Royal Navy

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the United Kingdom's navy. Royal Navy_sentence_0

For other uses, see Royal Navy (disambiguation) and Senior Service (disambiguation). Royal Navy_sentence_1

Royal Navy_table_infobox_0

Royal NavyRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_0_0
FoundedRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_1_0 1546; 474 years ago (1546)Royal Navy_cell_0_1_1
CountryRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_2_0 Royal Navy_cell_0_2_1
TypeRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_3_0 NavyRoyal Navy_cell_0_3_1
RoleRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_4_0 Naval warfareRoyal Navy_cell_0_4_1
SizeRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_5_0 Royal Navy_cell_0_5_1
Part ofRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_6_0 Her Majesty's Naval ServiceRoyal Navy_cell_0_6_1
Naval Staff OfficesRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_7_0 Whitehall, London, EnglandRoyal Navy_cell_0_7_1
Nickname(s)Royal Navy_header_cell_0_8_0 Senior ServiceRoyal Navy_cell_0_8_1
Motto(s)Royal Navy_header_cell_0_9_0 "Si vis pacem, para bellum" (Latin)

"If you wish for peace, prepare for war"Royal Navy_cell_0_9_1

ColoursRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_10_0 Red and whiteRoyal Navy_cell_0_10_1
MarchRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_11_0 Quick – "Heart of Oak" Play (help·)

Slow – Westering Home (de facto)Royal Navy_cell_0_11_1

FleetRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_12_0 Royal Navy_cell_0_12_1
WebsiteRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_13_0 Q172771#P856Royal Navy_cell_0_13_1
CommandersRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_14_0
Lord High AdmiralRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_15_0 Prince Philip, Duke of EdinburghRoyal Navy_cell_0_15_1
First Sea LordRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_16_0 Admiral Tony RadakinRoyal Navy_cell_0_16_1
Second Sea LordRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_17_0 Vice Admiral Nicholas HineRoyal Navy_cell_0_17_1
Fleet CommanderRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_18_0 Vice Admiral Jerry KydRoyal Navy_cell_0_18_1
InsigniaRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_19_0
White EnsignRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_20_0 Royal Navy_cell_0_20_1
Naval jackRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_21_0 Royal Navy_cell_0_21_1
PennantRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_22_0 Royal Navy_cell_0_22_1
Queen's ColourRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_23_0 Royal Navy_cell_0_23_1
Aircraft flownRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_24_0
AttackRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_25_0 Wildcat HMA2Royal Navy_cell_0_25_1
FighterRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_26_0 F-35 Lightning IIRoyal Navy_cell_0_26_1
PatrolRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_27_0 Merlin HM2

Wildcat HMA2Royal Navy_cell_0_27_1

ReconnaissanceRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_28_0 AeroVironment RQ-20 Puma

Commando Wildcat AH1Royal Navy_cell_0_28_1

TrainerRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_29_0 Hawk T1/1A

Avenger T1 Prefect T1 Tutor T1Royal Navy_cell_0_29_1

TransportRoyal Navy_header_cell_0_30_0 Commando Merlin HC3i/4/4ARoyal Navy_cell_0_30_1

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Royal Navy_sentence_2

Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against the Kingdom of France. Royal Navy_sentence_3

The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service. Royal Navy_sentence_4

From the middle decades of the 17th century, and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and later with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. Royal Navy_sentence_5

From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until the Second World War. Royal Navy_sentence_6

The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Royal Navy_sentence_7

Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Royal Navy_sentence_8

Following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest. Royal Navy_sentence_9

During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and mostly active in the GIUK gap. Royal Navy_sentence_10

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and it remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. Royal Navy_sentence_11

However, 21st-century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships. Royal Navy_sentence_12

The Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships, submarines, and aircraft, including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines (which maintain the UK's nuclear deterrent), seven nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 23 patrol vessels. Royal Navy_sentence_13

As of November 2020, there are 78 operational commissioned ships (including submarines as well as one historic ship, HMS Victory) in the Royal Navy, plus 13 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA); there are also five Merchant Navy ships available to the RFA under a private finance initiative. Royal Navy_sentence_14

The RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, and augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels. Royal Navy_sentence_15

It also works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy, often doing patrols that frigates used to do. Royal Navy_sentence_16

The total displacement of the Royal Navy is approximately 443,200 tonnes (819,200 tonnes including the Royal Fleet Auxiliary). Royal Navy_sentence_17

The Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which also includes the Royal Marines. Royal Navy_sentence_18

The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord who is an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom. Royal Navy_sentence_19

The Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. Royal Navy_sentence_20

The Royal Navy operates from three bases in the United Kingdom where commissioned ships and submarines are based: Portsmouth, Clyde and Devonport, the last being the largest operational naval base in Western Europe, as well as two naval air stations, RNAS Yeovilton and RNAS Culdrose where maritime aircraft are based. Royal Navy_sentence_21

Role Royal Navy_section_0

As the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. Royal Navy_sentence_22

As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Royal Navy_sentence_23

Royal Navy_unordered_list_0

  • Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional levelRoyal Navy_item_0_0
  • Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at seaRoyal Navy_item_0_1
  • International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies (such as NATO)Royal Navy_item_0_2
  • Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globeRoyal Navy_item_0_3
  • Protecting the Economy – To safeguard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at seaRoyal Navy_item_0_4
  • Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophesRoyal Navy_item_0_5

History Royal Navy_section_1

Main articles: History of the Royal Navy (before 1707), History of the Royal Navy (after 1707), and Royal Scots Navy Royal Navy_sentence_24

The Royal Navy was formally founded in 1546 by Henry VIII though the Kingdom of England and its predecessor states had possessed less organised naval forces for centuries prior to this. Royal Navy_sentence_25

Earlier fleets Royal Navy_section_2

During much of the medieval period, fleets or "king's ships" were often established or gathered for specific campaigns or actions, and these would disperse afterwards. Royal Navy_sentence_26

