Studios. Rome_sentence_213

The rising trend in population growth continued until the mid-1980s when the comune had more than 2.8 million residents. Rome_sentence_214

After this, the population declined slowly as people began to move to nearby suburbs. Rome_sentence_215

Government Rome_section_9

See also: Mayor of Rome, City Council of Rome, Elections in Rome, and Administrative subdivision of Rome Rome_sentence_216

Local government Rome_section_10

Rome constitutes a comune speciale, named "Roma Capitale", and is the largest both in terms of land area and population among the 8,101 comuni of Italy. Rome_sentence_217

It is governed by a mayor and a city council. Rome_sentence_218

The seat of the comune is the Palazzo Senatorio on the Capitoline Hill, the historic seat of the city government. Rome_sentence_219

The local administration in Rome is commonly referred to as "Campidoglio", the Italian name of the hill. Rome_sentence_220

Administrative and historical subdivisions Rome_section_11

Since 1972, the city has been divided into administrative areas, called municipi (sing. Rome_sentence_221

municipio) (until 2001 named circoscrizioni). Rome_sentence_222

They were created for administrative reasons to increase decentralisation in the city. Rome_sentence_223

Each municipio is governed by a president and a council of twenty-five members who are elected by its residents every five years. Rome_sentence_224

The municipi frequently cross the boundaries of the traditional, non-administrative divisions of the city. Rome_sentence_225

The municipi were originally 20, then 19, and in 2013, their number was reduced to 15. Rome_sentence_226

Rome is also divided into differing types of non-administrative units. Rome_sentence_227

The historic centre is divided into 22 rioni, all of which are located within the Aurelian Walls except Prati and Borgo. Rome_sentence_228

These originate from the 14 regions of Augustan Rome, which evolved in the Middle Ages into the medieval rioni. Rome_sentence_229

In the Renaissance, under Pope Sixtus V, they again reached fourteen, and their boundaries were finally defined under Pope Benedict XIV in 1743. Rome_sentence_230

A new subdivision of the city under Napoleon was ephemeral, and there were no serious changes in the organisation of the city until 1870 when Rome became the third capital of Italy. Rome_sentence_231

The needs of the new capital led to an explosion both in the urbanisation and in the population within and outside the Aurelian walls. Rome_sentence_232

In 1874, a fifteenth rione, Esquilino, was created on the newly urbanised zone of Monti. Rome_sentence_233

At the beginning of the 20th century other rioni were created (the last one was Prati – the only one outside the Walls of Pope Urban VIII – in 1921). Rome_sentence_234

Afterwards, for the new administrative subdivisions of the city, the term "quartiere" was used. Rome_sentence_235

Today all the rioni are part of the first Municipio, which therefore coincides completely with the historical city (Centro Storico). Rome_sentence_236

Metropolitan and regional government Rome_section_12

Rome is the principal town of the Metropolitan City of Rome, operative since 1 January 2015. Rome_sentence_237

The Metropolitan City replaced the old provincia di Roma, which included the city's metropolitan area and extends further north until Civitavecchia. Rome_sentence_238

The Metropolitan City of Rome is the largest by area in Italy. Rome_sentence_239

At 5,352 square kilometres (2,066 sq mi), its dimensions are comparable to the region of Liguria. Rome_sentence_240

Moreover, the city is also the capital of the Lazio region. Rome_sentence_241

National government Rome_section_13

Rome is the national capital of Italy and is the seat of the Italian Government. Rome_sentence_242

The official residences of the President of the Italian Republic and the Italian Prime Minister, the seats of both houses of the Italian Parliament and that of the Italian Constitutional Court are located in the historic centre. Rome_sentence_243

The state ministries are spread out around the city; these include the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is located in Palazzo della Farnesina near the Olympic stadium. Rome_sentence_244

Geography Rome_section_14

Location Rome_section_15

Rome is in the Lazio region of central Italy on the Tiber (Italian: Tevere) river. Rome_sentence_245

The original settlement developed on hills that faced onto a ford beside the Tiber Island, the only natural ford of the river in this area. Rome_sentence_246

The Rome of the Kings was built on seven hills: the Aventine Hill, the Caelian Hill, the Capitoline Hill, the Esquiline Hill, the Palatine Hill, the Quirinal Hill, and the Viminal Hill. Rome_sentence_247

Modern Rome is also crossed by another river, the Aniene, which flows into the Tiber north of the historic centre. Rome_sentence_248

Although the city centre is about 24 kilometres (15 mi) inland from the Tyrrhenian Sea, the city territory extends to the shore, where the south-western district of Ostia is located. Rome_sentence_249

The altitude of the central part of Rome ranges from 13 metres (43 ft) above sea level (at the base of the Pantheon) to 139 metres (456 ft) above sea level (the peak of Monte Mario). Rome_sentence_250

The Comune of Rome covers an overall area of about 1,285 square kilometres (496 sq mi), including many green areas. Rome_sentence_251

Topography Rome_section_16

Throughout the history of Rome, the urban limits of the city were considered to be the area within the city's walls. Rome_sentence_252

Originally, these consisted of the Servian Wall, which was built twelve years after the Gaulish sack of the city in 390 BC. Rome_sentence_253

This contained most of the Esquiline and Caelian hills, as well as the whole of the other five. Rome_sentence_254

Rome outgrew the Servian Wall, but no more walls were constructed until almost 700 years later, when, in 270 AD, Emperor Aurelian began building the Aurelian Walls. Rome_sentence_255

These were almost 19 kilometres (12 mi) long, and were still the walls the troops of the Kingdom of Italy had to breach to enter the city in 1870. Rome_sentence_256

The city's urban area is cut in two by its ring-road, the Grande Raccordo Anulare ("GRA"), finished in 1962, which circles the city centre at a distance of about 10 km (6 mi). Rome_sentence_257

Although when the ring was completed most parts of the inhabited area lay inside it (one of the few exceptions was the former village of Ostia, which lies along the Tyrrhenian coast), in the meantime quarters have been built which extend up to 20 km (12 mi) beyond it. Rome_sentence_258

The comune covers an area roughly three times the total area within the Raccordo and is comparable in area to the entire metropolitan cities of Milan and Naples, and to an area six times the size of the territory of these cities. Rome_sentence_259

