Quinto (drum)

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Quinto (drum)_table_infobox_0

QuintoQuinto (drum)_table_caption_0
Percussion instrumentQuinto (drum)_header_cell_0_0_0
ClassificationQuinto (drum)_header_cell_0_1_0 MembranophoneQuinto (drum)_cell_0_1_1
Hornbostel–Sachs classificationQuinto (drum)_header_cell_0_2_0 211.221.1

(Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open)Quinto (drum)_cell_0_2_1

DevelopedQuinto (drum)_header_cell_0_3_0 19th century, CubaQuinto (drum)_cell_0_3_1
Related instrumentsQuinto (drum)_header_cell_0_4_0
MusiciansQuinto (drum)_header_cell_0_5_0

The quinto (literally fifth in Spanish) is the smallest and highest pitched type of conga drum. Quinto (drum)_sentence_0

It is used as the lead drum in Cuban rumba styles such as guaguancó, yambú, columbia and guarapachangueo, and it is also present in congas de comparsa. Quinto (drum)_sentence_1

Quinto phrases are played in both triple-pulse (12/8, 6/8) and duple-pulse (4/4, 2/2) structures. Quinto (drum)_sentence_2

In columbia, triple pulse is the primary structure and duple pulse is secondary. Quinto (drum)_sentence_3

In yambú and guaguancó duple-pulse is primary and triple-pulse is secondary. Quinto (drum)_sentence_4

Quinto performance in rumba Quinto (drum)_section_0

The optimum expression of quinto phrasing is shaped by its interaction with the dance and the song, in other words, the complete social event, which is rumba. Quinto (drum)_sentence_5

Quinto interaction with the song Quinto (drum)_section_1

During the verses of the song the quinto is capable of sublime creativity, while musically subordinate to the lead vocalist. Quinto (drum)_sentence_6

There are natural pauses in the cadence of the verses, typically one or two measures in length, where the quinto can play succinct phrases in the “holes” left by the singer. Quinto (drum)_sentence_7

During the verses the quinto does not demonstrate technical virtuosity so much as taste and restraint. Quinto (drum)_sentence_8

Quinto interaction with the dance Quinto (drum)_section_2

Once the chorus (or montuno section) of the song begins, the phrases of the quinto interact with the dancers more than the lead singer. Quinto (drum)_sentence_9

At this time, the phrases often accent cross-beats or offbeats. Quinto (drum)_sentence_10

Many of the quinto phrases correspond directly to accompanying dance steps. Quinto (drum)_sentence_11

The pattern of quinto strokes and the pattern of dance steps are at times identical, and at other times, imaginatively matched. Quinto (drum)_sentence_12

The quinto player must be able to switch phrases immediately in response to the dancer’s ever-changing steps. Quinto (drum)_sentence_13

The quinto vocabulary is used to accompany, inspire and in some ways, compete with the dancers' spontaneous choreography. Quinto (drum)_sentence_14

Yvonne Daniel states: "The columbia dancer kinesthetically relates to the drums, especially the quinto . Quinto (drum)_sentence_15

. Quinto (drum)_sentence_16

. Quinto (drum)_sentence_17

and tries to initiate rhythms or answer the riffs as if he were dancing with the drum as a partner." Quinto (drum)_sentence_18

Individuality and creativity Quinto (drum)_section_3

Each quintero ('quinto player') interprets the requisite phrases in their own way. Quinto (drum)_sentence_19

Quintero Armando Peraza (b. Quinto (drum)_sentence_20

1924) states: "Although there is a structure of rhythm in columbia, yambú, or guaguancó, the good rumbero will always follow the dancer’s steps and at the same time express his own individuality. Quinto (drum)_sentence_21

Same thing with the dancer, who will have the ‘rules’ of that particular rumba to follow but will put his own particular stamp on each performance. Quinto (drum)_sentence_22

Creativity and individuality has always been and still is the name of the game." Quinto (drum)_sentence_23

With an emphasis on competition and individual creativity, the rhythmic vocabulary of quinto has evolved into a rich and pliable art form. Quinto (drum)_sentence_24

The rhythmic phrasing heard in solos by percussion and other instruments in Cuban popular music, salsa, and Latin jazz, are often based on the quinto vocabulary. Quinto (drum)_sentence_25

Quinto phrasing is also used as a means of varying the ostinato conga drum part called tumbao (see songo music). Quinto (drum)_sentence_26