These were generally merchant ships enlisted into service. Royal Navy_sentence_27

Unlike some European states, England did not maintain a small permanent core of warships in peacetime. Royal Navy_sentence_28

England's naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilization of fleets when war broke out was slow. Royal Navy_sentence_29

In the 11th century, Aethelred II had an especially large fleet built by a national levy. Royal Navy_sentence_30

During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, and this continued for a time under Edward the Confessor, who frequently commanded fleets in person. Royal Navy_sentence_31

After the Norman Conquest, English naval power waned and England suffered naval raids from the Vikings. Royal Navy_sentence_32

In 1069, this allowed for the invasion and ravaging of England by Jarl Osborn (brother of King Svein Estridsson) and his sons. Royal Navy_sentence_33

The lack of an organised navy came to a head during the Baron's Revolt, in which Prince Louis of France invaded England in support of northern barons. Royal Navy_sentence_34

With King John unable to organise a navy, this meant the French landed at Sandwich unopposed in April 1216. Royal Navy_sentence_35

John's flight to Winchester and his death later that year left the Earl of Pembroke as regent, and he was able to marshal ships to fight the French in the Battle of Sandwich in 1217- one of the first major English battles at sea. Royal Navy_sentence_36

The outbreak of the Hundred Years War emphasised the need for an English fleet. Royal Navy_sentence_37

French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Royal Navy_sentence_38

England's naval forces could not prevent frequent raids on the south-coast ports by the French and their allies. Royal Navy_sentence_39

Such raids halted only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V. Royal Navy_sentence_40

A Scottish fleet existed by the reign of William the Lion. Royal Navy_sentence_41

In the early 13th century there was a resurgence of Viking naval power in the region. Royal Navy_sentence_42

The Vikings clashed with Scotland over control of the isles though Alexander III was ultimately successful in asserting Scottish control. Royal Navy_sentence_43

The Scottish fleet was of particular import in repulsing English forces in the early 14th century. Royal Navy_sentence_44

Age of Sail Royal Navy_section_3

A standing "Navy Royal", with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Royal Navy_sentence_45

Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, which saw privately owned vessels combining with the Queen's ships in highly profitable raids against Spanish commerce and colonies. Royal Navy_sentence_46

The Royal Navy was then used in 1588 to repulse the Spanish Armada. Royal Navy_sentence_47

In 1603, the Union of the Crowns created a personal union between England and Scotland. Royal Navy_sentence_48

While the two remained distinct sovereign states for a further century, the two navies increasingly fought as a single force. Royal Navy_sentence_49

During the early 17th century, England's relative naval power deteriorated until Charles I undertook a major programme of shipbuilding. Royal Navy_sentence_50

His methods of financing the fleet however contributed to the outbreak of the English Civil War, and the abolition of the monarchy. Royal Navy_sentence_51

The Commonwealth of England replaced many names and symbols in the new commonwealth navy, associated with royalty and the high church, and expanded it to become the most powerful in the world. Royal Navy_sentence_52

The fleet was quickly tested in the First Anglo-Dutch War (1652–1654) and the Anglo-Spanish War (1654-1660), which saw the conquest of Jamaica and successful attacks on Spanish treasure fleets. Royal Navy_sentence_53

The 1660 Restoration saw Charles II rename the Royal Navy again, and started use of the prefix HMS. Royal Navy_sentence_54

The navy however remained a national institution and not a possession of the crown as it had been before. Royal Navy_sentence_55

Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688, England joined the War of the Grand Alliance which marked the end of France's brief pre-eminence at sea and the beginning of an enduring British supremacy. Royal Navy_sentence_56

In 1707, the Kingdom of Great Britain was formed by the Act of Union, which had the effect of merging the Scottish navy into the Royal Navy. Royal Navy_sentence_57

Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, the Royal Navy was the largest maritime force in the world, maintaining superiority in financing, tactics, training, organisation, social cohesion, hygiene, logistical support and warship design. Royal Navy_sentence_58

The peace settlement following the War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1714) granted Britain Gibraltar and Menorca, providing the Navy with Mediterranean bases. Royal Navy_sentence_59

A new French attempt to invade Britain was thwarted by the defeat of their escort fleet in the extraordinary Battle of Quiberon Bay in 1759, fought in dangerous conditions. Royal Navy_sentence_60

In 1762 the resumption of hostilities with Spain led to the British capture of Manila and of Havana, along with a Spanish fleet sheltering there. Royal Navy_sentence_61

British naval supremacy could however be challenged still in this period by coalitions of other nations, as seen in the American War of Independence. Royal Navy_sentence_62

Rebel colonists were supported by France, Spain and the Netherlands against Britain. Royal Navy_sentence_63

In the Battle of the Chesapeake, the British fleet failed to lift the French blockade, resulting in Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown. Royal Navy_sentence_64

The French Revolutionary Wars (1793–1801) and Napoleonic Wars (1803–1814 & 1815) saw the Royal Navy reach a peak of efficiency, dominating the navies of all Britain's adversaries, which spent most of the war blockaded in port. Royal Navy_sentence_65

Under Admiral Nelson, the navy defeated the combined Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar (1805). Royal Navy_sentence_66

Between 1815 and 1914, the Navy saw little serious action, owing to the absence of any opponent strong enough to challenge its dominance. Royal Navy_sentence_67

During this period, naval warfare underwent a comprehensive transformation, brought about by steam propulsion, metal ship construction, and explosive munitions. Royal Navy_sentence_68

Despite having to completely replace its war fleet, the Navy managed to maintain its overwhelming advantage over all potential rivals. Royal Navy_sentence_69

Due to British leadership in the Industrial Revolution, the country enjoyed unparalleled shipbuilding capacity and financial resources, which ensured that no rival could take advantage of these revolutionary changes to negate the British advantage in ship numbers. Royal Navy_sentence_70