It also includes considerable areas of abandoned marshland which is suitable neither for agriculture nor for urban development. Rome_sentence_260

As a consequence, the density of the comune is not that high, its territory being divided between highly urbanised areas and areas designated as parks, nature reserves, and for agricultural use. Rome_sentence_261

Climate Rome_section_17

Main article: Climate of Rome Rome_sentence_262

Rome has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), with hot, dry summers and mild, humid winters. Rome_sentence_263

Its average annual temperature is above 21 °C (70 °F) during the day and 9 °C (48 °F) at night. Rome_sentence_264

In the coldest month, January, the average temperature is 12.6 °C (54.7 °F) during the day and 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) at night. Rome_sentence_265

In the warmest month, August, the average temperature is 31.7 °C (89.1 °F) during the day and 17.3 °C (63.1 °F) at night. Rome_sentence_266

December, January and February are the coldest months, with a daily mean temperature of approximately 8 °C (46 °F). Rome_sentence_267

Temperatures during these months generally vary between 10 and 15 °C (50 and 59 °F) during the day and between 3 and 5 °C (37 and 41 °F) at night, with colder or warmer spells occurring frequently. Rome_sentence_268

Snowfall is rare but not unheard of, with light snow or flurries occurring on some winters, generally without accumulation, and major snowfalls on a very rare occurrence (the most recent ones were in 2018, 2012 and 1986). Rome_sentence_269

The average relative humidity is 75%, varying from 72% in July to 77% in November. Rome_sentence_270

Sea temperatures vary from a low of 13.9 °C (57.0 °F) in February to a high of 25.0 °C (77.0 °F) in August. Rome_sentence_271

Demographics Rome_section_18

Main article: Demographics of Italy Rome_sentence_272

In 550 BC, Rome was the second largest city in Italy, with Tarentum being the largest. Rome_sentence_273

It had an area of about 285 hectares (700 acres) and an estimated population of 35,000. Rome_sentence_274

Other sources suggest the population was just under 100,000 from 600 to 500 BC. Rome_sentence_275

When the Republic was founded in 509 BC the census recorded a population of 130,000. Rome_sentence_276

The republic included the city itself and the immediate surroundings. Rome_sentence_277

Other sources suggest a population of 150,000 in 500 BC. Rome_sentence_278

It surpassed 300,000 in 150 BC. Rome_sentence_279

The size of the city at the time of the Emperor Augustus is a matter of speculation, with estimates based on grain distribution, grain imports, aqueduct capacity, city limits, population density, census reports, and assumptions about the number of unreported women, children and slaves providing a very wide range. Rome_sentence_280

Glenn Storey estimates 450,000 people, Whitney Oates estimates 1.2 million, Neville Morely provides a rough estimate of 800,000 and excludes earlier suggestions of 2 million. Rome_sentence_281

Estimates of the city's population vary. Rome_sentence_282

A.H.M. Rome_sentence_283

Jones estimated the population at 650,000 in the mid-fifth century. Rome_sentence_284

The damage caused by the sackings may have been overestimated. Rome_sentence_285

The population had already started to decline from the late fourth century onward, although around the middle of the fifth century it seems that Rome continued to be the most populous city of the two parts of the Empire. Rome_sentence_286

According to Krautheimer it was still close to 800,000 in 400 AD; had declined to 500,000 by 452, and dwindled to perhaps 100,000 in 500 AD. Rome_sentence_287

After the Gothic Wars, 535–552, the population may have dwindled temporarily to 30,000. Rome_sentence_288

During the pontificate of Pope Gregory I (590–604), it may have reached 90,000, augmented by refugees. Rome_sentence_289

Lancon estimates 500,000 based on the number of 'incisi' enrolled as eligible to receive bread, oil and wine rations; the number fell to 120,000 in the reform of 419. Rome_sentence_290

Neil Christie, citing free rations for the poorest, estimated 500,000 in the mid-fifth century and still a quarter of a million at the end of the century. Rome_sentence_291

Novel 36 of Emperor Valentinian III records 3.629 million pounds of pork to be distributed to the needy at 5 lbs. Rome_sentence_292

per month for the five winter months, sufficient for 145,000 recipients. Rome_sentence_293

This has been used to suggest a population of just under 500,000. Rome_sentence_294

Supplies of grain remained steady until the seizure of the remaining provinces of North Africa in 439 by the Vandals, and may have continued to some degree afterwards for a while. Rome_sentence_295

The city's population declined to less than 50,000 people in the Early Middle Ages from 700 AD onward. Rome_sentence_296

It continued to stagnate or shrink until the Renaissance. Rome_sentence_297

When the Kingdom of Italy annexed Rome in 1870, the city had a population of about 225,000. Rome_sentence_298

Less than half the city within the walls was built up in 1881 when the population recorded was 275,000. Rome_sentence_299

This increased to 600,000 by the eve of World War I. Rome_sentence_300

The Fascist regime of Mussolini tried to block an excessive demographic rise of the city but failed to prevent it from reaching one million people by the early 1930s. Rome_sentence_301

Population growth continued after the Second World War, helped by a post-war economic boom. Rome_sentence_302

A construction boom also created many suburbs during the 1950s and 1960s. Rome_sentence_303

In mid-2010, there were 2,754,440 residents in the city proper, while some 4.2 million people lived in the greater Rome area (which can be approximately identified with its administrative metropolitan city, with a population density of about 800 inhabitants/km stretching over more than 5,000 km (1,900 sq mi)). Rome_sentence_304

Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 17.00% of the population compared to pensioners who number 20.76%. Rome_sentence_305

This compares with the Italian average of 18.06% (minors) and 19.94% (pensioners). Rome_sentence_306

The average age of a Roman resident is 43 compared to the Italian average of 42. Rome_sentence_307

In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Rome grew by 6.54%, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56%. Rome_sentence_308

The current birth rate of Rome is 9.10 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. Rome_sentence_309

The urban area of Rome extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 3.9 million. Rome_sentence_310

Between 3.2 and 4.2 million people live in the Rome metropolitan area. Rome_sentence_311

Ethnic groups Rome_section_19

According to the latest statistics conducted by ISTAT, approximately 9.5% of the population consists of non-Italians. Rome_sentence_312