Modes Quinto (drum)_section_4

The quinto plays within two main rhythmic modes, corresponding to the two main modes of rumba dancing. Quinto (drum)_sentence_27

The lock Quinto (drum)_section_5

The quinto lock mode is primarily a dyadic melody of slap and open tones, separated by an octave. Quinto (drum)_sentence_28

The lock melody while constantly varied, maintains a specific relationship to clave, and corresponds to the basic side-to side rumba dance steps. Quinto (drum)_sentence_29

The attack points of the lock and the basic steps are contained within a single cycle of clave (the key pattern of rumba). Quinto (drum)_sentence_30

Put another way, the lock spans four main beats, or a single measure, as is written for this article. Quinto (drum)_sentence_31

Descendant of the African lead drum Quinto (drum)_section_6

Rumba is an amalgamation of several African drumming traditions, transplanted to Cuba during the time of slavery. Quinto (drum)_sentence_32

Guaguancó and yambú are descended from the Cuban-Congolese fertility dances makuta and yuka. Quinto (drum)_sentence_33

Columbia has cultural and musical ties to the Abakuá, a secret society from the Cross River region of present day southern Nigeria and northern Cameroon. Quinto (drum)_sentence_34

The rhythmic phrasing of the abakuá lead drum bonkó enchemiyá is similar, and in some instances, identical to the quinto. Quinto (drum)_sentence_35

The following abakuá bonkó phrase is also played by the quinto in rumba. Quinto (drum)_sentence_36

Regular noteheads indicate open tones and the triangle notehead indicates a slap. Quinto (drum)_sentence_37

Displaced "clave" Quinto (drum)_section_7

The quinto plays in a contraclave ('counter-clave') fashion. Quinto (drum)_sentence_38

In fact, the fundamental strokes of the quinto lock can be thought of as a displaced "clave." Quinto (drum)_sentence_39

The 12/8 version (Columbia) is a displaced triple-pulse “son clave” beginning on 1-and (the first offbeat). Quinto (drum)_sentence_40

The 4/4 quinto lock (yambú and guaguancó) is a displaced “son clave,” beginning on 1-e (the first offbeat). Quinto (drum)_sentence_41

Alternating tone-slap melody Quinto (drum)_section_8

The attack-point pattern of the Matanzas-style lock is one clave in length, but its basic melodic structure is a two-clave phrase. Quinto (drum)_sentence_42

The tone-slap melody usually reverses with every clave. Quinto (drum)_sentence_43

This style of quinto playing was made popular by the many recordings of Los Muñequitos de Matanzas (1956–present), the most famous rumba group from Matanzas. Quinto (drum)_sentence_44

In the following example the melodic contour of the first measure (first clave cycle) of quinto is tone-slap-tone, while the contour of the second measure is the reverse: slap-tone-slap. Quinto (drum)_sentence_45

The pattern is shown in both triple-pulse and duple-pulse structures. Quinto (drum)_sentence_46

Lock variations are created by doubling strokes (sounding the very next pulse), or eliminating strokes. Quinto (drum)_sentence_47

The following example shows the sparsest form of the alternating lock melody. Quinto (drum)_sentence_48

The first clave is tone-slap-tone, and the second clave is slap-tone-slap. Quinto (drum)_sentence_49

The lock is usually constantly varied, but the example below is one of the few forms of the lock that is typically repeated. Quinto (drum)_sentence_50

Besides the typical rumba context, the lock is found in a form of Afro-Cuban sacred drumming called cajón pa’ los muertos. Quinto (drum)_sentence_51

The quinto lock is the lead part when yambú is played in these ceremonies. Quinto (drum)_sentence_52

Secondary resolution Quinto (drum)_section_9

The main emphasis of the lock is 1-e, the first offbeat in a measure of 4/4. Quinto (drum)_sentence_53

Certain phrases resolving on 3-e are periodically used to interrupt the equilibrium of the lock mode. Quinto (drum)_sentence_54

These can be thought of as secondary resolution phrases. Quinto (drum)_sentence_55

The following phrase concludes on 3-e. Quinto (drum)_sentence_56

Havana born Mongo Santamaría (1917-2003) was a tremendous quintero, and at one time, the most famous conga drummer in the world. Quinto (drum)_sentence_57

He was one of the first to record traditional rumba: Afro-Cuban Drums (1952), Changó (1954), Yambú (1958), Mongo (1959), and Bembé (1960). Quinto (drum)_sentence_58