In 1889, Parliament passed the Naval Defence Act, which formally adopted the 'two-power standard', which stipulated that the Royal Navy should maintain a number of battleships at least equal to the combined strength of the next two largest navies. Royal Navy_sentence_71

The end of the 19th century saw structural changes and older vessels were scrapped or placed into reserve, making funds and manpower available for newer ships. Royal Navy_sentence_72

The launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906 rendered all existing battleships obsolete. Royal Navy_sentence_73

World Wars Royal Navy_section_4

During the First World War, the Royal Navy's strength was mostly deployed at home in the Grand Fleet, confronting the German High Seas Fleet across the North Sea. Royal Navy_sentence_74

Several inconclusive clashes took place between them, chiefly the Battle of Jutland in 1916. Royal Navy_sentence_75

The British fighting advantage proved insurmountable, leading the High Seas Fleet to abandon any attempt to challenge British dominance. Royal Navy_sentence_76

In the inter-war period, the Royal Navy was stripped of much of its power. Royal Navy_sentence_77

The Washington and London Naval Treaties imposed the scrapping of some capital ships and limitations on new construction. Royal Navy_sentence_78

In 1932, the Invergordon Mutiny took place over a proposed 25% pay cut, which was eventually reduced to 10%. Royal Navy_sentence_79

International tensions increased in the mid-1930s and the re-armament of the Royal Navy was well under way by 1938. Royal Navy_sentence_80

In addition to new construction, several existing old battleships, battlecruisers and heavy cruisers were reconstructed, and anti-aircraft weaponry reinforced, while new technologies, such as ASDIC, Huff-Duff and hydrophones, were developed. Royal Navy_sentence_81

At the start of World War II in 1939, the Royal Navy was the largest in the world, with over 1,400 vessels The Royal Navy provided critical cover during Operation Dynamo, the British evacuations from Dunkirk, and as the ultimate deterrent to a German invasion of Britain during the following four months. Royal Navy_sentence_82

At Taranto, Admiral Cunningham commanded a fleet that launched the first all-aircraft naval attack in history. Royal Navy_sentence_83

The Royal Navy suffered heavy losses in the first two years of the war. Royal Navy_sentence_84

Over 3,000 people were lost when the converted troopship Lancastria was sunk in June 1940, the greatest maritime disaster in Britain's history. Royal Navy_sentence_85

The Navy's most critical struggle was the Battle of the Atlantic defending Britain's vital commercial supply lines against U-boat attack. Royal Navy_sentence_86

A traditional convoy system was instituted from the start of the war, but German submarine tactics, based on group attacks by "wolf-packs", were much more effective than in the previous war, and the threat remained serious for well over three years. Royal Navy_sentence_87

Since 1945 Royal Navy_section_5

After the Second World War, the decline of the British Empire and the economic hardships in Britain forced the reduction in the size and capability of the Royal Navy. Royal Navy_sentence_88

The United States Navy instead took on the role of global naval power. Royal Navy_sentence_89

Governments since have faced increasing budgetary pressures, partly due to the increasing cost of weapons systems. Royal Navy_sentence_90

In 1981, Defence Secretary John Nott had advocated and initiated a series of cutbacks to the Navy. Royal Navy_sentence_91

The Falklands War however proved a need for the Royal Navy to regain an expeditionary and littoral capability which, with its resources and structure at the time, would prove difficult. Royal Navy_sentence_92

At the beginning of the 1980s, the Royal Navy was a force focused on blue-water anti-submarine warfare. Royal Navy_sentence_93

Its purpose was to search for and destroy Soviet submarines in the North Atlantic, and to operate the nuclear deterrent submarine force. Royal Navy_sentence_94

The navy received its first nuclear weapons with the introduction of the first of the Resolution-class submarines armed with the Polaris missile. Royal Navy_sentence_95

Post-Cold War Royal Navy_section_6

Following the conclusion of the Cold War, the Royal Navy began to experience a gradual decline in its fleet size in accordance with the changed strategic environment it operated in. Royal Navy_sentence_96

While new and more capable ships are continually brought into service, such as the Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carrier, Astute-class submarine, and Type 45 destroyer, the total number of ships and submarines operated has continued to steadily reduce. Royal Navy_sentence_97

This has caused considerable debate about the size of the Royal Navy, with a 2013 report finding that the current RN was already too small, and that Britain would have to depend on her allies if her territories were attacked. Royal Navy_sentence_98

Following the retirement without replacement of the RAF's V bomber force in the 1980s, the Royal Navy also became solely responsible for the maintenance of the UK's nuclear deterrent. Royal Navy_sentence_99

The financial costs attached to nuclear deterrence have become an increasingly significant issue for the navy. Royal Navy_sentence_100

Royal Navy today Royal Navy_section_7

See also: Future of the Royal Navy Royal Navy_sentence_101

Personnel Royal Navy_section_8

HMS Raleigh at Torpoint, Cornwall, is the basic training facility for newly enlisted ratings. Royal Navy_sentence_102

Britannia Royal Naval College is the initial officer training establishment for the navy, located at Dartmouth, Devon. Royal Navy_sentence_103

Personnel are divided into a warfare branch, which includes Warfare Officers (previously named seamen officers) and Naval Aviators, as well other branches including the Royal Naval Engineers, Royal Navy Medical Branch, and Logistics Officers (previously named Supply Officers). Royal Navy_sentence_104

Present-day officers and ratings have several different Royal Navy uniforms; some are designed to be worn aboard ship, others ashore or in ceremonial duties. Royal Navy_sentence_105

Women began to join the Royal Navy in 1917 with the formation of the Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS), which was disbanded after the end of the First World War in 1919. Royal Navy_sentence_106

It was revived in 1939, and the WRNS continued until disbandment in 1993, as a result of the decision to fully integrate women into the structures of the Royal Navy. Royal Navy_sentence_107