About half of the immigrant population consists of those of various other European origins (chiefly Romanian, Polish, Ukrainian, and Albanian) numbering a combined total of 131,118 or 4.7% of the population. Rome_sentence_313

The remaining 4.8% are those with non-European origins, chiefly Filipinos (26,933), Bangladeshis (12,154), and Chinese (10,283). Rome_sentence_314

The Esquilino rione, off Termini Railway Station, has evolved into a largely immigrant neighbourhood. Rome_sentence_315

It is perceived as Rome's Chinatown. Rome_sentence_316

Immigrants from more than a hundred different countries reside there. Rome_sentence_317

A commercial district, Esquilino contains restaurants featuring many kinds of international cuisine. Rome_sentence_318

There are wholesale clothes shops. Rome_sentence_319

Of the 1,300 or so commercial premises operating in the district 800 are Chinese-owned; around 300 are run by immigrants from other countries around the world; 200 are owned by Italians. Rome_sentence_320

Religion Rome_section_20

Main article: Religion in Rome Rome_sentence_321

Much like the rest of Italy, Rome is predominantly Christian, and the city has been an important centre of religion and pilgrimage for centuries, the base of the ancient Roman religion with the pontifex maximus and later the seat of the Vatican and the pope. Rome_sentence_322

Before the arrival of the Christians in Rome, the Religio Romana (literally, the "Roman Religion") was the major religion of the city in classical antiquity. Rome_sentence_323

The first gods held sacred by the Romans were Jupiter, the Most High, and Mars, the god of war, and father of Rome's twin founders, Romulus and Remus, according to tradition. Rome_sentence_324

Other deities such as Vesta and Minerva were honoured. Rome_sentence_325

Rome was also the base of several mystery cults, such as Mithraism. Rome_sentence_326

Later, after St Peter and St Paul were martyred in the city, and the first Christians began to arrive, Rome became Christian, and the Old St. Peter's Basilica was constructed in 313 AD. Rome_sentence_327

Despite some interruptions (such as the Avignon papacy), Rome has for centuries been the home of the Roman Catholic Church and the Bishop of Rome, otherwise known as the Pope. Rome_sentence_328

Despite the fact that Rome is home to the Vatican City and St. Peter's Basilica, Rome's cathedral is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, in the south-east of the city centre. Rome_sentence_329

There are around 900 churches in Rome in total. Rome_sentence_330

Aside from the cathedral itself, some others of note include the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, the Basilica di San Clemente, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane and the Church of the Gesù. Rome_sentence_331

There are also the ancient Catacombs of Rome underneath the city. Rome_sentence_332

Numerous highly important religious educational institutions are also in Rome, such as the Pontifical Lateran University, Pontifical Biblical Institute, Pontifical Gregorian University, and Pontifical Oriental Institute. Rome_sentence_333

In recent years, there has been growth in Rome's Muslim community, mainly due to immigration from North Africa and the Middle East into the city. Rome_sentence_334

As a result of this increase of the local practitioners of the Islamic faith, the comune promoted the building of the Mosque of Rome, which is the largest mosque in Western Europe, designed by architect Paolo Portoghesi and inaugurated on 21 June 1995. Rome_sentence_335

Since the end of the Roman Republic, Rome is also the centre of an important Jewish community, which was once based in Trastevere, and later in the Roman Ghetto. Rome_sentence_336

There lies also the major synagogue in Rome, the Tempio Maggiore. Rome_sentence_337

Vatican City Rome_section_21

Main article: Vatican City Rome_sentence_338

The territory of Vatican City is part of the Mons Vaticanus (Vatican Hill), and of the adjacent former Vatican Fields, where St. Rome_sentence_339 Peter's Basilica, the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel, and museums were built, along with various other buildings. Rome_sentence_340

The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until 1929. Rome_sentence_341

Being separated from the city on the west bank of the Tiber, the area was a suburb that was protected by being included within the walls of Leo IV, later expanded by the current fortification walls of Paul III, Pius IV, and Urban VIII. Rome_sentence_342

When the Lateran Treaty of 1929 that created the Vatican state was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory were influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop. Rome_sentence_343

For some parts of the border, there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part a new wall was constructed. Rome_sentence_344

The territory includes Saint Peter's Square, separated from the territory of Italy only by a white line along with the limit of the square, where it borders Piazza Pio XII. Rome_sentence_345

St. Peter's Square is reached through the Via della Conciliazione, which runs from the Tiber to St. Peter's. Rome_sentence_346

This grand approach was designed by architects Piacentini and Spaccarelli, on the instructions of Benito Mussolini and in accordance with the church, after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty. Rome_sentence_347

According to the Treaty, certain properties of the Holy See located in Italian territory, most notably the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas, enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies. Rome_sentence_348

Pilgrimage Rome_section_22

Rome has been a major Christian pilgrimage site since the Middle Ages. Rome_sentence_349

People from all over the Christian world visit Vatican City, within the city of Rome, the seat of the papacy. Rome_sentence_350

The city became a major pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages. Rome_sentence_351

Apart from brief periods as an independent city during the Middle Ages, Rome kept its status as Papal capital and holy city for centuries, even when the Papacy briefly relocated to Avignon (1309–1377). Rome_sentence_352

Catholics believe that the Vatican is the last resting place of St. Peter. Rome_sentence_353

Pilgrimages to Rome can involve visits to many sites, both within Vatican City and in Italian territory. Rome_sentence_354

A popular stopping point is the Pilate's stairs: these are, according to the Christian tradition, the steps that led up to the praetorium of Pontius Pilate in Jerusalem, which Jesus Christ stood on during his Passion on his way to trial. Rome_sentence_355

The stairs were, reputedly, brought to Rome by Helena of Constantinople in the fourth century. Rome_sentence_356

For centuries, the Scala Santa has attracted Christian pilgrims who wished to honour the Passion of Jesus. Rome_sentence_357

Other objects of pilgrimage include several catacombs built in imperial times, in which Christians prayed, buried their dead and performed worship during periods of persecution, and various national churches (among them San Luigi dei francesi and Santa Maria dell'Anima), or churches associated with individual religious orders, such as the Jesuit Churches of Jesus and Sant'Ignazio. Rome_sentence_358