Santamaría's quinto phrasing was dynamic and creative; he had an unmistakable sound, that was uniquely his own. Quinto (drum)_sentence_59

He did not analyze his personal style: “When I play I don’t know how I do it, or what I do ... Quinto (drum)_sentence_60

I just play." Quinto (drum)_sentence_61

The following fourteen measure example is an excerpt from a quinto performance by Santamaría on his composition "Mi guaguancó" (1959). Quinto (drum)_sentence_62

The excerpt shows variations on two types of phrases: the lock (A) and the secondary resolution (B). Quinto (drum)_sentence_63

Santamaría's repetition of what is ordinarily a secondary phrase (B), distinguishes this passage from the typical Matanzas-style approach. Quinto (drum)_sentence_64

In measures 3, 4, 6, 7, and 13, 3-e is doubled, that is, the very next pulse (3-and) is also sounded. Quinto (drum)_sentence_65

The cross Quinto (drum)_section_10

4/4 cross-beat cycle Quinto (drum)_section_11

During the chorus section the quinto plays cross-beat phrases that contradict the meter by crossing the measure bar. Quinto (drum)_sentence_66

In 4/4 cross-beats are generated by grouping the regular pulses (sixteenth-notes) in sets of three. Quinto (drum)_sentence_67

In the following example every third pulse is sounded with a slap. Quinto (drum)_sentence_68

The entire cross-beat cycle takes three claves (measures) to complete. Quinto (drum)_sentence_69

The quinto is shown on the top line and clave is shown below. Quinto (drum)_sentence_70

Like the lock, the cross begins on 1-e, the first offbeat. Quinto (drum)_sentence_71

Transitioning from the cross to the lock Quinto (drum)_section_12

By alternating between the lock and the cross, the quinto creates larger rhythmic phrases that expand and contract over several clave cycles. Quinto (drum)_sentence_72

The great Los Muñequintos quintero Jesús Alfonso (1949–2009) described this phenomenon as a man getting “drunk at a party, going outside for awhile, and then coming back inside.” Quinto (drum)_sentence_73

Quinto cross adopted to modern drum solos Quinto (drum)_section_13

The rhythmic vocabulary of quinto is the source of the most rhythmically dynamic phrases and passages heard in salsa and Latin jazz. Quinto (drum)_sentence_74

Even with today’s flashy percussion solos, where snare rudiments and other highly developed techniques are used, analysis of the prevailing accents will reveal an underlying quinto structure, of which crossing is the most important. Quinto (drum)_sentence_75

Selected discography of quinto recordings Quinto (drum)_section_14

Quinto (drum)_unordered_list_0

  • Raíces africanas (AfroCuba de Matanzas) Shanachie CD 66009 (1996).Quinto (drum)_item_0_0
  • Aniversario (Tata Güines) Egrem CD 0156 (1996).Quinto (drum)_item_0_1
  • Guaguancó, v. 1 (Los Muñequitos [Grupo Guaguancó Matancero], Papin) Antilla CD 565 (1956, 1958).Quinto (drum)_item_0_2
  • Guaguancó, v. 2 (Los Muñequitos [Grupo Guaguancó Matancero], Papin) Antilla CD 595 (1958).Quinto (drum)_item_0_3
  • Rumba caliente (Los Muñequitos) Qbadisc CD 9005 (1977, 1988).Quinto (drum)_item_0_4
  • Oye men listen... guaguancó (Los Papines) Bravo CD 105 [n.d.].Quinto (drum)_item_0_5
  • Homenaje a mis colegas (Los Papines) Vitral CD 4105 (1989).Quinto (drum)_item_0_6
  • Drums and Chants [Changó] (Mongo Santamaría) Vaya CD 56 (1954).Quinto (drum)_item_0_7
  • Afro Roots [Yambú, Mongo] (Mongo Santamaría) Prestige CD 24018-2 (1958, 1959 ).Quinto (drum)_item_0_8
  • Festival in Havana (Ignacio Piñeiro) Milestone CD 9337-2 (1955).Quinto (drum)_item_0_9
  • Patato y Totico (Patato Valdés) Verve CD 5037 (1968).Quinto (drum)_item_0_10
  • Guaguancó afro-cubano (Alberto Zayas) Panart 2055 (1955, 1956).Quinto (drum)_item_0_11


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quinto (drum).