Women now serve in all sections of the Royal Navy including the Royal Marines. Royal Navy_sentence_108

In August 2019, the Ministry of Defence published figures showing that the Royal Navy and Royal Marines had 29,090 full-time trained personnel compared with a target of 30,600. Royal Navy_sentence_109

In December 2019 the First Sea Lord, Admiral Tony Radakin outlined a proposal to reduce the number of Rear-Admirals at Navy Command by five. Royal Navy_sentence_110

The fighting arms (excluding Commandant General Royal Marines) would be reduced to Commodore (1-star) rank and the surface flotillas would be combined together. Royal Navy_sentence_111

Training would be concentrated under the Fleet Commander. Royal Navy_sentence_112

Surface fleet Royal Navy_section_9

See also: List of active Royal Navy ships Royal Navy_sentence_113

Main article: Royal Navy Surface Fleet Royal Navy_sentence_114

Amphibious warfare Royal Navy_section_10

Amphibious warfare ships in current service include two landing platform docks (HMS Albion and HMS Bulwark). Royal Navy_sentence_115

While their primary role is to conduct amphibious warfare, they have also been deployed for humanitarian aid missions. Royal Navy_sentence_116

Aircraft carriers Royal Navy_section_11

The Royal Navy has two Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers, currently undertaking sea and aircraft trials which are both due to enter naval service within the next few years. Royal Navy_sentence_117

Each carrier cost £3 billion and displaces 65,000 tonnes (64,000 long tons; 72,000 short tons). Royal Navy_sentence_118

The first, HMS Queen Elizabeth commenced flight trials in 2018. Royal Navy_sentence_119

Both are intended to operate the STOVL variant of the F-35 Lightning II. Royal Navy_sentence_120

Queen Elizabeth began sea trials in June 2017, was commissioned later that year, and will enter service in 2020, while the second, HMS Prince of Wales began sea trials on 22 September 2019, was commissioned in December 2019 and is due to enter service in 2023. Royal Navy_sentence_121

The aircraft carriers will form a central part of the UK Carrier Strike Group alongside escorts and support ships. Royal Navy_sentence_122

Escort fleet Royal Navy_section_12

The escort fleet comprises guided missile destroyers and frigates and is the traditional workhorse of the Navy. Royal Navy_sentence_123

As of September 2020 there are six Type 45 destroyers and 13 Type 23 frigates in active service. Royal Navy_sentence_124

Among their primary roles is to provide escort for the larger capital ships—protecting them from air, surface and subsurface threats. Royal Navy_sentence_125

Other duties include undertaking the Royal Navy's standing deployments across the globe, which often consists of: counter-narcotics, anti-piracy missions and providing humanitarian aid. Royal Navy_sentence_126

The Type 45 is primarily designed for anti-aircraft and anti-missile warfare and the Royal Navy describe the destroyer's mission as "to shield the Fleet from air attack". Royal Navy_sentence_127

They are equipped with the PAAMS (also known as Sea Viper) integrated anti-aircraft warfare system which incorporates the sophisticated SAMPSON and S1850M long range radars and the Aster 15 and 30 missiles. Royal Navy_sentence_128

16 Type 23 frigates were delivered to the Royal Navy, with the final vessel, HMS St Albans, commissioned in June 2002. Royal Navy_sentence_129

However, the 2004 Delivering Security in a Changing World review announced that three frigates would be paid off as part of a cost-cutting exercise, and these were subsequently sold to the Chilean Navy. Royal Navy_sentence_130

The 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review announced that the remaining 13 Type 23 frigates would eventually be replaced by the Type 26 Frigate. Royal Navy_sentence_131

The Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015 reduced the procurement of Type 26 to eight with five Type 31e frigates to be procured. Royal Navy_sentence_132

Mine Countermeasure Vessels (MCMV) Royal Navy_section_13

There are two classes of MCMVs in the Royal Navy: seven Sandown-class minehunters and six Hunt-class mine countermeasures vessels. Royal Navy_sentence_133

The Hunt-class vessels combine the separate roles of the traditional minesweeper and the active minehunter in one hull. Royal Navy_sentence_134

If required, the Sandown and Hunt-class vessels can take on the role of offshore patrol vessels. Royal Navy_sentence_135

Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPV) Royal Navy_section_14

Four Batch 2 River-class offshore patrol vessels have entered service between 2018 and 2020, with a fifth undergoing sea trials. Royal Navy_sentence_136

These have Merlin-capable flight decks. Royal Navy_sentence_137

In December 2019, the modified ‘Batch 1’ River-class vessel, HMS Clyde, was decommissioned, with the ‘Batch 2’ HMS Forth taking over duties as the Falkland Islands patrol ship. Royal Navy_sentence_138

Ocean survey ships Royal Navy_section_15

HMS Protector is a dedicated Antarctic patrol ship that fulfils the nation's mandate to provide support to the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). Royal Navy_sentence_139

HMS Scott is an ocean survey vessel and at 13,500 tonnes is one of the largest ships in the Navy. Royal Navy_sentence_140

The other survey vessels of the Royal Navy are the two multi-role ships of the Echo class, which came into service in 2002 and 2003. Royal Navy_sentence_141

As of 2018, the newly commissioned HMS Magpie also undertakes survey duties at sea. Royal Navy_sentence_142

Royal Fleet Auxiliary Royal Navy_section_16

The Navy's large fleet units are supported by the Royal Fleet Auxiliary which possesses three amphibious transport docks within its operational craft. Royal Navy_sentence_143

These are known as the Bay-class landing ships, of which four were introduced in 2006–2007, but one was sold to the Royal Australian Navy in 2011. Royal Navy_sentence_144

In November 2006, the First Sea Lord Admiral Sir Jonathon Band described the Royal Fleet Auxiliary vessels as "a major uplift in the Royal Navy's war fighting capability". Royal Navy_sentence_145