Traditionally, pilgrims in Rome (as well as devout Romans) visit the seven pilgrim churches (Italian: Le sette chiese) in 24 hours. Rome_sentence_359

This custom, mandatory for each pilgrim in the Middle Ages, was codified in the 16th century by Saint Philip Neri. Rome_sentence_360

The seven churches are the four major basilicas (St Peter in the Vatican, St Paul outside the Walls, St John in Lateran and Santa Maria Maggiore), while the other three are San Lorenzo fuori le mura (an Early Christian basilica), Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (a church founded by Helena, the mother of Constantine, which hosts fragments of wood attributed to the holy cross) and San Sebastiano fuori le mura (which lies on the Appian Way and is built above the Catacombs of San Sebastiano). Rome_sentence_361

Cityscape Rome_section_23

See also: List of tourist attractions in Rome and List of streets in Rome Rome_sentence_362

Architecture Rome_section_24

Main articles: Architecture of Rome and Churches of Rome Rome_sentence_363

Rome's architecture over the centuries has greatly developed, especially from the Classical and Imperial Roman styles to modern fascist architecture. Rome_sentence_364

Rome was for a period one of the world's main epicentres of classical architecture, developing new forms such as the arch, the dome and the vault. Rome_sentence_365

The Romanesque style in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries was also widely used in Roman architecture, and later the city became one of the main centres of Renaissance, Baroque and neoclassical architecture. Rome_sentence_366

Ancient Rome Rome_section_25

Main articles: List of ancient monuments in Rome and Ancient Roman architecture Rome_sentence_367

One of the symbols of Rome is the Colosseum (70–80 AD), the largest amphitheatre ever built in the Roman Empire. Rome_sentence_368

Originally capable of seating 60,000 spectators, it was used for gladiatorial combat. Rome_sentence_369

Important monuments and sites of ancient Rome include the Roman Forum, the Domus Aurea, the Pantheon, Trajan's Column, Trajan's Market, the Catacombs, the Circus Maximus, the Baths of Caracalla, Castel Sant'Angelo, the Mausoleum of Augustus, the Ara Pacis, the Arch of Constantine, the Pyramid of Cestius, and the Bocca della Verità. Rome_sentence_370

Medieval Rome_section_26

The medieval popular quarters of the city, situated mainly around the Capitol, were largely demolished between the end of the 19th century and the fascist period, but many notable buildings still remain. Rome_sentence_371

Basilicas dating from Christian antiquity include Saint Mary Major and Saint Paul outside the Walls (the latter largely rebuilt in the 19th century), both housing precious fourth century AD mosaics. Rome_sentence_372

Notable later medieval mosaics and frescoes can be also found in the churches of Santa Maria in Trastevere, Santi Quattro Coronati, and Santa Prassede. Rome_sentence_373

Secular buildings include a number of towers, the largest being the Torre delle Milizie and the Torre dei Conti, both next to the Roman Forum, and the huge outdoor stairway leading up to the basilica of Santa Maria in Aracoeli. Rome_sentence_374

Renaissance and Baroque Rome_section_27

Rome was a major world centre of the Renaissance, second only to Florence, and was profoundly affected by the movement. Rome_sentence_375

Among others, a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture in Rome is the Piazza del Campidoglio by Michelangelo. Rome_sentence_376

During this period, the great aristocratic families of Rome used to build opulent dwellings as the Palazzo del Quirinale (now seat of the President of the Italian Republic), the Palazzo Venezia, the Palazzo Farnese, the Palazzo Barberini, the Palazzo Chigi (now seat of the Italian Prime Minister), the Palazzo Spada, the Palazzo della Cancelleria, and the Villa Farnesina. Rome_sentence_377

Many of the famous city's squares – some huge, majestic and often adorned with obelisks, some small and picturesque – took their present shape during the Renaissance and Baroque periods. Rome_sentence_378

The principal ones are Piazza Navona, the Spanish Steps, Campo de' Fiori, Piazza Venezia, Piazza Farnese, Piazza della Rotonda and Piazza della Minerva. Rome_sentence_379

One of the most emblematic examples of Baroque art is the Trevi Fountain by Nicola Salvi. Rome_sentence_380

Other notable 17th-century baroque palaces are the Palazzo Madama, now the seat of the Italian Senate, and the Palazzo Montecitorio, now the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy. Rome_sentence_381

Neoclassicism Rome_section_28

In 1870, Rome became the capital city of the new Kingdom of Italy. Rome_sentence_382

During this time, neoclassicism, a building style influenced by the architecture of antiquity, became the predominant influence in Roman architecture. Rome_sentence_383

During this period, many great palaces in neoclassical styles were built to host ministries, embassies, and other government agencies. Rome_sentence_384

One of the best-known symbols of Roman neoclassicism is the Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II or "Altar of the Fatherland", where the Grave of the Unknown Soldier, who represents the 650,000 Italian soldiers who died in World War I, is located. Rome_sentence_385

Fascist architecture Rome_section_29

See also: Fascist architecture Rome_sentence_386

The Fascist regime that ruled in Italy between 1922 and 1943 had its showcase in Rome. Rome_sentence_387

Mussolini ordered the construction of new roads and piazzas, resulting in the destruction of older roads, houses, churches and palaces erected during papal rule. Rome_sentence_388

The main activities during his government were: the "isolation" of the Capitoline Hill; Via dei Monti, later renamed Via del'Impero, and finally Via dei Fori Imperiali; Via del Mare, later renamed Via del Teatro di Marcello; the "isolation" of the Mausoleum of Augustus, with the erection of Piazza Augusto Imperatore; and Via della Conciliazione. Rome_sentence_389

Architecturally, Italian Fascism favoured the most modern movements, such as Rationalism. Rome_sentence_390

Parallel to this, in the 1920s another style emerged, named "Stile Novecento", characterised by its links with ancient Roman architecture. Rome_sentence_391

Two important complexes in the latter style are the Foro Mussolini, now Foro Italico, by Enrico Del Debbio, and the Città universitaria ("University city"), by Marcello Piacentini, also author of the controversial destruction of part of the Borgo rione to open Via della Conciliazione. Rome_sentence_392

The most important Fascist site in Rome is the EUR district, designed in 1938 by Piacentini. Rome_sentence_393

This new quarter emerged as a compromise between Rationalist and Novecento architects, the former being led by Giuseppe Pagano. Rome_sentence_394

The EUR was originally conceived for the 1942 world exhibition, and was called "E.42" ("Esposizione 42"). Rome_sentence_395

The most representative buildings of EUR are the Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana (1938–1943), and the Palazzo dei Congressi, examples of the Rationalist style. Rome_sentence_396

The world exhibition never took place, because Italy entered the Second World War in 1940, and the buildings were partly destroyed in 1943 in fighting between the Italian and German armies and later abandoned. Rome_sentence_397

The quarter was restored in the 1950s when the Roman authorities found that they already had the seed of an off-centre business district of the type that other capitals were still planning (London Docklands and La Défense in Paris). Rome_sentence_398

Also, the Palazzo della Farnesina, the current seat of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was designed in 1935 in pure Fascist style. Rome_sentence_399

Parks and gardens Rome_section_30

Main article: List of parks and gardens in Rome Rome_sentence_400

Public parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the city has one of the largest areas of green space among European capitals. Rome_sentence_401

The most notable part of this green space is represented by the large number of villas and landscaped gardens created by the Italian aristocracy. Rome_sentence_402

While most of the parks surrounding the villas were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, some of them remain. Rome_sentence_403

The most notable of these are the Villa Borghese, Villa Ada, and Villa Doria Pamphili. Rome_sentence_404

Villa Doria Pamphili is west of the Gianicolo hill, comprising some 1.8 square kilometres (0.7 sq mi). Rome_sentence_405

The Villa Sciarra is on the hill, with playgrounds for children and shaded walking areas. Rome_sentence_406

In the nearby area of Trastevere, the Orto Botanico (Botanical Garden) is a cool and shady green space. Rome_sentence_407

The old Roman hippodrome (Circus Maximus) is another large green space: it has few trees but is overlooked by the Palatine and the Rose Garden ('roseto comunale'). Rome_sentence_408

Nearby is the lush Villa Celimontana, close to the gardens surrounding the Baths of Caracalla. Rome_sentence_409

The Villa Borghese garden is the best known large green space in Rome, with famous art galleries among its shaded walks. Rome_sentence_410

Overlooking Piazza del Popolo and the Spanish Steps are the gardens of Pincio and Villa Medici. Rome_sentence_411

There is also a notable pine wood at Castelfusano, near Ostia. Rome_sentence_412

Rome also has a number of regional parks of much more recent origin, including the Pineto Regional Park and the Appian Way Regional Park. Rome_sentence_413

There are also nature reserves at Marcigliana and at Tenuta di Castelporziano. Rome_sentence_414

Fountains and aqueducts Rome_section_31

Main articles: List of fountains in Rome and List of aqueducts in the city of Rome Rome_sentence_415

Rome is a city famous for its numerous fountains, built-in all different styles, from Classical and Medieval, to Baroque and Neoclassical. Rome_sentence_416

The city has had fountains for more than two thousand years, and they have provided drinking water and decorated the piazzas of Rome. Rome_sentence_417

During the Roman Empire, in 98 AD, according to Sextus Julius Frontinus, the Roman consul who was named curator aquarum or guardian of the water of the city, Rome had nine aqueducts which fed 39 monumental fountains and 591 public basins, not counting the water supplied to the Imperial household, baths, and owners of private villas. Rome_sentence_418

Each of the major fountains was connected to two different aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service. Rome_sentence_419

During the 17th and 18th century, the Roman popes reconstructed other ruined Roman aqueducts and built new display fountains to mark their termini, launching the golden age of the Roman fountain. Rome_sentence_420

The fountains of Rome, like the paintings of Rubens, were expressions of the new style of Baroque art. Rome_sentence_421

They were crowded with allegorical figures and filled with emotion and movement. Rome_sentence_422

In these fountains, sculpture became the principal element, and the water was used simply to animate and decorate the sculptures. Rome_sentence_423

They, like baroque gardens, were "a visual representation of confidence and power". Rome_sentence_424

Statues Rome_section_32

See also: Talking statues of Rome Rome_sentence_425

Rome is well known for its statues but, in particular, the talking statues of Rome. Rome_sentence_426

These are usually ancient statues which have become popular soapboxes for political and social discussion, and places for people to (often satirically) voice their opinions. Rome_sentence_427

There are two main talking statues: the Pasquino and the Marforio, yet there are four other noted ones: il Babuino, Madama Lucrezia, il Facchino and Abbot Luigi. Rome_sentence_428

Most of these statues are ancient Roman or classical, and most of them also depict mythical gods, ancient people or legendary figures; il Pasquino represents Menelaus, Abbot Luigi is an unknown Roman magistrate, il Babuino is supposed to be Silenus, Marforio represents Oceanus, Madama Lucrezia is a bust of Isis, and il Facchino is the only non-Roman statue, created in 1580, and not representing anyone in particular. Rome_sentence_429

They are often, due to their status, covered with placards or graffiti expressing political ideas and points of view. Rome_sentence_430

Other statues in the city, which are not related to the talking statues, include those of the Ponte Sant'Angelo, or several monuments scattered across the city, such as that to Giordano Bruno in the Campo de'Fiori. Rome_sentence_431

Obelisks and columns Rome_section_33

Main article: List of obelisks in Rome Rome_sentence_432

The city hosts eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks, together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also formerly (until 2005) an ancient Ethiopian obelisk in Rome. Rome_sentence_433

The city contains some of obelisks in piazzas, such as in Piazza Navona, St Peter's Square, Piazza Montecitorio, and Piazza del Popolo, and others in villas, thermae parks and gardens, such as in Villa Celimontana, the Baths of Diocletian, and the Pincian Hill. Rome_sentence_434

Moreover, the centre of Rome hosts also Trajan's and Antonine Column, two ancient Roman columns with spiral relief. Rome_sentence_435

The Column of Marcus Aurelius is located in Piazza Colonna and it was built around 180 AD by Commodus in memory of his parents. Rome_sentence_436