Submarine Service Royal Navy_section_17

Main article: Royal Navy Submarine Service Royal Navy_sentence_146

The Submarine Service is the submarine based element of the Royal Navy. Royal Navy_sentence_147

It is sometimes referred to as the "Silent Service", as the submarines are generally required to operate undetected. Royal Navy_sentence_148

Founded in 1901, the service made history in 1982 when, during the Falklands War, HMS Conqueror became the first nuclear-powered submarine to sink a surface ship, ARA General Belgrano. Royal Navy_sentence_149

Today, all of the Royal Navy's submarines are nuclear-powered. Royal Navy_sentence_150

Ballistic Missile Submarines (SSBN) Royal Navy_section_18

The Royal Navy operates four Vanguard class ballistic missile submarines displacing nearly 16,000 tonnes and equipped with Trident II missiles (armed with nuclear weapons) and heavyweight Spearfish torpedoes, with the purpose to carry out Operation Relentless, the United Kingdom's Continuous At Sea Deterrent (CASD). Royal Navy_sentence_151

The UK government has committed to replace these submarines with four new Dreadnought-class submarines, which will enter service in the "early 2030s" to maintain a nuclear ballistic missile submarine fleet and the ability to launch nuclear weapons. Royal Navy_sentence_152

Fleet Submarines (SSN) Royal Navy_section_19

Seven fleet submarines are presently in service, three Trafalgar class and four Astute class. Royal Navy_sentence_153

Three more Astute-class fleet submarines will eventually replace the remaining Trafalgar-class boats. Royal Navy_sentence_154

The Trafalgar class displace approximately 5,300 tonnes when submerged and are armed with Tomahawk land-attack missiles and Spearfish torpedoes. Royal Navy_sentence_155

The Astute class at 7,400 tonnes are much larger and carry a larger number of Tomahawk missiles and Spearfish torpedoes. Royal Navy_sentence_156

HMS Audacious was the latest Astute-class boat to be commissioned. Royal Navy_sentence_157

Fleet Air Arm Royal Navy_section_20

Main article: Fleet Air Arm Royal Navy_sentence_158

The Fleet Air Arm (FAA) is the branch of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of naval aircraft, it can trace its roots back to 1912 and the formation of the Royal Flying Corps. Royal Navy_sentence_159

The Fleet Air Arm currently operates: The AW-101 Merlin HC4 in support of 3 Commando Brigade) as the Commando Helicopter Force, the AW-159 Wildcat HM2, the AW-101 Merlin HM2 in an anti-submarine role, and the F-35B Lightning II in the carrier strike role. Royal Navy_sentence_160

Pilots designated for rotary wing service train under No. Royal Navy_sentence_161 1 Flying Training School (1 FTS) at RAF Shawbury. Royal Navy_sentence_162

Royal Marines Royal Navy_section_21

Main article: Royal Marines Royal Navy_sentence_163

The Royal Marines are an amphibious, specialised light infantry force of commandos, capable of deploying at short notice in support of Her Majesty's Government's military and diplomatic objectives overseas. Royal Navy_sentence_164

The Royal Marines are organised into a highly mobile light infantry brigade (3 Commando Brigade) and 7 commando units including 1 Assault Group Royal Marines, 43 Commando Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines and a company strength commitment to the Special Forces Support Group. Royal Navy_sentence_165

The Corps operates in all environments and climates, though particular expertise and training is spent on amphibious warfare, Arctic warfare, mountain warfare, expeditionary warfare and commitment to the UK's Rapid Reaction Force. Royal Navy_sentence_166

The Royal Marines are also the primary source of personnel for the Special Boat Service (SBS), the Royal Navy's contribution to the United Kingdom Special Forces. Royal Navy_sentence_167

The Royal Marines have seen action in a number of wars, often fighting beside the British Army; including in the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, World War I and World War II. Royal Navy_sentence_168

In recent times, the Corps has been deployed in expeditionary warfare roles, such as the Falklands War, the Gulf War, the Bosnian War, the Kosovo War, the Sierra Leone Civil War, the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. Royal Navy_sentence_169

The Royal Marines have international ties with allied marine forces, particularly the United States Marine Corps and the Netherlands Marine Corps/Korps Mariniers. Royal Navy_sentence_170

Naval bases Royal Navy_section_22

See also: List of Royal Navy shore establishments Royal Navy_sentence_171

The Royal Navy currently uses three major naval port bases in the UK, each housing its own flotilla of ships and boats ready for service, along with two naval air stations and a support facility base in Bahrain: Royal Navy_sentence_172

Bases in the United Kingdom Royal Navy_section_23

Royal Navy_unordered_list_1

  • HMNB Devonport (HMS Drake) – This is currently the largest operational naval base in Western Europe. Devonport's flotilla consists of the RN's two amphibious assault vessels (HM Ships Albion and Bulwark), and half the fleet of Type 23 frigates. Devonport also homes some of the RN's Submarines service, including two of the Trafalgar-class submarines.Royal Navy_item_1_6

Royal Navy_unordered_list_2

  • HMNB Portsmouth (HMS Nelson) – This is home to the future Queen Elizabeth Class supercarriers. Portsmouth is also the home to the Type 45 Daring Class Destroyer and a moderate fleet of Type 23 frigates as well as Fishery Protection Squadrons.Royal Navy_item_2_7
  • HMNB Clyde (HMS Neptune) – This is situated in Central Scotland along the River Clyde. Faslane is known as the home of the UK's nuclear deterrent, as it maintains the fleet of Vanguard-class ballistic missile (SSBN) submarines, as well as the fleet of Astute-class fleet (SSN) submarines. By 2020, Faslane will become the home to all Royal Navy submarines, and thus the RN Submarine Service. As a result, 43 Commando (Fleet Protection Group) are stationed in Faslane alongside to guard the base as well as The Royal Naval Armaments Depot at Coulport. Moreover, Faslane is also home to Faslane Patrol Boat Squadron (FPBS) who operates a fleet of Archer class patrol vessels.Royal Navy_item_2_8

Royal Navy_unordered_list_3

  • RNAS Yeovilton (HMS Heron) – Yeovilton is home to Commando Helicopter Force and Wildcat Maritime Force.Royal Navy_item_3_9

Royal Navy_unordered_list_4

  • RNAS Culdrose (HMS Seahawk) – This is home to Mk2 Merlins, primarily tasked with conducting Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Early Airborne Warning (EAW). Culdrose is also currently the largest helicopter base in EuropeRoyal Navy_item_4_10

Bases abroad Royal Navy_section_24

Royal Navy_unordered_list_5

The current role of the Royal Navy is to protect British interests at home and abroad, executing the foreign and defence policies of Her Majesty's Government through the exercise of military effect, diplomatic activities and other activities in support of these objectives. Royal Navy_sentence_173

The Royal Navy is also a key element of the British contribution to NATO, with a number of assets allocated to NATO tasks at any time. Royal Navy_sentence_174

These objectives are delivered via a number of core capabilities: Royal Navy_sentence_175

Royal Navy_unordered_list_6

Current deployments Royal Navy_section_25

Main article: Standing Royal Navy deployments Royal Navy_sentence_176

The Royal Navy is currently deployed in different areas of the world, including some standing Royal Navy deployments. Royal Navy_sentence_177

These include several home tasks as well as overseas deployments. Royal Navy_sentence_178

The Navy is deployed in the Mediterranean as part of standing NATO deployments including mine countermeasures and NATO Maritime Group 2. Royal Navy_sentence_179

In both the North and South Atlantic, RN vessels are patrolling. Royal Navy_sentence_180

There is always a Falkland Islands patrol vessel on deployment, currently HMS Forth. Royal Navy_sentence_181

The Royal Navy operates a Response Force Task Group (a product of the 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review), which is poised to respond globally to short-notice tasking across a range of defence activities, such as non-combatant evacuation operations, disaster relief, humanitarian aid or amphibious operations. Royal Navy_sentence_182

In 2011, the first deployment of the task group occurred under the name 'COUGAR 11' which saw them transit through the Mediterranean where they took part in multinational amphibious exercises before moving further east through the Suez Canal for further exercises in the Indian Ocean. Royal Navy_sentence_183

In the Persian Gulf, the RN sustains commitments in support of both national and coalition efforts to stabilise the region. Royal Navy_sentence_184

The Armilla Patrol, which started in 1980, is the navy's primary commitment to the Gulf region. Royal Navy_sentence_185

The Royal Navy also contributes to the combined maritime forces in the Gulf in support of coalition operations. Royal Navy_sentence_186

The UK Maritime Component Commander, overseer of all of Her Majesty's warships in the Persian Gulf and surrounding waters, is also deputy commander of the Combined Maritime Forces. Royal Navy_sentence_187

The Royal Navy has been responsible for training the fledgeling Iraqi Navy and securing Iraq's oil terminals following the cessation of hostilities in the country. Royal Navy_sentence_188

The Iraqi Training and Advisory Mission (Navy) (Umm Qasr), headed by a Royal Navy captain, has been responsible for the former duty whilst Commander Task Force Iraqi Maritime, a Royal Navy commodore, has been responsible for the latter. Royal Navy_sentence_189

The Royal Navy contributes to standing NATO formations and maintains forces as part of the NATO Response Force. Royal Navy_sentence_190

The RN also has a long-standing commitment to supporting the Five Powers Defence Arrangements countries and occasionally deploys to the Far East as a result. Royal Navy_sentence_191

This deployment typically consists of a frigate and a survey vessel, operating separately. Royal Navy_sentence_192

Operation Atalanta, the European Union's anti-piracy operation in the Indian Ocean, is permanently commanded by a senior Royal Navy or Royal Marines officer at Northwood Headquarters and the navy contributes ships to the operation. Royal Navy_sentence_193

From 2015, the Royal Navy also re-formed its UK Carrier Strike Group (UKCSG) after it was disbanded in 2011 due to the retirement of HMS Ark Royal and Harrier GR9s. Royal Navy_sentence_194

The Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers form the central part of this formation, supported by various escorts and support ships, with the aim to facilitate carrier-enabled power projection. Royal Navy_sentence_195

The UKCSG first assembled at sea in October 2020 as part of a rehearsal for its first operational deployment in 2021. Royal Navy_sentence_196

Command, control and organisation Royal Navy_section_26

The titular head of the Royal Navy is the Lord High Admiral, a position which has been held by the Duke of Edinburgh since 2011. Royal Navy_sentence_197

The position had been held by Queen Elizabeth II from 1964 to 2011; the Sovereign is the Commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. Royal Navy_sentence_198

The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom. Royal Navy_sentence_199

The Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence, which directs the Navy Board, a sub-committee of the Admiralty Board comprising only naval officers and Ministry of Defence (MOD) civil servants. Royal Navy_sentence_200

These are all based in MOD Main Building in London, where the First Sea Lord, also known as the Chief of the Naval Staff, is supported by the Naval Staff Department. Royal Navy_sentence_201

Organisation Royal Navy_section_27

The Fleet Commander has responsibility for the provision of ships, submarines and aircraft ready for any operations that the Government requires. Royal Navy_sentence_202

Fleet Commander exercises his authority through the Navy Command Headquarters, based at HMS Excellent in Portsmouth. Royal Navy_sentence_203

An operational headquarters, the Northwood Headquarters, at Northwood, London, is co-located with the Permanent Joint Headquarters of the United Kingdom's armed forces, and a NATO Regional Command, Allied Maritime Command. Royal Navy_sentence_204

The Royal Navy was the first of the three armed forces to combine the personnel and training command, under the Principal Personnel Officer, with the operational and policy command, combining the Headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief, Fleet and Naval Home Command into a single organisation, Fleet Command, in 2005 and becoming Navy Command in 2008. Royal Navy_sentence_205