The Column of Marcus Aurelius was inspired by Trajan's Column at Trajan's Forum, which is part of the Imperial Fora Rome_sentence_437

Bridges Rome_section_34

Main article: List of bridges in Rome Rome_sentence_438

The city of Rome contains numerous famous bridges which cross the Tiber. Rome_sentence_439

The only bridge to remain unaltered until today from the classical age is Ponte dei Quattro Capi, which connects the Isola Tiberina with the left bank. Rome_sentence_440

The other surviving – albeit modified – ancient Roman bridges crossing the Tiber are Ponte Cestio, Ponte Sant'Angelo and Ponte Milvio. Rome_sentence_441

Considering Ponte Nomentano, also built during ancient Rome, which crosses the Aniene, currently there are five ancient Roman bridges still remaining in the city. Rome_sentence_442

Other noteworthy bridges are Ponte Sisto, the first bridge built in the Renaissance above Roman foundations; Ponte Rotto, actually the only remaining arch of the ancient Pons Aemilius, collapsed during the flood of 1598 and demolished at the end of the 19th century; and Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II, a modern bridge connecting Corso Vittorio Emanuele and Borgo. Rome_sentence_443

Most of the city's public bridges were built in Classical or Renaissance style, but also in Baroque, Neoclassical and Modern styles. Rome_sentence_444

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the finest ancient bridge remaining in Rome is the Ponte Sant'Angelo, which was completed in 135 AD, and was decorated with ten statues of the angels, designed by Bernini in 1688. Rome_sentence_445

Catacombs Rome_section_35

Main article: Catacombs of Rome Rome_sentence_446

Rome has an extensive amount of ancient catacombs, or underground burial places under or near the city, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades. Rome_sentence_447

Though most famous for Christian burials, they include pagan and Jewish burials, either in separate catacombs or mixed together. Rome_sentence_448

The first large-scale catacombs were excavated from the 2nd century onwards. Rome_sentence_449

Originally they were carved through tuff, a soft volcanic rock, outside the boundaries of the city, because Roman law forbade burial places within city limits. Rome_sentence_450

Currently, maintenance of the catacombs is in the hands of the Papacy which has invested in the Salesians of Don Bosco the supervision of the Catacombs of St. Callixtus on the outskirts of Rome. Rome_sentence_451

Economy Rome_section_36

As the capital of Italy, Rome hosts all the principal institutions of the nation, including the Presidency of the Republic, the government (and its single Ministeri), the Parliament, the main judicial Courts, and the diplomatic representatives of all the countries for the states of Italy and Vatican City. Rome_sentence_452

Many international institutions are located in Rome, notably cultural and scientific ones, such as the American Institute, the British School, the French Academy, the Scandinavian Institutes, and the German Archaeological Institute. Rome_sentence_453

There are also specialised agencies of the United Nations, such as the FAO. Rome_sentence_454

Rome also hosts major international and worldwide political and cultural organisations, such as the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), World Food Programme (WFP), the NATO Defense College and the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM). Rome_sentence_455

According to the GaWC study of world cities, Rome is a "Beta +" city. Rome_sentence_456

The city was ranked in 2014 as 32nd in the Global Cities Index, the highest in Italy. Rome_sentence_457

With a 2005 GDP of €94.376 billion (US$121.5 billion), the city produces 6.7% of the national GDP (more than any other single city in Italy), and its unemployment rate, lowered from 11.1% to 6.5% between 2001 and 2005, is now one of the lowest rates of all the European Union capital cities. Rome_sentence_458

Rome's economy grows at around 4.4% annually and continues to grow at a higher rate in comparison to any other city in the rest of the country. Rome_sentence_459

This means that were Rome a country, it would be the world's 52nd richest country by GDP, near to the size to that of Egypt. Rome_sentence_460

Rome also had a 2003 GDP per capita of €29,153 (US$37,412), which was second in Italy, (after Milan), and is more than 134.1% of the EU average GDP per capita. Rome_sentence_461

Rome, on the whole, has the highest total earnings in Italy, reaching €47,076,890,463 in 2008, yet, in terms of average workers' incomes, the city places itself 9th in Italy, with €24,509. Rome_sentence_462

On a global level, Rome's workers receive the 30th highest wages in 2009, coming three places higher than in 2008, in which the city ranked 33rd. Rome_sentence_463

The Rome area had a GDP amounting to $167.8 billion, and $38,765 per capita. Rome_sentence_464

Although the economy of Rome is characterised by the absence of heavy industry and it is largely dominated by services, high-technology companies (IT, aerospace, defence, telecommunications), research, construction and commercial activities (especially banking), and the huge development of tourism are very dynamic and extremely important to its economy. Rome_sentence_465

Rome's international airport, Fiumicino, is the largest in Italy, and the city hosts the head offices of the vast majority of the major Italian companies, as well as the headquarters of three of the world's 100 largest companies: Enel, Eni, and Telecom Italia. Rome_sentence_466

Universities, national radio and television and the movie industry in Rome are also important parts of the economy: Rome is also the hub of the Italian film industry, thanks to the Cinecittà studios, working since the 1930s. Rome_sentence_467

The city is also a centre for banking and insurance as well as electronics, energy, transport, and aerospace industries. Rome_sentence_468

Numerous international companies and agencies headquarters, government ministries, conference centres, sports venues, and museums are located in Rome's principal business districts: the Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR); the Torrino (further south from the EUR); the Magliana; the Parco de' Medici-Laurentina and the so-called Tiburtina-valley along the ancient Via Tiburtina. Rome_sentence_469

Education Rome_section_37

Rome is a nationwide and major international centre for higher education, containing numerous academies, colleges and universities. Rome_sentence_470

It boasts a large variety of academies and colleges, and has always been a major worldwide intellectual and educational centre, especially during Ancient Rome and the Renaissance, along with Florence. Rome_sentence_471

According to the City Brands Index, Rome is considered the world's second most historically, educationally and culturally interesting and beautiful city. Rome_sentence_472

Rome has many universities and colleges. Rome_sentence_473

Its first university, La Sapienza (founded in 1303), is one of the largest in the world, with more than 140,000 students attending; in 2005 it ranked as Europe's 33rd best university and in 2013 the Sapienza University of Rome ranked as the 62nd in the world and the top in Italy in its World University Rankings. Rome_sentence_474

and has been ranked among Europe's 50 and the world's 150 best colleges. Rome_sentence_475