Within the combined command, the Second Sea Lord continues to act as the Principal Personnel Officer. Royal Navy_sentence_206

Previously, Flag Officer Sea Training was part pf the list of top senior appointments in Navy Command, however, as part of the Navy Command Transformation Programme, the post has reduced from Rear-Admiral to Commodore, renamed as Commander Fleet Operational Sea Training. Royal Navy_sentence_207

The Naval Command senior appointments are: Royal Navy_sentence_208

Intelligence support to fleet operations is provided by intelligence sections at the various headquarters and from MOD Defence Intelligence, renamed from the Defence Intelligence Staff in early 2010. Royal Navy_sentence_209

Locations Royal Navy_section_28

Main article: List of Royal Navy shore establishments Royal Navy_sentence_210

The Royal Navy currently operates from three bases in the United Kingdom where commissioned ships are based; Portsmouth, Clyde and Devonport, Plymouth—Devonport is the largest operational naval base in the UK and Western Europe. Royal Navy_sentence_211

Each base hosts a flotilla command under a commodore, or, in the case of Clyde, a captain, responsible for the provision of operational capability using the ships and submarines within the flotilla. Royal Navy_sentence_212

3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines is similarly commanded by a brigadier and based in Plymouth. Royal Navy_sentence_213

Historically, the Royal Navy maintained Royal Navy Dockyards around the world. Royal Navy_sentence_214

Dockyards of the Royal Navy are harbours where ships are overhauled and refitted. Royal Navy_sentence_215

Only four are operating today; at Devonport, Faslane, Rosyth and at Portsmouth. Royal Navy_sentence_216

A Naval Base Review was undertaken in 2006 and early 2007, the outcome being announced by Secretary of State for Defence, Des Browne, confirming that all would remain however some reductions in manpower were anticipated. Royal Navy_sentence_217

The academy where initial training for future Royal Navy officers takes place is Britannia Royal Naval College, located on a hill overlooking Dartmouth, Devon. Royal Navy_sentence_218

Basic training for future ratings takes place at HMS Raleigh at Torpoint, Cornwall, close to HMNB Devonport. Royal Navy_sentence_219

Significant numbers of naval personnel are employed within the Ministry of Defence, Defence Equipment and Support and on exchange with the Army and Royal Air Force. Royal Navy_sentence_220

Small numbers are also on exchange within other government departments and with allied fleets, such as the United States Navy. Royal Navy_sentence_221

The navy also posts personnel in small units around the world to support ongoing operations and maintain standing commitments. Royal Navy_sentence_222

Nineteen personnel are stationed in Gibraltar to support the small Gibraltar Squadron, the RN's only permanent overseas squadron. Royal Navy_sentence_223

Some personnel are also based at East Cove Military Port and RAF Mount Pleasant in the Falkland Islands to support APT(S). Royal Navy_sentence_224

Small numbers of personnel are based in Diego Garcia (Naval Party 1002), Miami (NP 1011 – AUTEC), Singapore (NP 1022), Dubai (NP 1023) and elsewhere. Royal Navy_sentence_225

On 6 December 2014, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office announced it would expand the UK's naval facilities in Bahrain to support larger Royal Navy ships deployed to the Persian Gulf. Royal Navy_sentence_226

Once complete, it will be the UK's first permanent military base located East of Suez since it withdrew from the region in 1971. Royal Navy_sentence_227

The base will reportedly be large enough to accommodate Type 45 destroyers and Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers. Royal Navy_sentence_228

Titles and naming Royal Navy_section_29

Of the Navy Royal Navy_section_30

The navy of the United Kingdom is commonly referred to as the "Royal Navy" both in the United Kingdom and other countries. Royal Navy_sentence_229

Navies of other Commonwealth countries where the British monarch is also head of state include their national name, e.g. Royal Australian Navy. Royal Navy_sentence_230

Some navies of other monarchies, such as the Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy) and Kungliga Flottan (Royal Swedish Navy), are also called "Royal Navy" in their own language. Royal Navy_sentence_231

The Danish Navy stands out with the term Royal incorporated in its official name (Royal Danish Navy), but only using the term "Flåden" (Navy) in everyday speech. Royal Navy_sentence_232

The French Navy, despite France being a republic since 1870, is often nicknamed "La Royale" (literally: The Royal). Royal Navy_sentence_233

Of ships Royal Navy_section_31

Main article: List of ships of the Royal Navy Royal Navy_sentence_234

See also: List of active Royal Navy ships, Naming conventions for destroyers of the Royal Navy, and Type system of the Royal Navy Royal Navy_sentence_235

Royal Navy ships in commission are prefixed since 1789 with Her Majesty's Ship (His Majesty's Ship), abbreviated to "HMS"; for example, HMS Beagle. Royal Navy_sentence_236

Submarines are styled HM Submarine, also abbreviated "HMS". Royal Navy_sentence_237

Names are allocated to ships and submarines by a naming committee within the MOD and given by class, with the names of ships within a class often being thematic (for example, the Type 23s are named after British dukes) or traditional (for example, the Invincible-class aircraft carriers all carry the names of famous historic ships). Royal Navy_sentence_238

Names are frequently re-used, offering a new ship the rich heritage, battle honours and traditions of her predecessors. Royal Navy_sentence_239

Often, a particular vessel class will be named after the first ship of that type to be built. Royal Navy_sentence_240

As well as a name, each ship and submarine of the Royal Navy and the Royal Fleet Auxiliary is given a pennant number which in part denotes its role. Royal Navy_sentence_241

For example, the destroyer HMS Daring (D32) displays the pennant number 'D32'. Royal Navy_sentence_242

Ranks, rates, and insignia Royal Navy_section_32

See also: Royal Navy officer rank insignia and Royal Navy other rank insignia Royal Navy_sentence_243