In order to decrease the overcrowding of La Sapienza, two new public universities were founded during the last decades: Tor Vergata in 1982, and Roma Tre in 1992. Rome_sentence_476

Rome hosts also the LUISS School of Government, Italy's most important graduate university in the areas of international affairs and European studies as well as LUISS Business School, Italy's most important business school. Rome_sentence_477

Rome ISIA was founded in 1973 by Giulio Carlo Argan and is Italy's oldest institution in the field of industrial design. Rome_sentence_478

Rome contains many pontifical universities and other institutes, including the British School at Rome, the French School in Rome, the Pontifical Gregorian University (the oldest Jesuit university in the world, founded in 1551), Istituto Europeo di Design, the Scuola Lorenzo de' Medici, the Link Campus of Malta, and the Università Campus Bio-Medico. Rome_sentence_479

Rome is also the location of two American Universities; The American University of Rome and John Cabot University as well as St. John's University branch campus, John Felice Rome Center, a campus of Loyola University Chicago and Temple University Rome, a campus of Temple University. Rome_sentence_480

The Roman Colleges are several seminaries for students from foreign countries studying for the priesthood at the Pontifical Universities. Rome_sentence_481

Examples include the Venerable English College, the Pontifical North American College, the Scots College, and the Pontifical Croatian College of St. Jerome. Rome_sentence_482

Rome's major libraries include: the Biblioteca Angelica, opened in 1604, making it Italy's first public library; the Biblioteca Vallicelliana, established in 1565; the Biblioteca Casanatense, opened in 1701; the National Central Library, one of the two national libraries in Italy, which contains 4,126,002 volumes; The Biblioteca del Ministero degli Affari Esteri, specialised in diplomacy, foreign affairs and modern history; the Biblioteca dell'Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana; the Biblioteca Don Bosco, one of the largest and most modern of all Salesian libraries; the Biblioteca e Museo teatrale del Burcardo, a museum-library specialised in history of drama and theatre; the Biblioteca della Società Geografica Italiana, which is based in the Villa Celimontana and is the most important geographical library in Italy, and one of Europe's most important; and the Vatican Library, one of the oldest and most important libraries in the world, which was formally established in 1475, though in fact much older and has 75,000 codices, as well as 1.1 million printed books, which include some 8,500 incunabula. Rome_sentence_483

There are also many specialist libraries attached to various foreign cultural institutes in Rome, among them that of the American Academy in Rome, the French Academy in Rome and the Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute of Art History, a German library, often noted for excellence in the arts and sciences; Rome_sentence_484

Culture Rome_section_38

Main article: Culture in Rome Rome_sentence_485

Entertainment and performing arts Rome_section_39

Main articles: Music of Rome and Events in Rome Rome_sentence_486

Rome is an important centre for music, and it has an intense musical scene, including several prestigious music conservatories and theatres. Rome_sentence_487

It hosts the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia (founded in 1585), for which new concert halls have been built in the new Parco della Musica, one of the largest musical venues in the world. Rome_sentence_488

Rome also has an opera house, the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, as well as several minor musical institutions. Rome_sentence_489

The city also played host to the Eurovision Song Contest in 1991 and the MTV Europe Music Awards in 2004. Rome_sentence_490

Rome has also had a major impact on music history. Rome_sentence_491

The Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music, which were active in the city during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras. Rome_sentence_492

The term also refers to the music they produced. Rome_sentence_493

Many of the composers had a direct connection to the Vatican and the papal chapel, though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more progressive. Rome_sentence_494

By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whose name has been associated for four hundred years with smooth, clear, polyphonic perfection. Rome_sentence_495

However, there were other composers working in Rome, and in a variety of styles and forms. Rome_sentence_496

Between 1960 and 1970 Rome was considered to be as a “new Hollywood” because of the many actors and directors who worked there; Via Vittorio Veneto had transformed into a glamour place where you could meet famous people. Rome_sentence_497

Tourism Rome_section_40

Main article: Tourism in Rome Rome_sentence_498

Rome today is one of the most important tourist destinations of the world, due to the incalculable immensity of its archaeological and artistic treasures, as well as for the charm of its unique traditions, the beauty of its panoramic views, and the majesty of its magnificent "villas" (parks). Rome_sentence_499

Among the most significant resources are the many museums – Musei Capitolini, the Vatican Museums and the Galleria Borghese and others dedicated to modern and contemporary art – aqueducts, fountains, churches, palaces, historical buildings, the monuments and ruins of the Roman Forum, and the Catacombs. Rome_sentence_500

Rome is the third most visited city in the EU, after London and Paris, and receives an average of 7–10 million tourists a year, which sometimes doubles on holy years. Rome_sentence_501

The Colosseum (4 million tourists) and the Vatican Museums (4.2 million tourists) are the 39th and 37th (respectively) most visited places in the world, according to a recent study. Rome_sentence_502

Rome is a major archaeological hub, and one of the world's main centres of archaeological research. Rome_sentence_503

There are numerous cultural and research institutes located in the city, such as the American Academy in Rome, and The Swedish Institute at Rome. Rome_sentence_504

Rome contains numerous ancient sites, including the Forum Romanum, Trajan's Market, Trajan's Forum, the Colosseum, and the Pantheon, to name but a few. Rome_sentence_505

The Colosseum, arguably one of Rome's most iconic archaeological sites, is regarded as a wonder of the world. Rome_sentence_506

Rome contains a vast and impressive collection of art, sculpture, fountains, mosaics, frescos, and paintings, from all different periods. Rome_sentence_507

Rome first became a major artistic centre during ancient Rome, with forms of important Roman art such as architecture, painting, sculpture and mosaic work. Rome_sentence_508

Metal-work, coin die and gem engraving, ivory carvings, figurine glass, pottery, and book illustrations are considered to be 'minor' forms of Roman artwork. Rome_sentence_509

Rome later became a major centre of Renaissance art, since the popes spent vast sums of money for the constructions of grandiose basilicas, palaces, piazzas and public buildings in general. Rome_sentence_510