The Royal Navy ranks, rates and insignia form part of the uniform of the Royal Navy. Royal Navy_sentence_244

The Royal Navy uniform is the pattern on which many of the uniforms of the other national navies of the world are based (e.g. Ranks and insignia of NATO navies officers, Uniforms of the United States Navy, Uniforms of the Royal Canadian Navy, French Naval Uniforms). Royal Navy_sentence_245

Rank in abeyance – routine appointments no longer made to this rank, though honorary awards of this rank are occasionally made to senior members of the Royal family and prominent former First Sea Lords. Royal Navy_sentence_246

Custom and tradition Royal Navy_section_33

Main article: Customs and traditions of the Royal Navy Royal Navy_sentence_247

Traditions Royal Navy_section_34

The Royal Navy has several formal customs and traditions including the use of ensigns and ships badges. Royal Navy_sentence_248

Royal Navy ships have several ensigns used when under way and when in port. Royal Navy_sentence_249

Commissioned ships and submarines wear the White Ensign at the stern whilst alongside during daylight hours and at the main-mast whilst under way. Royal Navy_sentence_250

When alongside, the Union Jack is flown from the jackstaff at the bow, and can only be flown under way either to signal a court-martial is in progress or to indicate the presence of an admiral of the fleet on-board (including the Lord High Admiral or the monarch). Royal Navy_sentence_251

The Fleet Review is an irregular tradition of assembling the fleet before the monarch. Royal Navy_sentence_252

The first review on record was held in 1400, and the most recent review as of 2009 was held on 28 June 2005 to mark the bi-centenary of the Battle of Trafalgar; 167 ships from many different nations attended with the Royal Navy supplying 67. Royal Navy_sentence_253

"Jackspeak" Royal Navy_section_35

There are several less formal traditions including service nicknames and Naval slang, known as "Jackspeak". Royal Navy_sentence_254

The nicknames include "The Andrew" (of uncertain origin, possibly after a zealous press ganger) and "The Senior Service". Royal Navy_sentence_255

British sailors are referred to as "Jack" (or "Jenny"), or more widely as "Matelots". Royal Navy_sentence_256

Royal Marines are fondly known as "Bootnecks" or often just as "Royals". Royal Navy_sentence_257

A compendium of Naval slang was brought together by Commander A. Covey-Crump and his name has in itself become the subject of Naval slang; Covey Crump. Royal Navy_sentence_258

A game traditionally played by the Navy is the four-player board game known as "Uckers". Royal Navy_sentence_259

This is similar to Ludo and it is regarded as easy to learn, but difficult to play well. Royal Navy_sentence_260

Navy Cadets Royal Navy_section_36

The Royal Navy sponsors or supports three youth organisations: Royal Navy_sentence_261

Royal Navy_unordered_list_7

  • Volunteer Cadet Corps – consisting of Royal Naval Volunteer Cadet Corps and Royal Marines Volunteer Cadet Corps, the VCC was the first youth organisation officially supported or sponsored by the Admiralty in 1901.Royal Navy_item_7_23
  • Combined Cadet Force – in schools, specifically the Royal Navy Section and the Royal Marines Section.Royal Navy_item_7_24
  • Sea Cadets – supporting teenagers who are interested in naval matters, consisting of the Sea Cadets and the Royal Marines Cadets.Royal Navy_item_7_25

The above organisations are the responsibility of the CUY branch of Commander Core Training and Recruiting (COMCORE) who reports to Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST). Royal Navy_sentence_262

In popular culture Royal Navy_section_37

See also: Nautical fiction Royal Navy_sentence_263

The Royal Navy of the 18th century is depicted in many novels and several films dramatising the voyage and mutiny on the Bounty. Royal Navy_sentence_264

The Royal Navy's Napoleonic campaigns of the early 19th century are also a popular subject of historical novels. Royal Navy_sentence_265

Some of the best-known are Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series and C. Royal Navy_sentence_266 S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower chronicles. Royal Navy_sentence_267

The Navy can also be seen in numerous films. Royal Navy_sentence_268

The fictional spy James Bond is a commander in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR). Royal Navy_sentence_269

The Royal Navy is featured in The Spy Who Loved Me, when a nuclear ballistic-missile submarine is stolen, and in Tomorrow Never Dies when a media baron sinks a Royal Navy warship in an attempt to trigger a war between the UK and People's Republic of China. Royal Navy_sentence_270

Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World was based on Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series. Royal Navy_sentence_271

The Pirates of the Caribbean series of films also includes the Navy as the force pursuing the eponymous pirates. Royal Navy_sentence_272

Noël Coward directed and starred in his own film In Which We Serve, which tells the story of the crew of the fictional HMS Torrin during the Second World War. Royal Navy_sentence_273

It was intended as a propaganda film and was released in 1942. Royal Navy_sentence_274

Coward starred as the ship's captain, with supporting roles from John Mills and Richard Attenborough. Royal Navy_sentence_275

C. S. Forester's Hornblower novels have been adapted for television. Royal Navy_sentence_276

The Royal Navy was the subject of an acclaimed 1970s BBC television drama series, Warship, and of a five-part documentary, Shipmates, that followed the workings of the Royal Navy day to day. Royal Navy_sentence_277

Television documentaries about the Royal Navy include: Empire of the Seas: How the Navy Forged the Modern World, a four-part documentary depicting Britain's rise as a naval superpower, up until the First World War; Sailor, about life on the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal; and Submarine, about the submarine captains' training course, 'The Perisher'. Royal Navy_sentence_278

There have also been Channel 5 documentaries such as Royal Navy Submarine Mission, following a nuclear-powered fleet submarine. Royal Navy_sentence_279

The popular BBC radio comedy series The Navy Lark featured a fictitious warship ("HMS Troutbridge") and ran from 1959 to 1977. Royal Navy_sentence_280

See also Royal Navy_section_38

Royal Navy_unordered_list_8


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal Navy.