Rome became one of Europe's major centres of Renaissance artwork, second only to Florence, and able to compare to other major cities and cultural centres, such as Paris and Venice. Rome_sentence_511

The city was affected greatly by the baroque, and Rome became the home of numerous artists and architects, such as Bernini, Caravaggio, Carracci, Borromini and Cortona. Rome_sentence_512

In the late 18th century and early 19th century, the city was one of the centres of the Grand Tour, when wealthy, young English and other European aristocrats visited the city to learn about ancient Roman culture, art, philosophy, and architecture. Rome_sentence_513

Rome hosted a great number of neoclassical and rococo artists, such as Pannini and Bernardo Bellotto. Rome_sentence_514

Today, the city is a major artistic centre, with numerous art institutes and museums. Rome_sentence_515

Rome has a growing stock of contemporary and modern art and architecture. Rome_sentence_516

The National Gallery of Modern Art has works by Balla, Morandi, Pirandello, Carrà, De Chirico, De Pisis, Guttuso, Fontana, Burri, Mastroianni, Turcato, Kandisky, and Cézanne on permanent exhibition. Rome_sentence_517

2010 saw the opening of Rome's newest arts foundation, a contemporary art and architecture gallery designed by acclaimed Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid. Rome_sentence_518

Known as MAXXI – National Museum of the 21st Century Arts it restores a dilapidated area with striking modern architecture. Rome_sentence_519

Maxxi features a campus dedicated to culture, experimental research laboratories, international exchange and study and research. Rome_sentence_520

It is one of Rome's most ambitious modern architecture projects alongside Renzo Piano's Auditorium Parco della Musica and Massimiliano Fuksas' Rome Convention Center, Centro Congressi Italia EUR, in the EUR district, due to open in 2016. Rome_sentence_521

The convention centre features a huge translucent container inside which is suspended a steel and teflon structure resembling a cloud and which contains meeting rooms and an auditorium with two piazzas open to the neighbourhood on either side. Rome_sentence_522

Fashion Rome_section_41

Rome is also widely recognised as a world fashion capital. Rome_sentence_523

Although not as important as Milan, Rome is the fourth most important centre for fashion in the world, according to the 2009 Global Language Monitor after Milan, New York, and Paris, and beating London. Rome_sentence_524

Major luxury fashion houses and jewellery chains, such as Valentino, Bulgari, Fendi, Laura Biagiotti, Brioni, and Renato Balestra, are headquartered or were founded in the city. Rome_sentence_525

Also, other major labels, such as Gucci, Chanel, Prada, Dolce & Gabbana, Armani, and Versace have luxury boutiques in Rome, primarily along its prestigious and upscale Via dei Condotti. Rome_sentence_526

Cuisine Rome_section_42

Main article: Roman cuisine Rome_sentence_527

Rome's cuisine has evolved through centuries and periods of social, cultural, and political changes. Rome_sentence_528

Rome became a major gastronomical centre during the ancient Age. Rome_sentence_529

Ancient Roman cuisine was highly influenced by Ancient Greek culture, and after, the empire's enormous expansion exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques. Rome_sentence_530

Later, during the Renaissance, Rome became well known as a centre of high-cuisine, since some of the best chefs of the time worked for the popes. Rome_sentence_531

An example of this was Bartolomeo Scappi, who was a chef working for Pius IV in the Vatican kitchen, and he acquired fame in 1570 when his cookbook Opera dell'arte del cucinare was published. Rome_sentence_532

In the book he lists approximately 1000 recipes of the Renaissance cuisine and describes cooking techniques and tools, giving the first known picture of a fork. Rome_sentence_533

In the modern age, the city developed its own peculiar cuisine, based on products of the nearby Campagna, as lamb and vegetables (globe artichokes are common). Rome_sentence_534

In parallel, Roman Jews – present in the city since the 1st century BC – developed their own cuisine, the cucina giudaico-romanesca. Rome_sentence_535

Examples of Roman dishes include "Saltimbocca alla Romana" – a veal cutlet, Roman-style; topped with raw ham and sage and simmered with white wine and butter; "Carciofi alla romana" – artichokes Roman-style; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; "Carciofi alla giudia" – artichokes fried in olive oil, typical of Roman Jewish cooking; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; "Spaghetti alla carbonara" – spaghetti with bacon, eggs and pecorino, and "Gnocchi di semolino alla romana" – semolina dumpling, Roman-style, to name but a few. Rome_sentence_536

Cinema Rome_section_43

Main articles: List of films set in Rome and List of films set in ancient Rome Rome_sentence_537

Rome hosts the Cinecittà Studios, the largest film and television production facility in continental Europe and the centre of the Italian cinema, where many of today's biggest box office hits are filmed. Rome_sentence_538

The 99-acre (40 ha) studio complex is 9.0 kilometres (5.6 mi) from the centre of Rome and is part of one of the biggest production communities in the world, second only to Hollywood, with well over 5,000 professionals – from period costume makers to visual effects specialists. Rome_sentence_539

More than 3,000 productions have been made on its lot, from recent features like The Passion of the Christ, Gangs of New York, HBO's Rome, The Life Aquatic and Dino De Laurentiis' Decameron, to such cinema classics as Ben-Hur, Cleopatra, and the films of Federico Fellini. Rome_sentence_540

Founded in 1937 by Benito Mussolini, the studios were bombed by the Western Allies during the Second World War. Rome_sentence_541

In the 1950s, Cinecittà was the filming location for several large American film productions, and subsequently became the studio most closely associated with Federico Fellini. Rome_sentence_542

Today, Cinecittà is the only studio in the world with pre-production, production, and full post-production facilities on one lot, allowing directors and producers to walk in with their script and "walkout" with a completed film. Rome_sentence_543

Language Rome_section_44

Twin towns and sister cities Rome_section_45

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Rome_sentence_544

Since 9 April 1956, Rome is exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with: Rome_sentence_545

Rome_unordered_list_1

Rome_description_list_2

  • Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi. (in Italian)Rome_item_2_4
  • Seule Paris est digne de Rome; seule Rome est digne de Paris. (in French)Rome_item_2_5
  • "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris."Rome_item_2_6

Other relationships Rome_section_46

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome.